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ISBN 978-9941-481-00-0

9 789941 48100 0

xelovneba

5 dafinansebulia `moswavleebis saxelmZRvaneloebiT uzrunvelyofis programis~ farglebSi

ana kldiaSvili nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba

5 moswavlis wigni


ana kldiaSvili nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba V klasi moswavlis wigni

grifminiWebulia saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier 2018 wels

gam o mce m l o ba `k l i o~


ana kldiaSvili, nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba V klasi, moswavlis wigni

redaqtori nana kupraSvili Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiis profesori, xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori mxatvari

Tamar jayeli

kompiuteruli dizaini irma liparteliani

Š gamomcemloba `klio~, 2018 Š ana kldiaSvili, nino RaRaniZe, 2018 yvela ufleba daculia ISBN 978-9941-481-00-0

Sps `gamomcemloba klio~ aRmaSeneblis gamz. #181-2, Tbilisi, 0112 tel.: (+995 32) 234 04 30 E-mail: book@klio.ge www.klio.ge


sarCevi rogor gamoviyenoT wigni................................................................ 5 I Tavi 1. ardadegebi.................................................................................... 6 2. ra aris kompozicia...................................................................... 8 3. SearCie furceli.......................................................................... 10 4. ferebi sivrceSi........................................................................... 12 5. zRva da sivrce............................................................................ 13 6. mxiaruli kacunebi....................................................................... 14 7. sinaTle fanjrebSi....................................................................... 15 8. qarTveli xelovanebi parizSi..................................................... 16 9. Semodgomis peizaJi...................................................................... 18 10. sad davsvaT fiso....................................................................... 19 11. zooparkis binadarni.................................................................. 20 12. yvela Cemi samSobloa................................................................. 22 II Tavi 13. zedapiri da faqtura................................................................. 24 14. namuSevris daniSnuleba............................................................. 26 15. tye Seunaxe Svilebsa.................................................................. 28 16. Zveli samyaros qandakeba........................................................... 30 17. Rimili saCuqrad......................................................................... 32 18. anabeWdi cilindriT................................................................... 33 19. wvimiani amindi............................................................................ 34 20. oTxfexa megobari....................................................................... 35 21. yvela Cemi samSobloa................................................................. 36 22. wiTelquda sokoebi.................................................................... 38 23. figurebi da garemo................................................................... 40 24. dasuraTebuli `odisea~............................................................. 42 25. marao............................................................................................ 44 III Tavi 26. portreti.................................................................................... 46 27. saxaliso sarWebi........................................................................ 48 28. interieris eskizi....................................................................... 49 29. suraTi, epoqa, qveyana................................................................ 50 30. msoflios cnobili koSkebi....................................................... 52 31. momavlis koSki............................................................................ 54 32. axali weli................................................................................... 55 33. saaxalwlo karnavali................................................................. 56


34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

grafika........................................................................................ 58 dinamika........................................................................................ 60 ritmi mxatvrobaSi...................................................................... 62 naxati kenWebze........................................................................... 63 yvela Cemi samSobloa................................................................. 64

IV Tavi 39. proporcia................................................................................... 66 40. sxvadasxva zomis nivTebi........................................................... 67 41. kidevac daizrdebian.................................................................. 68 42. suraTi da STabeWdileba........................................................... 69 43. mrude sarke................................................................................. 70 44. bataluri scenebi....................................................................... 72 45. saCuqari dedas............................................................................ 74 46. saklaso stendi........................................................................... 75 47. aRdgoma....................................................................................... 76 48. yvela Cemi samSobloa................................................................. 78 V Tavi 49. Zveli da axali qalaqi............................................................... 80 50. monasmi da feris gradacia........................................................ 82 51. `Zveli~ da `axali~ ferwera....................................................... 84 52. rogor davxatoT vaSli............................................................. 86 53. giganturi qandakebebi................................................................ 88 54. aplikacia qsoviliT................................................................... 90 55. saqarTvelos mefeebi.................................................................. 92 56. akvareli _ faqizi da msubuqi saRebavi................................... 94 57. yvela Cemi samSobloa................................................................. 96 58. sagamofeno darbazi................................................................... 98 59. adamiani, saqmianoba, garemo...................................................... 100 60. vmuSaobT TixiT.......................................................................... 102 61. akvariumi..................................................................................... 103 62. saqarTvelos xedebi................................................................... 104 proeqti _ skolis ezo..................................................................... 106 Semajamebeli Semajamebeli Semajamebeli Semajamebeli Semajamebeli

gakveTili gakveTili gakveTili gakveTili gakveTili

_ _ _ _ _

1............................................................ 107 2............................................................ 108 3............................................................ 110 4............................................................ 112 5............................................................ 114

leqsikoni.......................................................................................... 118


rogor gamoviyenoT wigni Tavis nomeri, gakveTilis rigiTi nomeri da saTauri

kiTxvebi dagexmareba gakveTilSi mocemuli masalis ukeT gaazrebaSi

gakveTilis ZiriTadi teqsti

leqsikonSi ganmartebulia ucxo sityvebi

Seqmeni kompozicia Temaze `de­da­­­miwa _ Cemi saxli~. gamoiyene simet­ri­uli an asime­ triuli kompoziciis agebis xerxi.

yviTel CarCoSi amgvari niSniT aRniSnulia saxlSi Sesasrulebeli davaleba

gakveTilis ukeT aTvisebaSi ZiriTad teqstTan erTad ilustraciebic dagexmareba

yviTel CarCoSi amgvarad mocemulia klasSi Sesasrulebeli davaleba


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1. ardadegebi ardadegebi dasrulda da axali saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi didi xnis una­­ xavma klaselebma kvlav er­ Tad moiyareT Tavi. bevri gaqvT sasaubro, erTma­­ ne­ Tis­ T­ vis gasazia­ rebeli. albaT, yvebiT, sad daisveneT, ra naxeT saintereso. bevri Tqvengani saqarTvelos sxva­ dasxva kuTxeSi gaemgzavreboda, uc­ nob adamianebs Sexvdeboda, mSvenier bunebas naxavda; SeiZleba mxiaruli Tavgadasavlebic gadag­ xdaT Tavs da erTi suli gaqvT, rodis uambobT erTmaneTs amis Sesaxeb.

axla, rodesac am sityvebs kiTxulobT, Tqven win xelovnebis axali saxelmZRvanelo devs. am saxelmZRvanelos meSveobiT mTeli wlis ganmav­ lobaSi Tqven gaecnobiT xelovnebis did samyaros, mxatvruli xerxebisa da teqnikaTa mravalfe­rovnebas, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis bunebas da kulturis Zeglebs.

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Tqven ukve iciT, rom xelovneba adami­ anebs So­­­ ris urTier­ Tobis sa­ u­ ke­Teso sa­Su­alebaa. mo­diT, ga­mo­­­­­­iyeneT es saSualeba da is, risi moyolac yve­la­ze metad gsurT, mT­el klass gauziareT, oR­­ond si­tyvierad ki ara­_ naxa­tebiT. SeecadeT, mxedvelobidan ar gamogrCeT garemo, buneba, arc ambis sain­ tereso detalebi. TiToeuli Tqvengani Tu namuSevars klass warudgens da mouyveba, ra gamosaxa sakuTar naxatze, Tanaklaselebi Tqvens STabeW­ dilebas gaiziareben, Tqven­Tan erTad imxiaruleben da TiTqos sakuTari TvaliT naxaven saqarTvelos mTisa da baris bunebas.

mouyeviT zafxulis ambebis, Tqveni STa­beW­dile­bebis Se­sa­xeb erTmaneTs na­xa­tebis saSu­a­lebiT. ga­­moiyeneT ne­­bis­mi­e­ri xerxi da masala.

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2. ra aris kompozicia kompozicia laTinuri sityvaa da niSnavs Sedgenas, dakavSirebas. sura­ Tis sibrtyeze mxatvrebi sxvadasxva gamosaxulebas erTmaneTTan akavSire­ ben anu isini suraTis xatvisas qmnian kompozicias. kompozicia sxvadasxvagvari SeiZleba iyos, imis mixedviT, Tu rogoraa dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan sxvadasxva sagani suraTis sibrtyeze. Sen ukve ici, rom arsebobs simetriuli da asimetriuli kompoziciebi.

?

1. romelia am kompoziciaTagan simetriuli da romeli _ asimetriuli? 2. gaixsene, ra aris simetriis RerZi. 3. romeli kompoziciaa agebuli simetriis RerZis gaswvriv? daasabuTe Seni mosazreba.

san apolinari nuovos mozaika. VI s-is dasawyisi

1

fra anJeliko. mirqma. 1440-41 ww.

2

cnobili faqtia, rom Tu sasworis pinaze erTnairi wonis mqone sagnebi devs, maSin saswori wonasworobaSia. asevea suraTzec _ Tu simetriis Re­ rZis orive mxares Tanabari moculobis mqone gamosaxulebebia ganawile­ buli, maSin kompoziciaSi wonasworobaa daculi anu kompozicia gawonas­ worebulia.

a

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b

4. romelia amaTgan simetriuli kompozicia? 5. romelia amaTgan gawonasworebuli kompozicia? daasabuTe Seni mosazreba.


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simetriuli kompozicia, rogorc wesi, gawonasworebulia. rogor fiq­ rob, SeiZleba Tu ara asimetriuli kompoziciac gawonasworebuli iyos? 3

4

san apolinari nuovos mozaika. VI s-is dasawyisi rembrandt van reini. uZRebi Svilis dabruneba. 1666-69 w.

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6. aRwere mesame kompozicia. simetriulia Tu asimetriuli is? 7. rogor fiqrob, gawonasworebulia Tu ara es kompozicia? daasabuTe Seni mosazreba. 8. imsjele meoTxe, mexuTe da meeqvse kompoziciebis Sesaxeb _ aris Tu ara isini gawonasworebuli, simetriulia Tu asimetriuli.

san apolinari nuovos mozaika. VI s-is dasawyisi

5

Seqmeni kompozicia Temaze `de­ da­­­miwa _ Cemi saxli~. gamoiyene simet­ ri­ uli an asimetriuli kompoziciis agebis xerxi.

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andrei rubliovi. sameba. XV s.

rogorc xedav, kompoziciis agebis sxvadasxva xerxi farTod gamoiyene­ boda sxvadasxva epoqaSi. axla, roca ukve gaecani simetriuli da asimetri­ uli kompoziciebis agebis wesebs, Senc SegiZlia gamoiyeno isini sakuTari Canafiqris ganxorcielebisas.

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3. SearCie furceli aq mocemul naxatebs Tu daakvirdebi, SeamCnev, rom isini sxvadasxvagvari formisaa. erTs wri­ uli forma aqvs, meore viwro da maRalia, mesame ki _ dabali da ganieri. mxat­vrebi suraTis Seqm­ nisas Tavad irCeven mis formas.

ian van eiki

filipo lipi

leonardo da vinCi

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Seqmeni ori namuSevari Tavisufal Temaze. erTi namuSevari ganiv furcelze Seas­ rule, meore _ grZivze.

grZivi furceli ganivi furceli

sandro, 7 wlis

nanuka, 7 wlis

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1. rogori forma aqvs pirvel naxats? 2. romel namuSevarzea gamosaxuli yvelaze meti figura da rogoria misi forma? 3. aRwere meore namuSevari. rogor STabe­Wdilebas axdens Senze aq asaxuli garemo?

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4. ferebi sivrceSi fers erTi gansakuTrebuli Tviseba aqvs _ axlodan Tu daakvirdebi, is mkve­T­ria, xolo rac ufro Sors aris Sengan, miT ufro kargavs simkveTres da Riavdeba. mxatvrebi feris am Tvisebas xSirad iyeneben TavianT namu­ SevrebSi.

?

1. Seni azriT, ra ukargavs fers simkveTres Sor manZilze? 2. dafiqrdi, feris simkveTris klebiT ras aRweven mxatvrebi namuSevrebSi? 3. daakvirdi pirvel namuSevars da aR­ we­ re, sad aris gamoyenebuli ufro muqi fe­rebi _ wina Tu ukana planze? 4. Seni azriT, rogor STabeWdilebas to­ vebs muqi da Ria ferebis amgvari ganlageba?

is, rac suraTze mayurebelTan axlosaa gamosaxuli wina xeds an plans warmoadgens. suraTis siRrmeSi gamosaxul xeds ki ukana plani ewodeba.

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warmoidgine, rom mwvane xasxasa balaxiT dafarul mindorSi dgaxar, Sen win sivrce iSleba, Sors maRali mwvane mTebi moCans, zemodan ki cisferi ca dagyurebs.

?

5. rogor daxatav amgvar peizaJs? sad iqneba ufro muqi mwvane da sad Ria?

daxate peizaJi, ro­ melSic fe­ rebis gaRia­ vebis sa­ SualebiT gad­ mos­cem sivrcis STabeW­di­le­bas. ga­moi­yene Sen­T­vis ukve nacnobi fe­ re­bis Sezavebis xerxi.

3

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5. zRva da sivrce zRvis napirze yofnisas, albaT, gi­fiq­ria, rogori Tvaluwvdeneli sivr­ce iS­leba Sen Tvalwin. rogor SeiZleba am sivrcis gamosaxva furclis brtyel zedapirze? zRvaze, mTaSi, sofelSi an qalaqSi yofnisas romelime xedi Tu mogewona da misi furcelze gadatana moginda, pirvel yovlisa, Sesaferisi formati unda Se­ arCio. Semdeg unda dafiqrde, rogor gaanawilo kompozicia formatze, Ta­nab­ rad Seavso Tu ara is. Seqmeni namuSevari zRvis Temaze; Seecade, gad­ mosce masSi zRvis sanapirodan danaxuli ukidega­ no sivrcis STa­beWdileba. furcelze fan­qriT gaavle ho­rizontis xazi. am­iT Sen wina da ukana plans erTmaneTisgan gami­ jnav. klaknili xazebis meSve­obiT aRniSne tal­ Rebi. horizontis xaz­Tan axlos ori sxvadasxva zomis samkuTxedis meSveobiT gamosaxe afriani navis ga­mosaxuleba. sanam saRebaviT muSaobas daiwyebde, qaRaldisagan Sesa­ bamisi zomis samkuTxedebi gamoWeri da navebis afrebs daafare. Semdeg cis nawili daasvele da svel zedapirze da­ itane saRebavebi _ zemoT lurji, qvemoT ki _ mowi­ Talo. furclis SeSrobis Semdeg navebs moacile dafare­ buli qaRal­ di da isini saRebaviT daamuSave. namuSevris qveda nawilSi, anu CvenTan axlos, mSral furcelze Savi, lurji da moyviTa­ lo talRiseburi monasmebi gamoiyene. Sors ki, anu suraTis zeda nawilSi, ufro Ria ferebi gamosaxe. rogorc ukve ici, es saSualebas mogcems namuSe­ varSi sivrce asaxo.

leqsiko ni iluzia _ raimes dama­ xin­je­bu­lad, mcda­rad aRqma.

navebis anareklis misaRebad ukve gamSral zedapirze sveli Rrublis an bambis saSualebiT saRebavi `amorecxe~. amgvarad miiReb Camavali mzis efeqts da Soreuli sivrcis iluzias Seqmni.

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6. mxiaruli kacunebi Sen ukve ici, rom suraTebiT ambebis moyola Zalian saxalisoa. am su­ raTze Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiis studentma erTi kacunas ambavi gadmosca.

?

1. aRwere TiToeul uj­raSi moTavsebuli kacunas poza, moZraoba. 2. Seecade, gansazRvro, ras ga­mo­­xa­tavs kacunas TiToeuli poza. 3. naxatebis mixedviT moyevi kacunas istoria.

Tavdapirvel­ad furceli mTli­­a­nad dafare Sen mier SerCeuli masaliT. SegiZlia gamosaxo SenTvis sasurveli de­talebi _ saxle­ bi, mcenareebi, cxovelebi... yvelaferi, rac ambis ukeT moyolaSi dagexmareba.

mari xevsuriani. kacunebi. 2009 w.

Semdeg sxvada­sxva sag­niT amo­­ kawre ga­mo­­­sa­xu­le­bebi an gamoiy­ ene aplikaciis teqnika. ka­cu­­na­­­­­ saT­vis mo­Zebne yo­­­­­ve­li epizo­dis Se­saba­misi poza da moZraoba.

Seni namuSevari SegiZlia erT did formatze Seasrulo.

daarqvi kacunas saxe­li, megobrebTan erTad SeTxze ambavi mis Sesaxeb da daa­ suraTe Tqveni gamogo­nili istoria.

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7. sinaTle fanjrebSi mwvane xeebiT garSemortymuli es koxta sax­ lebi Cveulebriv naxats hgavs, magram, Tu kar­ gad daakvirdebi, SeamCnev, rom es ase ar aris. orsar­ Tuliani saxlebis kar-fanjridan cis­ feri, vardisferi da marjnisferi gamosWvivis. maRali xis mwvane totebSi Citebs daudiaT bina. am kompozici­is yvela elementi _ saxlebi, Rru­ beli, xeebi da maTi detalebi sxvadasxvagvaradaa gakeTebuli. erT namuSevarSi SeiZleba gamoiyeno Cveuleb­ rivi naxatic da qaRaldis aplikaciis ramdenime martivi, magram efeqturi xerxi.

feradi qaRaldisgan gamoWeri SenTvis sasurveli ramdenime saxlis forma. moniSne karebis, fanjrebisa da aivnis detalebi da es Riobebic frTxilad amo­ Weri, xolo maTi konturi flomasteriT Semoxaze.

RiobebSi zogan cisferi gamosWvivis, zogan ki oTaxis an feradi fardebis feri moCans. am efeqtis misaRwevad feradi qaRaldisgan gamoW­ eri fanjris formebi da Tavdapirvelad isini daawebe formatze, oRond zustad im adgilas, sadac Semdeg fanjrebi unda moxvdes. saxlebi fena-fenad daawebe SerCeul forma­ tze. ar dagaviwydes, rom formatis fers didi mniSvneloba aqvs bunebrivi garemos Sesaqmne­ lad. saWiro feris formati Tu ar aRmogaCnda, Tavad SegiZlia dafero TeTri qaRaldi.

SearCie xeebis forma da zoma. isini mTlianad ar unda faravdes saxlebs. xis totebSi SenTvis sasurveli binadrebi daasaxle. aplikaciis xerxiT Seqmeni namuSevari Temaze `sinaTle fanjrebSi~.

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8. qarTveli xelovanebi parizSi XX saukunis dasawyisSi parizi Tanamedrove xelovnebis centri iyo. aq xe­ lovanebi msoflios sxvadasxva qveynidan Camodiodnen. maT Soris iyvnen qa­ rTveli mxatvrebic: daviT kakabaZe, elene axvlediani, qeTevan maRalaSvili, Salva qiqoZe, feliqs varlamiSvili, lado gudiaSvili da sxv. isini aq sx­ vadasxva samxatvro saswavlebelSi swavlobdnen, monawileobdnen gamofeneb­ Si da aqtiurad iyvnen CarTuli parizis samxatvro cxovrebaSi. maTi umete­ soba mogvianebiT samSobloSi dabrunda da aq gaagrZela moRvaweoba.

lado gudiaSvili. Tevzi `cocxali~. 1920 w.

lado gudiaSvili. qeifi etliT.1920 w.

XX saukunis ocian wlebSi parizis ramdenime galereaSi ucnobi axal­ gazrda mxatvris namuSevrebi gamoifina. suraTebze aseve ucnobi, magram momxibvleli qalaqis cxovreba iyo aRbeWdili _ ucnaurad Cacmuli ma­ makacebi TiTqos cekvavdnen, faetonSi Sebmuli cxenebi mgzavrebs elvis siswrafiT miaWenebdnen, yvela detals dinamiuri ritmi aerTianebda. `vin aris es axalgazrda, vis xatavs is?~ _ kiTxulobdnen dainteresebuli pari­ zelebi. sura­Tebis avtori qarTveli mxatvari lado gudiaSvili iyo, ro­ melic parizSi saswavleblad Cavida. mis namu­Sevrebze ki Zveli Tbilisis cxovreba iyo asaxuli. lado gudiaSvils parizSi didi warmateba xvda wilad. misi ramdenime suraTi cno­bili muzeumebis koleqcieb­Si mox­vda. misi gamofenebis Sesaxeb saintereso recenziebi gamoqveynda presaSi.

?

1. aRwere l. gudiaSvilis warmodgenili namuSevrebi. 2. rogor fiqrob, ra periods asaxavs am suraTebze naCvenebi siuJetebi. rom­ eli detalebiT SeiZleba amis amocnoba? 3. dRes sad SeiZleba Sexvde am­gvar samoss?

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amave periodSi safrangeTSi gamoCenili frangi moqandakis ogiust rodenis saxelosnoSi swavlobda da muSaobda qarTveli moqandake iakob nikolaZe. mas wignic ki aqvs dawerili _ `erTi weli rodenTan~, romelSic rodenze da Tavisi cxovre­bisa da Semoqmedebis am periodze mogviTxrobs. saqarTveloSi dabrunebuli iakob nikolaZe aqtiurad erTveba kulturul cxovrebaSi. iakob nikolaZis erT-erTi saukeTesi namuSe­ varia rusTavelis Tanamedrovis, XII s-is moaz­ rovnisa da poetis, poema `Tamarianis~ avtoris CaxruxaZis portreti. CaxruxaZis Sesaxeb TiTq­ mis ar mogvepoveba istoriuli cnobebi, por­ tretis Sesaqmnelad moqandakisaTvis erTaderT wyaros Tamar mefisadmi miZRvnili es poeturi nawarmoebi warmoadgenda. iakob nikolaZe. CaxruxaZe. 1948 w.

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1. aRwere CaxruxaZis portreti. 2. rogor daaxasiaTeb XII s-is poets am portretis mixedviT? 3. aRwere ilia WavWavaZis saflavis monumenti. 4. ra ici ilia WavWavaZis gardacvalebis Sesaxeb?

arsebobs gadmocema, rom iakob nikolaZe didxans muSaobda CaxruxaZis por­ tretze, mag­ram Tvlida, rom arada ar gamosdis is. erTxel, Tixisgan portre­ tis Zerwvisas, karze viRacam dareka. moqandakem dasvrili xelebi pirsaxocze Seiwminda da siCqareSi pirsaxoci biusts Tavze daado. moqandakem stumars kari gauRo, saxelosnoSi SemouZRva da rom Semotrialda, gaSeSda... biustis Tavze SemTxveviT dadebuli pirsaxoci iseTi detali iyo, romelmac gamokveTa poetis saxe da dasrulebuli ieri misca portrets. es detali Semdeg avtorma marmari­ loSic gamoaqandaka.

iakob nikolaZe portretis didostati iyo. mas Seq­ mnili aqvs akaki wereTlis, ilia WavWavaZis, egnate ninoSvilis da sxva qarTvel moRvaweTa portretebi. iakob nikolaZis yuradRebis miRma arc genialuri `vefxistyaosnis~ avtori darCenila. mas rusTavelis ramdenime qandakeba da biusti aqvs Seqmnili, aseve, re­ liefi rusTavelis profilis gamosaxulebiT.

moiZie lado gudiaSvilis da iakob nikolaZis namu­ Sevrebis il­us­traciebi da Seqmeni stendebi maTi Semoq­ medebis Temaze.

 l eqsi koni iakob nikolaZe. ilia WavWavaZis saflavis monumenti. 1908-1910 ww.

biusti _ skulpturuli por­treti, ro­me­l­zec warmod­ genilia adamianis mxolod Tavi da mxrebi.

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9. Semodgomis peizaJi Semodgoma wlis ulamazesi droa; mTa da bari aTasfrad Wreldeba. zaf­ xulis simwva­nes Semodgomis ferebi ereva, wiTliT, yviTliT, narinjisf­ riT imoseba buneba. rogorc ici, axlomdebare xeebis mwvane safari bevrad ufro xasxasa da mkveTria, vidre Soreuli mTis ferdobze Sefenili xeebis Seferiloba. Sor manZilze feri simkveTres kargavs da Tu am xerxs gamoiyeneb, suraTze sivrcis gadmocemas SeZleb.

moxaze SenTvis sasurveli peizaJi. wina planze ga­ mosaxulebebi ufro didi zo­ mis unda iyos. suraTSi siR­ rmis gadmosacemad ki, ukana planze mocemuli gamosaxule­ bebi Tan­ daTanobiT Seamcire. aseve, Seecade, ukana planze ufro Ria ferebi gamoiyeno, raTa sivrce ukeT gamosaxo Sens peizaJze. gamoiyene kontrastuli fe­rebi. jer wina da Semdeg ukana pla­ni dafare sxvadasxva feris saRebavebiT. See­ cade, Sesaba­misi ferebis (wiTeli, yviTeli) ga­mo­yenebiT gaaZ­li­ero Semod­gomis gan­wyobileba. daasvele furceli da funjis wriuli moZraobiT daxate ca. wina plani SegiZlia pasteliT an feradi fan­­ qrebiT da­a­muSavo, xolo kbilis jagrisis an didi zomis funjis saSualebiT mTebs saRebavi `da­abertyo~. ukana planze xeebis SedarebiT bundovani gamosaxulebis misa­ Rebad Se­giZ­li­a Rru­be­li ga­mo­iyeno. Seqmeni Semod­go­mis pe­i­zaJi kontrastuli fe­re­ bis gamoyenebiT. gamoiye­ne sxva­dasxva masala da mo­­ nas­mebi sxvadasxvagvari faq­­tu­ris misaRebad.

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10. sad davsvaT fiso rodesac xatvas iwyeb, jer, albaT, gadawyvet, ras daxa­tav; vTqvaT, fi­ sos. axla, is unda moifiqro, Sens fisos ganier Tu viwro furcelze daxa­ tav, furclis SuaSi moaTavseb mas Tu kideze, didi iqneba is Tu patara... Sens gadawyvetilebaze iqneba damokidebuli Tu rogori iqneba namuSevris kompozicia.

2 1 gamoWeri nebismieri sagnis didi da pa­ tara siluetebi, amoZrave isini sxvadasxva zomisa da formis furcelze, sabolood SearCie misi adgili formatze da daawebe. daasabuTe Seni gadawyvetileba.

3 4

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1. aRwere, ra adgilas aris moTavsebuli am na­xateb­ze fiso? 2. romel naxatebzea bevri Tavisufali adgili? 3. romel naxatebzea darCenili cota Tavisufali adgili? 4. romeli nimuSis kompoziciuri gadawyveta mogwons da ratom?

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11. zooparkis binadarni tyeSi, mTaSi an Tun­ dac zooparkSi yofni­ sas frinvelTa da cxovelTa sam­ yaros uamravi warmomadgenlis naxva SeiZle­ ba. medidurad mosiaru­ le `gvirgvinosani~ farSevangis zRapruli ferebis da­saxatavad mxat­vris TiT­qmis mTeli palitra dagWirdeba. gareuli ixvis, weros an TuTiyu­Sis saxasiaTo proporciebi, formebi da ferebi did dakvirvebas moiTxovs. erTi sityviT, seirnobisas, Tu zooparkSi yofnisas, uqmad ver iqnebi. um­ jobesia, ubralo fanqrebi da qaRaldi sul xelT gqondes da swrafad gaakeTo SenTvis saintereso cxovelis Tu frinvelis Canaxatebi.

mariami da mixo. 10 wlis.

naturidan Sesrulebuli Canaxati klasSi survil­ isamebr SegiZlia Seasworo da Semdeg saRebavebiT daiwyo muSaoba. TiToeulma Tqvenganma Tavdapirve­ lad xaziT unda daxatos SerCeuli frinveli, Semdeg ki Seaferados is. Seecade, Tanabrad gaanawilo for­ matze gamosaxuleba.

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daxatul frinvelebs Sesaferisi fonic gaukeTe erTi an ramdenime feris gamoyenebiT. muSaoba ufro saintereso rom iyos, SeaerTeT TiToeuli Tqvenganis mier Sesrulebuli naxatebi da erT did dekoratiul namuSevrad aqcieT.

nino. 10 wlis.

Tamuna da levani. 10 wlis.

izruneT imaze, rom TiToeul namuSevars Sesaferisi CarCo dauxatoT. Car­ Cos gasaformeblad gamoyenebuli ferebi erTmaneTs SeuxameT da iseTi STabeW­ dileba Seiqmneba, TiTqos cal-calke ki ara, Tavidanve erTad muSaobdiT. amgvari dekoratiuli namuSevriT saklaso oTaxSi SeiZleba zoologiuri kuTxec moawy­ oT da TandaTan SematoT mas axali namuSevrebi cxovelebis da frinvelebis gamo­ saxulebebiT. naturidan gake­Te­buli Canaxa­tebis da wylis sa­Rebavis meSveobiT daxate SenTvis sasurveli frinveli.

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12. yvela Cemi samSobloa... wina wels Sen saqarTvelos ramdenime kuTxes gaecani da maTi peizaJebic daxate. Sen ukve ici, rom es kuTxeebi Tavisi bunebiT erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebulia da TiToeuls mxo­ lod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli da ganumeorebeli saxe aqvs, mTli­anobaSi ki isini Cvens samSoblos _ saqarT­ velos qmnian.

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1. gaixsene leqsi, romlis pirveli pwka­ ri am gakveTilis saTaurSia mocemuli.

wels Cven kidev ufro mets SevityobT saqarT­ velos kuTxeebis Sesaxeb. kaxeTi... am sityvis gagonebaze qarT­ vels Tvalwin warmoudgeba amayad mdga­ri kav­kasionis daTovlili mTebi, mdinare alazani da mis napir­ ebze gaSlili alaznis veli.

?

2. kidev ra gaxsendeba kaxeTis xsene­baze? 3. romeli qarTveli mxatvris mier da­xatul kax­ eTis peizaJs gaixse­neb? 4. romeli istoriuli pirovneba gaxsendeba kax­ eTis xsenebaze?

merab merabiSvili. erekle II-is Zegli TelavSi. 1971 w.

kaxeTi. alaznis veli

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erekle II mamamisis, Teimuraz II-is gardacvalebis Semdeg, qarTl-kaxe­ Tis samefos mmarTveli gaxda. erekle mebrZoli, saqarTveloze mzrunve­ li mefe iyo. sicocxlis didi nawili man brZolebsa da laSqrobebSi gaatara da xSirad ubralo jariskaciviT cxovrobda. xalxma mas siyvaru­ liT `patara kaxi~ Searqva. TelavSi, im qalaqSi, romelSic erekle daiba­ da, mTeli cxovreba gaatara da gardaicvala kidec, dgas misi Zegli.

?

5. aRwere erekle II-is Zegli TelavSi. 6. Seni azriT, rogor Seesabameba es Zegli erekle II-is istoriul saxes?

kaxeTis erT-erTi RirsSe­sa­niSnaobaa bodbis monasteri, sadac qarTvel­ Ta ganmanaTlebeli wminda ninoa dakrZaluli. gadmocemis mixedviT, es Ta­ vad ninos survili iyo. mefe mirianma sveti­cxovelSi, macxovris kvarTTan axlos moisurva misi dasveneba, magram orasma kacma Zvra ver uyo wminda­ nis mcire sarecels da igi iqve, bodbeSi dakrZales.

bodbis monasteri. wm. giorgis eklesia, romelSic dakr­Zalulia wminda nino

monastridan daaxloebiT 3 km-Si mdebareobs wminda ninos wyaro. gadmo­ cemis mixedviT, is wminda ninos locviT aRmocenebula. am wyalSi ganbanvis Semdeg uamravi sulierad da fizikurad davrdomili adamiani gankurneb­ ula.

gaecani wyaros aRmocene­ bis epizods wminda ninos cxovrebidan da daasuraTe is. wminda ninos saflavi bodbeSi

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13. zedapiri da faqtura Sen winaSea sami peizaJi; samiveze erTi da igive xedia asaxuli. pirvel naxatze xedi mxolod Cveulebrivi Savi fanqriTaa Sesrulebuli, meoreze _ pasteliT, mesameze ki _ zeTis saRebavebiT.

?

1. daaxasiaTe TiTo­euli namuSevari. 2. imsjele, sxvada­ sxva masaliT Sesru­ lebuli erTi da igive xedi msgavs STabeW­dilebas qmnis Tu ara?

1

2

fanqriT Sesrulebul namuSevarze mTebi msubuqi Cans, pasteliT Ses­ rulebulze _ SedarebiT masiuri, xolo zeTis saRebaviT Seqmnilze isini mZime da reliefuria.

3

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3. Seni azriT, masalis garda, ra qmnis am gansxva­vebul STabeWdilebas?


pirvel peizaJze mTis zedapirs TeTrad datovebuli qaRaldis si­ brtye qmnis. meoreze pasteliT Sesrulebul mTebs xaoiani, TiTqos gam­ Wvirvale zedapiri aqvs, xolo mesame, zeTiT daxatul suraTze farTo, sqeli monasmebiT mTebis mkvrivi reliefuri zedapiri warmoiqmneba. samive SemTxvevaSi suraTis zedapirs sxva­dasxva Tviseba aqvs _ gluvi da sada, xaoiani da msubuqi, mkvrivi da reliefuri. zedapiris Tvisebas, misi damuSavebis xasiaTs faqturas uwodeben. Tavisebur faqturas qmnis akvarelis saRebavi.

Tavdapirvelad formatze fan­qriT daxate SenTvis sasurveli peizaJi. RrubliT da akvarelis saRebaviT garkveuli efeqtis misaRebad SegiZlia Cveu­ lebrivi sarecxis sarWi gamoiyeno. peizaJis zogierTi nawili SegiZlia funjiT daxato. Tavad SearCie, romel adgilas gamoiyeneb RrubliT Seqmnil faqturas.

z e T i s saR ebavi wvrilad dafxvnil saRebavs (pigments) mcenareul zeTSi ureven, xsnian da amgvarad iReben zeTis saRebavs. zeTis saRebavebiT ZiriTadad tiloze xataven. es saRebavi pirvelad XV s-Si gamoiyena holandielma mxa­t­­varma ian van eikma. Semdeg is sxva qveynebSic far­ Tod gavrcelda.

daxate peizaJi. ak­­va­relis saRebavebiT da RrubliT qa­Raldis zedapirze Se­ qmeni sxvadasxvagvari faqtura.

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14. namuSevris daniSnuleba xelovnebis nawarmoebis naxvisas SegiZlia Tqva, xelovnebis romeli dargis kuTvnilebaa is, ra masalisganaa Seqmnili, romeli ferebia masSi gamoyenebuli da a.S., magram Tu gkiTxaven, ra funqcia aqvs mas, albaT, dafiqreba mogiwevs. am fotoebze gamosaxulia Zveli egvipturi nivTebi.

1

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1. daakvirdi aq mocemul nivTebs da aRwere isini. gamo­ Tqvi Seni varaudi, ris­ Tvis SeiZleba gamoeyenebinaT is­i­ni Zvel egviptelebs.

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3

4

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qvemoT mocemul fotoebze warmodgenilia msa­ xurebis mcire zomis egvipturi qandakebebi. egviptelTa rwmeniT, es figurebi imqveynad unda momsaxurebodnen gardacvlils _ moexarSaT lu­ di, moemzadebinaT saWmeli, daxmarebodnen Cac­ maSi da a.S. amitomac, am qandakebebs samarxSi atandnen xolme didebulebs.


II

TefSis daniSnuleba yvelasaTvis cno­ bilia. magram, xSirad, mas funqcias ucvlian. lamazad gaformebul TefSs kedelze kideben an sagange­ bo sadgarze aTavseben. aseT SemTxvevaSi, TefSi dekoratiul funqcias iZens. gaaforme erTje­radi TefSebi. gamoiyene Sen­ Tvis sasurveli nebis­mieri gamo­saxuleba.

 leqsiko ni funqcia _ daniSnu­leba, movaleoba. dekoratiuli _ da­mamSvenebeli, Se­­ mam­kobeli.

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15. tye Seunaxe Svilebsa... tye Cveni simdidrea. mas planetis filtvebs uwodeben, radgan tye Jang­ badiT amaragebs Cven planetas. Jangbadi ki adamianisTvis aucilebel sa­ sicocxlo garemos qmnis. Cven winaprebs es kargad esmodaT. ilia WavWavaZe werda: `tyis movla-gaSeneba da dacva – es ar aris romelime kerZo piris saqme, es mTeli eris saqmea. visac mamulisTvis guli ar Sestkiva, is, rasak­ virvelia, xeebs uRmerTod gaaCanagebs, gakafavs da cecxlsac ki waukidebs~. gonieri sazogadoeba ara marto ufrTxildeba tyeebs, aramed Tavadac aSenebs, amravlebs mwvane safars. kargi iqneba, Tu Tqveni klasi moaxerxebs, rom erTi xe mainc dargos skolis ezoSi. Tqven amiT sasargeblo saqmes gaakeTebT.

?

1. ratom aris aucilebeli parkebisa da tye­ebis SenarCuneba? 2. ratom iTvleba karg saqmed xis dargva?

zugdidis botanikuri baRi

baTumis botanikuri baRi

XIX saukunidan saqarTveloSi ramdenime bo­ ta­ nikuri baRi gaSenda. samegreloSi, dadianebis sasaxleTa kompleqsis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda botanikuri baRic, romlis gaSenebac samegrelos mTavarma daviT dadianma daiwyo da Semdeg misma STamomavlebma gaagrZeles. am baRSi sxvadasxva jiSis ucxo mcenareebi da xeebi moaSenes. dadi­ anebs ucxoeli mebaReebic ki CamoyavdaT da didi xnis ganmavlobaSi sasoebiT uvlidnen am walkots. botanikuri baRebia gaSenebuli saqarTvelos sxva qalaqebSic: TbilisSi, baTumsa da, soxumSi, sadac unikaluri jiSis mravali mcenare xarobs. Tbilisis botanikuri baRi

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adamianis saqmianobis Sedegad dedamiwis bune­ bam bevr adgilas Seicvala pirvandeli saxe _ dabinZurda haeri, gaiCexa tyeebi, gadaSenda cxo­  leqsiko ni velTa da mcenareTa zogi saxeoba. ekologia _ mecniere­ adamianebi acnobiereben ekologiur proble­ ba, romelic adamianis mebs, erTiandebian sxva­dasxva organizaciaSi da saqmianobis Sedegad garemos gadagvarebis ibrZvian bunebis dasacavad. mTel msoflioSi sakiTxebs da bunebis erT-erTi yvelaze mZlavri bunebisdacviTi or­ dacvis problemebs ganizaciaa `mwvaneTa moZraoba~, romelic saqa­ Seiswavlis. rTveloSic moqmedebs.

?

3. aRwereT tyeebis dacvasTan dakavSirebuli plakatebi. 4. romeli xerxebiT aris gadmocemuli TiToeul maTganSi tyis dacvis idea?

Seqmeni plakati ekologiis Temaze nebismieri saxatavi ma­salis an kompiute­ ru­li teqnologiis gamoyenebiT.

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16. Zveli samyaros qandakeba qandakebas kacobriobis istoriaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia. Zvel samyaroSi am formiT warmarTul RmerTebs gamosaxavdnen, aqandakebdnen sakuTar wina­ prebs, sazogadoebis dawinaurebul wevrebs _ beladebs, mefeebs da Tayvans scemdnen maT. TiToeul qveyanas qa­ ndakebis mdidari tradicia gaaCnia. SumerTa qandakebebi SuamdinareTis kulturis sain­ tereso nawilia. es gamosaxulebebi damaxasiaTebeli saxis tipiT gamoirCeva. moqandake xazs usvams mlocve­ lis pozaSi myofi adamianis farTod gaxelil Tvalebs, xuWuWa wvers, grZel samoss. Tavis, sxeulis, kidurebis zomebi da proporciuli Sefardeba ki pirobiTia.

?

1. daakvirdi aq warmodgenil qandakebebs da gansaz­ Rvre, romeli maTgania ufro pirobiTi da ratom? 2. Seni azriT, sazogadoebis romeli fenis warmomad­ genels ganasaxierebs TiToeuli qandakeba?

mlocvelis figura. Sumeri. Zv. w. III aTaswleuli

adreuli xanis berZnul qandakebasac sakmaod piro­ biTi formebi hqonda. magaliTad, aTletebis gamosa­xu­­ lebebi, Tavdapirvelad gaWimuli da gaSeSebuli iyo. TandaTan moqandakeebma adamianis sxe­ulis propor­ ciebis, moZraobis bunebrivad gadmocemas miaRwies. qvis masalis sixiste rbilad damuSavebulma formeb­ ma Secvala da qandakeba TiTqos `amoZravda~ kidec. berZenma moqandakeebma bevri ram iswavles adamianis sxeulze, mis moZraobaze dakvirvebiT da es codna sakuTar qmnilebebSi gamoamJRavnes.

mlocvelis figura. Sumeri. Zv. w. III aTaswleuli

?

3. daakvirdi da gansazRvre aq warmodgenili berZnuli qandake­ bebidan romelia ufro adreuli. daasabuTe Seni mosazreba. kurosi. berZnuli qandakeba. Zv. w. 580 w.

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eirena. berZnuli qandakeba. Zv. w. 370 w.


qvis qandakebebTan erTad Zvelad farTod iyo gavrcelebuli tera­ kotisgan Seqmnili skulpturebic. am masalas iyenebdnen Zveli berZnebi, etruskebi. terakotis qandakebebi iqmneboda indoeTsa da amerikaSic. yvelaze saxelganTqmuli terakotis figurebi 1974 wels CineTSi, imperator ci Sin xuan dis sa­ marxis maxloblad aRmoaCines. miwaSi Camarxuli iyo daaxloebiT 8100 terakotis figura _ meom­ rebi, cxenebi, sabrZolo etlebi... figurebi natu­ raluri zomisaa. TiToeul meomars individualuri garegnoba aqvs, guldasmiT aris damuSavebuli maTi samosis da iaraRis umciresi detalebic ki. mecnierebma gamoikvlies terakotaSi SemorCe­ nili mtveri da im daskvnamde mividnen, rom qan­ dakebebi CineTis sxvadasxva regionSi mzaddeboda. magaliTad, cxenebi, romelTa wona daaxloebiT 200 kg-ia, uSualod samarxis axlos mdebare saxelos­ noebSi iqmneboda. rogorc Cans, amiT amcirebdnen am mZimewoniani tvirTis gadazidvis xarjebs.

?

4. yuradRebiT daakvirdi terakotis armias. aR­ were, ra saxeobis iaraRiT arian aRWurvili meomrebi. 5. Seni azriT, ra informacias gvawvdis es qandake­ bebi CineTis istoriisa da kulturis Sesaxeb? 6. rogor fiqrob, ra daniSnuleba eqneboda am armias Zveli Cinelebis warmodgeniT?

II

terakotis jari. Zv. w. III s.

internetis saSualebiT an sxva gziT moiZie saintereso informa­ cia Zveli samyaros qandakebebis Sesaxeb da warudgine klass.

terakotis figura. Zv. w. III s.

terakotis etli. Zv. w. III s.

 l e qsi koni aTleti _ sportsmeni Zvel saberZneTSi, rome­ lic aTletikas, Zalosnobas misdevs. terakota _ gamomwvari feradi Tixa.

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17. Rimili saCuqrad mimika saxis gamometyveleba, saxeze aRbeWdili emociaa. Cven usityvod, mxolod mimikis saSualebiT SeiZleba gavuziaroT erTmaneTs STabeWdile­ bebi, gamovxatoT Cveni grZnobebi. xolo maSin, rodesac Cveulebrivad vsaubrobT, mimika aZlierebs STabeWdilebas, gamoxatavs Cven damokideb­ ulebas saubris Temisadmi, zog SemTxvevaSi, azrsac ki ucvlis naTqvams. kompiuterisa da mobiluri telefonis wya­ lobiT Cven xSirad viyenebT mimikis enas, rodesac erTmaneTs vugzavniT gaRimebuli an mowyenili ka­ cunebis gamosaxulebebs. es gamosaxulebebi adamianis mimikaze dakvirvebis Sedegad aris Seqmnili, Tumca, rasakvirvelia, Zalze pirobiTi da sqema­ turia. aseTi gamosaxulebebis didi upiratesoba isaa, rom isini moZravia. maTi meSveobiT adamianebi zogaven dros da axerxeben sakuTari emociebis erTmaneTisTvis gaziarebas.

realur cxovrebaSi mimika gacilebiT ufro mravalferovania. amaSi darwmuneba advilia, Tu sarkeSi davakvirdebiT sakuTar Tavs, Semdeg ki SevecdebiT romelime emociis sqematurad gamoxatvas. sxvadasxva mimikis amsaxveli gamosaxulebis Sesaq­ mne­ lad Cveulebrivi saxatavi masalac ga­ modgeba, Tumca, ufro saxaliso iqneba, Tu kompiuteris SesaZleblobebs gamo­iyeneb (magaliTad, programas _ Paint) da sxvadasxva tipis amgvar gamo­ saxulebas Seqmni. Seqmeni da ga­ug­zav­ne megobrebs em­ociis gamom­sa­xveli pi­robiTi gamosax­ ulebebi. pre­zen­taciis dros scade mimikiT warmoadgino da gaaxmovano miRe­ buli gzavnili.

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18. anabeWdi cilindriT Cveulebrivi saxatavi masaliT Sesrulebuli naxatisagan gansxvavebiT anabeWdis teqnika sa­ Sualebas mogcems, dazogo dro da energia da swrafad dafaro naxatiT sakmaod didi farTobi. anabeWdis miReba cilindris meSveobiT SegiZlia. es farTod gavrcelebuli meTodia. cilindris forma saSualebas iZleva swrafad gadaitano naxati sasurvel zedapirze da kargi xarisxis anabeWdi miiRo.

cilindris formis kolofis Tavsaxuri da fskeri centrSi frTxilad gaxvrite da gauyare sakmarisi sigrZis mqone xis an plastmasis RerZi. RerZi aucile­ blad myarad unda iyos damagrebuli, rom xeli ar SeuSalos cilindris Tanabar moZraobas. cilindri SegiZlia, Txeli RrubliTac gaakeTo. amisaTvis Rru­ beli wvril RerZze unda daaxvio da ZafiT daamagro.

cilindrze weboTi daawebe Toki; Seecade, rom cil­ indrze TokiT texili an talRovani xazebi miiRo. wi­ naswar erTjerad TefSebze gaamzade saRebavi, masSi cilindri daasvele, Seecade, rom Toki kargad gaiJRin­ Tos saRebaviT, Semdeg ki RerZis meSveobiT cilindri swrafad gadaatare winaswar momzadebul masalaze: muy­ aoze, xeze, qsovilze da a.S. miRebuli anabeWdiT SegiZlia Seamko suraTis CarCo.

cilindris meS­veobiT Seqmeni anabeWdi SenTvis sasurvel ze­dapirze.

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19. wvimiani amindi sxvadasxva feris da faqturis saxatavi da SesafuTi qaRaldisgan mra­ vali iseTi namuSevris Seqmna SeiZleba, romlebic arafriT Camouvardeba daxatul suraTebs. SenTvis kargad nacnobi aplikaciis teqnika saSuale­ bas iZleva ara mxolod adamianis figurebi, saxlebi, mTebi an sxvadasxva sagani gamosaxo. fantazias mouxme da mziani an wvimiani amindis gamosax­ vasac SeZleb. am teqnikis Tavisebureba isic aris, rom SeiZleba Canafiqri megobarTan erTad ganaxorcielo. erTad muSaoba ki ufro saxaliso da sainteresoa.

nana. 11 wlis

aplikaciis xer­xis gamoyenebiT Seq­meni SenTvis sasurveli weliwadis drois an amindis amsaxveli kompozicia. Tavdapirvelad feradi furclebisagan gamoWeri im sagnebis Tu geometriuli formebis sakmarisi ra­ odenoba, romlebiTac Cafiqrebuli gamosaxulebebi unda Seqmna. zogierTi forma makratlis nacvlad pirdapir xe­ liT daxeuli qaRaldisgan SeiZleba miiRo. gansakuTrebuli yu­radReba miaqcie qaRaldis fers, faqturas an naxats mis zedapirze. qaRaldTan erTad kompoziciaSi feradi Tasmebis, zonrebis an nebismieri sxva masalis gamoyeneba SeiZleba.

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20. oTxfexa megobari saxlSi Tu sayvareli oTxfexa megobari gyavs, yvelaferi gecodineba misi jiSis, Cveulebebis, xasiaTis Sesaxeb. iqneb xSirad trabaxob kidec ZaRlis CamomavlobiT da WkuiT. es arc aris ga­ sakviri. megobari xom yvelaze ukeTesi gvgonia. Seecade, daxato ZaRli, romelic saxlSi mo­ uTmenlad gelodeba. Tu ZaRli saxlSi jer ar gyavs, warmoidgine, rogori iqneba is. Seecade, warmoaCino misi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi: feri, forma, moZraobis manera. nurc sakuTar Tavs daiviwyeb, Seni movaleoba xom masze zrunva, misi yoveldRiuri gaseirnebaa. sxvaTa Soris, seirno­ bis dros SeiZleba axali megobrebic SeiZino. ZaRlis patronebs uyvarT erTmaneTTan saubari, maT xom bevri saerTo interesi aqvT.

akvarelis sa­Reba­viT Seasrule namuSevari Te­ maze `me da Cemi oTxfexa megobari~.

Seni oTxfexa megobris daxatvisas, See­ cade mis­ Tvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi, magaliTad: grZeli yurebi, mokle kudi, bombora Tavi, laqebi sxe­ ulze zustad gamosaxo. kargi iqneba, Tu mexsierebiT aRidgen da gamosaxav im garemos, sadac giyvarT erTad seirnoba. akvarelis saRebaviT Sesrulebuli naxati moTminebasa da yuradRebas iTxovs. saRebavSi Cawobili funjiT mo­nasmebi jer sacdel furcelze gaakeTe da mxolod Semdeg Seudeqi muSaobas. furcelze moxa­ ze saxlebi. Semdeg wina planze adamianebi­ sa da oTxfexa megobrebis gamo­saxulebebi dafare fe­ riT. gaSrobis Semdeg flomas­ teriT an fanqrebiT gaukeTe konturi da daamu­Save.

nini. 11 wlis

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21. yvela Cemi samSobloa... vagrZelebT saubars kaxeTze. kaxeTi Zalze mdidaria arqiteqturuli ZeglebiT; misi mSvenebaa ala­ znis velze mdgari alaverdis taZari. es saqarTveloSi yvelaze maRali taZaria. misi aziduli formebis da moxdenili proporciebis gamo xalxSi mas `TeTr gedsac~ uwodeben. „alaverdi“ Turqul-arabuli war­­­mo­­Sobis sityvaa da „RvTisgan naboZe­ bs“ niSnavs. VI saukuneSi erT-erTi asureli mama, iosebi, kaxeTis sxvadasx­ va kuTxeSi qadagebda. bolos igi sofel alaverdis axlos damkvidrda. erTxel Turme wminda mama sanadirod gamosul kaxel Tavads Sexvda da RvTis sityva uqadaga. qristes sjuls naziarebi didebulis daxmarebiT mama iosebs wminda giorgis saxelze patara eklesia auSenebia. wminda ma­ masTan siaxlovis surviliT aq bevri morwmune dasaxlebula. roca ioseb alaverdeli gardaicvala, mowafeebma igi mis mierve aSenebul taZarSi da­ krZales. XI s-s dasawyisSi kvirike kaxTa mefem wminda giorgis patara ekle­ siis adgilas alaverdis didi taZari aago. alaverdi qarTuli arqi­teq­tu­ris arnaxuli ayvavebis xanaSi aSenda sve­ ticxovlisa da bagratis taZrebis msgav­sad. am sam taZars bevri ram aqvs saerTo, magram alaverdi maT Soris imiTaa gamorCeuli, rom is yvelaze sadaa, misi fasadebi moklebulia samkauls, reliefebs.

alaverdi. XI s-is dasawyisi

?

1. kaxeTis kidev romel Zeglebs icnob?

axali SuamTa. XIV s.

amgvari sisadave, Semkulobis siZunwe, saerTod damaxasiaTebelia kaxe­ Tis arqiteqturisaTvis. kaxeTis arqiteqturas aseve axasiaTebs wagrZele­ buli, maRla aziduli, zemoTmswrafi aRnagoba da proporciebi.

? 36

2. daaxasiaTe SuamTis taZris proporciebi da Semkuloba.


albaT, gsmenia asureli mamebis Sesaxeb, romlebic saqarTveloSi VI sa­ ukuneSi Camovidnen da aq daiwyes moRvaweoba.

?

3. CamoTvale, romel asurel mamebs icnob?

erT-erTi asureli mama gaxldaT daviTi, romelic jer TbilisSi, ma­ma­ daviTis mTaze (mTawmindaze) moR­vaweobda, Semdeg ki kaxeTSi ga­rejis udab­ noSi wavida da Tavis mowafeebTan erTad iq mravali monasteri daaarsa. amitomac mas daviT garejeli uwodes. daviTi garejis erT-erT monas­ terSi, lavraSia dakrZaluli. udabnos mTavar ta­ZarSi SemorCeni­­lia mxat­vroba, romelzec daviT ga­ re­­­jelis da lukianes, misi mowafis cxov­­rebis amsaxveli scenebia warmod­ genili.

daviT-gareji. udabnos monastris mTavari taZris mxatvroba. XI s.

udabnoSi, sadac arc wyali iyo da arc saWmeli, wm. daviTTan irmebi modiod­ nen da mama daviTi da lukiane maTi rZiT ikvebebodnen. erTxelac maT samyofels saSineli mxeci SemoeCvia da irmebs nuk­ rebs stacebda. wminda daviTma aRapyro kver­Txi da mxecs im adgilidan gadaxvewa ubrZana. isic daemorCila, magram cidan mexi daeca da dawva is. angelozma daviTs auwya, rom es RvTis neba iyo. swored es scenaa asaxuli am ilustraciaze. w minda Sios s a s wa ul i wminda Sio mRvimeli uamrav saswauls aRasru­lebda. erTxel monastris faras mgeli SemoeCvia. mama Siom iloca da mgels ubrZana, amieridan ara Tu ar evno cxvrebisTvis, aramed emwyemsa kidec. marTlac, amis Semdeg mgeli morCilad asrulebda wminda mamis locva-kurTxevas. gaecani teqsts Sio mRvi­melis cxov­re­­bi­dan da daasura­­T­e is.

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II

22. wiTelquda sokoebi gazafxulze, wvimis Semdeg, tyeSi uamravi so­ ko amodis. sokos moyvarulebma es ician da mis Sesagroveblad didi kalaTebiT xelSi swored wvimis Semdeg midian xolme.

?

1. sad ginaxavT soko? 2. yvela sokos Wama SeiZleba Tu ara? 3. ra zianis motana SeuZlia sokos adamianisTvis da ratom?

soko ucnauri cocxali arsebaa. mas mcenaree­ bisagan gansxvavebiT arc fesvebi aqvs, arc foT­ lebi, is arc yvavilobs da arc nayofi gamoaqvs. sokos uamravi saxeoba arsebobs, magram yvela maTgans erTi saerTo niSani aqvs _ maT qudi `axu­ ravT~. sxvadasxva jiSis sokos qudi sxvadasxva formisa da Seferilobisaa. soko fexze wamosku­ pebuli qudiT xSirad cocxal arsebas gvagonebs.

sxvadasxva masali­sagan daam­za­­de wiTelqudi­a­ ni mxiaruli soko­ebi.

am samuSaos Sesasruleblad Sen dagWirdeba ori sxvadasxva zomis erTjeradi Wiqa, feradi qaRaldebi, saRebavebi, webo, bamba.

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II

g

a b

a) aiRe kvadratis formis wiTeli qaRaldi da gakece oTxad; b) miiReb patara kvadrats, romlis gaxsnili bolo rkalisebu­ rad moWe­ ri; g) amgvarad miiReb wiTel wres, romlis centri­ danac jer moxaze patara samkuTxedi da Semdeg amoWeri; d) gamoWrili wiboebi erTmaneTs mi­ awebe. miiReb sokos quds, romelzec SegiZlia Te­ Tri qaRaldisgan gamoWrili wreebi an bambis qulebi daawebo.

d

ori erTjeradi Wiqa erTmaneTSi Cade. axla scade, gaacocxlo Seni sokoebi. fun­ jiTa da saRebaviT Tvalebi da cxvir-piri mi­ axate; SegiZlia, amisaTvis feradi qaRaldebic gamoiyeno. scade, sokoebis `saxeebze~ sxvadasx­ va gamometyveleba asaxo, miT umetes, rom Sen mimikis Sesaxeb ukve bevri ram ici.

Wiqebs Tavze qudi daaxure da Seni sokoc mzad aris. SegiZlia, Sens sokoebs Sesabamisi garemo gaukeTo da iq daasaxlo isini.

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23. figurebi da garemo suraTze Tu bevri adamiania gamosaxuli, vambobT, rom kompo­zicia mra­ valfiguriania, magram saerTo STabeWdilebas formatze am figurebis ara mxolod raodenoba, aramed ganawilebac qmnis.

1

?

2

1. aRwere aq warmodgenili kompoziciebi. 2. rogor aris ganawilebuli kompozicia TiToeul maTganze?

rodesac sasuraTe are anu formati mTlianad Sevsebulia gamosaxu­ lebebiT, mnaxvels datvirTulobis, gaWedilobis STabeWdileba eqmneba, xolo Tu amdenive gamosaxuleba formatis mxolod erT nawils ikavebs, meti sixalvaTis STa­­beWdileba gvrCeba. mravalfiguriani kompoziciis Seqm­nisas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba imas, Tu ra adgili ukavia suraTze garemos _ cas, miwas, interiers da mis de­ talebs. Sesabamisad, ma­ yurebeli xvdeba, axlodan aris danaxuli esa Tu is scena, Tu Soridan; mxo­lod figureb­zea gamaxvilebuli yuradReba, Tu mniSvnelovania is garemoc, romelSic es moqmedeba xdeba.

?

edgar dega. bambis ofisi axal orleanSi. 1873 w.

40

3. aRwere edgar degas su­ raTi. 4. daaxasiaTe figurebi, maTi saq­mianoba, interieri da gare­ mo. 5. rogori atmosfero su­ fevs am suraTze?


peizaJisa Tu oTaxis TiToeuli elementi did rols asrulebs sura­Tis saerTo ganwyobilebis SeqmnaSi. suraTs ufro TxrobiTi xasiaTi eniWeba, rodesac mxatvari kompoziciis agebisas garemos detalebs guldasmiT gamosaxavs. mayurebeli yuradRebiT ecnoba ara mxolod moqmed person­ aJebs, aramed detalebsac, rac exmareba mas saerTo STabeWdilebis Se­ qmnaSi. garemos gamo­ saxva suraTze sivrcis gadmocemis erT-erTi mniS­ vnelovani saSualebacaa.

piter breigeli. bavSvTa TamaSobebi. 1560 w.

peizaJisa Tu interieris detalebis, figu­ rebis zomebis da garemosTan maTi Sefardebis mixedviT, mayurebeli xvdeba axlodan aris danaxuli esa Tu is gamosa­ xuleba Tu Soridan, mxo­ lod figurebzea gamaxvilebuli yu­ radReba Tu mniSvnelovania garemos yvela detali.

?

ernst kirxneri. mxatvrebi. 1926-1927 w.

6. daakvirdi aq war­mod­genil sura­Tebs. rogor aris gadmocemuli sivrce TiToeul maTganze? 7. rogor fiqrob, Soridan aris danaxuli mo­ qmedeba Tu axlodan bre­ igelisa da kirx­ neris suraTeb­ze? daasabuTe Seni mosazreba. 8. Seni azriT, romeli su­raTi iTxovs guldas­­m­ iT daTvalierebas da ratom?

airCie SenTvis sasur­­­veli Te­ma da Seqmeni mra­ valfigu­ria­ni kompozicia. yuradReba gaa­maxvi­ le formatze, kompoziciis ga­­na­wilebis xerxsa da garemoze.

41

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II

24. dasuraTebuli `odisea~ miTebi, rogorc ici, adamianis mier SeTxzuli ambebia, magram isini xSirad realurad momxdar movlenebs aRwers xolme. Zveli samyaros qvey­ nebis _ egviptis, SuamdinareTis, saberZneTis miTologia, maTi xelovnebis ganuyofeli nawilia. popularuli miTebi xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargis: literaturis, musikis, saxviTi xelovnebis nawarmoebebSia asaxuli. homerosis cnobil TxzulebaSi `odisea~ berZnuli miTologiuri gmiris _ odisevsis fa­TerakebiT aRsavse cxovrebaa aRwerili. troas omis gmiri mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi cdilobs Sin, kunZul iTakaze dabrunebas, sa­ dac mas erTguli meuRle penelope elodeba. es saintereso istoria mra­ vali saukunea aRelvebs xelovanebs. berZnuli keramikis nimuSebze `odis­ eas~ TiTqmis yvela epizodia gamosaxuli.

1

jon uiliam uoterhausi. 1890 w.

2

larnakis moxatuloba

odisevsis istorias sxvadasxva saukuneSi ingliseli, italieli, frangi, rusi mxatvrebi asuraTebdnen. TiToeul maTgans Taviseburad hyavs war­ modgenili berZeni gmiri da misi axloblebi, im epoqis berZnuli samyaro. es bunebrivicaa, radgan miTebSi aRwerili adgilebis Tu personaJebis Sesaxeb danamdvilebiT araferia cnobili. mecnierebi dResac kamaToben imaze, sad mdebareobs odisevsis mSobliuri kunZuli itaka. 3

?

1. Seni azriT, `odiseas~ rome­ li epizodia gamosaxuli pirvel da meore ilustraciebze?

romauli kedlis mxatvroba. Zv.w. 1 s.

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II

`odiseaSi~ aRwerili personaJebi, maTi samosis detalebi, varcx­ niloba, gemebi da sabrZolo iaraRi, imis Sesabamisad icvleba, Tu romel epoqaSi aris Seqmnili namuSevari.

?

2. aRwere meoTxe da mexuTe il­us­­­t­ra­­ciebi. 3. ras fiqrob, romel qveya­naSia isini Seqm­ nili?

4

5

pinturikio. penelope da saqmroebi. 1509 w.

irakli farjiani. odisevsis gemi. 1983 w.

homerosis `odisea~ XX saukunis qarTvelma mxatvarma irakli farjian­ mac daasuraTa. pasteliT Sesrulebul grafikul namuSevrebze original­ uri da saxasiaTo personaJebia gamosaxuli.

?

4. aRwere meSvide ilustraciaze warmodgenili namuSevari. 5. Seadare erTmaneTs aq warmodgenil yvela ilustraciaze gamosaxuli `odiseas~ ori personaJi _ penelope da odisevsi. nebismieri saxatavi masaliT da­ asuraTe romelime nawyveti `odi­ seadan~.

7

6

irakli farjiani. odisevsisa da penelopes Sexvedra. 1983 w. Jan Jak lagrene. odisevsis Svilis _ telemaqes amocnoba elenes mier. 1795 w.

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25. marao gifiqria odesme, ra funqcia aqvs maraos? Seni pasuxi martivi iqneba: marao saWiro nivTia zafxulis cxel dReebSi; qalebi maraos iniaveben da ase igrileben Tavs. Tumca, maraos odesRac sxva mravali daniSnulebac hqonda. modi, davi­wyoT Tavidan _ sad gaCnda marao? uZveles droSi, CineTSi xmarobdnen mrgval, saxelurian maraos, romelsac utivas eZaxdnen. bambukis mrgval CarCoSi Cawebebuli iyo qa­ Raldis an abreSumis naWeri, romelic naxatiT iyo Semkuli. gasaSleli marao Zalian didi xnis winaT iaponiaSi warmoiSva. mas sensu ewodeba. erTi sityviT maraos samSoblo aRmosavleTia. Sua saukuneebis iaponiaSi qalebi maraoTi sax­ es ifaravdnen, radgan Tvlidnen, rom marao maT avi sulebisagan daicavda. aseve iTvleboda, rom maraos daqneva daafrTxobda av sulebs. maraoe­ biT cekva mTeli xelovneba iyo da mas iaponiaSi sagangebod aswavlidnen go­gonebs. iaponiaSi maraos mxo­lod qalebi rodi iyeneb­ dnen, mas kacebic xmarobdnen. magaliTad, is samu­raebis winamZRolis atributi iyo; erT-erT iaponur TeatrSi ki yvela msaxiobs, qalsa Tu kacs, scenaze gamos­­ vlisas xelSi aucileblad marao unda sWeroda. am sagans iaponeli qurume­ bic iyenebdnen ritualebis dros. didi zomis moxatuli maraoebiT iaponelebi oTaxebis ked­ lebsac rTavdnen.

 l eqsi koni samurai _ sityvasityviT niSnavs msax­ urebas. samxedro feodaluri fena iaponiaSi, igive raindi. rituali _ sarwmunoebrivi xasiaTis wes-CveulebaTa erToblioba.

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II

evropaSi marao XVI s-Si CineTidan portugalielma vaWrebma Semoitanes. is farTod gavrcelda inglisSi, espaneTSi, italiaSi. inglisSi akademiac ki Seiqmna, sa­ dac maraos xmarebas aswavlidnen. inglisis dedofal­ ma elisabedma wesad SemoiRo, rom erTaderTi saCuqa­ ri, romelic qveSevrdomebs SeeZloT dedoflisTvis mierTmiaT, iyo marao. amitom dedofal elisabeds `maraoTa mfarveli~ uwodes. marao gansakuTrebiT popularuli iyo espaneTSi. espaneli qali saxlidan maraos gareSe ar gamovido­ da. aq XVII-XVIII ss-Si gaCnda e.w. `maraos ena~. qalebi maraos moZraobiT `esaubrebodnen~ TavianT Tayva­ nismcemlebs. maraos TiToeuli moZraoba raRacas aRniSnavda. magaliTad, ukana piriT mosaubrisaken mib­runebuli marao `aras~ niSnavda. marao sxvadasxva masalisagan mzaddeboda. gasaSleli maraos `ConCxs~ bambukis, kus baknis, spilos Zvlis da sxva masalisagan amzadebdnen; zed akravdnen abreSums, qa­ Ralds, aformebdnen naxatiT, maqmanebiT, naqar­ gobiT, bumbulebiT. Cinelebi da iaponelebi zed warwerebsac aTavsebdnen.

SedarebiT sqeli qa­ Ral­ di SenTvis sasur­veli or­namentiT an gamo­sa­xu­le­ biT moxate an aplikaciiT Seamke. Sem­ d­eg furceli viwro zolebad dakece. furclis cali kide Sekari ZafiT. es nawili SegiZlia mZivebiT an sxva ma­ saliT Seamko.

samurai maraoTi

qaRaldisa­­­gan Seqmeni mo­xa­tuli marao.

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III

26. portreti portreti, rogorc ici, kon­kr­e­tuli adamianis gamosaxu­le­baa. portre­ tis xatvi­sas mxat­­vari cdilobs, gadmosces adami­­anis garegnobis da xasia­ Tis Tavisebu­­rebani. es rTuli amocanaa da sxvadasxva mxa­tvari sxvadasxva­ gvarad cdilobs mis gadawyvetas.

?

1. aRwere TiToeuli port­reti. 2. daaxasiaTe portretebze ga­­mo­sa­ xuli adamianebi.

rafaeli. baldasare kastiliones portreti. 1514-1515 ww.

 leqsiko ni interieri _ Senobis arqiteqturu­ lad da mxatvrulad gaformebuli SigniTa nawili. detali _ mTelis nawili.

vinsent van gogi. mamilo tangis portreti. 1887 w.

portretze muSaobisas mxatvrebi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqceven adamianis samoss, varcxnilobas, samkauls Tu sxva nivTebs, romlebic dak­ virvebul mayurebels saintereso informacias awvdis suraTze gamosa­xuli adamianis Sesaxeb.

? 46

3. romeli detalebi iqcevs am portretze Sen yuradRebas da ratom?


megobris, ojaxis wevris an nebismieri sxva adamianis portretis Seqm­ nisas mxatvrebi adamians xan sada, erTi feris fon­ze gamosaxaven, xan ki met-naklebad dawv­ rilebiT xataven garemos mis irgvliv; warmoadgenen peizaJis an interieris mraval detals, rac aseve Seesabameba am konkre­ tuli adamianis xasiaTs, mis yofas.

?

4. aRwere vinsent van gogis da edgar degas namuSevrebis fonis detalebi. 5. ra informacias gvawvdis foni am pi­rovnebaTa Sesaxeb?

III

bronzino. eleonora toledoeli SvilTan erTad. 1550 w.

edgar dega. mamakacis portreti. 1878 w.

mxatvari zogjer portrets naturidan xatavs, anu mis winaSe zis konkre­ tuli adamiani, romelsac mxatvari uyurebs, akvirdeba, swavlobs da ti­ loze asaxavs. zogjer mxatvris mexsierebaSi aRbeWdili adamianis saxe da misi saxasiaTo niSnebi biZgs aZlevs mxatvars mexsierebiT daxatos am ada­ mianis portreti. xSirad mxatvrebi am dros Tavadac amateben calkeul detalebs, oRond es detalebi SemTxveviTi araa, isini ukeT warmoaCenen am adamianis xasiaTsa da Sinagan samyaros. Seqmeni Seni romelime megobris an axloblis portreti natu­ridan an mex­ sierebiT. gansakuTrebuli yu­radReba miaq­ci­e fons da saxa­siaTo detalebs.

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III

27. saxaliso sarWebi xSirad ubralo nivTs, romelsac yovel­dRiur cxovrebaSi viyenebT, SeiZleba daniSnuleba SevucvaloT. saxlSi albaT geqneba sarWebi, rom­ liTac deda sarecxs Tokze amagrebs. daakvirdi, rogor gamoiyenes isini Senma Tanatolebma sa­ kuTar namuSevrebSi. zogma feradi qaRaldebisa da sarWebisagan wiwilebi gaakeTa, zogma _ Ra­ murebi, zogma ki _ Zroxa. maT marTlac Zalze saxaliso sarWebi gamouvidaT.

gamoiyene sarecxis sarWebi, sxvadasx­ va feris qa­­Ral­di, xelovnuri Tu bu­neb­­ rivi masala da saku­Tari fantaziiT Seqme­ ni saxa­li­so sarWebi.

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III

28. interieris eskizi saxviTi xelovnebis nimuSebis gacnobisas, al­ baT, SeamCnevdi, rom mxatvrebi xSirad gamosax­ aven sxvadasxva interiers _ mdidruli sasaxlis, taZris, saxlis da sxv. imisaTvis, rom Seqmna interieris gamosaxule­ ba, sulac ar aris saWiro iyo namdvili mxatvari. moifiqre, rogor saklaso oTaxSi isurvebdi swav­ las, an rogor oTaxSi icxovrebdi siamovnebiT da Seecade Seasrulo Seni warmosaxviT Seqmnili interieris eskizi. samuSaos Sesrulebisas ar dagaviwydes im oT­a­ xis daniSnuleba, romlis eskizsac qmni: saklaso oTaxSi, aucileblad unda iyos merxebi da ska­ mebi; xolo Sen oTaxSi, albaT, magida, sawoli, karada da sxv. aq warmodgenili ilustraciebi dagex­ ma­ reba davalebis ukeT SesrulebaSi.

anri matisi

qei qrini

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III

29. suraTi, epoqa, qveyana xelovnebis nawarmoebi, rogorc we­si, did informacias gvawvdis im qve­ yanaze, romelSic is Seiqmna. Cveni warmodgena Zveli civilizaciebis Ses­ axeb sakmaod usaxuri da, albaT, mcdaric iqneboda mxolod istoriul wyaroebs rom eyrdno­ bodes da ar arsebobdes piramidebi an parTenoni, pompeis vilebi, maTi moxatulobebi, berZnuli keramika da bevri sxva ram. ama Tu im qveynis xelovnebis nawarmoebis gul­ dasmiT Seswavla sa­ Su­ ­ alebas gvaZlevs, warmovidginoT misi qalaqebi da sof­ lebi, quCebi da moednebi, didgvarovanTa da ubralo adamianebis yoveldRiuri cxov­reba.

?

1. aRwere ian van eikis warmodgenili suraTi. 2. daakvirdi da aRwere ukana planze warmodgenili moqmedeba. 3. arsebobs Tu ara raime kavSiri wina da ukana planze warmodgenil scenebs Soris?

domeniko girlandaio. ioane naTlismcemlis dabadeba. fragmenti. 1486-1490 ww.

ian van eiki. kancler rolenis madona. 1435 w.

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zogjer mxatvari dawvrilebiT gamosaxavs de­talebs, aseTi namuSevari ufro zust warmo­ dgenas gviqmnis siuJetis, moqmedi pirebisa da garemos Sesaxeb. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sainte­resoa adreuli renesansis os­tatTa nawarmoebebi. maT gansakuTrebiT izi­ davdaT detaluri Txroba da ami­­­tomac didxans SeiZleba aTvaliero maT mier daxatuli didebulTa sacxovreblebis in­ terierebi, maTi samosis, varcxnilobis da sam­ kaulis detalebi. xSirad mxatvrebi saxarebis epizodebis amsaxvel suraTebzec ki guldas­ miT asaxa­ven TavianT TanamedroveTa sacxovre­ blebs, im drois modas.

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III

domeniko girlandaio. qalbatonis portreti. 1490 w.

4. aRwere qalbatonis portreti. 5. romeli detalebi iqcevs Sens yuradRebas? 6. ras gviyveba es portreti adamianisa da epoqis Sesaxeb? 7. qveda suraTze ukana planis gamosaxulebebis mixedviT aRwere adamianebis yofa da garemo.

aq warmodgenili ramdenime namuSevris magaliTze naTlad gamoCnda, rom xelovnebis nawarmoebi mravalferovan informacias gvawvdis epoqis, qvey­ nis da adamianebis yofis Sesaxeb.

Seqmeni naxati, rom­lis meS­ veobiTac Sen warmodgenas Seuqm­ ni momavlis ada­mians Cveni epo­ qisa da qveynis Sesaxeb.

domeniko girlandaio. mariamisa da elisabedis Sexvedra. fragmenti. 1491 ww.

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III

30. msoflios cnobili koSkebi msoflios cnobili arqiteqturu­ li nagebobebi sakuTari epoqis mniS­ vnelovani Zeglebia, Tumca, maTi mSeneb­loba yovelTvis mSvidad rodi mim­ dinareobda. araerTi maTganis isto­ria savsea dramatuli epizodebiT. Sua saukuneebSi qristianuli taZrebis gverdiT xSirad sagangebo ko­ Skebs _ samrekloebs agebdnen. samreklos zarebi salocavad uxmobda xalxs. italiaSi TiTqmis yovel RirsSesaniS­nav taZarTan dgas samreklo, magram yvelaze cnobili maT Soris pizas kampanilea.

?

1. riT aris cnobili pizas kampa­ nile? 2. rogor fiqrob, pizas koSki Ta­ vidanve ase iyo daproeqtebuli?

kampanile. qalaqi piza. 1174-1284 ww.

sinamdvileSi pizas koSkis simaRle 100 m unda yofiliyo, magram mSeneb­ lobis mimdinareobisas saZirkvelma ver gauZlo koSkis simZimes da mSene­ bare koSki samxreTisken gadaixara. amitom koSkis mSenebloba 55 metris simaRleze Sewyda. am uCveulo Taviseburebam pizas saqveynod gauTqva saxeli. koSks yovelwliurad 3 milionze meti adamiani naxulobs. mTeli msoflios arqiteqtorebi da inJinrebi dRes Tavs imtvreven imaze fiqriT, Tu rogor SeaCeron koSkis gadaxra, mag­ram ar gaasworon is.

?

3. gamoTqvi Seni mosazreba, ra xerxiT Se­iZleba pizas koSkis gamag­reba?

 l eqsi koni kampanile _ Sua saukuneebisa da aRorZinebis xanis italiis arqiteqturaSi: taZarTan mdgomi, Cveulebriv, oTxkuTxa (zogjer mrgvali) samreklo. panorama _ gadaSlili, farTo da vrceli midamos xedi, Cveulebriv zevidan.

52


londonSi, vestminsteris sasaxlis kompleqsSi, iq, sadac axla didi britaneTis parlamentia ganTavse­buli, mdebareobs cnobili big beni. wminda stefanes saxelobis koSki 1858 wels aages. misi simaRle 96 metria. miwidan 55 metris simaRleze koSkis oTxive mxa­ res gi­ ganturi saa­ Tis ciferblatebia CaSenebuli. maTi diametri 7 metria, didi isari 4 metris sigrZisaa, pa­tara ki _ ornaxevar metrze meti. ciferblatebis ukan 13-toniani zaria moTavsebuli. swored misi xma ismis yo­ vel saaTSi erTxel londonis yovel kuTxe-kunWulSi. big benis saaTis meqanizmi 5 to­ nas iwonis da dResac msoflioSi yvelaze zust dros aCvenebs. am koSks saxeli misi mSeneblis benjamin (ben) holis pativsacemad daarqves, ro­ melic zorba kaci yofila. londonis es simbolo imdenad popularulia, rom qalaqis TiTqmis yve­ la gzajvaredinze dgas misi patara oreuli. big beni. londoni. 1858 w.

?

4. rogor fiqrob, ras uwodeben big benis patara oreulebs ingliselebi?

frangma inJinerma gustav eifelma XIX sau­ kunis da­ sasruls ganizraxa, rom parizSi aego rkinis uCveulo koSki. parizelebi aRaSfoTa am proeqtma, gazeTebi saprotesto werilebiT aW­ relda. eifels parizis xedis gafuWebas, maxinji da usargeblo konstruqciis agebas abralebdnen. eifelma didi mSeneb­ loba rekordul droSi _ 18 TveSi daasrula. 300 metri simaRlis koSki mTlianad rkinis konstruqcias warmoadgens. is Sedgeba 180 000 rkinis detalis­ gan, romlebic erTmaneTs uzadodaa morgebuli. uzarmazari konstruqcia 7 000 tonas iwonis, magram simZimis nacvlad hae­ rovnebis STabeWdilebas tovebs. is TiTqos rkinis aJu­ruli maqmanebiT aris nagebi. koSkis daxril `fexebSi~ damontaJebul lif­tebs yovelwliurad mi­li­o­nobiT turisti ahyavs zeda gadmosaxed baqanze parizis panoramis sanaxavad. odesRac arsebuli didi protestis miuxedavad, eifelis koSki parizis simbolod iqca.

 eifelis koSki. parizi. XIX s-is bolo

moiZie informacia msoflioSi arsebuli ko­S­kebis Sesa­xeb da warudgine klass (SegiZlia gamoiyeno vebgverdi www.ka.wikipedia.org).

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III

31. momavlis koSki sxvadasxva tipis koSkura nagebobebi uZvelesi da Sua saukuneebis sam­ yaros ganuyo­feli nawilia. Tanamedrove epoqaSic eife­lis koS­kis Semdeg erTmaneTis miyo­lebiT igeboda sxvadasxva daniSnulebis mqone ma­Rali koS­ kebi _ satelevizio anZebi, wyal­saqaCebi, maRa­li Zabvis gadamcemi anZebi, aeroportis Suqurebi da mravali sxva. teq­ nikurma prog­ resma da axalma saSenma masalam gasaqani misca arqiteqtorebis fantazias uC­veulo formis nagebobebis Sesaqmnelad. modi, Senc scade gabeduli ideebis realizeba da Seudeqi Seni fanta­ ziis xorcSesxmas.

sxvadasxvagvari xelov­ nuri masa­ lis ga­mo­ye­nebiT Seqmeni mo­mav­lis koS­ kis maketi.

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III

32. axali weli albaT gagikvirdeba, rodesac am gakveTil­ Si bostneulis fotoebs dainaxav. ifiqreb, sad kombosto da wiwaka da sad axali welio, magram swored am bostneulisagan SevqmniT Cven saa­ xalwlo Tojinebs. amisaTvis winaswar sxva­dasxva bostneulis momarageba dagWirdeba; Tu kidev sxva masalas _ bambas, ferad lentebs, Rilebs, saRebavebs daumatebT da sakuTar fantaziasac moiSveli­eb, muSaobis dawyebac SeiZleba.

bostneuli­sagan sa­ku­­Ta­ri fan­tazi­iT gaake­­Te sa­a­xal­wlo Tojinebi.

es fifqia stafilosa da ko­mbostos fur­ clebisagan aris gakeTebuli. gamoyene­ bulia as­e­­ve Ri­­lebi, bafT­a da feradi Za­febi.

Tovlis babua bulgaruli wi­ wakisa da kombostos furclebisa­ gan aris gakeTebuli.

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III

33. saaxalwlo karnavali axal wels dids Tu pataras sad­Re­saswaulo ganwyobileba aqvs. dResas­ waulis gatareba ki yvelas mxiarulad surs. swored amitom axali weli saukeTeso droa karnavalis mosawyobad. karnavalis aucilebeli atributi saintereso kostiumia. misi damzadeba sakuTari xeliT SeiZleba da amisaT­ vis arc mdidruli qsovili da namdvili bewveuli, arc sxva Zvirfasi masa­ la dagWirdeba. Cveulebrivi saxatavi masala, muyao da feradi qaRaldebi, Tasmebi, maqmanebi, qsovilis narCenebi, Rilebi, burTulebi da aTasi sxva wvrilmani sakarnavalo kostiumis elementad SeiZleba aqcio.

karnavalisaTvis niRbis damzadeba SeiZleba sqeli feradi qaRaldis an muyaosagan. dasamagreblad ki Tasma an rezini gamodgeba. niRabi kidev ufro orig­ inaluri gamova, Tu mas mzis saTvalis CarCosgan daamzadeb. aseT SemTxvevaSi arc niRbis damagreba gagiWirdeba. saTvales garSemo feradi qaRaldis ganieri zole­ bi daawebe, ferad-feradi bumbulebiT, brWyviala TasmebiT an sxva dekoratiuli elementebiT morTe.

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III qudi SeiZleba muyaosgan gamoWra da aawyo, rogorc es am fotoebzea naCvenebi. aucile­ blad gaiTvaliswine qudis zomebi, rom Semdeg ar gagiWirdes misi morgeba. am xerxiT qalis qudis damzadebac SeiZleba da mamakacisac. ase rom, sjobs erTdroulad daxazo, gamoWra da aawyo ramdenime nimuSi. Semdeg maTi Semkoba Sen fantaziazea damokidebuli, oRond ar daga­ viwydes, vis ganasaxiereb karnavalze. dekora­ tiuli elementebic amis Sesabamisad SearCie. yvela detali saguldagulod daamagre webos an webovani lentis meSveobiT, rom karnavalze cekvisas ar daziandes. saxlSi Tu geguleba iseTi qudi, romlis ga­dakeTebaze guli ar dag­ wydeba, saqmes ufro ga­ i­­ ioleb. dawnul quds niJarebi, Rilebi, burTebi da feradi Sarfebi mouxdeba, feradi Zafebis narCenebiT ki qudsac da niRabsac ise SeiZleba Seucvalo ieri, rom karnavalze veravin gicnos.

nebismieri ma­sa­­­lisgan daamzade ori­ginaluri sakarnavalo qudi da niRabi. CaatareT konkursi saukeTeso namuSevris gamosavlenad.

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34. grafika martivi grafikuli gamosaxuleba SeiZleba mniSvnelovani sazogadoe­ brivi movlenis simbolod iqces. ase moxda 1949 wels, rodesac pablo pikasos mSvidobis saerTaSoriso kongresis emblemis Seqmna sTxoves. pi­ kasom mtredis grafikuli gamosaxuleba Seqmna, romelic am droidan mSvi­dobisaTvis brZolis simbolod iqca. mogvianebiT mxatvarma am gamo­ saxulebis ramdenime varianti daamuSava. pikasos es arCevani SemTxveviT ar gaukeTebia. mtredi odiTganve mSvidobas ganasaxierebda. magaliTad, Zveli berZnuli legendis mixedviT, siyvarulis qalRmerTis mtredebis wyvilma bude omis RvTaebis _ marsis muzaradSi daido. mrisxane RvTae­ bam ar isurva am budis dangreva da uari Tqva morig sisxlismRvrel omze, riTic uamravi adamianis sicocxle gadaarCina. bibliaSi ki mtredma zeTisxilis rto miutana noes kidobanSi myof adamianebs da amiT amcno maT, rom warRvna dasrulda.

?

1. daakvirdi mtredis gamosaxulebas. saxviTi xelovnebis romeli dargis namuSe­ vars ganekuTvneba is? 2. ra ewodeba im xazs, romelic Semowers mtredis gamosaxulebas? pablo pikaso. mtredi. 1949 w.

cnobili espaneli mwerlis migel de servantesis sayvareli person­ aJebis don kixotisa da sanCo pansas gamosaxulebebi, erTi SexedviT, bavS­ vis naxats hgavs. klaknili xazebi da uswormasworo, TiTqos gadRab­nili laqebi, am ori gmiris yvelaze damaxasiaTebel niSnebs usvams xazs.

?

3. am grafikuli namuSevris mixed­ viT daaxasiaTe cnobili romanis per­ sonaJebi. 4. rogor fiqrob, maTi garegnobis romeli detalebia aq xazgasmuli? 5. Seni azriT, romeli grafikuli masaliT aris Sesrulebuli es namu­ Sevari?

 leqsiko ni emblema _ sagani an gamosaxuleba, gamoye­ nebuli raime ideis simbo­ lod. pablo pikaso. don-kixoti da sanCo pansa. 1955 w.

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pikasos mier koridas Temaze Seqmnili naxatebis seria muqi laqebisa da TeTri fonis kontrastzea agebuli. am, erTi SexedviT, martivi mxat­ vruli xerxiT zustad aris gadmocemuli tradiciuli espanuri sanaxao­ bis dinamika da dramatizmi.

pablo pikaso. korida. 1960 w.

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pablo pikaso. korida. 1960 w.

6. gaixsene, ra ici espanuri koridas Sesaxeb? 7. ra ganwyobilebas aRZravs es namuSevrebi?

XX saukunis meore cnobili mxatvari anri matisi mravali grafikuli namuSevris avtoria. mis mier Seqmnili mwerlebis, sazogado moRvaweebis, axlo­ blebis grafikuli portretebi TiTqos xelis erTi mosmiT aris Sesrulebuli. daxvewili konturuli naxatiT Semowerili saxis ovali, Tvalis Wrili da sxva nakvTebi dasamaxsovrebel personaJebad aqcevs maT da mayurebels garkveul STabeWdilebas uqmnis maTi xasiaTis Taviseburebebze.

?

anri matisi. lidia. 1948 w.

8. Seadare da daaxasiaTe lidiasa da Sarl bodler­ is portretebi. 9. aRwere maTi garegnobis saxasiaTo niSnebi.

matisis grafikuli seria `Temebi da variacebi~ liTogra­fiis teqnikiT aris Sesrulebuli. es te­ qnika qvis gluvi zedapiridan anabeWdis furcelze gadatanas gulisxmobs. daxvewili, moqnili xazebi TiTqos mayureblis Tvalwin Semo­wers formebs da gamosaxulebac cocxali da uSualo gamodis.

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III

10. Seecade aRwero da Seni sityvebiT daaxasiaTo qalis gamosaxuleba seriidan `Temebi da variaciebi~.

anri matisi. Sarl bodleri. 1932 w.

anri matisi. `Temebi da variaciebi~. 1949 w.

airCie romelime mniSvnelovani sazogadoebrivi movlena da Seqmeni misi grafikuli emblema. CaatareT konkursi saukeTeso namuSevris gamosavlenad.

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III

35. dinamika dahkvirvebixar, rogor ar­­xevs Zlieri qari xis totebs? TiTqos welSi Runavs balaxs da yvavilebs, mowyvetil foTlebs ki haerSi afrialebs. albaT isic SegimCnevia, rom zogierTi suraTis naxvisas mayurebeli qaris qrolvas ise naTlad grZnobs, TiTqos igi Tavad iyos suraTis gmiri da qari namdvilad uwewavdes mas Tmas. rogor axerxeben mxatvrebi ase­ Ti STa­ beWdilebis Seqmnas? kargad Tu daakvirdebi suraTebs, romlebzec moZraobaa asa­xuli, am `saidumlos~ ad­ vilad amoicnob. kompozicias, romelzec moZraobaa asaxuli, dinamikurs uwodeben. din­ amika fizikis nawilia, magram am termins xelovnebis nimuSebis mimarTac viyenebT im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac am nimuSebze cocxali, aqtiuri moZrao­ bebia gadmocemuli.

uoren tompsoni. palmebi. 2002 w.

xarunobu. ori qaliSvili qarSi. 1760-1770 ww.

?

1. daakvirdi aq warmodgenil suraTebs da aRwere TiToeuli maTgani. 2. rogor STabeWdilebas qmnis es suraTebi? 3. Seni azriT, ra xerxs mimarTa mxatvarma moZrao­bis STabeWdilebis gadmo­ sacemad?

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halikarnasis mavzoleumis frizi. Zv. w. IV s.

?

4. Seadare es ori kompozicia. romel maTganSi moZraoben fig­ urebi aqtiurad?

parTenonis frizi. Zv. w. V s-is II naxevari

SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom halikarnasis mavzoleumis scena, romelzec brZo­laa asaxuli, Zalze dinamikuria, radgan masze gamosaxuli figurebi aqtiurad moZraoben. parTenonis frizze gamosaxuli figurebi mSvidad dganan da amdenad isini statikurobis STabeWdilebas qmnian. statika berZnuli sityvaa da uZravs niSnavs. es termini xelovnebaSi xSirad gvxvdeba mSvidi da umoZrao gamosaxulebebis dasaxasiaTeblad.

?

5. Seni azriT, dinamikuria Tu sta­ tikuri Tesalonikis taZris mozaikaze gamosaxuli figurebi? daaxasiaTe isini.

 leqsiko ni dinamika _ risame moZraoba, cvaleba­ doba, ganviTareba. termini _ sityva, romelsac iyeneben romelime specialuri cnebis an sagnis aRsaniSnavad.

Tesaloniki, wm. dimitris taZris mozaika, VI-VII s.

daxate erTi da igive obieqti (magal­ iTad, figura, xe) statikur da dinamikur mdgomareobaSi.

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III

36. ritmi mxatvrobaSi

® v ® v ® v ® v ® v ® v ® v ® v ® v ® v Sen ukve ici, rom ornamenti msgavsi figurebis gameorebiT iqmneba. swo­ red es gameoreba qmnis erTgvar ritms.

san apolinari nuovos mozaika. VI s-is dasawyisi

?

1. aRwere ornamenti. romeli figurebis gameorebiT iqmneba ritmi?

erTgvarovani elementebis gameorebiT Seqmnili ritmi mxatvrobaSic Se­ iZleba Segvxvdes. meore da mesame ilustraciebze gamosaxulia samoTxeSi mimavali procesia, romelic lentiseburad gasdevs taZris grZ­iv kedels. qalebisa da mamakacebis figurebis da palmebis monacvleobiT uwyveti, Tanabari ritmi iqmneba.

san apolinari nuovos mozaika. VI s-is dasawyisi

?

2. ra xerxiT aris Seqmnili ritmi mexuTe ilustraciaze?

gustav klimti. molodini. 1909 w.

ritmis gadmocema kompoziciaSi SesaZlebelia ara mar­ to figurebis monacvleobiT, aramed feradova­ ni laqebis ganawilebiTac. gustav klimtis suraTze gamo­ saxul qalis kabaze yviTeli, samkuTxa laqebis da lurji, iisferi da mwvane zolebis monacvleoba Zalze cocxal, Tamam ritms qmnis da amiTi is ornaments emsgavseba. nebismieri xerxiT Seqmeni ritmuli kompozicia.

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gustav klimti. yvavilebis mdelo. 1908 w.


37. naxati kenWebze zRvis fskerze, albaT, yovel Tqvengans unaxavs sxvada­sxva formis da feris lamazi kenWebi. sanapiroze adamianebi gafacicebiT eZeben amgvar qvebs, xolo, rodesac pouloben, maTi silamaziT moxiblulebs kenWebis iqve datoveba enanebaT da saxlSi miaqvT. rogor qvas ar SexvdebiT iq: wi­ Tels, yviTels, mwva­nes, feradwinwklebians... am silamazis Semxedvare zedac aravin uyurebs uferul riyis qvebs, romlebic wylis talRebs sarkesaviT gauprialebia. aseTi qvebis povna zRva­ zec SeiZleba da mdinaris napirzec. marTalia, feradi qvebi Zalze mimzidvelia, magram riyis qvis gluv zedapirze sakuTari xeliT SeiZle­ ba daxato peizaJi, naturmorti an Seni megobrebis portretebis mTeli galerea. amisaTvis mxolod feradi flomasterebi an funji da wylis saRebavebi dagWirdeba, namuSevrebi ki originaluri gamova da saCuqradac gamogadgeba.

brtyel kenWeb­ze ne­bismieri ma­sa­liT daxa­te por­­­treti.

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III

38. yvela Cemi samSobloa... samegrelo dasavleT saqarTvelos uZvelesi kuTxea, romelsac didi istoriuli warsuli aqvs. gadmocemis mixedviT, uZveles droSi, same­ greloSi mdgara didi muxa, romelsac aqaurebi Wyondids uwodebdnen (Wyoni _ megr. muxa). mis fuRuroSi kerpi yofila moTavsebuli. gadmocemiT es muxa andria pirvelwodebuls mouWria. am adgilas, qris­ tianul epoqaSi, VII s-is pirvel naxevarSi aigo wamebulTa anu martvilTa saxelobis taZari _ martvilis eklesia, romlis trapezic swored am muxis Zirze daudgamT. taZa­ri ga­redan reliefebiT aris Semkuli, xolo mis in­ teriers sxva­dasxva dros Sesrulebuli moxatuloba amkobs. Sua saukunee­ bSi swored aq iyo Wyondideli episkoposis rezidencia da es tradicia dResac grZeldeba.

?

1. romeli gadmocemebi da tra­di­ ciebi ukavSirdeba Wyondi­dis saxels? 2. xom ar ici, vin iyo Wyondideli?

martvilis taZari. reliefi. macxovris amaRleba. VII s.

martvilis taZari. VII s.

uk­ a­ naskneli wlebis gan­ mavlobaSi martvilis monasterSi didi aR­ m­ Se­ nebloba mimdinareobs. monasteri gamSven­da, res­tavracia utardeba mart­ vilis taZris freskebs.

 l eqsi koni kvarTi _ erTianad naq­sovi, unakero grZe­li sa­moseli. reliqvia _ reli­gi­u­ri Tayvaniscemis sagani, romelsac saswa­ulmoqmedi Zala aqvs. kerpi _ RvTaebis gamosaxuleba, romelsac Tayvans scemdnen. rezidencia _ mTavrobis, saxelmwifos meTauris an sxva maRali Tanamdebobis piris adgilsamyofeli. trapezi _ taZarSi, sakurTxevlis SuagulSi moTavse­ buli oTxkuTxa magida.

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martvilis taZris sakurTxevlis mxatvroba. XIV s.


III dadianebis sasaxleTa zugdidis saxelmwifo istori­ul-arqiteq­tu­ruli muzeumi

samegrelos mTavrebi _ dadianebi samegrelos mTavar qalaqSi zugdidSi saxlobdnen. daviT dadianisa da ekaterine WavWavaZis, maTi vaJis, niko dadianis sasaxleebi am­­Jamadac dgas zugd­idSi. aqve iyo dadia­nebis karis eklesia da botanikuri baRi. aq amJamad saxelmwifo istori­ul-arqiteq­tu­ rulma muzeumma daido bina. muzeums sakmaod mdidari eT­­nog­rafiuli da xelovnebis nimuSebis kole­ qcia gaaCnia, romelTa SegrovebaSic didi wvlili miuZRvis samegrelos mTavrebis _ dadianebis gvars. aq inaxeba arqeologiuri masala, Sua sauku­ neebis xelovnebis nimuSebi, evropis sxvadasxva qveynis samefo dinastiaTa kuTvnili sagvareulo nivTebi. sasaxlis biblioTeka uZveles xelnawerTa da gamocemaTa mraval toms moicavs.

?

3. xom ar ici, rogor moxvda evropis qvey­ nebis samefo dinastiaTa kuTvnili sagvareu­ lo nivTebi dadianebis sasaxlis koleqciaSi?

RvTismSoblis kvarTi. zugdidis muzeumi

zugdidis muzeumSi mravali qristianuli siwmindea daculi. maT Soris yvelaze gamorCeuli siwminde RvTismSoblis kvarTia, romelic 1923-1936 wlebSi xobis monastridan wamoiRes. amave muzeumSi daculia sxva siwmind­ eebic: wminda marines mklavi, wminda kvirikes xeli, wminda giorgisa da wminda ioane naTlismcemlis Zvlebis nawilebi. arsebobs sxvadasxva mosazreba am reliqviebis saqarTveloSi moxvedris Sesaxeb. erTi varaudiT, es siwmindeebi VIII saukuneSi CamoabrZanes kon­ stantinepolidan; xolo meore versiiT, isini XV saukuneSi moxvda saqarT­ veloSi, mas Semdeg, rac konstantinepoli Turqebma aiRes.

moiZie informacia gak­ve­TilSi CamoTvlili wmin­dane­bis Sesaxeb da warmo­ adgine werilobiT (SegiZlia gamoiyeno vebgverdi www.ka.wikipedia.org).

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39. proporcia yvela sagans Tavisi saxe aqvs. aq gamosaxuli sxva­ dasxva formis larnakebi sxva­ dasxvagvarad SeiZleba davaxasiaToT. pirveli maRali da mox­ denilia, radgan mas maRali yeli da grZeli muceli aqvs; meore ufro dabali da jmuxia. mas buTquna muceli da Zalze dabali yeli aqvs. larnakis nawilebis sxvadasxvagvari formebis erToblioba am nivTis proporcias qmnis.

1 yeli

muceli

 l eqsi koni proporcia iqmne­ba sag­nis na­wi­ le­bis zo­maTa Ta­nafardobiT.

2

3

4

?

1. daakvirdi mesame ilustraciaze warmodge­ nil Wiqebs da sityvierad daaxasiaTe maTi formebi da proporcia. 2. aRwere meoTxe ilustraciaze warmodgenili boTlebis forma da Seecade daaxasiaTo maTi pro­ porciebi. 3. gaixsene, romeli multfilmidanaa am gverdze warmodgenili Caidani. Seni azriT, ramdenad Seesa­ bameba misi proporcia am personaJis xasiaTs?

5

SearCie romelime nivTi da konturiT daxate. Seecade daicva misi propor­ ciebi. SegiZlia, romelime personaJis saxec misce mas.

66


40. sxvadasxva zomis nivTebi mxatvrebi, rodesac naturmorts xataven, cdiloben, TiToeuli nivTis forma da proporcia zustad gadmoscen. magram rodesac naturmortze ramdenime nivTia gamosaxuli, maSin maTi amocana kidev ufro rTuldeba. fiala aucileblad doqze an boTlze mcire zomisa unda iyos, vaSli _ sazamTroze patara. didi da patara nivTebis zomebi erTmaneTTan SeTanx­ mebuli unda iyos.

1

?

IV

2

1. daakvirdi fanqriT Sesrulebul or naxats. romel maTganzea daculi nivTebis zomaTa swori Sefardeba? daasa­buTe Seni mosazreba. 2. rogori proporciuli Sefardebaa nivTebs Soris mesame ilustraciaze? 3. rogori proporciuli Sefardebaa nivTebs Soris meoTxe ilustraciaze?

3

4

naturmorti vaSliT

SearCie ramdenime nivTi da dadgi naturmorti. daxa­te da See­ cade nivTebis zoma erTmaneTs Seu­ Tanxmo.

naturmorti boTliT

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IV

41. kidevac daizrdebian... marneulisaken mimaval gzaze dgas Zegli, romelsac hqvia `kidevac da­ izrdebian!~. es qandakeba moqandake merab berZeniSvilma 1975 wels Seqmna qarTuli xalxuri leqsis mixedviT. kidevac daizrdebian algeTs lekvebi mglisani; ise ar amowydebian _ javri SasWamon mtrisani...

?

1. Seni sityvebiT gadmoeci am strofis Sinaarsi. 2. gaiazre, ras niSnavs `javri Sas­ Wamon mtrisani~.

merab berZeniSvili. kidevac daizrdebian. 1975 w.

rogor gadmosca avtorma am leqsis arsi? dedis kalTasTan ori Caf­ skvnili ymawvili dgas. fexebi ganze gaudgamT da win gawvdil xelebSi uzarmazari mZime xmali uWiravT. deda TiTqos xeliT win swevs Svilebs da samSoblos samsxverploze uSvebs maT.

1. aRwere elguja ama­Sukelis qa­ ndakeba `vefxi da moyme~. 2. gaecani xalxur baladas vefxisa da moymis Sesa­xeb. ra aris am balada­ Si yvelaze mniSvnelovani?

elguja amaSukeli. vefxi da moyme. 1975 w.

68

3. Seni azriT, ratom Seiqmna am baladis mixedviT qandakeba? Seni mo­ sazreba warmoadgine werilobiT.


42. suraTi da STabeWdileba mxatvruli nawarmoebiT aRZruli STabeW­ di­ leba zogjer imdenad Zli­ eria, rom mayu­rebelsac uCndeba imave Temaze namuSevris Seqmnis survili. aseT grZnobebs Tavad mxat­vrebic xSirad ganicdian. Tumca, msgavsi Te­mis mi­uxedavad, TiToeuli maTgani Tavise­burad cdilobs sakuTari grZno­be­ bis gadmocemas. saxviTi xelovnebis istoriaSi erT-erTi aseTi maradiuli Tema deda­ Svilobaa. is erTnairad axlobeli da amaRelvebelia Cveulebrivi adami­ anisTvisac da xelovanisTvisac.

?

1. daakvirdi aq warmodgenil suraTebs. 2. ra msgavsebasa da gansxvavebas xedav maT Soris? 3. aRwere TiToeuli maTgani da gadmoeci Seni STabeWdileba.

pablo pikaso. dedaSviloba. 1902-1903 w.

paul klee. deda da Svili. 1938 w.

ogiust renuari. dedaSviloba. 1902-1903 w.

airCieT TqvenTvis sasurveli Tema da nebismieri saxatavi masalis gamoye­ nebiT SeqmeniT namuSevari. moawyveT Tematuri saklaso gamofena da imsje­­l­eT warmodgenili namuSevrebis Sesaxeb.

69

IV


IV

43. mrude sarke warmoidgine oTaxi, romlis kedlebze sarkeebia Camwkrivebuli, oRond ara Cveulebrivi, aramed _ mrude. zogi maTgani sigrZeSi welavs figu­ ras, zogi _ siganeSi. zogi ki sxeuls orad Wris da ukuRma abams erTma­ neTs. aseT oTaxs `sicilis oTaxi~ ewodeba, radgan sxeulis proporciebis gada­Warbebuli cvlileba amaxinjebs fi­guras, sasacilos xdis mas. Tqveni bebiebisa da babuebis dros aseTi oTaxebi sagangebod ewyoboda dasas­ve­ nebel adgilebSi, parkebSi, raTa adamianebi gaxalisebuliyvnen. sicili xom sasargebloa adamianebisaTvis. da marT­lac, am oTaxebidan xSirad ismoda xarxari.

?

1. aRwere, rogor aris darR­veuli proporciebi mrude sarkeebSi.

adamianis sxeuli da misi proporciebi mudam ipyrobda mxatv­rebisa da moqandakeebis yuradRebas. Zve­li berZnebi Tvlidnen, rom silamazis sai­ dumlo swored sxeulis nawilebis urTierTSefardebaSia da Tavad qmnid­ nen adamianis sxeulis idealur proporciebs.

poliklete. doriforosi. Zv. w. V s.

70


renesansis epoqis ostatebic sagangebod ikvlevdnen am sakiTxs. ita­ lieli leonardo da vinCis, germaneli albrext diurerisa da sxvaTa Cana­xatebze TvalnaTliv Cans, rogor eZeben isini adamianis sxeulis ide­ alur proporciebs.

albrext diureri. Canaxati leonardo da vinCi. Canaxati

ra unda icode adamianis figuris xatvisas? imisaTvis, rom figura pro­ porciuli iyos erTgvari sazomi erTeulia saWiro. mxatvrebisTvis aseTi sazomi figuris Tavia. sxeulis proporciebi ki imis mixedviT igeba, Tu ramdenjer eteva Tavi simaRleSi da siganeSi. amaSi ukeT gasarkvevad mar­ tivi dakvirveba dagexmareba. airCie Zveli berZnuli an renesansis epoqis is figura, romelic yvelaze metad mogwons, gazome misi proporciebi da CainiSne isini. axla Tavad SegiZlia daxato msgavsi proporci­ ebis mqone adamiani.

daxate Se­ni me­gobris ori por­t­reti realuri da Secv­ lili pro­por­ciebiT.

71

IV


IV

44. bataluri scenebi odiTganve adamianebi cdilobdnen, daefiqsirebinaT is, rac maTTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovani iyo. am survilis ganxorcielebaSi maT xelovneba exmareboda. amitom erTi da igive Temebi _ nadiroba, omi, Sromis scenebi, samefo karis cxovreba da bevri sxva ram, sxvadasxva epoqisa da qveynis xelovnebaSi gvxvdeba. maTi meSveobiT metad saintereso da utyuar infor­ macias vigebT ama Tu im qveynis da xalxis Sesaxeb. swored am informacias eyrdnobian mwer­lebi an Teatrisa da kinos reJisorebi, rodesac ama Tu im qveynis istoriasTan dakavSirebul nawarmoebebs qmnian. brZolis scena gvxvdeba praqti­kulad yvela qveynis: egviptis, Suamdina­ reTis, saberZneTis, romis, Sua saukuneebis evropis da sxvaTa xelovnebaSi.

?

1. aRwere halikarnasis mavzole­umis reliefze war­ modgenili brZolis scena. yuradReba gaamaxvile fig­ urebis moZraobaze.

skopasi. halikarnasis mavzoleumis reliefi. Zv. w. IV s.

Zveli qveynebis xelovnebaSi am Temaze Seqmnil nawarmoebTa Soris erT-erTi yvelaze saxelganTqmuli qalaq pompeiSi aRmoCenili mozaikaa, romelzec aleqsandre makedonelisa da sparseTis mefis darios II-is por­ tretebic aris SemorCenili. dazianebis miuxedavad, mozaika warmodgenas gviqmn­is berZeni da sparsi meomrebis da maTi mxedarTmTavrebis sa­o­­mari aRWurvilobis Sesaxeb.

aleqsandre makedonelisa da dariosis brZola. pompeis mozaika. ax. w. I s.

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IV ?

2. Seadare erTmaneTs aleqsandre makedonelisa da dariosis saomari aR­ Wurviloba.

evropis qveynebis mxatvrobaSi omis an brZolis Tema imdenad popu­ laruli iyo, rom mas sagangebo saxelic ki ewoda _ bataluri ferwera. Tanamedrove mxatvrebi xSirad mimarTaven romelime cnobili istoriuli brZolis Temas. amgvar nawarmoebebSi guldasmiT aris gamosaxuli istori­ uli dokumentebidan cnobili aRwerilobebi, Tumca TiToeuli mxatvari Taviseburad gamosaxavs ama Tu im istoriul movlenas. bataluri scenebi, umeteswilad, mravalfiguriania, personaJebi di­ namika­Si anu moZraobaSia gamosaxuli, raTa xelCarTuli brZolis efeqti Seiqmnas.

3. aRwere v. vereS­ Caginis namuSevari. 4. Seni azriT, rome­ li epoqaa asaxuli am na­muSevarSi?

vasili vereSCagini. brZola.

1. gaixsene Sen mier na­naxi kinofilmebi, romlebSic isto­riuli brZolebia naCvenebi. aR­were isini da yuradReba ga­a­maxvile mxatvris mier Seqmnil sabrZo­ lo samosze, iaraRze. 2. daxate romelime brZolis amsaxveli scena saqarTvelos istoriidan.

 l e qsi koni bataluri ferwera _ sa­o­mari moqmedebebis amsaxve­li mxatvroba. interpretacia _ raime mxatvruli nawarmoebis Ta­ vi­ seburi, SemoqmedebiTi Sesruleba. raimes Taviseburad, gansxvavebulad ganxilva. mozaika _ suraTi an saxe, romelic Sedgenilia cementis fenaze damagrebu­ li, erTmaneTTan mWidrod miwyobili feradi kenWebis, feradi minis da sxv. patar-patara naWrebisagan.

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IV

45. saCuqari dedas dedis dRe yvelasaTvis sayvareli dResaswaulia. am dRes dedebs yvavi­ lebs Cuqnian xolme. yvavili marTlac Zalian sasiamovno saCuqaria, magram Tu am yvavilebs TviTonve, sakuTari xeliT daamzadeb da Tan siTbosa da siyvaruls Caaqsov maTSi, albaT, dedas amgvari saCuqari ormagad gau­ xardeba.

TeTr formatze RrubliT daitane saRebavi. mozrdili formatis SuaSi gaavle wyvetili xazi, gadakece da kideebi erTmaneTs miawebe ise, rom salte miiRo.

imave formis meore formatic Suaze gakece. Tanabari intervaliT gaavle zed vertikaluri xazebi da makratliT gaWeri furceli am xaze­ bis gaswvriv.

daWrili formati sal­ teze daa­ webe da zed Sen mier damzadebuli yvavilebi daamagre.

yvavilebi SegiZlia sxva­ dasxva formisa da fe­ ris gaakeTo da daW­ ril nawilebs daawebo. aseve Segi­ Zlia winaswar gamzadebuli cocxali an xelovnuri yvavilebiT morTo igi.

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IV

46. saklaso stendi mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi albaT bevri sain­ tereso Canaxati, naxati Tu foto dagigrovdeba, romelTa Cveneba Seni TanatolebisTvis, mego­ brebisTvis da axloblebisTvisac Rirs. sakla­ so gamofenebze isini interesiT gaecnobian Sen mier Sesrulebul samuSaos, magram gamofenebi, rogorc wesi, xanmoklea. yvelaze mniSvnelovani namuSevrebi, saintereso eqskursiebi, Sexvedre­ bi xelovnebis cnobil moRvaweebTan umjobesia, stendze aisaxos, romelic skolaSi romelime gamosaCen adgilas daidgmeba. stendze gamofe­ nili namuSevrebiT Sen sakuTar Tavs da Semoq­ medebas acnob sazogadoebas; uziareb mas im in­ formacias da codnas, romelic saswavlo wlis ganmavlobaSi SeiZine. Seni muSaobis Sedegi amiT ufro mniSvnelovani da TvalsaCino xdeba. stendis dasamzadeblad ufrosebis daxmareba dagWirdeba, xolo misi gafor­ meba _ teqsti, sailustracio masala, dekoratiuli elementebi ukve Sens fanta­ ziaze da iniciativazea damokidebuli.

XVII saukunis bolos mTel saqa­ eba rTveloSi sveticxovlis kuTvnil yofila glexTa 1025 ojaxi da 237 sofeli. „saqarTveloa ra saqarTvelo? usveticxovlo, ugelaTo, ualaverdo“.

sveticxoveli - qarTuli kultu­ ris, xelovnebisa da arqiteqturis eva umniSvnelovanesi Zegli gamoirC ara mxolod Tavisi mxatvruli ­ RirsebiT, didebulebiT da harmoni i ulobiT, aramed im gansakuTrebul i roliTac, romelic man qarTvel eris istoriaSi Seasrula. bulia centraluri TaRis qveS moTavse uleba marjvena mklavis reliefuri gamosax warweraa: „xeli gonioTi, romlis orive mxares Cans, es monisa arsukiZisai, SeundeT“, rogorc rom marjvena gamosaxes im mizniT, ganedidebinaT didostatis ukvdavi Rvawli. uZvelesi legenda, ostatis moWrili marjvenis Sesaxeb, xalxis mdidari fantaziis nayofia, is­ toriuli wyaroebi amis Sesaxeb arafers gvauwyeben. dasavleTi fasadis dekori taZris yvelaze reliefuri da mxatvrulad ga­ formebuli nawilia, romelic TiTqmis pirvandeli saxiTaa SerCenili.

uli saeklesio sveticxoveli yvelaze didi istori gadarCenilTa Soris. nagebobaaa saqarTveloSi dRemde nul saqarTvelos sarw­ igi saukuneTa manZilze qristia jer kidev IV saukuneSi munoebriv cents warmoadgenda. wm. ninos rCeviT aq pirveli gaqristianebul mirian mefes dRemde ar mouRwevia. eklesia auSenebia, romelsac li miniatu­ samxreTis kedelze aris miSenebu saukuneebSi ruli eklesia, romelic XIV-XV gens CaudgamT. es patara eklesia warmoad qristes ierusalimSi, golgoTas mTaze, konstantines jvarcmis adgilze, imperator ara­ s brZanebiT IV s-Si aSenebuli eklesii briv morw­ zust asls. igi augiaT im adgilo ba saSuale hqondaT ar ac romelT muneTaTvis, adgili. ierusalimSi enaxaT qristes wamebis rom eklesia sveticxovelSi aages imitom, ierusalims“. qalaq mcxeTas eZaxdnen „meore

sveticxoveli mTlianad yofila Semkuli mxatvrobiT. axla mxolod nawiliRaa SemorCenili.

aRsaniSnavia, rom qveynis tragikulma istoriam yvelaze mZime daRi daasva taZris gum­ baTs: XIII s-is dasasruls (1283 w.) saqarTveloSi momxdari Zlieri miwisZ­ SeakeTa vris Sedegad gumbaTi Camoiqca. igi naxevarSi. giorgi brwyinvalem XIV s-is pirvel engis gumbaTi meored Camoaqcies Temur-l meomrebma XIV s-is bolos.

stendze SeiZleba gamoifinos romelime istoriul Zeglze mo­wyobili eqskur­ siis amsaxveli fotoebi. am SemTxvevaSi mniSvne­lovani iqneba foto­ebTan erTad am Zeglis Taobaze mopovebuli informaciis warmodgenac. Sexvedrebis amsaxvel fotokadrebs Tan daurTe im dRes dasmuli yvelaze sain­tereso kiTxvebi da pa­ suxebis teqsti maTTvis, vinc ver daeswro am Sexvedras.

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47. aRdgoma aRdgoma erT-erTi um­­niS­vnelovanesi qristi­anuli dResaswaulia. qris­­­­ tianebi am dRe­ sas­ wa­ ulisaTvis sa­ gangebod emzadebian. saukuneebis gan­ mavlobaSi yalibde­­bo­da tra­diciebi, romle­­bic aRd­gomis dResaswa­uls ukavSirde­ba. droTa ga­n­mav­­lobaSi tra­­­­diciebi ic­v­leba. sa­in­te­resoa, ro­­­­­­ gor xvde­bodnen aRdgomas erTi saukunis win? aRdgomis Tema araerTi mxat­vris Semoqmedeba­Si aris asaxuli. cnobili qar­T­ve­li mxatvris niko firosma­nis ramdenime na­muSeva­­ric am Temas eZR­ vneba.

niko firosmani. saaRdgomo kravi. 1914 w.

?

1. aRwere niko firosmanis orive suraTi. 2. romeli detalebi migvaniSnebs imaze, rom kompozicia aRdgomis dResas­ wauls eZRvneba? 3. Seni azriT, Seicvala Tu ara tradiciuli sa­aR­dgomo sufra?

niko firosmani. saaRdgomo naturmorti. 1914 w.

76


niko firosmanis suraTebze gamosaxulia TeTri batkani anu TeTri kravi. eklesiisTvis TeT­ri batknis Sewirvis da upovarTaTvis mowyalebis gaRebis es tra­di­cia aRdgomis dResaswauls ukavSirdeba. kvercxis wiTlad SeReb­va simbolurad mianiSnebs ma­cxovris mier gaRe­ bul msxverplze. kver­cxis SeRebvis tradiciam TandaTan saxe ic­vala, mas axla wiTelTan erTad aTasfrad Rebaven, xSi­rad zed jvars an ornaments gamosaxaven.

?

IV

4. romeli tradiciuli el­e­­mentebi amSvenebs sa­aR­dgomo sufras dResac? 5. romeli saintereso saaRdgomo tradiciis Sesaxeb gsme­ni­a raime?

zura. 11 wlis

lali. 11 wlis

nebismieri saxatavi masaliT Seqmeni saaRdgomo naturmorti. Seni namu­ Sevris prezentaciis dros mouTxre Tanaklaselebs, rogor xvde­bian aRdgomas Sens ojaxSi.

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IV

48. yvela Cemi samSobloa... afxazeTi saqarTvelos Zir­Z­veli kuTxea. ula­ mazesi da unikaluria misi buneba. aq erTmaneTs erwymis zRva da mTa, kavkasionis qedis ganStoe­ bebi alag-alag pirdapir zRvas­Tan eSveba. afxazeTis teritoriaze adamiani uZvelesi droidan saxlobs. aq aRmoCe­nilia uZvelesi ada­ mianis samarxi nageboba _ e.w. dolmeni, romelic Zv. w. III-II aTaswleulebiT TariR­deba. esaa didi qvebiT nagebi trapeciis formis nageboba, rom­ lis wina kedelSi mozrdili xvrelia gakeTebuli. es nageboba sagvareulo samarxs warmoadgenda.

dolmeni. Zv. w. III-II aTaswl. afxazeTi

?

1. aRwere dolmeni. 2. gaixsene, ras atandnen Zve­­li adamianebi micvalebuls saf­lavSi.

afxazeTi saqarTvelos is kuTxea, sadac ax. w-is I saukuneSi wminda simon kananelma qristianoba iqadaga. igi aqve, afxazeTSi aResrula da gadmoce­ mis mixedviT, dakrZalulia im adgilas, sadac axla axali aTonis monas­ teri mdebareobs. am adgilas dRes gviandeli rusuli eklesia dgas.

biWvinTis taZris mozaika. IV s.

axali aToni. XIX s.

78


qristianuli afxazeTis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi centri iyo biW­ vinTa. biWvinTis samonastro kom­ pleqs­ is uZvelesi taZari IV sauku­ neSi aigo da misi iataki mozaikiT Seimko kidec. masze gamosaxuli iyo qris­ tianuli simboloebi: frinvelebi, Tevzebi, irmebi, mcenareebi. X sauku­ nis miwuruls am taZris adgilas didi gumbaTiani eklesia aSenda.

bediis barZimi. X-XI ss-is mijna

biWvinTis taZari. X-XI ss-is mijna

moqvis saxareba. 1300 w.

bediis taZari brwyinvale qarTveli mefis bagrat III-is mieraa aSenebuli X-XI ss-is mijnaze. masve mouxatvinebia es taZari da misTvis taZris sam­ kaulad wodebuli xatebi, jvrebi, barZimi Seuwiravs. saeklesio siwmin­ deebi, amave dros, uzado xelovnebis nimuSebsac warmoadgenda. Sewirul nivTebs Soris iyo bediis unikaluri oqros barZimi, romlis mxolod zeda nawilma moaRwia Cvenamde. barZimze qriste, RvTismSobeli da Tormeti mo­ ciqulia gamosaxuli. Tavad bagrat III bediis taZarSia dasaflavebuli. kidev erTi sasuliero centri afxazeTSi iyo moqvis monasteri, ro­ melic afxazTa mefe leon III-m X s-is Sua xanebSi aaSena. saukuneebis gan­ mavlobaSi moqvi qarTuli kulturis Zlieri kera iyo, sadac xelnawerebs gadawer­dnen da ilustraciebiT amkobdnen. moqvis siZveleebs Soris gan­ sakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia 1300 wliT daTariRebuli e.w. moq­ vis oTxTavi. xelnaweri uxvad aris Semkuli ilustraciebiT. es aris umdidresi xelna­ weri, romlis SemkulobaSi gamoyenebulia oqro. amJamad moqvis oTxTavi saqarTvelos xelnawerTa institutSi inaxeba.

moiZieT afxazeTis sxva Zeg­lebi da gaakeTeT stendi saxelwodebiT `Cveni afxazeTi~.

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V

49. Zveli da axali qalaqi qalaqi mudmivad icvlis saxes. Zveli da axali nagebobebi bevr qalaqSi erTmaneTis gverdiT dgas. mxatvrebi, rogorc wesi, xSirad xataven Zveli ubnebis xedebs. droTa ganmavlobaSi Zveli Senobebis umetesoba qalaqis quCebidan qreba da maTi naxva mxolod ferwerul an grafikul namuSevre足 bze SeiZleba. 1 2

evgeni lansere. xidi TbilisSi gia buRaZe. 2008 w.

?

1. aRwere gia buRaZis suraTze warmodgenili qalaqis xedi. gamoTqvi Seni varaudi, romeli qalaqia aq gamosaxuli?

yvela qalaqs Tavisi ieri aqvs. am iers qalaqis geografiuli mdebareoba ganapirobebs. qalaq足 is reliefi Tu mTagoriania, bevri quCa damre足 cia, mixveul-moxveuli. dablobze ganlagebul qalaqebSi ki quCebi sworia da aRmarTic arsad gvxvdeba. zRvis an mdinaris piras ganlagebuli qalaqebis mniSvnelovan elementebs sanapiroebi warmoadgens.

?

4

2. Seadare erTmaneTs Zveli da axali qalaqis xedebi. Camoayalibe TiToeuli maTganisaTvis da足 maxasiaTebeli niSnebi.

3

Tbilisis erT-erTi axali ubani

80

nikoloz ignatovi. dilis simRera


Tanamedrove qalaqebSi mravalsarTuliani Senobebi erTmaneTis mij­ riT dgas. maRal Senobebs Soris ori an samsarTuliani Zveli nagebobe­ bia Cakarguli, magram dakvirvebuli adamiani mWidrod dasaxlebul ub­ nebSic ki erTmaneTisgan ganasxvavebs sxvadasxva daniSnulebis Senobebs _ sacxovrebel saxlebs, taZrebs, sportul nagebobebs Tu galereebs. TiToeul maTgans gansxvavebuli daniSnuleba aqvs, rac maT garegnul iersaxeSi ikiTxeba.

V

5

?

3. rogor fiqrob, ra da­ni­S­ nu­leba hqonda nariyalas?

Tbilisi. nariyala. XX s-is dasawyisis foto

qalaqebi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Sendeba, amitom bunebrivia, rom yvela droSi Zveli Senobebis gverdiT axali nagebobebi Cndeboda. asea dResac. xSirad Zvel ubnebSi Tanamedrove Senobebi igeba; arqiteqtorebi cdiloben ar daarRvion Zveli ubnebis iersaxe da axali nagebobebi Zvel Senobebs miusadagon. 6 7

kiolni. germania

?

Tbilisi. axali xidi.

4. mexuTe fotoze dakvirvebisas rogor SeiZleba sxvadasxva dros agebuli Senobebis amocnoba? 5. rogor fiqrob, romeli nagebobebia Zveli da romeli Tanamedrove meeqvse ilustraciaze? 6. rogor fiqrob, esadageba Tu ara erTmaneTs mexuTe da meeqvse fotoebze warmodgenili Zveli da axali Senobebi? daxate Sen qalaqSi, sofelSi arsebuli Zveli ubani. masSi Seni warmosax­viT Cadgi Tanamedrove Senoba. Seecade is miusadago Zvel ubans ise, rom ar daar­ Rvio misi iersaxe.

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50. monasmi da feris gradacia Cven xSirad vambobT xolme: es kaba muqi mwvane an muqi lurjia, es ki _ Ria yviTeli an Ria iasamnisferi. rogorc xedav, erTi da igive feri muqic SeiZleba iyos da Riac. am ilustraciaze naTlad Cans, rogor TandaTan Riavdeba muqi mwvane. erTi feris muqidan Riasaken TandaTanobiT gadasvlas gradacia ew­o­deba.

?

1. daaxasiaTe yviTe­li feris gradacia.

mxatvrebi gradaciis princips xSirad iyeneben TavianT namuSevrebSi. magaliTad, cnobilia, rom pablo pikasos SemoqmedebaSi arsebobda erTi periodi, rodesac mxatvari mxolod cisfers da mis gradacias iyenebda. amis gamo mxatvris Semoqmedebis am etaps `cisfer periods~ uwodeben. am namuSevarSi pablo pikaso gare­ mos da gogonas figuras sxvadas­ xva­ ­ gvari cisfriT xatavs. aq vxvdebiT cisfris gradacias muqi lurjidan Ria wylisfer cisframde.

1

2 pablo pikaso. gogona. 1903 w.

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pablo pikaso. arlekini. 1905 w.

2. romeli feris gra­dacias iyenebs pi­kaso namuSevar­Si `ar­lekini~? 3. feris mixedviT r­as uwodebdi pikas­os Semoqmedebis am periods?


am namuSevrebze feris gradacia funjis farTo, Tavisufali monasme­ biTaa miRweuli. gradacia da sxvadasxvagvari monasmebi suraTSi garkveu­ li ganwyobilebis Seqmnas emsaxureba.

3

alfred sislei. saRamo. 1897 w.

?

4

5

4. rogor ganwyobilebas qmnis mesame da meoTxe kompozicia? 5. rogor ganwyobilebas qmnis mex­ uTe da meeqvse kompozicia?

feris es Tviseba mxatvars saSualebas aZlevs gadmosces peizaJis ufaqi­ zesi niuansebi da amiT cocxali STabeWdilebas Seuqmnas suraTis mnaxvels. 6

pol siniaki. papis sasaxle avinionSi. 1900 w.

1. akvarelis sa­RebaviT Seasrule mwva­nis, lurjis, wiTlis, iisfris grada­ cia. 2. daxate peizaJi gradaciis xerxis gamoyenebiT.

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51. `Zveli~ da `axali~ ferwera ferwera xelovnebis erT-erTi uZvelesi dargia. saukunee­ bis ganmavlobaSi Seqmnili namuSevrebi saSu­ alebas gvaZlevs vimsjeloT im epoqis Taviseburebebze, romlebSic isini Seiqmna. mniSvnelovania, saxviTi xe­ lovnebis romel Janrebs an Temebs eniWeboda upirate­ soba, ra izidavda mxatvrebis warmosaxvas sxvadasxva dros da sxvadasxva qveyanaSi. magaliTad, egvip­teSi aR­ moCenili faiumis portretebi zustad asaxavs adamia­ nis garegnobas, samoss, samkaulebs. TiTqmis ori aTeu­ li saukunis win Seqmnil suraTebze saRebavebi dResac cocxali da kaSkaSaa.

faiumis portreti. Zv. w. II s.

renesansis epoqis italiuri mxatvroba, iseve, rogorc xelovnebis sxva dargebi, harmoniis miRwevas isaxavda miznad. amitomac am periodis fer­ werul namuSevrebSi ferebi erTmaneT­Tanaa Sexamebuli, arc erTi maTgani ar `gWris~ Tvals, xolo namuSevari simSvidisa da harmoniis STabeWdile­ bas aRZravs.

piero de la franCeska. solomonis da Sebas dedoflis Sexvedra. 1450 w.

gerard terborxi. saubari. 1654 w.

XVII saukunis holandieli mxatvrebis sayvareli Te­ma yoveldRiuri cxovrebis asaxva iyo. tipuri holandiuri saxlis bnel interierebSi yvela detali didi gulis­ yuriT aris gamosaxuli. am muq fonze xSirad Zvirfasi TvaliviT brwyinavs samosis vercxlisferi at­ lasis an msubuqi TeTri maqmanis faqtura. am sura­ Tebze Cveu­ lebrivi sagnebic ki Zvirfas nivTebad gveCveneba.

? franc halsi. piter van den brokes portreti. 1633 w.

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1. Seadare am gverdze warmodgenili namuSevrebi erT­ maneTs. daaxasiaTe TiToeulis koloriti da gamosaxuli sagnebis faqtura.


XIX saukunis II naxevarSi frangi mxatvrebis erTma jgufma safuZvlia­nad Secvala Zveli mxatvrobis tradicia. maT suraTebze zustad gamosa­xuli figurebisa da garemos nacvlad mxatvris mier miRebuli STabeWdi­lebebi iyo gamosaxuli. am miznis misaRwevad maT Secvales suraTebis ko­loriti, kompozicia da weris manera.

JorJ sera. tyis biliki. 1883 w.

pol siniaki. venecia. 1905 w.

namuSevrebis zedapiri mokle da moZravi fe­ radi monasmebiT an wertilebiT daifara. gamo­ saxulebebi odnav bundovani da TiTqos sagange­ bod gadRabnili gaxda. mxatvrebis CanafiqriT yvela gamosaxulebas mayureblis Tvalwin unda emoZrava _ qars xis totebi da foTlebi unda aeSrialebina, wylis zedapirze talRebs unda elivliva. am mxatvrebs impresionistebi uwodes. impresionistebis Semoqmedebam ferweris axal tradicias daudo safuZveli.

?

2. aRwere aq warmodgenili namuSevrebi. da­axa­ siaTe maTi koloriti da weris manera. 3. ra STabeWdilebas aRZravs isini?

klod mone. qali qolgiT. 1875 w.

nebismieri saxatavi masaliT Seq­ meni namuSevari Temaze `mzis Casvla zRvaSi~. waradgine klasSi da isau­ bre, ra mxatvruli xerxebi gamoiyene Canafiqris ukeT gadmosacemad.

 l eqsi koni koloriti _ ferebis Sexameba, Tanwyo­ ba, rac suraTis mTlianobas qmnis. harmonia _ suraTis nawi­le­bis, fere­ bis SeTanxmebuloba.

alfred sislei. xidi. 1872 w.

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52. rogor davxatoT vaSli gifiqria Tu ara, rogor unda daixatos mrgva­ li vaSli brtyel furcelze. pirvel rigSi, vaS­ lis formas unda daakvirde. is mrgvalia, aqvs yunwi, magidaze rom devs, Crdils ikeTebs imis sapiris­piro mxares, saidanac Suqi ecema.

sanam romelime sagnis xatvas dai­ wyebde, mas kargad unda daakvirde, gaiazro misi forma, feri. Tavdapir­ velad furcelze fanqriT misi kon­ turi moxaze.

vaSlis an romelime sxva xilis dasaxatad SegiZlia pasteli gamoiye­ no. pasteli fxvi­e­ri, rbili masalaa. gaiazre, romel ferebs gamoiyeneb vaSlis xatvisas.

daakvirdi, sad aris vaSlze yve­ laze ganaTebuli adgili da iq Ria feris saRebavi gamoiyene. axla mo­ Zebne sad aris yvelaze muqi adgili anu vaSlis romeli nawilia CrdilSi moqceuli. am adgilas muqi saRebavi ixmare. am xerxs mxatvrebi Suq-Crdi­ lis ganawilebas uwodeben.

Sen ukve gaecani ferebis grada­ cias. gaixsene es xerxi da vaSlis xatvisas yvelaze muqi adgilidan yvelaze Ria adgilamde feri Tan­ daTanobiT gaaRiave. mwvane vaSls Tu xatav, mwvanis gradacia unda gamoiye­ no, Tu wiTels _ maSin wiTlis.

vaSlis xatvisas SegiZlia Strixe­ bic gamoiyeno. Strixebs vaSlis for­ mis Sesabamisi mimarTuleba mieci. rkaliseburi formis StrixebiT Sen vaSls simrgvales mianiWeb.

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pasteliT daxatul vaSls Tu ze­ modan TiTs gadausvam, fe­rebs Soris sazRvrebi waiSleba, isini rbilad gadava erTi-meoreSi da, Sesabamisad, formac damrgvaldeba.

ar dagaviwydes, rom vaSls Crdil­ ic gaukeTo. oRond jer kargad daak­ virdi, ro­ mel mxa­ resaa moqceuli es Crdi­ li, rogor ecema is sibr­ tyeze. amgvar Crdils dace­ muli Crdili ewodeba. daakvirdi Crdilis formas, Semdeg moxaze fanqriT, da bolos, SearCie, romel fers ga­ mo­ iyeneb am CrdilisaTvis.

gaiTvaliswine aq mo­ce­muli rCevebi da Seecade, vaSlis garda, romelime sxva xilic daxato am princi­piT. mag., forTo­xali, msxali, atami da sxv.

 l eqsi koni Strixi _ xazi, romelic xelis erTi mosmiT iqmneba da romelic warmoadgens naxat­ is erT-erT ZiriTad elements.

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53. giganturi qandakebebi qandakeba saxviTi xelovnebis erT-erTi uZvelesi dargia. romel epoqaSi ar SexvdebiT qandakebis nimuSebs, pataras, didsa Tu giganturs. qandakebis zoma xSirad pirdapir iyo dakavSirebuli mis mniSvnelobas­ Tan. Zvel egvipteSi abu simbelis taZris Sesasvlelis orive mxares faraon ramzes II-is kolosaluri zomis qandakebebia moTavsebuli. taZari kldeSia gamokveTili da bunebrivia, rom misi realuri zomebi kldis uzarmazar masivs erwymis. taZris fasadze ganlagebuli faraonis oTxi qandakebac monoliTuri kldisgan nakveTs hgavs.

abu simbelis taZris fasadi. Zv. w. XIII s.

abu simbelis taZris interieri

qandakebebis simaRle daaxloebiT 20 metria. TiToeuli qandakebis fexebTan dedofal nefertaris figuraa gamokveTili, romelic daaxloe­ biT adamianis zomisaa. sxvaoba faraonis da dedoflis qandakebebs zomebs Soris taZarSi Semsvlels mkafiod agrZnobinebs faraonis sidiades. weliwadSi orjer _ 22 Tebervalsa da 22 oqtombers gamTeniisas amo­ mavali mzis sxivi 65 metris sigrZis taZris siRrmeSi aRwevda da niSaSi moTavsebuli oTxi qandakebidan erT-erTis, faraon ramzesis saxes ramden­ ime wuTis ganmavlobaSi anaTebda. marTlac gasaocaria, rogori sizustiT hqondaT gamoTvlili es yovelive abu simbelis mSeneblebs. 1722 wlis aRdgoma dRes holandielma jekob rojevanma wynari okeanis samxreT nawilSi pa­ tara kunZuli aRmoaCina. axlad aRmoCenil miwas aRdgomis kunZuli uwodes. misi mTavari Rirs­ SesaniSnaoba 1-dan 10 metramde simaRlis mono­ liTuri qvis 900-ze meti qandakebaa, romlebic kunZulis irgvliv aris Camwkrivebuli. maT erT nawils Tavze wiTeli cilindrebis magvari qude­ bi (dolabebi) axuravs. aRdgomis kunZulis qandakebebi

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adgilobrivi mosaxleoba qandakebebs `moais~ anu momziral Tvals uwodebs. maTi umetesoba isea ganlagebuli, rom Sors, sivrceSi imzire­ ba, xolo mcire nawili wylisken zurgSeqceviT dgas da TiTqos kunZulis cxovrebas adevnebs Tvals. mecnierebi dResac kamaToben imis Taobaze, Tu vis ganasaxierebs es qandakebebi da ra mizniT aris isini Seqmnili.

?

1. aRwere aRdgomis kunZulis qa­ ndakebebi. 2. riTi gansxvavdeba isini tradici­ uli qandakebebisagan? 3. Seni azriT, ra daniSnuleba unda hqonoda am qandakebebs?

aRdgomis kunZulis qandakebebi

giganturi zomis qandakebebi mxolod Zveli samyaros qveynebSi rodi iqmneboda. 1927-1941 wlebSi amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, raSmoris mTis kldovan masivSi moqandake gaTson borglumma aSS-is 4 prezidentis _ jorj vaSingtonis, Tomas jefersonis, abraam linkolnis da Teod­or ruz­ veltis portretebi gamoaqandaka. qandakebebi aSS-s saxel­ m­ wifoebriobis 150 wlisTavs mieZRvna da simbolurad am saxelmwifos Seq­mnisa da ganviTa­ rebis ideas ganasaxierebs. qandakebebis simaRle 18,6 metria. qandakebebis SeqmnaSi moqandakesTan erTad 400 adamiani iRebda monawileobas. es qanda­ kebebi aSS-s nacionaluri memorialis saxels atarebs.

?

4. aRwere raSmoris mTis qandake­ bebi. 5. Seni azriT, ra msgavseba da gans­ xvavebaa aRdgomis kunZulis, abu sim­ belis taZris da raSmoris memoria­ lis qandakebebs Soris?

 l eqsi koni monoliTi _ mTliani qvis lodi, mTliani qvisgan gamoTlili sagani. memoriali _ visime xsovnisadmi miZ­ Rvnili Zegli. raSmoris mTis nacionaluri memoriali

internetis saSualebiT moiZie saintereso informacia giganturi zo­ mis qan­dakebebis Sesaxeb da warudgine klass (SegiZlia gamoiyeno vebgverdi www.ka.wikipedia.org).

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54. aplikacia qsoviliT cdebi, Tu ggonia, rom kanfetebis carieli yuTi, wignis gadasakravi qaRaldis naWrebi an dapataravebuli samosi saswrafod unda gadaagdo. muyaos kolofebi, feradi qaRaldebis narCenebi, Tasmebi, moCiTuli qsovi­ lis naWrebi _ uklebliv yvelaferi, rac, erTi SexedviT, gamousadegaria, moxerxebuli da fantaziis mqone adamianis xelSi dekoratiuli namuSevris elementebad iqceva. gadaavle Tvali Sens `avla-didebas~ da Tavadac mix­ vdebi, ramdeni ramis gakeTeba SeiZleba maTi meSveobiT.

makratliT frTxilad amoWeri yva­ vi­ lebis da foTlebis formebi daCiTuli qso­vilidan. xelT Tu ar aRmogaCnda sasurveli fe­ ris qsovili, wylis saRebavebiT da fun­ jiT ucbad miaRwev sawadels. SeRebil qso­ vils gaSroba acade da frTxilad daawebe muyaoze. am safuZvelze ise SegiZlia imu­ Sao, rogorc namdvili suraTis tiloze. daxate WurWeli, mcenareebis totebi da dekoratiuli foTlebi.

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amoWrili figurebi saTiTaod frTxi­ lad daawebe Sens namuSevarze.

naturmortis gasacocxleblad Se­ gi­ Z­ lia alag-alag zemodan kaSkaSa wertilebi daasva. saRebavs aucileb­ lad acade gaSroba, Semdeg ki Sesa­ ferisi adgili miuCine naturmorts, romelic erTi SexedviT `usargeblo~ nivTebisagan Seqmeni.

aplikaciis xerxiT da nebi­ smieri xe­lov­nuri Tu buneb­rivi masaliT Seqmeni dekoratiuli namuSevari.

mariami. 10 wlis

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55. saqarTvelos mefeebi Sen, albaT, gagigia mravali qarTveli mefis Tu istoriuli piris sax­ eli da maTi sagmiro saqmeebic ici. erT mefes aRmaSenebels uwodebdnen qarTvelebi, meores _ brwyinvales, mesames _ Tavdadebuls.

?

1. gaixsene, romel mefeebs moixseniebdnen am epiTetebiT (aRmaSenebeli, brwyinvale, Tavdadebuli) da axseni ratom.

Sua saukuneebis taZrebis mo­­xa­tulobebSi xSirad SexvdebiT saero pirebis _ mefe­ebis, fe­o­dalebis gamosaxu­le­bebs. isini, rogorc wesi, vedrebis po­ zaSi gamoisaxebian.

?

gelaTis mTavari taZris moxatuloba, XVI s.

beTaniis moxatuloba. XII s-is miwuruli.

qarTveli istoriuli pirebisadmi, Cveni didi mefeebisadmi interesi arc Tana­med­rove epoqaSi ganelebula. saqarTvelos sxva­ dasxva qalaqSi maTi qandakebebi dgas.

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4. Seni azriT, ratom dgamen dResac didi qar­ Tveli mefeebisa da moRvaweebis qandakebebs? 5. romel qalaqSi dgas vaxtang gorgaslis es Zeg­ li da ratom? elguja amaSukeli. vaxtang gorgasali. 1957-1967 ww.

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2. aRwere es ori ilus­ tracia. 3. xom ar ici, romeli mefeebi arian gamosaxulni am ilustraciebze?


Tanamedrove moqandakeebi iTvaliswi­neben did qarTvel mefeTa cxovre­ bas, maT gmirul saqmeebs da amis Sesabamisad qmnian maT qandakebebs. moqa­ ndake merab berZeniSvilma daviT aRmaSenebeli mZlavr, dakunTul cxenze am­xedrebuli warmogvidgina. gvirgvinosan me­fes marcxena xelSi uWiravs daxveuli gragnili, romelic kanonTa krebuls ganasaxierebs, xolo misi zemoT aweuli marjvena xelis Jesti am kanone­bis aRsrulebis nebas gamo­ xatavs. es aris kanon­mdebeli, Zlieri, mebrZoli mefe.

?

6. aRwere Tamar mefis qandakeba. 7. rogor Seesabameba Tamaris saxe da atri­ butebi mis moRvaweobas?

merab berZeniSvili. daviT aRmaSenebeli. Tbilisi.1997 w.

malxaz ciskaZe, irodi gvelesiani. Tamar mefe. axalcixe. 1989 w.

1. airCie romelime istoriuli piri saqar­Tvelos istoriidan da nebismieri xe­ rxiT Seqmeni misi portreti.

2. moiZie cnobebi farnavaz mefis moR­ vaweobis Sesa­ xeb da gansazRvre, ramde­ nad Seesabameba es qandakeba mis pirovnebas. elguja amaSukeli farnavazi. Tbilisi. 1996 w.

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56. akvareli _ faqizi da msubuqi saRebavi rogor qalaqSi an sofelSi cxovrob? iq, sadac maRali Senobebi quCis orive mxares aris Camwkrivebuli da maT Soris manqanebi da adamianebi dadian aRma-daRma, Tu iq, sadac oda-saxlebia wamoWimuli, koxta ezoebSi xasxasa balaxi bibinebs da dilaobiT Citebis WikWiki ismis. asea Tu ise, albaT, kargad icnob Sens mSobliur garemos da droa, qaRaldze gadai­ tano is. amis gakeTeba nebismieri saxatavi masaliTa da teqnikiT SeiZleba. Sesabamisad, namuSevaric sxvadasxvagvari gamova. magaliTad, akvareliT Sesrulebuli naxati umeteswilad faqizi gamodis. marTalia, am saReba­ viT muSaobas SedarebiT didi dro sWirdeba, magram akvarelis odnav gac­ recili ferebi da gamWvirvaleba sasiamovno efeqts qmnis da namuSevari msubuqi da haerovani gamodis.

namuSevari umjobesia spe­cialu­­ rad akvarelis saRe­bave­bisTvis gankuTvnil qa­ Raldze Seasrulo. Cveulebriv saxatav furcelze Tu muSa­ ob, sufTa funji wyalSi daas­ vele da furcels Tanabrad gadaus­ vi. am­ gvarad momzade­ bul qaRaldze ori-sami wuTis Semdeg SegiZlia muS­ aobis dawyeba.

akvarelis saRe­­ba­viT Seqmeni Se­ ni mSobliuri garemos amsaxveli na­ muSeva­ri.

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Tavdapirvelad ZiriTadi fi­ gu­ rebi _ saxlebi, manqanebi, adamianebi moxaze. Semdeg isini gaaferade SenT­ vis sasurveli ferebiT. calkeuli detalebi _ fanjrebi, karebi, maRa­ ziis vitrinebi, saxuravebi _ umjobe­ sia, gansxvavebuli, ufro muqi feris saRebavebiT Seasrulo.

yuradReba miaqcie imas, rom gver­ digverd dadebuli saRebavebi erTma­ neTs ar Seerios, Torem feri sufTa da gamWvirvale ar iqneba. mniS­ vnelovania isic, rom funji da wyali mudmivad sufTa iyos.

daTuna. 11 wlis

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57. yvela Cemi samSobloa... imereTi dasavleT saqarTvelos erT-erTi um­ Svenieresi mxarea. is or nawilad _ zemo da qvemo imereTad iyofa. mis teritoriaze ori didi mdi­ nare _ rioni da yvirila miedineba. imereTis teritoriaze aRmoCenili arqeolo­ giuri Zeglebi adasturebs, rom am mxareSi ada­ miani jer kidev 35 aTasi wlis win cxovrobda. imereTSi gvxdeba pirvelyofili adamianis mra­ vali mRvime-namosaxlari: devisxvreli, sakaJia, ZuZuana, WaxaTi da sxv., sadac arqeologebma uZvelesi adamianis mier damzadebuli mravali iaraRi aRmoaCines.

uZvelesi adamianis iara­Rebi ZuZuanas mRvimedan

ZuZuanas mRvime

imereTi mdidaria istoriuli ZeglebiT. maT Soris erT-erTia geguTis sasaxle, romelic quTaisidan 7 kilometris daSorebiT md. rionis napiras mdebareobs. geguTi qarTvel mefeTa zamTris rezidenciadaa cnobili da agebulia XII s-is II naxevarSi mefe giorgi III-is mier. gadmocemiT cnobilia, rom cixe-darbazs xSirad stumrobda Tamar mefe. geguTi erTdroulad sasaxlec iyo da cixe-simagrec. swored amitom mas cixe-darbazs uwode­ ben, romelsac hqonia sazeimo Se­ sasvleli, saparado darbazi TaRovani gada­xurviT, buxriani darbazi, abano saqvabiT, auziTa da gasaxdelebiT, wyalga­­ yva­ nilobis sistema. amJamad geguTis cixe-darbazi nangrevebadaa qceuli, magram es nangrevebic ki naTlad mowmobs mis warsul sidiades.

 leqsiko ni mRvime _ bunebrivi gamoqvab­ uli. meTuneoba _ Ti­xis da­mu­Sa­veba da misgan Wur­Wlis warmoeba.

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kacxis sveti mdebareobs WiaTuris raionis sofel kacxSi. is warmoadgens bunebriv svetise­ bur kldes, romlis simaRle 40 metria. kacxis sveti, rogorc Cans, gandegil berTa samyofels warmoadgenda.

?

1. Seni azriT, vin iyvnen gandegili berebi? 2. warmoidgine, rogor adiodnen da cxovrob­d­ nen am svetze berebi.

svetis zeda baqanze ori mcire zomis nageboba dgas. mecnierTa azriT, es nagebobebi ara ugvi­ anes VI saukuneSia aSene­ buli. mecnierTa nawili orives samlocvelod miiCnevs, nawilis azriT ki, mxolod erTi iyo samlocvelo, meore ki berebis sacxovrebel nagebobas warmoadgenda.

kacxis sveti

saqarTvelos mraval kuTxeSi misdevdnen meTuneobas, maT Soris imereT­ Sic. am mxriv cnobilia sofeli SroSa, romlis wiTel­miwa Tixian niadags adgilobrivebi WurW­ lis dasamzadeblad iyeneben. aq dResac amzadeben tradiciul qarTul WurWels _ kecebs, Wurebs, WinWilebs, doqebs, jamebs da sxv. SroSelebs TavianTi naxelavi aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarT­ velos Semaer­Tebel gza­­tkecilze dResac aqvT gamofenili da misi SeZena nebismier msurvels SeuZlia.

bagratis taZari. XI s.

bagratis taZari Sua saukuneebis qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani Zeglia. XI saukuneSi agebuli gumbaTi droTa ganma­ vlobaSi Camoiqca. amJamad taZari da misi gumbaTi aRdgenilia.

SearCie ime­reTis ro­me­lime Zegli. Seagrove mis Sesaxeb informacia da fo­ to­masala. wa­radgine Seni naSromi klasis winaSe.

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58. sagamofeno darbazi albaT, miaqcevdi yuradRebas, rom muzeumebsa Tu sagamofeno darbaze­ bSi adamianebi zog namuSevarTan didxans Cerdebian da saaTobiT ucqeren mas. suraTi zogjer ise izidavs adamians, rom igi ukan brundeba da kvlav da kvlav akvirdeba mas. zogjer STabeWdileba imdenad didia, rom muzeumi­ dan gamosul adamians didxans `mosdevs~ es namuSevari, misi ganwyobileba.

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1. ras daarqmevdi am fotoebs, romlebic or sxvadasxva gamofenazea gadaRe­ buli?

saxviTi xelovnebis nawarmoebi adamianebs Soris urTierTobis gansa­ kuTrebuli saSualebaa. yoveli na­warmoebi garkveul siuJetTan er­Tad av­ toris grZnobebs, ganwyobi­lebas, damokidebulebasac asaxavs. mayurebeli ecnoba namuSevars, erk­veva mis SinaarsSi, afasebs mxatvris an moqandakis ostatobas da TandaTan iqmnis sakuTar azrs namuSevris Sesaxeb. yoveli nawarmoebi mnaxvels garkveul asociaciebs da emociasac aRuZravs. am­ rigad, mxatvruli nawarmoebis avtori xelovnebis meSveobiT ur­TierTobs mayurebelTan, Tavis saTqmelsa da safiqrals uziarebs mas.

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2. daasaxele is mxatvruli nawarmoebi, romelmac didi STabeWdileba moax­ dina Senze. 3. Seecade, aRwero Seni STabeWdileba da gansazRvro, ram ganapiroba is.

suraTze asaxuli ganwyobileba xSirad `gadamdebia~. mayurebelsac msga­ vsi grZnobebi eufleba da igi TiTqos suraTze asaxuli moqmedebis Tanamo­nawile xdeba. rogor axerxeben mxatvrebi sakuTari grZnobebis ise warmoCenas, rom isini mayureblisaTvis gasagebi iyos?

 l eqsi koni asociacia _ erTi movleniT an sagniT gamowveuli azrobrivi kavSiri sxva movlenasTan an saganTan.

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xelovnebis nawarmoebis yvela elementi: xazi, forma, feri, kompozi­ cia da mravali sxva xelovnebis `sametyvelo enaa~. es ena Tu kargad ici, mixvdebi, ram gagamxiarula an dagasevdiana, gagiRviZa mogonebebi an imediT agavso. erTi sityviT, Tavisuflad SeZleb xelovnebis nawarmoe­ bTan urTierTobas.

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4. ra STabeWdilebas axdens Senze aq war­ modgenili benjamin kelisa da mark Sagalis namuSevrebi? 5. ganwyobilebis mixedviT SeurCi­e maT Se­ sabamisi saxelwodeba.

benjamen keli. 2002 w.

mark Sagali. 1957 w.

werilobiT daaxasiaTe qvemoT mocemuli erT-erTi peizaJi. daasabuTe Seni mosazreba.

edvard munki. varskvlaviani Rame. 1924 w.

klod mone. xeivani baRSi. 1902 w.

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59. adamiani, saqmianoba, garemo mxatvrebi xSirad TavianT namuSevrebSi ubralo adamianebs asa­xa­ven Cveu­ lebrivi saqmianobis dros. isini TavianT Cveul garemoSi ari­ an gamosax­ ulni, Sesaferisi sada da ubralo samosi acviaT. maTi ierisa da saqmianobis mixedviT adamiani iolad xvdeba, romeli fenis war­ momadgenelia asaxuli suraTze. mxatvari Jan-fransua mile am suraTze warmogvidgens axalgazrda gogonas, romelic Zafs arTavs. mas sada samosi acvia, win TeTri winsafari aqvs gake­Tebuli, Tavze ki TeTri qudi xuravs. skamic, romelzec is zis da oTaxic, romelSic is imyofeba, sada da ubraloa.

Jan-fransua mile. mrTveli. 1870 w.

 leqsiko ni fransua buSe. markiza de pompaduri. 1756 w.

aristokratia _ gabatonebuli kla­ sis fena, didgvarovnebi.

pirveli SexedvisTanave cxadia, rom fransua buSes suraTze sul sxva fenis warmomadgeneli qalbatonia asaxuli. uZvirfases kabaSi gamowyobili mSve­nieri qalbatoni nebierad gadawolila moxerxebul taxtze. xelSi ga­ daSlili wigni ise uWiravs, TiTqos es-esaa mos­wyda kiTxvas da Cafiqrebuli mzera Sors miumarTavs. aq garemoc Zalze mdidruli da daxvewilia. yoveli nivTi: mZime da Zvirfasi qsovilis fardebi, gamoyvanilfexebiani moxdenili ma­ gida, di­ di masiuri saaTi, qalbatonis ferxTiT dayrili yvavilebic ki natifi da moxdenilia. yvelaferi imaze miuTiTebs, rom qalbatoni aris­ tokratiis warmomadgenelia.

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Jan-fransua mile. 1867 w.

fransua buSe.1759 w.

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1. aRwere TiToeuli namuSevari. yuradRe­ ba gaamaxvile personaJTa saqmianobaze, Cac­ mulobaze da garemos detalebze. 2. Seadare isini erTmaneTs da gamoTqvi mosazreba, romeli fenis warmomadgenlebi arian gamosa­xuli am suraTebze.

van deiki. 1641 w. Jan-fransua mile. 1868 w.

gadaavle Tvali ganv­lil ma­sa­las. imsjele da gamoTqvi Seni azri, romeli fenis warmomadgenlebi arian asaxuli ama Tu im namuSevarze.

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60. vmuSaobT TixiT Tixa moqnili, damyoli masalaa, misgan sasurvel nivTs advilad gamo­ Zerwav. arc isaa saSiSi, Tu Tavidanve zustad iseTi forma ver miiRe, ro­ goric Cafiqrebuli gqonda. rodesac Tixis namuSevari ukve mzadaa mis Sem­ kobazec unda izruno. guaSis saRebavebiT SeiZleba ise gaaferado ubralo Tasi an qoTani, rom mis naxvas araferi sjobdes. Seni naxelavis Sesamkobad geometriuli ornamenti, nebismieri cxovelis, frinvelis an sxva gamosax­ ulebis gamoyeneba SegiZlia.

Tixisgan gamoZerwe Sen­ Tvis sasurveli formis de­ koratiuli nivTi da guaSis saRebavebiT moxate is.

102

TixiT muSaobisas ramdenime martivi wesi unda daicva: sxvadasxva formis gamoZerwva ma­ namde unda moaswro, sanam Tixa gaSreba. mza na­ muSevaris moxatva ki mxolod mas Semdeg unda daiwyo, rodesac Tixa ukve mSralia da misi forma ar daziandeba.


61. akvariumi xSirad adamianebs saxlSi ara marto oTxfexa cxovelebi hyavT. zogs Citebi hyavs galiaSi, zogs ki _ Tevzebi. TevzebisaTvis sagangebo gamW­ virvale WurWels _ akvariums iyeneben. masSi zRvis kenWebs awyoben, wyal­ mcenareebs aSeneben da, ra Tqma unda, Tevzebs uSveben. sxvadasxva xerxis gamoyenebiT miiRe gan­sxva­ve­ bu­li faqtura, Seqmeni akvariumi da masSi nairferi Tevzebi daasaxle.

1

3

2

4

did formatze Rrublisa da funjis gamoyenebiT Seqmeni sxva­ dasxva faqtura. fonis gaSrobis Semdeg wyalmcenareebisa da Tev­ zis brtyeli gamosaxulebis Sesaqmnelad Jurnalebidan amoWeri sxva­dasxva faqturis qaRaldi. samganzomilebiani Tevzebis gakeTeba SegiZlia Jurnalebidan amoWrili an Sen mier moxatuli qaRaldisa­gan.

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62. saqarTvelos xedebi saqarTvelos mTisa da baris mravalferovan bunebas araerTxel mouxib­ lavs qarTveli mxatvrebi da maTi STagonebis wyaroc gamxdara. saqarT­ velos TiToeul kuTxes Taviseburi elferi aqvs: kavkasionis maRali mTebi da farTod gaSlili alaznis veli, lurji zRvis Tvaluwvdeneli sivrce, didi da patara mTagorebis damrec ferdobze Sefenili soflebi da maTken mimavali mixveul-moxveuli gza, TovliT dafaruli mwvervalebi da TiTqos miuval simaRleze aRmarTuli maRali koSkebi...

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2

korneli sanaZe. guria. 1966 w.

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daviT kakabaZe. imereTi. 1919 w.

1. rogor fiqrob, saqarTvelos romel kuTxeebzea teqstSi saubari? 2. dafiqrdi da Seecade aRwero, ra aris Seni kuTxis bunebisTvis damaxasi­ aTebeli mTavari niSani?

modi, Tvali gadavavloT XX saukunis qarTvel mxatvarTa mier daxatul peizaJebs da warmosaxviT vimogzauroT saqarTveloSi. albaT, gecnoba, feradi `sakereblebiT~ dafaruli mTebi, romlebsac mxatvarTan erTad TiTqos zemodan davyurebT. daviT kakabaZem mSobliuri imereTis buneba mxolod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli mxatvruli formiT asaxa. mxatvrebi xSirad saqarTvelos erTi da imave kuTxis, soflis an qalaqis peizaJs qmnian, magram maTi namuSevrebi sakmaod gansxvavdeba erTmane­ Tisgan. magaliTad, wiTeli kramitiT gadaxuru­ li da erTianad mwvaneSi Cafluli saxlebi elene axvledianis suraTebze aRbeWdili Tbilisis xe­ debia.

elene axvlediani. Weqa-quxilis win. 1973 w.

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Tbiliss Tavis SemoqmedebaSi sxvadasxva Taobis mravali qarTveli mxat­ vari asaxavs. maT xiblavT Zveli ubnebis silamaze, Taviseburebe­ bi, maTi ganumeorebloba. es namuSevrebi Tbilisis matianedac SeiZleba gamoviyenoT. 5 4

aleqsandre cimakuriZe. Tbilisi. XX s-is 20-iani wlebi gia buRaZe. Tbilisi. 2009 w.

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3. Seadare mesame, meoTxe da mexuTe ilustraciaze gamosaxuli Tbilisis xedebi erTmaneTs. ra msagavseba da gansxvavebaa maT Soris? 4. Seni azriT, romeli detalebiT SeiZleba mixvde, rom am suraTebze saqa­ rTvelos qalaqebia gamosaxuli?

erTi SexedviT palitris TiTqmis yvela feria gamoyenebuli guram qu­ TaTelaZisa da edmund kalandaZis peizaJebSi, magram Tu daakvirdebi su­ raTebis kolorits, maT Sorisac did gansxvavebas dainaxav.

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5. aRwere da daaxasiaTe TiToeuli peizaJi.

7 6

edmund kalandaZe. cisferi mTebi. 1998 w. guram quTaTelaZe. Semodgoma. 1975 w.

daxate Seni qalaqis, soflis Zveli ubnis xedi.

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proeqti _ skolis ezo Seni skolis ezos dasamSveneblad, Tavad SegiZlia moifiqro, rogor gaaformo is. amisTvis bunebrivi masalis gamoyeneba SeiZleba: qvebis, foT­ lebis, xis totebis da sxv. proeqti ufro xalisianad warimarTeba, Tu erTmaneTs SeejibrebiT originaluri ideebis mofiqrebasa da ganxorcielebaSi. samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg gadauReT suraTebi erTobliv namuSevrebs da ganaTavseT skolis stendze.

dekoratiulad gaaforme sko­ lis ezo Sens xelT arsebuli buneb­ rivi masaliT.


Semajamebeli gakveTili _ 1 1. mocemuli namuSevrebi daukavSire Sesabamis teqsts. daasabuTe Seni mo­ sazreba.

a) Zveli epoqa

b) axali epoqa

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2

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2. Seni sityvebiT ganmarte: kompozicia, simetria, profesionali, atributi

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Semajamebeli gakveTili _ 2 1. daaxasiaTe aq warmodgenili gamosaxulebebis mimika, gamometyveleba, ganwyobileba. Seecade, gansazRvro, ra emocias gamo­xa­tavs TiToeuli maTgani. TiToeul saxes daarqvi Sesabamisi saxeli.

2. romelia aq mocemul kompoziciaTagan mravalfiguriani?

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2

Jan fransua mile. mTesveli. 1870 w.

ian vermeeri. werili. 1670 w.

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piter breigeli. glexebis qorwili. 1567 w.

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3. mocemuli fotoebi daajgufe maTze asaxuli nivTebis warmomavlobis, sadaurobis mixedviT.

a) dasavleTi (evropa)

b) aRmosavleTi (iaponia, CineTi)

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4

2

7

5

8 6

4. mocemuli namuSevrebi daukavSire Sesabamis qveynebs.

a) egvipte

1

b) SuamdinareTi g) CineTi

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3

d) Zveli saberZneTi

4

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III

Semajamebeli gakveTili _ 3 1. daaxasiaTe portretebze warmodgenili adamianebi.

ivan kramskoi. ucnobi qali. 1881 w.

el greko. raindi. 1578-1580 ww.

ogiust renuari. qaliSvili maraoTi. 1881 w.

2. Seni sityvebiT ganmarte: ritmi, dinamika, kampanile

3. mocemuli Zeglebi daukavSire saqarTvelos Sesabamis kuTxeebs.

a) kaxeTi

b) samegrelo

2 1

3

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4. TiToeuli arqiteqturuli nageboba daukavSire Sesaba­mis qveyanas.

a) safrangeTi b) saqarTvelo 1

2

g) italia

d) inglisi

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4

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IV

Semajamebeli gakveTili _ 4 1. dawere furcelze TiToeuli namuSevriT aRZruli Seni STabeWdileba.

1

3

2 4 2. gaixsene TiToeuli namuSevris avtori da saxelwodeba.

2 1

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3


3. avtori daukavSire Sesabamis namuSevars.

a) pikaso

b) varla

g) firosmani

d) matisi

e) leonardo da vinCi

IV

2

1

3

5

4

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Semajamebeli gakveTili _ 5 1. gansazRvreT sazogadoebis romel fenas ganekuTvnebian aq gamosaxuli adamianebi; 2. werilobiT gadmoeciT am suraTebiT miRebuli STabeWdileba.

a) aristokratia

b) saSualo fena g) dabali fena 2

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3

4

5

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3. CamoTvlili Zeglebi daukavSire sa­qar­Tvelos Sesabamis kuTxeebs:

a) samegrelo

b) kaxeTi

g) afxazeTi

d) imereTi

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3

4

6 5

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4. daakvirdi warmodgenil fotoebs. gansazRvre, romeli maTgani Seesabam­ eba aq mocemul TiTo­eul termins.

a) Strixi

b) biusti

g) dacemuli Crdili

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2 3

4

5. daakvirdiT warmodgenil fotoebs. gansazRvreT, ro­meli maTgani Seesaba­ meba aq mocemul TiTo­eul termins.

a) faqtura 1

b) dinamika

2

d) kontrasti

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5

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g) gradacia

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7

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leqsikoni aristokratia _ gabatonebuli klasis fena, didgvarovnebi. asociacia _ erTi movleniT an sagniT gamowveuli azrobrivi kavSiri sxva movlenasTan an sa-ganTan. aTleti _ sportsmeni Zvel saberZneTSi, romelic aTletikas, Za­ losnobas misdevs. bataluri ferwera _ saomari moqmedebebis amsaxveli mxatvroba. biusti _ skulpturuli portreti, romelzec warmodgenilia ada­ mianis mxolod Tavi da mxrebi. dekoratiuli _ damamSvenebeli, Semamkobeli. detali _ mTelis nawili. dinamika _ risame moZraoba, cvalebadoba, ganviTareba. ekologia _ mecniereba, romelic adamianis saqmianobis Sedegad ga­ remos gadagvarebis sakiTxebs da bunebis dacvis problemebs Seiswavlis. emblema _ sagani an gamosaxuleba, gamoyenebuli raime ideis simbo­ lod. iluzia _ raimes damaxinjebulad, mcdarad aRqma. interieri _ Senobis arqiteqturulad da mxatvrulad gaformebuli SigniTa nawili. interpretacia _ raime mxatvruli nawarmoebis Taviseburi, Semoqme­ debiTi Sesruleba. raimes Taviseburad, gansxvavebulad ganxil­ va. kampanile _ Sua saukuneebisa da aRorZinebis xanis italiis arqiteq­ turaSi: taZarTan mdgomi, Cveulebriv, oTxkuTxa (zogjer mrgva­ li) samreklo. kerpi _ RvTaebis gamosaxuleba, romelsac Tayvans scemdnen. koloriti _ ferebis Sexameba, Tanwyoba, rac suraTis mTlianobas qmnis. kvarTi _ erTianad naqsovi, unakero grZeli samoseli. memoriali _ visime xsovnisadmi miZRvnili Zegli. meTuneoba _ Tixis damuSaveba da misgan WurWlis warmoeba. monoliTi _ mTliani qvis lodi, mTliani qvisgan gamoTlili sagani. mozaika _ suraTi an saxe, romelic Sedgenilia cementis fenaze da­ magrebuli, erTmaneTTan mWidrod miwyobili feradi kenWebis, feradis minis da sxv. patar-patara naWrebisagan; aseTi suraTis, saxis Sedgenis xelovneba. mRvime _ bunebrivi gamoqvabuli. panorama _ gadaSlili, farTo da vrceli midamos xedi, Cveulebriv zevidan.


proporcia iqmneba sagnis nawilebis zomaTa TanafardobiT. reliqvia _ religiuri Tayvaniscemis sagani, romelsac saswaulmoq­ medi Zala aqvs. rezidencia _ mTavrobis, saxelmwifos meTauris an sxva maRali Ta­ namdebobis piris adgil-samyofeli. rituali _ sarwmunoebrivi xasiaTis wes-CveulebaTa erToblioba. samurai _ sityvasityviT niSnavs msaxurebas. samxedro feodaluri fena iaponiaSi, igive raindi. terakota _ gamomwvari feradi Tixa. termini _ sityva, romelsac iyeneben romelime specialuri cnebis an sagnis aRsaniSnavad. trapezi _ taZarSi, sakurTxevlis SuagulSi moTavsebuli oTxkuTxa magida. funqcia _ daniSnuleba, movaleoba. Strixi _ xazi, romelic xelis erTi mosmiT iqmneba da romelic war­ moadgens naxatis erT-erT ZiriTad elements. harmonia _ suraTis nawilebis, ferebis SeTanxmebuloba.

ხელოვნება, მე-5 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი  

ხელოვნება, მე-5 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი

ხელოვნება, მე-5 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი  

ხელოვნება, მე-5 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი

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