ხელოვნება, მე-4 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, 1-ლი ნაწილი

Page 1

ISBN 978-9941-441-19-6

9 789941 44119 6

xelovneba

dafinansebulia `moswavleebis saxelmZRvaneloebiT uzrunvelyofis programis~ farglebSi

4 moswavlis wigni

pirveli nawili


ana kldiaSvili nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba IV klasi moswavlis wigni (pirveli nawili)

grifminiWebulia saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier 2018 wels

gam o mce m l o ba `k l i o~


ana kldiaSvili, nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba IV klasi, moswavlis wigni (pirveli nawili)

redaqtori nana kupraSvili Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiis profesori, xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori mxatvari

Tamar jayeli

kompiuteruli dizaini irma liparteliani

Š gamomcemloba `klio~, 2018 Š ana kldiaSvili, nino RaRaniZe, 2018 yvela ufleba daculia ISBN 978-9941-481-04-8 (orive nawilis) ISBN 978-9941-441-19-6 (pirveli nawili)

Sps `gamomcemloba klio~ aRmaSeneblis gamz. #181-2, Tbilisi, 0112 tel.: (+995 32) 234 04 30 E-mail: book@klio.ge www.klio.ge


sarCevi rogor gamoviyenoT wigni....................................................5 Tavi I 1. xelovnebis samyaro..........................................................6 2. ferebis „dabadeba~...........................................................8 3. sinaTle ferSi...................................................................9 4. dRe da Rame.......................................................................10 5. kontrastuli ferebi.......................................................12 6. yvelaferi feris Sesaxeb.................................................14 7. suraTi da detali............................................................16 8. Semodgomis nobaTi...........................................................18 9. buneba da Zegli................................................................19 10. didi xelovanebi..............................................................20 11. dekoratiuli sagnebi.....................................................22 12. airCie masala...................................................................23 Tavi II 13. vxedav, vusmen, vexebi......................................................24 14. simetria da asimetria....................................................26 15. simetriis RerZi..............................................................27 16. qarTveli mxatvrebi........................................................28 17. dakiduli baRebi.............................................................30 18. xelovneba da profesia...................................................32 19. vZerwavT plastiliniT...................................................34 20. didi xelovanebi..............................................................36 21. ornamentuli kompozicia...............................................38 22. zRapris gmirebi..............................................................39


23. Cveni samSoblo................................................................40 24. sagvareulo xe.................................................................42 Tavi III 25. amoicani profesia..........................................................44 26. dinamika namuSevarSi.......................................................46 27. Sors Tu axlos................................................................48 28. didi da patara sagnebi...................................................49 29. saaxalwlo baraTi...........................................................50 30. saSobao peizaJi...............................................................51 31. grafika ...........................................................................52 32. egvipte.............................................................................54 33. wvima, elva, cisartyela.................................................56 34. naturmorti.....................................................................58 35. suraTis CarCo ................................................................59 36. Cveni samSoblo................................................................60 37. giwvevT gamofenaze.........................................................62 38. vxatavT TiTebiT.............................................................63 39. qarTveli mxatvrebi........................................................64


rogor gamoviyenoT wigni Tavis nomeri, gakveTilis rigiTi nomeri da saTauri

kiTxvebi dagexmareba gakveTilSi mocemuli masalis ukeT gaazrebaSi

ferad CarCoSi amgvari niSniT aRniSnulia klasSi damoukideblad Sesasrulebeli davaleba

Seqmeni kompozicia Temaze `de­da­­­miwa _ Cemi saxli~. gamoiyene simet­ri­uli an asimetriuli kompoziciis agebis xerxi.

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gakveTilis ZiriTadi teqsti

leqsikonSi ganmartebulia ucxo sityvebi gakveTilis ukeT aTvisebaSi ZiriTad teqstTan erTad ilustraciebic dagexmareba yviTel CarCoSi amgvari niSniT mocemulia klasSi damoukideblad Sesasrulebeli davaleba

g a ix se ne! 1. romelia civi da Tbili ferebi? 2. romelia ZiriTadi ferebi da ro­ meli _ Sedgenili?

naswavli masalis gaxseneba

rafaeli (1483-1520) biografiuli cnobebi: italieli fermweri rafa­ eli Zalze axalgazrda gardaicvala _ sul 37 wlisa, magram mdidari SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreoba dagvitova. moRvaweobda ZiriTa­ dad romSi, papis karze. Sesrulebuli aqvs vatika­nis darbazebis moxatuloba.

zogierT gakveTilSi mocemulia informacia (biografiuli cnobebi, namuSevrebi, saintereso faqti) mxatvrebis Sesaxeb


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1. xelovnebis samyaro xelovneba adamianis cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawilia. is gvaRelvebs da gvizidavs Cven, adamianebs; is avsebs da ala­ mazebs Cvens yoveldRiurobas. Cven vkiTxulobT literaturas, vusmenT musikas, vuyurebT kinofilmebs, davdivarT muzeumebSi, galereebsa da TeatrebSi, Cveni saxlebis kedlebs suraTebiT vamkobT.

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1. CamoTvale, kidev sad vxvdebiT Cvens yofaSi xe­ lovnebis nimuSebs?

xelovnebis samyaro Zal­­ ze mravalferovania. aTas­ wle­ ulebis ganmavlobaSi xe­­ lov­ nebis mravali dargi Seiqmna: Teatri, musika...

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2. Tavad gaagrZele es CamonaTvali. 3. Tu yofilxar TeatrSi an operaSi? 4. xelovnebis romel dargs icnob ukeT da ratom?

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induri nacionaluri samosi _ sari

kadri filmidan `padingtonis Tavgadasavali~

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pompeis mxatvroba

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sayure. vani

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I scena speqtaklidan `revizori~

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samTavisis taZari

xelovnebis ZiriTadi dargebi Teatri

musika

saxviTi xelovneba

gamoyenebiTi xelovneba

kino arqiteqtura

literatura

saxviTi xelovneba _ aerTianebs mxatvrobas, qan­dakebas, grafikas. gamoyenebiTi xelov­neba _ aerTianebs im dargebs, romelTa nimuSebi adamianis yofaSi gamoiyeneba. arqiteqtura (xuro­T­mo­ZRvreba) _ nage­bo­bis dap­ roeqteba, aSe­­neba da mxat­vruli ga­­formeba. 8

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? scena baletidan `Jizeli~

bernini. daviTi

5. xelovnebis romel dargebs miakuTv­ neb aq warmodgenil nimuSebs? daasabuTe sakuTari mosazreba.

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2. ferebis „dabadeba~ Sen ukve bevri ram ici ferebis Sesaxeb; isic gemaxsovreba, rom erTi ferisgan ramdenime axali feris miRebaa SesaZlebeli. axla vnaxoT, rogor SeiZleba axali ferebis miReba sxva xerxiTac. maga­ liTad, Tu lurjs TeTrs SevurevT, cisfers miviRebT, anu lurji gaRi­ avdeba.

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rac ufro meti TeTri Seereva lurjs, miT uf­ro Ria iqneba cisferi.

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gaixsene! 1. romelia `civi~ da `Tbili~ ferebi? 2. romelia ZiriTa­ di ferebi da rome­ li _ Sedgenili?

1. Seni azriT, ra feri unda Seurio wiTels an yvi­ Tels rom is gaRiavdes?

feris gasaRiaveblad, umetes SemTxvevaSi, TeTrs iyeneben. magaliTad, mwvanes Tu TeTrs SevurevT, Ria mwvanes miviRebT, iisfers Tu SevurevT TeTrs, iasamnisferi gamova.

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axali feris misaRebad saRebavebi frTxilad unda Seurio erTmaneTs. miRebuli feris dasamaxsovreblad ki SegiZlia is rames Seadaro da ase mouZebno saxeli. magaliTad: gacrecili cisferi, Camqrali wiTeli da a.S.

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2. SeurCie saxeli aq mocemul Rrub­lebis ferebs.

gaRiavebuli ferebis saSualebiT da­xate Sesabamisi weliwadis dro.

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3. sinaTle ferSi Seni azriT, ra feria mzis Suqi? ra Tqma unda, yviTeli da swored yviT­ lis anu sinaTlis mateba nebismier ferSi cvlis mas. magaliTad, wiTels Tu cota yviTels SevurevT, is muqi narinjisferi gaxdeba; Tu kidev yvi­ Tels davamatebT, Ria narinjisfers miviRebT. yviTlis anu sinaTlis mate­ basTan erTad wiTeli sul gaqreba da kaSkaSa yviTlamde mivalT.

rogorc xedav, zogi feri erTmaneTTan „megob­robs~. magaliTad, wiTe­ li, narinjisferi da yviTeli. sinaTlis matebasTan an klebasTan erTad isini erTmaneTSi Tanmimdevrulad gadadian da amitom ferebis borbalze erTmaneTis miyolebiT arian ganlagebulni.

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1. daakvirdi ferebis borbals. sxva ro­ meli ferebi `megobroben~ erTmaneTTan?

fers SeiZleba sxvadasxva elferi hqondes, maga­ liTad, aq warmodgenilia sami sxvadasxva­ nairi mwva­ne: moyviTalo, xasxasa balaxisferi da molurjo.

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2. daarqvi saxelebi kvadratebSi mocemul lurji­ sa da yviTlis sxvadasxva elfers. 3. Seni azriT, romelSia meti sinaTle da ratom?

qa­­Ral­disgan wi­­nas­war ga­moW­ ri­li fo­rm ­ ebi dafa­re aq mocemuli ferebiT da Seni xeliT Seqmeni ferebis borbali. Seecade, daimaxsovro ferebis Tanmimdevroba.

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4. dRe da Rame warmoidgine, rom Sen Tvalwin TovliT dafaruli mTebi iSleba. Ramea. ca muqi lurjia. mTvare anaTebs da varskvlavebi cimcimeben. Tovliani mTebi ki TiTqos ireklaven cis silurjes.

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1. aRwere, romeli ferebiTaa ga­mosaxuli ca, mTva­re, varskvla­vebi da mTebi pirvel suraTze.

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2. daakvirdi meore pei­zaJs. aRwe­re ra Sei­cvala masSi da ratom.

am or namuSevarSi erTi da igive peizaJi gamosaxulia dRisiT da RamiT. ZiriTadad gamoyenebulia lurji da cisferi. rogorc ici, nebismieri feris TeTrTan Serevisas, Tavad es feri Riavdeba. Seni azriT, romel fers unda SevurioT TeTri, cisferi rom miviRoT?

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3. daakvirdi aq mocemul ferebs da warmoidgine, ra fers miiReb, Tu TiToeul maTgans TeTrs Seurev. Semdeg Seni mosazreba Seamowme praqtikulad.


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klod mone

klod mone

mxatvrebi zogjer erTsa da imave xeds an obieqts dRe-Ramis sxvadasxva monakveTSi xataven. akvirdebian, rogor icvleba ganaTeba, feri da gan­ wyobileba imis mixedviT Tu ra droa aRbeWdili namuSevarze. mones am namuSevrebze ruanis taZaria gamosaxuli. mxatvarma es taZari bevrjer gamosaxa, xan gamTeniisas, xan SuadRis mzis SuqiT ganaTebuli, xan nislSi CaZiruli.

daxate ne­­bis­­mieri peizaJi dRi­­ siT da RamiT. sasurveli feris misaRebad gamoiyene muqi feris TeTrTan Serevis xerxi.

klod mone

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4. Seadare erTmaneTs aq warmodgenili namuSevrebi. 5. Seni azriT, dRe-Ramis romeli monakveTia maTze gamosaxuli? 6. daasabuTe Seni mosazreba.

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5. kontrastuli ferebi ferebis borbalze erTmaneTis pirdapir mokalaTebuli ferebi yvelaze metad aris daSorebuli erTmaneTisgan. es ferebia: wiTeli da mwvane, lurji da narinjisferi, yviTeli da iasamnisferi. maT kontrastuli fe­ rebi ewodeba. ferebis borblisagan gansxvavebiT, bunebaSi kontrastuli ferebi xSirad erTmaneTis gverdiT gvxvdeba.

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gaixsene! ferebis borbali da ferebis Tan­ mimdevroba masSi.

 leqsiko ni kontrasti _ mkveTri sxvaoba, da­ pi­rispirebuloba.

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1. CamoTvale, romeli ferebia ganlagebuli ferebis borbalze erTmaneTis sapirispirod.

es kontrastuli ferebia:

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kontrastul ferebs mxatvrebi xSirad iyeneben sxvadasxva Janris nawarmoebSi.

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emil nolde

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2. aRwere, ra aris gamosaxuli emil noldes suraTze. 3. romel Janrs miekuTvneba es namuSevari? 4. romeli kontrastuli ferebia gamoyenebuli masze.

feradi qaRaldis fu­rc ­ lisgan da­amzade vardebis Taiguli. gamoiyene kontrastuli ferebi.

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5. daakvirdi garemos. gaixsene da Ca­moT­vale, sad ginaxavs kont­ras­ tuli ferebi bunebaSi? 6. romeli kontrastuli ferebi gamoiye­ne vardis keTebisas? 7. kidev rogori feris vardebi ginaxavs? 8. romeli yvavili giyvars yve­laze metad da ratom?

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6. yvelaferi feris Sesaxeb civi da Tbili, ZiriTadi da Sedgenili, kontrastuli, mkveTri, Ria da muqi _ ase SegiZlia daaxasiaTo ferebi.

klod mone. mebaJis saxli.

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andre dereni. feradi Suqura

1. zemoT warmodgenil romel suraTzea gamoyenebuli civi da ro­ melze Tbili ferebi? 2. CamoTvale romeli kontrastuli ferebia gamoyenebuli derenis suraTze.

mxatvrebi xSirad iyeneben erTsa da imave tiloze ZiriTadsa da Sedge­ nils, civsa da Tbil ferebs.

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3. CamoTvale, romeli Zi­ riTadi da Sedgenili fere­ bia gamoyenebuli van gogis suraTze. 4. rogor STabeWdile­ bas axdens mkveTri ferebis gverdigverd gamoyeneba erT suraTSi?

vinsent van gogi. zeTisxilis baRi

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mones suraTze `parlamenti. mzis efeqti wyalze~ mxatvari mzis Cas­ vlas mravali feriT xatavs: Senoba muqi lurjia, mis win mdinareze mzis anarekli kaSkaSa wiTliT, yviTliT da nawilobriv mwvaniT aris gadmo­cemuli; caze ki uamravi feri ereva erTmaneTs.

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5. CamoTvale, romel ferebs iye­nebs klod mone cis xatvisas. 6. CamoTvale am suraTze arsebuli civi da Tbili ferebi. 7. CamoTvale am suraTze gamo­yenebuli Zi­ riTadi da Sedgenili ferebi. klod mone. parlamenti. mzis efeqti wyalze

van gogis suraTze `SuadRis Zili~ mxolod ori kontrastuli feria gamoyenebuli _ lurji da yviTeli. luj cas wina planze gamosaxuli ada­ mianebis cisferi samosi epasuxeba. yviTeli ki win muqia, xolo ukan _ Ria.

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8. ra STabeWdilebas qmnis van gogis suraT­ ze sxvadasxva elfe­ ris mqone yviTlis mona­ cvleoba? 9. rogori ganwyobileba sufevs am suraT­ ze? 10. romelia am suraTze civi feri da ro­ meli _ Tbili? vinsent van gogi. SuadRis Zili

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11. CamoTvale klod mones suraTze gamo­ ye­nebuli ferebi da daaxasiaTe isini. 12. SesaZlebelia Tu ara masze cisar­ tye­ las ferebis povna? 13. rogori ganwyobileba sufevs aq? am Tval­sazrisiT Seadare is van gogis suraTs.

SearCie Tavisufali Tema da Seqmeni namuSevari. gamoiyene Seni codna ferebis Sesaxeb.

klod mone. baRi JiverniSi

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7. suraTi da detali Sen ukve ici, rom suraTi, qandakeba, nageboba, samkauli da a.S. xe­ lovnebis nawarmoebebia. maTze saubari gansakuTrebul yuradRebasa da codnas moiTxovs. erTi SexedviT yvelaze advili nawarmoebis aRweraa. modi, erTad gaverkveT asea es Tu ara da ra aris amisTvis saWiro.

gustav kalibote

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1. yuradRebiT daakvirdi aq warmodgenil suraTs da Seecade gul­ dasmiT aRwero is. 2. romel detalze gaamaxvile yuradReba? 3. risi gageba SeiZleba am detalebis saSualebiT? 4. SegiZlia Tu ara detalebis mixedviT mixvde, Zveli droa am suraT­ ze asaxuli Tu Tanamedrove epoqa?

dakvirvebis unaris gavarjiSeba saWiroa, raTa ar gamogrCes arc erTi iseTi mniS­ vnelovani wvril­ mani, romelic dagexmareba nawarmoebis Sina­ arsis amokiTxvaSi.

 l e qsi k o ni epoqa _ drois monakveTi, ro­mel­sac misTvis dama­xasi­aTebeli niSne­bi aqvs.

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5. aRwere pirveli, meore da mesame namuSevari. 6. daaxasiaTe es figurebi, maTi sa­ mosi da moqmedeba. 7. romeli detali iqcevs Sens gan­ sakuTrebul yuradRebas TiToeul suraTze da ratom?

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guldasmiT gaeca­ ni aq mocemul teqsts da mis mixedviT Seqmeni naxati. Seecade masSi asaxo im epo­qisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli de­­talebi, romelSic, Seni azriT, moqmedeba mimdinareobs.

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`ulamazes kabaSi gamowyobili konkia etlidan gadmovida. svetebiani Sesas­vlelis win stumrebis etlebi gamwkrivebuliyo. sasaxlis sarkmlebidan sinaTle iRvreboda. gogona nela da morcxvad auyva sasaxlis maRal kibes. mis win uzarmazari kari WrialiT gaiRo da igi xalxiT savse gaCaxCaxebul darbazSi aRmoCnda~.

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8. Semodgomis nobaTi Semodgomaze nairfer foTlebs qari Seu­ braleblad wyvets xeebidan da miwaze yris. Tu aseT foTlebs Seag­ roveb, maTi daxmarebiT Se­ giZlia romelime Cveulebrivi sagani gaalamazo. mag., Tu Tixis ubralo qoTans feradi foTle­ biT Seamkob, is zRaprul larnakad gadaiqceva da mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi mogagonebs Semod­ gomis silamazes.

Tavdapirvelad qoTani feradi saRe­ba­ve­biT moxate. airCie SenTvis sasurveli nivTi da Seamke is Semo­dgomis na­ irferi foTle­biT.

SearCie da daaxarisxe foT­lebi.

foTlebi frTxilad daawe­be qoTanze.

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9. buneba da Zegli Cveni qveynis buneba ulamazesia. Cveni winaprebi SesaniSnavad axerxebdnen maTi xeliT nagebi Zeglebi am mSvenier bunebasTan daekavSirebinaT. isini eklesiebs xan kldeSi kveTdnen, xan tyeebSi aSenebdnen, xan mTis wverze, xanac gaSlil velze wamomarTavdnen; zogi eklesia ki pirdapir soflis SuagulSi Sendeboda. magaliTad, mcxeTis jvari amayad dgas mTis wverze, varZiis monasteri kldeSia gamokveTili, beTaniis taZari ki tyeSi augiaT Cvens winaprebs. eqskursiaze yofnis dros aucileblad miaqcie yuradReba Zeglis garemosa da mis mdebareobas. SegiZlia, gadaiRo is, aRwero da Caxato kidec.

zarzma. XIV s.

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timoTesubani. XIII s.

1. aRwere, rogori mdebareoba aqvs am fotoebze warmodgenil qar­ Tul Zeglebs. 2. gaixsene Sens qalaqSi an so­felSi mdebare romelime taZa­ri da aR­ were misi mdebareoba.

varZiis monasteri. XII s.

daxate Sen mier na­naxi romelime qarTuli Zegli da misi garemo.

gergetis sameba. XIV s.

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10. didi xelovanebi am gakveTilze Sen or did italiel xelovans gaecnobi.

leonardo da vinCi (1452-1519) biografiuli cnobebi: dRes leonardo da vin­ Cis rogorc fermwers vicnobT. Tumca igi, amave dros, moqandakec iyo, arqiteqtoric, inJineric da mecnieric. moRvaweobda milanSi, florencia­ sa da romSi. xelovnebis dargebs Soris upirate­ sobas ferweras aniWebda. namuSevrebi: `mona liza~ (`jokonda~), `said­ umlo seroba~, `jinevra di benCis portreti~, `madona benua~ da sxv. leonardos Semoqmedebi­ sTvis damaxasiaTebelia interesi adamianis, misi Sinagani samyaros mimarT. saintereso faqti: `visac unaxavs leonardos Tixis cxenosani qandakeba milanSi, amtkiceben, rom arasodes Seqmnila ufro mSvenieri da dide­ buli nawarmoebi~ _ werda leonardos erT-erTi biografi. milanis hercogis karze samsaxuris dros leonardom Seqmna hercogis mamis _ franCesko sforcas grandiozuli cxenosani qandakeba. rva­ metriani Tixis mo­deli milanis moedanze daid­ ga, magram maleve ganadgurda, radgan omis dros mterma is samizned gamoiyena.

madona lita

qali siasamuriT

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xareba


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rafaeli (1483-1520) biografiuli cnobebi: italieli fermweri rafa­eli Zalze axalgazrda gardaicvala _ sul 37 wlisa, magram mdidari SemoqmedebiTi mem­ kvidreoba dagvitova. moRvaweobda ZiriTadad romSi, papis karze. Sesrulebuli aqvs vatika­ nis darbazebis moxatuloba.

avtoportreti madona savarZelSi

namuSevrebi: madonebis seria, maT Soris siqstes madona, portretebi da sxv. rafa­ elis Semoqmedeba harmoniulobiTa da mSveni­ erebisaken swrafviT gamoirCeva. saintereso faqti: papis erT-erTi darbazis Semamkobel scenaSi sxva legendarul istori­ ul pirebTan _ mecni­e­rebTan, poetebTan erTad rafaelma sakuTari Tavi gamosaxa.

qali TavsaburiT. dona velata

siqstes madona

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11. dekoratiuli sagnebi albaT gaqvs saxlSi Cveulebrivi minis boTli. Tu cota fantazias moiSvelieb, is SeiZleba lamaz, dekoratiul niv­ Tad aqcio. SegiZlia boTli saRebavebiT moxato, magram al­ baT SenTvis kidev ufro uCveulo da saintereso iqneba, Tu mas feradi plastiliniT Se­­amkob. es Zalian saxa­li­so samuS­ aoa. feradi plastiliniT Semkuli lamazi boTli Sens oTaxs gaalamazebs.

sanam muSaobas daiwyebde, winaswar moifiqre, ras gamosaxav am boTlze plastiliniT. SegiZlia mxolod feradi zolebi an geometriuli figurebi daaZerwo boTlis zedapirs; SegiZlia cxovelebis figu­ rebic gamoiyeno mis mosarTavad. Seecade plastilinis ferebi ise Seaxamo, rom Seni namuSevari xalisian ganwyo­bilebas qmnides.

nebismieri formis minis boTls daaZerwe sxvadasxva feris plastilini. Seqmeni mis zedapirze dekoratiuli kompozicia.

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12. airCie masala Sen ukve ici, rom namuSevris Seqmna sxvadasxva masaliT SeiZleba, ai, Tundac, brinjiT. ici Tu ara, rom am patara, TeTri marcvlebis moyvana Zalze Sromatevadi saqmea. brinji wyalSi izrdeba da imaT, visac brinji mohyavs, didi xnis ganmavlobaSi wya­l­Si dgoma uwevT.

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brinjis plantacia

Senma Tanatolma TeTri brinjiT gede­bis gamosaxuleba Seqmna. cisfer qaRal­dze man jer gedis konturi moxaza, Semdeg am konturis SigniT we­ boTi brinjis marcvlebi daaweba. qaRaldiT ki wyalmcenareebi, Rrublebi da talRebi gamosaxa.

Sens namuSevarSi brinjis garda simin­ dis, yavis, wiwiburas da sxva marc­ vleulis, aseve nebismieri sxva masalis gamoye­nebac SegiZlia. sxvada­sxva mar­cv­­ le­u­lis gamoyenebiT Seq­meni namuSevari.

mariami. 10 wlis

23


II 13. vxedav, vusmen, vexebi

albaT ginaxavs lamazi yvavili da moxiblulxar misi mSvenierebiT. gaix足 sene, ras grZnob misi xilvisas. roca TvaliT uyureb, albaT, am dros fiqrob, ra lamazi forma da feri aqvs mas; mere albaT aucileblad dagain足 teresebs aqvs Tu ara suni am mSvenier yvavils da daynosav. SeiZleba Tavad yvavilis furclebs xeliTac Seexo, raTa igrZno rogori zedapiri aqvs, gluvi Tu xaverdovani. yvavilis aRqmaSi monawileobs Seni Tvali, cxviri da xeli anu adamianis mxedveloba, ynosva da Sexeba. es adamianis SegrZnebis organoebia. 1

? ?

1. adamianis SegrZnebis kidev romel orga足no足ebs daasaxelebdi?

? 24

?


adamians SegrZnebis xuTi organo aqvs, romelTa saSualebiTac igi aRiqvams yvelafers, rac mis garSemo samyaroSi arsebobs da maT Soris xelovnebis nimuSebsac. Tu yofilxar TeatrSi, gaixsene, ras akeTeben msaxiobebi scenaze: war足 moTqvamen sityvebs, zogjer mRerian kidec, xandaxan musikac ismis.

?

2. dafiqrdi da CamoTvale SegrZnebis romeli organoebiT aRiqvams mayurebeli Teatralur warmodgenas. 3. CamoTvale xelovnebis SenTvis ukve cnobili dargebi da gansazRvre, adami足anis SegrZnebis romeli organoebi mona足wileobs maTi aRqmis dros.

II

3

2

5

4

6 daakvirdi aq mocemul fotoebs da gansazRv足 re, SegrZnebis romeli organoebiT aRiqvam xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargs. 7

25


II 14. simetria da asimetria

daakvirdi aq warmodgenil mwvane foTols. xom lamazi forma aqvs? aba, axla Sens warmodge­ naSi zustad mis centrSi xazi gaatare. foTlis centrSi gavlebuli xazi simetriis RerZia.

?

1. ramden nawilad gaiyo foToli? 2. msgavsia Tu ara es nawilebi?

1

2

?

3

4

3. daakvirdi aq mocemul pirvel, meore, mesame da meoTxe naxatebs. romelia maT Soris simetriuli da romeli _ asimetriuli. 4. warmosaxviT gaavle simetriis RerZi aq mocemul pirvel, meore da mesame nimuSze. 5. CamoTvale simetriuli da asimetriuli sagnebi.

aiRe romelime si­met­ri­ul ­­ i sagnis naxevari. simetriis RerZis gaswvriv daafare furce­li da mexsierebiT Semoxaze meo­ re mxare ise, rom simetriuli forma miiRo.

26


II

15. simetriis RerZi simetriasa da asimetrias mxatvrebi xSi­ rad iye­neben TavianT namuSevrebSi.

?

1. aRwere rafaelis namuSevari. 2. rogoria es namuSevari _ simetriuli Tu asimetriuli? 3. aqvs Tu ara mas simetriis RerZi?

simetriuli namuSevris Seqmnisas mxatvre­ bi simetriis RerZs iyeneben. simetriis RerZi yvela SemTxvevaSi suraTs or Tanabar nawilad hyofs, mis orive mxares ki gamosa­xulebebi aseve Tanabrad nawildeba, rogorc es rafaelis `rain­ dis sizmarSia~.

rafaeli. raindis sizmari

qaRal­dze Seqmeni si­­metriu­li kompozicia, romelsac simetriis RerZi eqneba. Se­giZ­lia aq mocemuli geometriuli figu­re­bic gamoiyeno.

?

27


II 16. qarTveli mxatvrebi

ici Tu ara, rom bavSvobaSi nanaxi adamians mTeli cxovreba axsovs. mxat­ vrebi xSirad im kuTxis peizaJebs xa­taven, sadac dabadebulan da bavSvobis wlebi gautarebiaT. 1

?

1. Seni azriT, saqarTvelos ro­meli kuTxeebia asaxuli pir­ vel da meore suraTebze. 2. daaxasiaTe TiToe­uli ma­T­ gani.

daviT kakabaZe

elene axvlediani (1901-1975) gamoCenili qarTveli mxat­vari elene axvlediani peizaJisti iyo. igi xatavda Tbilisisa da sxva qalaqebis peizaJebs, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis xedebs, magram gamorCeuli adgili mis SemoqmedebaSi kaxeTs uWiravs. saqme isaa, rom elene axvlediani daibada ka­xeTSi, qalaq TelavSi da bavSvobac swored aq gaatara. misi mSoblebis saxlidan gadaSlili alaznis ulamazesi veli da kavkasionis Tovliani mwvervalebi samudamod aRibeWda mis mexsierebaSi. maSinac, rodesac elene parizSi cxovrobda da swavlobda, mSobliuri kaxeTis silamaze sul Tan dahyveboda da xatavda da xatavda kaxeTis xedebs.

2

elene axvlediani

28


II

daviT kakabaZe (1889-1952)

daviT kakabaZe imereTis erT patara sofelSi, kuxSi daibada. zemo imereTi mTagoriani mxarea; borcvebi, gorakebi da mTebi ise enacvleba erTmaneTs, gaSlil mozrdil mindors Znelad Tu ipovis adamiani. aqaurebi iZulebulni arian mTebis damrec ferdobebze axaron yana Tu vazi. amitom mTis ferdobze Sefenili damuSavebuli miwis nakveTebi Soridan sxvadasxvafer monakveTebad moCans da Wrel xaliCas mogvagonebs. zemo imereTis es Tavisebureba daviT kakabaZem Tavis peizaJebSi asaxa da saqarTvelos am kuTxis iseTi saxe Seqmna, rogoric arasodes aravis dauxatavs.

3

daviT kakabaZe. mitingi imereTSi

?

3. aRwere mesame da meoTxe namuSev­rebi. 4. rogor fiqrob, ras unda niSnavdes sityva `peizaJisti~? 5. rogor gamosaxavs ime­reTis mTebs daviT kakabaZe? 6. moifiqre raime ambavi da da­asaTaure me­xuTe suraTi. 4

5

elene axvlediani

elene axvlediani. kaxeTi zamTarSi

1. daxate Seni mSobliuri ku­Txis (qalaqis, soflis) pe­izaJi. 2. moiZie informacia da masala Seni kuTxis romelime gamoCenili xelovanis Sesaxeb da warudgine klass.

29


II 17. dakiduli baRebi

uZveles droSi babilonSi cxovrobda Zlevamosili mefe nabuqodono­ sori, romelmac Soreuli qveynidan colad moiyvana ulamazesi asuli ami­ tasi. xriok babilonSi moxvedrilma qalma moiwyina, mas Zalze enatreboda Tavisi samSoblos amwvanebuli mTebi. dedoflisTvis dardis gasaqarve­ blad mefem baRe­ bis gaSeneba brZana. ase aigo babilonSi msoflios erTerTi saocreba _ daki­duli baRebi.

babiloni swor adgilas mdebareobda. imisaTvis, rom baRebs dedoflis mSobliuri mTagoriani qveynis ieri hqonoda, oTxi terasa aages; TiToeulze azides miwa da Soreuli qveynebidan Camotanili ucxo mcenareebi darges.

?

1. rogor fiqrob, ro­ gor ixarebda es mcenareebi babi­ lonis cxeli klimatis piro­ bebSi da ra iqneboda amisTvis saWiro?

dakidulma baRebma Cvenamde ver moaRwia. Sen albaT ikiTxav, maS saidan viciT maT Sesaxebo. dakiduli baRebis Sesaxeb ambavs gviyveba Zveli ber­ Zeni istorikosi straboni, romelsac sakuTari TvaliT unaxavs isini.

30


dakiduli baRebis istoria sxvadasxva epoqaSi aforiaqebdaT mxat­ vrebsa Tu mecnierebs; isini cdilobdnen warmoedginaT, Tu rogori iqneboda Tavis droze es qmnileba. warmoidgine rogori iqneboda dakiduli ba­Rebi. airCie, daxatav Tu am baRis makets Seqmni.

II

daakvirdi aq mocemul fotoebze warmodgenil baRebs, mcenareebs, xe­ ebs; SegiZ­lia isini Seni namuSevris Seqmnisas gamoiyeno.

 leqsiko ni terasa _ ferdobze safexurebad ganlagebuli patara moednebi. maketi _ raime nakeTobis an nagebobis Semcirebuli zomis nimuSi.

31


II 18. xelovneba da profesia

Tu gifiqria, ras niSnavs sityva profesia? zogierTi bavSvobidanve amJRavnebs Tavis miswrafebas xelovnebis ama Tu im dargisadmi. magaliTad, cnobilma kompozitorma mocartma 4 wlis asakSi pirvelad dawera notebi, xolo 7 wlis asakSi ki Tavisi pirveli nawarmo­ebi Seqmna. cnobili frangi mxatvari gogeni Tavdapirvelad mezR­ vauri iyo, mogvianebiT _ finansisti. man xatva sakmaod gvian, daaxloebiT 30 wlis asakSi daiwyo. Tavdapirvelad es mxolod hobi iyo. Semdeg ki man yvela sxva profesiaze uari Tqva da mTeli cxovreba mxat­vrobas miuZRvna.

?

1. CamoTvale SenTvis cnobili profesiebi.

 leqsiko ni profesia _ xeloba, saqmiano­ba, spe­ cialoba, ro­mel­sac gar­kveuli mo­ m­ zadeba sWirdeba da romliTac adamiani Tavs irCens.

pietro antonio lorenco. volfgang amadeus mocartis portreti

hobi _ raimeTi gataceba; saqmia­no­ ba, romelsac misdeven gar­ Tobis, dasvenebis mizniT (mag. yva­vilebis mov­la, Tevzaoba da sxv.).

pol gogeni. avtoportreti

pol gogeni. SuadRe

32


II 1

2

3

4

?

2. daakvirdi aq mocemul fotoebs, aRwe­ re maTze warmodgenil adamianTa moqmedeba da, Sesabamisad, gamoicani maTi profesia. 3. daaxasiaTe es profesiebi.

6

5 moifiqre, ro­ mel profesias air­Cevdi da ratom. Seni mosazreba werilobiT waradgine klasis winaSe.

33


II 19. vZerwavT plastiliniT albaT yvela Tqvengans unaxavs didi zomis qan­ dakebebi, romlebic quCebSi, baRebSi, moednebze, skverebSi dgas. magram SeiZleba ar iciT, rom vi­ dre moqandake did qandakebas gaakeTebdes, igi Tavis Canafiqrs jer patara zomis eskizSi asxams xorcs. rogorc wesi, igi am eskizs plastiliniT akeTebs.

?

1. daakvirdi aq warmodgenil fo­ toebs da aRwere, rogor muSaoben moqandakeebi Ta­ vianT saxelosnoebSi.

1

2

!

gaixsene! 1. ra aris qandakeba? 2. vin aris moqandake?

 leqsiko ni eskizi (qandakebisaT­ vis) _ di­ di zomis qan­da­kebi­saT­vis wi­na­ s­wa­r Seq­mni­li mci­re zomis mo­ samzadebeli modeli.

3

34

4


plastiliniT figuris gamoZerwva Senc SegiZlia. oRond, namdvili moqan­dakis msgavsad, jer is unda moifiqro ras gamoZerwav, Semdeg Se­ar­ Cio ra feris plastilins gamoiyeneb, ramxela iqneba Seni figura da a.S.

II

oTo. 10 wlis

plastiliniT muSaoba imiT aris sainte­ reso, rom Tu raimes Secvla moginda, amas advilad moaxerxeb, radgan plastilini rbili da moqnili masalaa.

?

2. daakvirdi Seni Tanatol­ is mier ga­ mo­ Zerwil namuSev­rebs. daaxasiaTe isini.

gamoZerwe nebismi­eri ram plas­tili­ nisagan. moawyveT saklaso ga­mofena.

35


II 20. didi xelovanebi

am gakveTilze Sen sxvadasxva drois cnobil moqan­dakeebs gaecnobi.

fidiasi

(Zv. w-is V s-is II nax.)

biografiuli cnobebi: udidesi moqandake fi­ diasi Zvel saberZneTSi, Zv. w. V s-is II naxevarSi moRvaweobda. mis Sesaxeb Zalze mwiri cnobebi mogvepoveba. sainteresoa, rom mas qandakebi­ saTvis gankuTvnili oqros moparva dabralda; amisTvis cixeSi Casves, sadac gardaicvala kidec. Tumca oqros detalebis moxsnisa da awonvis Sem­ deg fidiass qurdoba ar daudasturda. namuSevrebi: zevsis qandakeba olimpoSi; aTe­ nis akropolisis qandakebebi: aTena lemnia, aTena promaqosi, aTena parTenosi da sxv. fidiasi Zlieri, mSvenieri adamianis saxes qmni­ da. misi figurebi bunebrivad da Tavisuflad moZraoben, Tavisi qandakebebisTvis masa­lad igi iyenebda marmarilos, brinjaos, spilos Zvals da oqrosac ki.

mxedrebi. akropolisi. parTenoni

kentavrebis da lapiTebis brZola. akropolisi. parTenoni

saintereso faqti: olimpoSi, zevsis taZarTan aRmoaCines fidiasis saxe­losno, romelSic moqa­ ndakis iaraRebi da masalebi ipoves. maT Soris aRmoCnda patara WurWeli warweriT: `me fidia­ sis sakuTreba var~.

aTena varvakioni. romauli asli olimpos RmerTebi. akropolisi. parTenoni

36


rodeni

II

(1840-1917)

biografiuli cnobebi: frangi moqandake ogi­ ust rodeni daibada parizSi, swavlobda parizis xatvisa da maTematikis skolaSi da bavSvobidanve gatacebuli iyo xelovnebiT. 1864 wels misi pirveli qandakeba _ adamiani gatexili cxviriT daiwunes da ar gamofines, Tumca rodenma farxmali ar dayara da Zalian male moipova aRi­ areba. namuSevrebi: `moazrovne~, `kales moqalaqe­ebi~, `kocna~, `balzakis portreti~ da sxv. rodeni cdilobda Tavis namuSevrebSi moZraobiT gad­ moeca adamianis emocia. igi amisaTvis mkafio, me­ tyvel Jestebs iyenebda. saintereso faqti: 1898 wels rodens cnobili frangi mwerlis balzakis portreti SeukveTes. eskizis wardgenis Semdeg damkveTebma qandakeba daiwunes, Tumca dRes is Sedevrad iTvleba.

moazrovne

balzaki

kales moqalaqeebi

37


II 21. ornamentuli kompozicia

Sen ukve ici ra aris ornamenti da rogor keTdeba is. ornaments uZvele­ si droidan qmnida adamiani da misiT amkobda nivTebs: WurWels, qsovils, samkauls... daakvirdi am ulamazes xaliCas. is ornamentebiTaa Semkuli, magram Ta­ vad xaliCa ramdenime nawiladaa dayo­fili. mas aqvs guli, centraluri are da arSia. TiToeuli es nawili sxva­dasxva tipis ornamentiTaa Semkuli.

xaliCis arSia

?

1. aRwere xaliCis arSia da guli. riT gansxvav­deba isini erTmaneTisagan? xaliCis guli

rogorc dainaxe, xaliCaze sxvadasxva saxis ornamentebia gamoye­nebuli, romlebic mTlianobaSi xaliCis erTian, ulamazes mxatvrul iers qmnian.

Seqmeni ornamentebi da maTi saSualebiT gaakeTe dekoratiuli kompozicia xaliCisaTvis.

38


22. zRapris gmirebi `sqeli aburduli wiTeli wveri iatakze dasTrevda, Tvalebi gadmokarkluli hqonda, uSvelebel pirSi kbilebs gaudioda kraWuni, TiTqos adamiani ki ara niangi yofiliyo, xelSi Svidkudiani maTraxi eWira~.

II

`fanjaraSi gamoCnda cisferTmiani da lamazTvalebiani gogona. saxe ubrwyi­navda, aprexil cxvirze da vardisfer loyebze yvavilebis mtve­ri ecxo~. albaT mixvdi, rom am nawyvetSi aRwerili persona­Jebi `buratinos Tavga­ dasavlis~ cnobili gmirebi arian.

Seqmeni `buratinos Tavga­da­savlis~ gmirebi gakveTilSi mocemul fotoebze naC­ve­nebi xer­xis gamoyenebiT. davalebis Sesasruleblad dag­ Wir­ deba Zveli kalmistari, fanqari an flomasteri, feradi Zafebi, plastilini, wvrili mZivebi, qaRaldi, muyao da makrateli. SegiZliaT klasSi speqtaklic gaiTamaSoT.

39


II 23. Cveni samSoblo

kaxeTi _ Cveni samSoblos erT-erTi ulamazesi kuTxe Zalze mdidaria Zeg­lebiT. aq mraval sofelSi SexvdebiT araerT eklesias. am Zeglebs So­ ris gamorCeulia nekresis monasteri. qristianobis miRebamde nekresi qa­ laqi iyo, romelic mefe farnajomma Zv. w-is I saukuneSi daaarsa. nekresi mniSvnelovania imiT, rom aq saqarTveloSi erT-erTi pirveli qristianuli samlocvelo dgas, romelic IV s-is II naxevriT TariRdeba. VI s-Si aq dasaxlda da moRvaweobda erT-erTi asu­reli mama abibos nekre­ seli. aqedan moyolebuli nekresi saqarTvelos erT-erTi umniSvnelova­ nesi sasuliero centria.

?

1. xom ar ici, rodis miiRo saqarTvelom qristianoba? 2. vin iyvnen asureli mamebi? 3. ra ici abibos nekreselis Se­saxeb?

nekresis monasteri. samlocvelo. IV s.

nekresis monasterSi, zemoT naxsenebi adreuli samlocvelos garda, mravali sxva nagebobac SemogvrCa: ramdenime taZari, saepiskoposo sasax­ le, marani, berebis senakebi, sameurneo daniSnulebis Senobebi da sxv.

nekresis monasteri. bazilika. VI-VII ss.

?

40

4. daakvirdi nekresis am or ekle­ sias. ra gansxva­vebaa maT Soris? daasa­ buTe Seni azri.

nekresis monasteri. gumbaTiani taZari. VIII-IX ss.


II

kaxeTSi nekresis garda mravali monasteria. maT Sorisaa Zveli da axali SuamTis monastrebi. Zveli SuamTis monasteri erT-erTi uZvele­ sia saqarTveloSi. amis Tqmis uflebas gvaZlevs aq SemorCenili V saukunis taZari, romelic qa­ rTuli arqiteqturis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani nimuSia. Zveli SuamTis kompleqsSi kidev ori VII saukuniT daTariRebuli eklesia Sedis. XVI sau­ kunemde monasterSi cxovreba Cqefda, Semdeg ki dacarielda. Zveli SuamTa. gumbaTiani taZari. VII s.

Zveli SuamTa. bazilika. V s.

?

5. ra masaliTaa nagebi axali SuamTis eklesia? 6. aRwere misi fasadi. 7. daakvirdi da aRwere rogori Semkuloba aqvs mas.

axali SuamTa. XVI s.

axali SuamTis monasteri XVI saukuneSi daarsda. arsebobs gadmocema, rom axlad jvardaweril samefo wyvils, mefe levansa da dedofal Ti­ naTins am adgilas SemoaRamdaT. mefe-dedofali da maTi amala guriidan RvTismSoblis xats moasvenebda, romelic RamisTevisas Sindis xis qveS daubrZanebiaT. meore dRes, rodesac gamgzavreba daapires, xati adgili­ dan ver dauZravT, sanam dedofals ar aRuTqvams am adgilze eklesiis ageba da monastris mowyoba. aq marTlac aSenda monasteri didi eklesiiT da samrekloTi. taZari agebisTanave mouxatavT freskebiT da erT-erT ke­ delze samefo ojaxi _ mefe levani da dedofali TinaTini _ gamousaxavT. gaixsene, ra eklesia monast­rebi ginaxavs Sens qalaqSi/so­felSi/dabaSi? ra ici maT Sesaxeb? Semdegi gakveTi­lisTvis moitane klasSi werilobiTi informacia da warudgine klass.

41


II 24. sagvareulo xe

Zvel wignebSi xSirad aris xolme gamosaxuli xeebi, romlis foTlebzec adamianTa saxelebi weria an maTi portretebia daxatuli.

?

1. aba, dafiqrdi, ras unda gamosa­xavdes amgvari xe?

yovel adamians yavs winaprebi: bebiebi da babuebi, maTi mSoblebi, maTi mSoblebis mSob­lebi da a.S.

?

2. odesme Tu dainteresebul­ xar, ra erqvaT Seni babu­ ebisa da bebiebis mSoblebs an ra gvarisani iyvnen isini?

apli­ka­­ci­is xerxiT Seqmeni Seni ojaxis sagvareulo xe. genealogiuri anu sagvareulo xe nebismierma ada­ mianma SeiZleba gaakeTos, Tu man Tavisi winaprebis gvar-saxelebi icis. amis Sesaxeb SegiZlia mSoblebs an bebiasa da da babuas hkiTxo da mxolod Semdeg Seudge Seni sagvareulo xis Seqmnas. icode, sagvareulo xeze sakuTari Tavi ar gamogrCes.

42


sagvareulo xis dasamzadeb­lad dagWirdeba xis tanisa da totebis gamoWra. Seni winaprebis gvar-saxe­lebi, fotoebi an Seni xeliT daxatu­ li maTi port­retebi SegiZlia foTleb­ze an vaSlebze ganalago.

II

xis ZirSi feradi qaRaldebisagan SegiZlia mwvane balaxi gaakeTo. sagvareulo xes lamazi CarCoc mouxdeba. aseT namuSevars saxlSi sapatio adgilas dakideb. amiT Seni winaprebis mimarT pativiscemas gamoxatav.

luka

sofo

ilia

natalia

vaJa

zurabi maia arCili

kote elene

nino

giorgi

maSo

mariami

vaJa vaxtangi

daviTi

ermile

natalia

43


III 25. amoicani profesia

adamians saqmis gareSe cxovreba ar SeuZlia, amito­mac igi Tavisi sur­ viliT irCevs erT romelime sfe­ros. Sen ukve ici, rom es saqmianoba misi profesia xdeba.

?

1. rogor fiqrob, rogor irCeven adamianebi profesias?

nebismieri profesia dasafasebelia. vinc unda iyos adamiani profesiiT, Tu igi kargad da mTeli gulis­ yuriT akeTebs Tavis saqmes, maSin is keTilsindisieri adamiani da kargi profesionalia.

1

gustav kurbe. qvismTlelebi

firosmani

3 mxatvrebi Tavis suraTebze xSi­rad asa­xaven ama Tu im profe­siis adamianebs. magaliTad, cnobili frangi mxatvris gustav kurbes suraTze gamosaxulni arian qvis mTlelebi muSaobis procesSi. isini sagangebo iaraRebiT Tlian qvas.

?

2. rogor fiqrob, ratom aris mxatvrisTvis mimzidveli da saintereso sxva­ dasxva profesiis adamianebis daxatva? 3. amoicani, romeli profesiis adami­a­ne­bi arian warmodgenili firosmanis am suraTebze? firosmani

44

2


mxatvrebi Ta­vianT namuSevrebze xSirad asaxaven xelovnebasTan da­ kavSirebul profesiebsac. mxatvari, msaxiobi, musikosi Tu mocekvave Tavisi saqmianobiT mraval Semoqmeds izidavs.

?

4 4. aRwere edgar degas ori namuSevari. 5. gansazRvre, romeli profesiis adamiane­ bi arian gamosaxuli TiToeul maTganze. daa­ sabuTe Seni mosazreba.

III

Sua saukuneebSic xSirad gamosa­­xavdnen xolme adamianebs ama Tu saqmianobis dros. 5 edgar dega

edgar dega

 l eqsi koni profesionali _ piri, romelmac ra­i­me saqmianoba gaixada Tavis profesiad. atributi _ risame da­maxa­si­aTebeli ni­ Sani.

?

6

6. aRwere qoroRos taZris reliefi da gamoTqvi Seni mosazreba, ras saq­ mi­ anoben aq gamosaxuli adamiane­ bi da vin arian isini profesiiT. qoroRos taZris reliefi

airCie SenTvis sasurveli da mosawoni romelime profesia da daxate am profesiis adamiani Sesa­feri atri­butebiT an Sesabamisi saqmianobis dros.

45


III 26. dinamika namuSevarSi

uZvelesi droidan mxatvrebi TavianT namu­ SevrebSi cdilobdnen aesaxaT garemo. namuSevar­ Si moZraobis gadmosacemad isini akvirdebodnen adamianebsa da cxovelebs. pirvelyofili ada­ mianebis mxatvrobaSi gamosaxulebebi pirobiTia, magram mayurebeli aSkarad grZnobs, Tu rogor moZraoben masze gamosaxuli figurebi.

pirvelyofili adamianis mxatvroba

pirvelyofili adamianis mxatvroba

mxatvari edgar dega did dros atarebda doRze, guldasmiT swavlobda mxedrebisa da cxe­nebis pozebs, STabeWdilebis dasamaxsovreblad akeTeb­ da Canaxatebs, romelTa mixedviTac Semdeg ferwerul namuSevrebs qmnida. doRis Temaze Seqmnil suraTebze mayurebeli aSkarad grZnobs rogori siswrafiT moZraoben SejibrSi monawile cxenebi.

edgar dega. starti

? 46

Teodor Jeriko. derbi epsomSi

1. aRwere degasa da Jerikos suraTebze gamosaxuli figurebi. 2. ra xerxebs iyeneben mxatvrebi moZraobis gadmosacemad?


Tu yvavilebi da xis totebi erT mxares aris gadazneqili, samo­ sis kalTebi da Tokze gafenili sarecxi haerSi frialebs, qolga ki gafrenas lamobs, suraTze qariani amindia gamosaxuli.

?

3. aRwere elene axvledianis na­ muSevari. 4. ra xerxebs iyenebs mxatvari suraTze moZraobis gadmosacemad.

III

elene axvlediani. TeTreulis gaSroba

iaponuri mxatvroba.

?

5. Seadare es namuSevrebi erTma­ neTs. ra msgavseba a maT Soris? klod mone. qali qolgiT

SenTvis sasurveli xerxebis gamoyenebiT gamosaxe moZravi figurebi sportuli Sejibris Temaze Seqmnil namuSevarSi.

47


III 27. Sors Tu axlos

aba, vis gaugia, wiwila Zroxaze, an Tundac qaTamze didi iyos. es, ra­ sakvirvelia, ase ar aris, magram mxatvrobas Tavisi wesebi aqvs. bevr sura­ Tze didi da patara sagnebis zomebi TiTqos Secvlilia.

?

1

1. kargad daakvirdi da aRwere pirvel naxatze mocemuli figurebi, daaxasiaTe maTi zoma. 2. axla meore naxatze warmodgenili figurebis zomebze dafiqrdi. 3. rogor fiqrob, ratom gansxvavdeba maTi zomebi am or naxatze? 2

suraTis xatvisas mxatvari iTvaliswinebs Sors aris Cvengan romelime sagani Tu axlos. rac ufro daSorebulia gamosaxuleba Cvengan, anu, ro­ gorc mxatvrebi amboben, ukana planzea gamosaxuli, miT ufro mcire zo­ misaa is, wina planze gamosaxuli sagnebi ki ufro didi zomisa Cans. am wesis gamoye­ nebiT furcelze advilad SeiZleba daxato erTmaneTisagan daSorebuli gamosaxu­lebebi ise, rom mayurebelmac naTlad igrZnos man­ Zili maT Soris.

?

4. aRwere, ra aris gamosaxuli zemoT mocemuli peizaJis wina, ukana da Sua planze?

warmoidgi­ne, rom Sens Tval­­ win zRvaa gadaS­li­­li, na­pir­T­an na­ vi irwe­va, xo­lo Sors uz­ar­maza­ri xo­ma­­ld ­ i mi­a­pobs zRvis tal­Rebs. daxate es peizaJi.

aleqsei hanzeni. xomaldi `imperatrica maria~ yirimis napirTan

48


III

28. didi da patara sagnebi

moris utrilos suraTis aRwerisas pirveli, rac TvalSi gvxvdeba esaa siRrmeSi mimavali, orive mxridan nagebobebiT mosazRvruli pa­rizis quCa da masze mimavali parizelebi. 2 ? 1. rogor fiqrob, rogor Seesabameba ada­ mianTa figurebis zoma nagebobebis zomas? 2. aris Tu ara es Sefardeba ise­Ti, rogo­ ric sinamdvileSia? 1

moris utrilo. kortos quCa

patara bavSvebi Zalze xSirad TavianT naxatebSi ver gadmoscemen sxva­ dasxva sagnebis zomaTa Tanafardobas. magaliTad am suraTze gogona TiTqmis saxlis simaRlea. Tu suraTze realobis gadmocema gsurs, sagnebs Soris Tanafardobis dacva aucilebelia.

?

4 3. aRwere mesame da meoTxe namuSevrebi. yuradReba miaqcie Senobebisa da adamianTa figurebis zomaTa urTierTSefardebas. ra gansxvavebas xedav maT Soris? 3

joto di bondone. eSmakebis gandevna asizidan

daxate Seni qalaqi, sofeli, aq mcxov­ rebi adamianebi da Seecade daicva gamosa­ xulebebs Soris zomaTa Tanafardoba.

ian vermeeri. patara quCa

49


III 29. saaxalwlo baraTi

Cven yovelwliurad sayvarel adamianebs, megobrebs, nacnobebs axal wels vulocavT. sakuTari grZnobebis da survilebis gamosaTqmelad saukeTeso formaa misaloci baraTi. misaloci baraTi SeiZleba martivi, erTgverdiani iyos, magram SegiZlia orgverdianic gaakeTo.

sworkuTxa an raime sxva formis furceli orad gakece. cal mxa­ res xazebi gaavle, raTa masze mi­sa­loci teqsti dawero.

moifiqre, ra ga­mo­sa­xu­lebas gaakeTeb meore mxa­res. SearCie masala.

gaakeTe orgverdia­ ni misaloci baraTi. gaafo­ r­ me SenTvis sasurveli xerxiT.

Seecade, Sen mier SerCeuli ga­ mo­ saxule­bis erTi nawili scdebodes mis­ aloci baraTis ares, raTa Seni baraTi Cveulebrivi ar iyos.

moifiqre, rogor gaaformeb misalocis pirvel gverds; ra warweras gaakeTeb zed.

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III

30. saSobao peizaJi

Ramea. caze varskvlavebi cimcimeben. namgala mTvare anaTebs. Tovlis fantelebi cidan trialiT eSvebian. mSvidi Ramea. ase warmoidgines da amgvari gamosaxes Sobis Rame Senma Tanatolebma. Sen rogori warmogidge­ nia is?

winaswar moifiqre, ras ga­ mo­ saxav saSobao peizaJze, fe­ radi qaRaldebisagan gamo­Weri isini da formatze daawebe.

TeTr saRebavSi dasvelebuli kbi­ lis jagrisiT SegiZlia fantelebi daxato anda bambis qulebi daawebo.

funjiTa da saRebaviT SegiZlia Rrublebi daxato. fanqarze wamoc­ muli Rrub­ liT ki SegiZ­ lia forma­ tis zedapi­ri `gaacocxlo~.

aplikaciis xerxiT Seqmeni saSobao peizaJi.

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III 31. grafika

rogorc ukve ici, grafika saxviTi xelovnebis erT-erTi dargia. grafikuli naxati SeiZleba dasrulebuli nawarmoebic iyos an winaswar Ses­ rulebuli mosamzadebeli Canaxati.

?

1. aRwere leonardo da vinCisa da rem­ brandtis warmodgenili namuSevrebi. 2. daaxasiaTe rogori Strixebi da xazebia gamoyenebuli maTSi. 3. Seni azriT, romeli maTgania dasrule­ buli namuSevari da romeli _ Canaxati. daa­ sabuTe Seni mosazreba. rembrandti. Raribebi iTxoven mowyalebas

leonardo da vinCi

grafikuli naxati Sav-TeTric SeiZleba iyos da feradic. es namuSevrebi sxvadasxva grafiku­ li masaliT _ Savi da feradi fanqriT, tuSiT, naxSiriT, pasteliT, akvarelis saRebaviT da a.S. sruldeba. mxatvari sakuTari Canafiqris ukeT gadmosacemad ama Tu im grafikuli masalis Ta­ viseburebebs iye­ nebs. magaliTad, pastels fxv­ ieri faqtura aqvs, furcelze is sakmaod msxvil da araTanabar kvals tovebs, iqercleba, ami­ tomac pasteliT Sesrulebuli naxatis zedapiri sxvadasxva ganaTebis pirobebSi TiTqos mayureb­ lis Tvalwin icvleba.

klod mone. mzis Casvla zRvaze

52


grafikuli namuSevris erT-erTi Tavisebureba isic aris, rom xSirad mxat­vrebi sxvadasxva grafikul masalas namuSevris Seqmnisas erTdro­ ulad iyeeneben. magaliTad, van gogis namuSevarSi `gza etenSi~ gamoy­ enebulia carci, fanqari, pasteli da akvareli.

?

4. rogor ganwyobilebas giq­mnis van gogis es namuSevari? 5. daakvirdi da aRwere, rogor aris ga­ mosaxuli siRrmeSi mimavali gza da xeebi mis gaswvriv.

III

Cinuri grafika

vinsent van gogi. gza etenSi

tuSiT xatvis tradicia saTaves Zveli Cinu­ ri da iaponuri kulturidan iRebs. tuSiT Ses­ rulebul naxatebze mravalgvari xazis garCeva SeiZleba. faqizi da wvrili xazebis gasavlebad kalams iyeneben, msxvil xazebs ki brtye­ li da ganieri funjiT asruleben. airCie nebismieri gra­fikuli masala da Seq­me­ni namuSevari Temaze `zamTris ardadegebi~. Cinuri grafika

53


III 32. egvipte

Zveli egvipte metad saintereso kulturis mqone qveyana iyo. egvip­ te­ lebma mdidari kulturuli memkvidreoba dagvitoves.

!

g a i x sene! 1. ra ici Zveli egviptis Sesaxeb? 2. egvipturi miTi mzis mog­za­u­robis Sesaxeb. CvenTvis cnobilia mravali egvipturi RvTaeba.

?

1. CamoTvale, romeli egvipturi RvTaebebi ici. osirisi _ nayofierebis RvTaeba, mic­vale­bulTa sam­ya­ros gamgebeli da msaju­li. Zveli egviptelebi Tvlid­nen, rom osirisi yovel wels, Semodgomaze kvdeboda da gazafxulze, bunebis ga­ naxlebasTan erTad axlidan ibadeboda.

isisi _ osirisis me­ uRle, horusis deda, romelic aseve nayofierebis RvTaebad iTvleboda da erTguli meuRlisa da mosiyva­rule dedis gansa­ xiereba iyo egviptur miTologiaSi.

seTi _ osi­ risis Zma, bo­ ro­ tebis RvTa­­eba. gamo­sa­xav­dnen ada­­mianis sxeu­ li­Ta da viris TaviT.

horusi _ osirisis da isisis Svili, mzis sxi­ vis gansaxiereba. uZ­ veles droSi egviptis faraoni. gamosaxavdnen Sevarde­ nis saxiT an adami­anis taniTa da Sevarde­ nis TaviT.

SearCie SenTvis ukve cnobili romelime egvipturi RvTa­eba da da­xate igi.

54

osirisi


osirisi egviptelTa erT-erTi mTavari RvTaeba iyo. igi uxsovar dros mefobda egvipteSi. man egviptelebs miwis damuSaveba da mosav­ lis moyvana aswavla. SuriT dabrmavebulma misma borotma Zmam seTma mokla osirisi da Tavad gamefda. miTis mixedviT, osirisis damwuxreb­ ulma meuRlem isisma Seagrova meuRlis gabneuli nawilebi da osirisi saswaulebrivad aRdga mkvdreTiT, magram dedamiwaze ar dabrunda, micvalebulTa samefoSi darCa da mas ganagebda. sabolood samarTalic aRdga; osirisisa da isisis vaJma, horusma brZolaSi daamarcxa seTi da samefo taxtic daikava.

egvipturi mxatvroba. osirisis samsjavro

III

egvipturi mxatvroba. horusi klavs seTs

egviptelebi xSirad gamosa­xavdnen samefo taxtze mjdom osiriss Tavze samefo gvirgvi­ ni­ Ta da xelSi kverTxiTa da maTra­ xiT. Zalian xSirad ki osirisi warmodgenilia rogorc micvale­bulTa msajuli samsjavroze.

egvipturi mxatvroba. osirisis samsjavro

irakli. 10 wlis

?

es gamosaxuleba micvalebulTa samsjavros nawi­ lia. masze osirisis winaSe gamosaxulia adamianis codvebis sasworze awonvis scena. sasworis erT mxa­ res adamianis guli devs, meore mxares ki _ bumbuli.

2. imsjeleT, ras niSnavs gulis da bumbulis moTavseba sasworis pinebze. 3. Tqveni azriT, ra SemTxvevaSi gadawonis bumbuli guls.

55


III 33. wvima, elva, cisartyela...

buneba xSirad icvleba, masac adamiani­viT Tavisi xasiaTi aqvs. is TiTqos karg gunebazea, rodesac mze anaTebs, xolo roca wvims, moRuSuli da pirquSia, TiTqos tiriso. wvima da Tovli bunebis movlenebia. gaixsene, bunebis kidev romel movlenebs icnob?

1

2

ginaxavs, rogor nakvalevs tovebs caze TeTrad daklaknili elva, an rogor lamazad gamoiyureba wvimis Semdeg lurj caze gadaWimuli cisar­ tyela? mxatvrebi xSirad moxibluli arian xolme bunebis movlenebis silama­ ziT da asaxaven maT TavianT namuSevrebze.

3

56

4


sxvadasxva mxatvris am namuSevrebze bunebis sxvadasxva movlenaa asaxu­ li. TiToeuli maTgani sxvadasxva ganwyobilebasa da STabeWdilebas qmnis.

?

3. amoicani, bunebis rome­li movlene­bia gamosaxuli mexu­Te da mee­ qvse namuSevarze. daasabuTe Seni mosazreba. 4. rogor ganwyobilebas qmnis es pei­zaJebi?

III

miSa. 10 wlis

norman garstini

aleqsi. 10 wlis uiliam terneri

?

5. daasaxele, bunebis ro­meli movlenebia asaxuli Se­ni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnil namu­Sevrebze. 6. Tu aris maTSi raime uCveulo? 7. Sen romel ferebs gamoiyenebdi mziani amindis dasaxatad? 8. romeli feriT daxatavdi elvas? amoirCie bunebis rome­lime movlena da daxate. Seeca­de, Sens naxatze gadmosce am movleniT miRebuli STabeWdileba.

57


III 34. naturmorti

saxlSi xSirad grovdeba qsovilebis an feradi qaRaldebis sxvadasxva zomis narCenebi, romlebic iseTi lamazia, rom gadayra genaneba, risTvis gamoi­ yeno ki _ ar ici. aseTi feradi narCenebisgan dekoratiuli namu­ Sevris Seqmna SeiZleba. sxvadasxva masalas erTad mou­ yare Tavi, Seuxame erTmaneTs maTi ferebi da maTgan gamoWeri sxva­dasxva formisa da feris yvavilebi, foTlebi, Reroebi.

Sen mier gamoWrili yvavilebi da fo­ Tlebi qaRaldze daa­lage da Seni fan­ taziiT Seqmeni Taiguli.

winaswar SearCie ornamentebiT Sem­ kuli an moCiTuli lamazi qsovili da misgan qoTnis forma gamoWeri.

Sen mier Seqmnil larnakSi Ca­wyobil Taiguls Se­ uxame iseTi feradi foni, romelic Seni azriT mas yvelaze metad mouxdeba. Semdeg yvela detali saTi­ Taod daawebe masze. amgvari dekorati­ uli kompozicia saukeTeso sa­Cuqaric iqneba da nebismi­ er oTaxsac daamSvenebs.

58


III

35. suraTis CarCo sanam mxatvrebi suraTs gamofenaze gaitanen da kedelze dakideben, mas CarCoSi svamen.

?

1. rogor fiqrob, ratom sWirdeba suraTs CarCo?

1

suraTis CarCo sxvadasxvagvari SeiZleba iyos. tra­diciulad CarCos xi­ sagan akeTeben. xis CarCo zogjer sadaa, zogjer ki mas CuqurTmebiT amko­ ben. Zvelad suraTis xis CarCoebs zemodan TabaSiriT uxvad aZerwavdnen mcenareul an geometriul ornamentebs da Semdeg oqrosfrad Rebavdnen.

?

2. Seni azriT, rogor STabeWdilebas qmnis amgvari CarCo? 2

CarCos zogjer ubralo qaRal­disgan an muya­ osgan amzadeben da sxva­dasxva xerxiT aformeben.

3

4

?

3. daakvirdi aq mocemul CarCoebs da aRwe­ re, ra masali­Taa isini Seqmnili. 4. rogor suraTebs Casvamdi am CarCoebSi?

5

daamzade CarCo ga­mo­fenaze war­sadgeni Seni namuSevrisaTvis. gamo­iyene nebismieri ma­sala da xerxi.

59


III 36. Cveni samSoblo

xom ar ici dutu megrelis leqsi `me patara qarTveli var~, romelSic erT-erTi strofi aseTia: `qarTl-kaxeTi, imereTi, guria da samegrelo, yvela Cemi samSobloa _ sayvareli saqarTvelo.~

?

1. Seni azriT, ratom aris Ca­ moTvlili am leqsSi saqar­ T­ ve­ los kuTxeebi? 2. saqarTvelos kidev romeli kuTxeebi ici?

saqarTvelos TiToeul kuTxes, iseve rogorc iq mcxovreb adamianebs, da­maxasiaTebeli niSnebi aqvT. es SeiZleba iyos maTi samosi, sayofacxovre­ bo nivTebi an am mxareSi gavrcelebuli raime nageboba. zogjer aseTi ni­ Sani ama Tu im kuTxis simbolod SeiZleba iqces.

?

60

3. saqarTvelos ro­meli kuTxea gamosa­xuli aq warmodgenil fotoze? 4. rogor fiqrob, ra aris saqarTvelos am kuTxis simbolo?

simbolo _ sagani, moq­medeba da sxv., romelic raimes pirobiT niSans warmoadgens. guSagi _ mcveli, dara­ji.


svaneTis soflebi kavkasionis mTebis ferdobe­ bzea Sefenili. maRali koS­kebi zemodan dascqeris soflebs da TiTqos guSagebiviT icaven maT mtri­ sagan. mtris Semosevis dros mTeli ojaxi koSk­ Si ixizneboda da iq magrdeboda, rogorc cixe­ simagreSi. Zvelad, omianobis dros, svaneTSi mTeli saqa­ rTvelos saganZuri inaxeboda xolme. aq saqa­ rTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxidan amohqondaT Zvir­ faseuloba _ xatebi, saeklesio nivTebi da sxv. dResac bevri maTgani svaneTis eklesiebsa da mes­ tiis muzeumSi inaxeba.

?

III

5. rogor fiqrob, ratom malavd­ nen svaneTSi qarTul saganZurs? ioane naTlismcemeli. ferweruli xati

wminda giorgi. Weduri xati

mraval qarTvel da ucxoel mxatvars aqvs daxatuli TovliT dafaruli mwvervalebi, mwvaned abibinebuli mTis kalTebi, patara saxlebi da erTma­ neTis gverdiT amayad Camwkrivebuli svanuri koSkebi.

SearCie saxatavi masala da daxate svaneTis peizaJi. namuSevris prezentaciisas mouTxre klass, ra ici saqarTvelos am kuTxis Sesaxeb.

Tengiz mirzaSvili. svaneTi

61


III 37. giwvevT gamofenaze

mxatvrebi suraTebs sakuTar saxelosnoeb­ Si xataven, Semdeg ki isini gamofenebs awyoben, raTa sxva adamianebmac ixilon maTi naxelavi; Seafason, ims­ jelon moswonT Tu ara isini, ra­ tom moswonT an ar moswonT. mxatvrebi adamian­ ebs sagangebo mosawvevebs ugzavnian da gamofe­ nis gaxsnaze iwveven. mTel klass albaT saswavlo wlis dasawyisidan ukve mravali namuSevari daugrovda da gamofenis gakeTebas win araferi udgas. warmoidgine, rom am gamofenisaTvis Senc unda Seqmna mosawvevi. mosawvevs xSirad sxvadasxva xerxiT aformeben. masze xan gamofenaze warmodgenili romelime naxatia gamosaxuli, zogjer zed mxolod orna­ mentia data­nili, xandaxan Tavad mosawvevs originalur formasac aZleven.

?

1. kidev ra informacias daamatebdi mosawvevis teqsts? 2. daakvirdi aq mocemuli mosawvevis or mxares. gamoTqvi Seni azri mis Sesaxeb. 3. ra informacias gawvdis mosa­wvevze mo­ cemuli teqsti?

Seqmeni mo­sa­­­wve­vi Tqveni klasis gamofenisaTvis. ga­­af ­ ­orme is da da­ ur­Te Sesabamisi teqsti.

62


38. vxatavT TiTebiT

III

xatvisas, Cveulebriv funjTan erTad, bevri sxva sagani SeiZleba gamoiy­ eno, magaliTad, Cxirebi, jagrisi, Rrubeli da mravali sxva ram. magram, zogjer, yvelaze mosaxerxebeli saxatavi iaraRi sakuTari TiTebia. Tu am zRaprul frinvels yuradRebiT daakvirdebi, advilad SeamCnev, rom mxat­ vars is marTlac `sakuTari xeliT~ Seuqmnia.

winaswar moifiqre, risi daxatva gsurs. moamzade feradi saRebavebi, funji, palitra. gadawyvite, romel detalebs daxatav TiTebiT.

63


III 39. qarTveli mxatvrebi

rogorc ukve ici, mxatvrebi TavianTi na­ muSevrebis meSveobiT mayureblebs sakuTar grZnobebs, azrebs da ganwyobilebas uziareben. yoveldRiur an uCveulo garemoSi gamosaxuli adamianebis, peizaJebis an naturmortebis Tva­ lierebisas Cven maT Semoqmedebasac vecnobiT da sakuTari STabeWdilebac gveqmneba maTze.

?

1. daakvirdi da aRwere pirveli da meore namuSevari. 2. Seni azriT, romeli qveyanaa asaxuli Ti­ Toeul maTganze. daasabuTe Seni mosazreba. 1 Salva qiqoZe

2

Salva qiqoZe

3

Salva qiqoZe

Salva qiqoZe (1895-1921) XX saukunis cnobilma qarTvelma mxat­varma Salva qiqoZem xatva adreul asakSi, TiTqmis laparakTan erTad daiwyo. mis gatacebas verc iman SeuSala xeli, rom mxat­ varma bavSvobaSi marjvena xeli daiziana da iZulebuli iyo marcxenaTi exata. parizSi, mxatvruli ganaTlebis gasagrZeleblad gamgzavrebuli mxatvari didi gatacebiT xatavda parizis xedebs, akeTebda misi quCebisa da baRebis Canaxatebs. samSobloSi dabrunebaze meocnebe mxatvari saqarTvelos peizaJebsac xatavda da samSoblos monatrebis sevdas ase iqarvebda. Tumca am ocnebas axdena ar ewera. safrangeTidan germaniaSi samkurnalod wasuli Salva qiqoZe sruliad axalgazrda gardaicvala.

64


qeTevan maRalaSvili (1894-1973) qeTevan maRalaSvili cnobili qar­ Tveli portretistia. man bevri qarTveli msaxiobis, mwerlis, mecnieris, xelovanis portreti Seqmna. am namuSevrebSi mxatvari srulyofil portretul msgavsebas aRwevda. sagangebod arCevda garemosa da atributebs, raTa zustad gadmoeca konkretuli adamianis garegnoba da xasiaTi.

III

qeTevan maRalaSvili. msaxiob nato vaCnaZis portreti

qeTevan maRalaSvili. mxatvar elene axvledianis portreti qeTevan maRalaSvili. moqandake iakob nikolaZis portreti

?

moiZie informacia am mxatvrebis Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb da warudgine klass.

3. qeTevan maRalaSvilis aq mocemul namuSevrebze cnobili qarT­ veli moqandake, mxatvari da msa­xiobia warmodgenili. aRwere TiToeul por­tret­ze gamosaxuli adamianebi, samosis detalebi, garemo. ra STa­ beWdilebas qmnis TiToeuli maTgani?

65