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National Academy of Inventors Inaugural Annual Conference 速

February 16 - 17, 2012 Tampa, Florida Embassy Suites Hotel/Busch Gardens at the University of South Florida

Technology and Innovation Proceedings of the National Academy of Inventors® EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Paul R. Sanberg University of South Florida Office of Research & Innovation 3702 Spectrum Boulevard, Suite 175 Tampa, FL 33612-9444 USA

CO-EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Howard J. Federoff Georgetown University Medical Center 4000 Reservoir Road, NW 120 Building D Washington, DC 20007 USA

Managing Editor: Cecilia Vindrola Padros Editorial Coordinator: Judy Lowry

EDITORIAL BOARD Nasser Arshadi University of Missouri-St. Louis St. Louis, MO

Lawrence O. Gostin Georgetown University Law Center Washington, DC

Vinit Nijhawan Boston University Boston, MA

Norman R. Augustine Lockheed Martin Corporation Bethesda, MD

Sharon Heise Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition Pensacola, FL

Prem S. Paul University of Nebraska Lincoln, NE

Tanaga Boozer Florida A&M University Tallahassee, FL Vimal Chaitanya New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM Stephen Z. Cheng The University of Akron Akron, OH Christos Christodoulatos Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ Sandra Degen University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH Mike Drummond, Inventors Digest Charlotte, NC Jay Gogue Auburn University Auburn, AL

Karen A. Holbrook University of South Florida Tampa, FL John P. Johnson Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona Beach, FL John Kopchick Ohio University Athens, OH Ken S. Lee Jackson State University Jackson, MS Shinn-Zong (John) Lin China Medical University Taichung, Taiwan A. Alan Moghissi Institute for Regulatory Science Alexandria, VA Kumi Nagamoto-Combs University of North Dakota Grand Forks, ND

Leonard Polizzotto Draper Laboratory Cambridge, MA Steve Price Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK Jarett Rieger Moffitt Cancer Center Tampa, FL Marcus W. Shute Clark Atlanta University Atlanta, GA Solomon H. Snyder Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD M.J. Soileau University of Central Florida Orlando, FL Lonnie G. Thompson The Ohio State University Columbus, OH

Editorial Office: Technology and Innovation–Proceedings of the National Academy of Inventors, University of South Florida, Office of Research & Innovation, 3702 Spectrum Boulevard, Suite 175, Tampa, FL 33612-9444 USA.; Tel: +1-813974-1347; Fax: +1-813-974-3348 Publishing, Subscription, & Advertising Office: Cognizant Communication Corporation, Robert N. Miranda, Publisher, PO Box 37, 18 Peekskill Hollow Road, Putnam Valley, NY 10579 USA.; Tel: +1-845-603-6440; Fax: +1-845-603-6442;

Journal Advisory Board Barry B. Bercu Shekar Bhansali Venkat Bhethanabotla Cesario V. Borlongan Don Cameron My Lien Dao Dwaine Emerich David Fries Richard Gilbert D. Yogi Goswami Julianne Harmon Dennis Killinger Dean F. Martin Wilbur Milhous Shyam Mohapatra Cyndy D. Sanberg Elias K. Stefanakos Shivshankar Sundaram Aydin Sunol Thomas E. Wade Sarath Witanachchi 2012 USF Chapter Executive Committee Dennis Killinger, President Thomas E. Wade, Immediate Past President Shyam Mohapatra, President-Elect Barry B. Bercu, Vice President Sarath Witanachchi, Secretary Clifford Merz, Treasurer Richard Gitlin, Member-at-Large Steve Sun, Member-at-Large George Nolas, Member-at-Large 2011 USF Chapter Executive Committee Thomas E. Wade, President Dennis Killinger, President-Elect Paul R. Sanberg, Immediate Past President Shyam Mohapatra, Vice President Barry B. Bercu, Secretary Clifford Merz, Treasurer Dean Martin, Member-at-Large Tom Weller, Member-at-Large Steve Sun, Member-at-Large Ex Officio Members of the NAI Executive Committee David Fries Sudeep Sarkar Thomas E. Wade Thomas Weller Karen A. Holbrook National Academy of Inventors, Inc., 3702 Spectrum Boulevard, Suite 175, Tampa, FL 33612-9444 USA Web:; Email:; Contact: Keara Leach, NAI Coordinator;; Tel: +1-813-974-5862; Fax: +1-813-974-3348

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AIMS AND SCOPE The journal Technology and Innovation – Proceedings of the National Academy of Inventors® is a forum for presenting information encompassing essentially the entire field of applied sciences with a focus on transformative technology and academic innovation. Owing to the broad nature of the applied sciences, authors should be guided by the interest of the readers who are likely to be knowledgeable non-specialist scholars. Contributions containing the following information will be considered for publication:

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Translational technology and science including research studies with a broad interest Articles on historical, social, and ethnical aspects of science, engineering, medicine Critical assessments of a segment of science, engineering, medicine, or other technologies Technology, innovation, and public policy Environmental and health impacts of various technologies Intellectual property protection Invention

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Copyright Notice: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright for their article is transferred to the publisher if and when the article is accepted for publication. However, assignment of copyright is not required from authors who work for organizations that do not permit assignment. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, photographic reproductions, microform, or any other reproductions of similar nature and translations. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic type, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without permission in writing from the copyright holder. Photocopying information for users in the USA: The Item Fee Code for this publication (1949-8241/1 $90) indicates authorization to photocopy items for Transactional Reporting Service, provided the state fee for copying beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the United States Copyright Law is paid. The appropriate remittance of $90.00 per copy per article is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. The copyright owner’s consent does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific written permission must be obtained from the published for such copying. In case of doubt, please contact Cognizant Communication Corporation Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Communication Corporation

Oral Presentation Abstracts for the Inaugural Annual Conference of the National Academy of Inventors (agenda order) THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 2012 S ES SION A

A-3 Rationale for a Drug Discovery Acceleration at Georgetown University Medical Center Howard J. Federoff1 Executive Vice President for Health Sciences, Georgetown University Medical Center


A-1 Attracting Venture Capital for Your University’s New Venture Vinit Nijhawan1 Managing Director of the Office of Technology Development, Boston University


It is getting increasingly difficult to attract funding for university new ventures as the venture capital industry is skeptical about the value of these ventures and the length of incubation required. We have implemented a novel process to launch new ventures at Boston University and in our first 18 months have launched five funded new ventures. These new ventures are in biopharma, medical devices, diagnostics, and materials.

Supporting faculty entrepreneurial interests are common to the academic environment. At Georgetown University Medical Center an investment in creation of a Program for Drug Discovery has resulted in the creation of an array of new small molecules that have the potential to mature into drug leads. To address the issue of prioritization of these pharmacophores and enable a process to move through IND we formed the Georgetown Drug Discovery Accelerator. The conceptual frame is to advance ‘acceleration-ready’ leads rapidly through and efficiently through clinical proof of concept (POC). Successful prosecution of a lead is anticipated to result in risk mitigation and correspondingly increased value of the asset. I will discuss our effort to launch this Georgetown University wholly owned company.

A-2 Innovation and the Value Balance Len Polizzotto1 Vice President for Marketing and Strategic Business Development, Draper Laboratory


Many of us use the words creativity, invention, and innovation interchangeably, yet these three words really mean three different things. Something creative is new and novel to average people, but it may or may not be novel to someone “skilled in the art.” An invention is something novel and that is not obvious to someone skilled in the art. In both these instances, however, there has been no mention if either is of value. That is where an innovation comes in. It is something that is creative, inventive and has value in that a large portion of the market cares about it. We term the value something has in the market “customer value.” We define it as quality times convenience divided by cost. Quality is an objective element (we can accurately measure it). Convenience is subjective. It is based on emotion. Cost is all the burden of owning something. Obviously, we can create very high customer value by giving away high quality, high convenience products. The problem is that the organization distributing the products will go out of business. Therefore there must be a balance. There are actually 5 elements to the overall system that must be in balance for the system to survive. They are customer value; organization value; employee value; investor value; and environmental value. These five must be in balance, the VALUE BALANCE™, otherwise the system collapses. If any one of these five has an undo advantage or disadvantage over the others, the system will eventually fail. We will present the formulas for each of the five elements and provide examples of imbalance that caused systems to fail.

S E S S ION B B-1 Accelerating the Innovation Economy by a Strong Coupling of the Academic Research Enterprise to Industry M.J. Soileau1 and Thomas O’Neal2 Vice President for Research & Commercialization, University of Central Florida 2 Associate Vice President for Research & Commercialization, University of Central Florida 1

There are two questions addressed in this talk: 1) Can the extensive university research base be better coupled to industry to accelerate the development of the innovation economy? 2) If the answer to Question 1 is YES, then what collaboration approaches should be used? The answer to the first question is YES! The answer to the second question depends on the boundary conditions which constrain the universities. This talk addresses the UCF strategy of economic engagement. B-2 From Concept Towards Commercialization: A Case Study V. G. Gude1 and N. N. Khandan2 1 2

Assistant Professor, Oregon Institute of Technology Professor, New Mexico State University

This paper presents a case study of translating academic research into patented invention. It traces the endeavors by which a PhD research project was initiated, funded, and developed, culminating in a patented technology for

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benefiting society. The invention is based on simple but sound theoretical concepts, applied in an innovative manner to produce potable water in a sustainable manner. The core of the invention is a low-temperature desalination process that could be engineered in multiple ways depending on the application. In contrast to the traditional energy-intensive desalination process for producing potable water, this invention can be engineered to be driven by solar energy, geothermal energy, or low-grade waste heat sources. The outcomes of this project include 2 MS thesis, 1 PhD Dissertation, 10 National/International conference presentations, and 10 ISI journal publications. This project had attracted scientific/technical community’s attention in the Civil Engineering magazine research briefs in 2007. In 2008, the project was selected as one of the 29 “Best & the Brightest” inventions to be featured in the 2008 Genius Issue of the Esquire Magazine. This case study traces how this project was developed, starting from conceptualizing and theoretical modeling, winning grants to validate the concept at prototype scale, publishing peer-reviewed journal papers, and presenting at conferences, to securing technology-transfers and patent protections. B-3 Development of a Strategic Plan for a Technology Transfer Office Michael F. Moore1 Associate Vice President, IP Commercialization and Economic Development, University of North Dakota


Strategic planning is an important exercise for any organization. An academic based technology transfer office is no different. The University of North Dakota’s office of IP Commercialization and Economic Development recently completed its strategic plan. A committee of faculty, technology transfer officers, state and local economic development professionals identified five key goals for the tech transfer function at UND. The five goals include, (1) developing a campus wide culture that supports technology transfer & Economic development activities, (2) contribute to the benefit of the public, (3) provide service to faculty, (4) facilitate economic development, and (5) license technology for fair value. I believe there is value in faculty inventors understanding how TTO’s think and what factors drive them to make the decisions they do. B-4 How to Invent – Legal and Intellectual Requirements Joseph P. Kennedy1 Distinguished Professor of Polymer Science and Chemistry, The University of Akron


This presentation focuses on the legal and intellectual requirements of inventing. The laws of inventing (in the legal sense) are derived and briefly discussed. It is found that the legal requirements of inventing are straightforward, except for the serious problems caused by the inadequate definition of unobviousness in the patent statutes. The fundamental problem with the definition is due to the elusive concept of the person having ordinary skill in the art (often abbreviated as PHOSITA) in Section 103 of U.S. Code 35. As inventors must exhibit capabilities above the level of the ill-defined

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PHOSITA, the intellectual requirements of how to achieve this are examined. While a generally accepted definition of creativity is lacking, a narrow definition of the specific kind of creativity that gives rise to patentable inventions is possible and is proposed: Patentable creativity is the capacity of the prepared mind to recognize and satisfy a need in a useful, novel and unobvious manner for society’s benefit. It is widely held that the inventing process is governed by the subconscious or intuitive thinking; this notion is examined and criticized. S E S S ION C C-1 (no abstract) C-2 Faculty Entrepreneurship at a State-Funded University: A VP for Research Perspective Sandra J. Degen1 1 Interim Chair, Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry & Microbiology, University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center As the past Vice President for Research at the University of Cincinnati, I was challenged with rewarding entrepreneurship of our faculty and supporting economic development initiatives in the region and the state of Ohio. In 2010, faculty at the University of Cincinnati brought in $443M in research grants and ranked in the top 25 of public research institutions for federal R&D expenditures. Due to state budget deficits, the general funds budget that supported the Office of Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer was routinely cut sometimes as much as 10%. In order to support our faculty, the intellectual property office had to have a new way of doing business that was responsive but creative in identifying and using resources. State-wide master agreements with industry partners, sharing of intellectual property with industry partners, taking equity in start-up companies, use of entrepreneurs in residence, identifying proof-of-concept funding from the state or regional partners, distribution of cost-sharing on state entrepreneurial grants and other initiatives will be presented. C-3 High Throughput Genome Sequencing, a Powerful Disruptive Technology Jarett Rieger1 Director, Office of Technology Management and Commercialization and Associate General Counsel, Moffitt Cancer Center


High-throughput genome sequencing is dramatically reducing the cost of genome sequencing, which will have farreaching benefits to patient diagnosis and treatment. This new platform is disruptive because sequencing technology is becoming more affordable and accessible to researchers and patients. The costs for genome sequencing have been drastically dropping over the past several years as evidenced by the large cost for sequencing the entire genome under the Human Genome Project. This international research project commenced in 1990 and yielded the sequencing of 99% of the genome in 2003 for an astonishing $2.7 billion.

Today, the price for genome sequencing is in the tens of the thousands and is trending downwards towards about $1,000 over the next five years. Because of the commercial potential for high-throughput sequencing, the quest for the $1,000 genome has resulted in fierce competition between emerging biotech companies (e.g. IPOs in 2010 by Pacific BioSciences and Complete Genomics). Researchers are using the sequencing data to learn the genetic underpinnings of disease initiation and progression, as well as to identify new molecular targets for therapies. With genome sequencing becoming more affordable, patients will soon begin purchasing this data, which will disrupt health care by providing patients with insights into their future health condition and treatment options. This new and powerful technology will likely transform the practice of medicine and dramatically raise the standard of health care. C-4 Disruptive Innovators Create Disruptive Innovations Paul Swamidass1 Professor of Operations Management, Director of the Thomas Walter Center for Technology Management, Auburn University


James Dyson, founder and CEO of Dyson, is quoted as saying, “No one has the right answer at the beginning. I made 5,127 prototypes of the bagless vacuum before I got it right.” When an invention does not work after hundreds of prototypes, most would walk away from the idea. There would be no Dyson vacuum cleaners without James Dyson trying numerous prototypes without quitting; an example of a disruptive thinker, disruptive innovator, disruptive individual. Disruptive innovation is the product of individuals with a rare vision. Most disruptive innovations are associated with disruption-causing individuals. Telephony is associated with Alexander Graham Bell, electric light bulb with Thomas Edison, heavier than air flight with the Wright brothers, microcomputer revolution with the Steven Jobs and his partner Wozniak, Internet retailing with Steve Bezos, social networking explosion with Zukerberg, and so on. There is a tendency among organizations and investors to aspire for disruptive innovations because of the promise they hold. Instead of funding exclusively programs that promote disruptive innovations, identifying and supporting disruptive thinkers and individuals may have a better payoff because disruptive individuals create disruptive innovations. Disruptive individuals fit a certain mold; they may be difficult to understand or accept. They may dance to a different drummer. Disruptive innovators have an inner drive to solve rare and exceptional problems that are disruptive. Could disruptive individuals be identified and supported? What are the marks of disruptive thinking?

S E S S ION D D-1 The Creation of Jobs Through Innovation Daniel Daly1 Director of the Innovation and Mentoring of Entrepreneurs Center, The University of Alabama


The United States has long been the economic leader of the world. In a large part it was due to the blessing of an abundant supply of natural resources. Thus it only made sense that we would take the lead in converting those natural resources into goods and products. However, the world is ever changing. The location of a processing center is no longer necessary to be with a limited proximity to its supply source. Additionally, as the wealth of a nation increases so does the resistance to take or perform low paying jobs. For example in the chemical industry since 2008, nearly 25,000 jobs which includes higher paying jobs in research and development (R&D )have been lost. Higher labor costs, shrinking margins, and a growing aversion to the risks in longer-term R&D also appear to play significant roles. Unlike any previous time in the history of chemistry innovation, entrepreneurs and small businesses may now hold the key to limiting the losses in jobs, in generating new job opportunities for chemists in the U.S., and in helping chemistry solve the problems faced by society. It is clear that the US has a great innovative capability. However infrastructure changes do need to occur to unleash this creative force. The American Chemical Society (ACS) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have recognized the infrastructural problems and are beginning to address them. These efforts will be discussed in the presentation. D-2 Open Architecture Information Sharing: Concepts and Applications Walter J. McCracken1 1

Deputy Director, SRI International, St. Petersburg, FL

With the growth of the internet and personal communication devices, the volume of information is expanding rapidly. Deriving “actionable information” for decision makers from this expanding volume presents a challenge for information system designers. An approach that has been adopted by SRI applies an open service-oriented-architecture (SOA) that can bridge several enterprise (information) buses for highly efficient information exchange. Creating interoperable, secure, and scalable distributed applications has traditionally been one of the more difficult problems in software engineering. This problem is compounded when considering the challenges of domains that span multiple enterprises, repurposing legacy applications and the integration of sensor data and sensor control into an enterprise. For example, a system can provide situational awareness across government, military and civilian agencies through the designed application. In this case, the SOA structure is used to ingest real-time sensor data (from remote locations) and publish it as information, i.e. at a down-sampled frequency, to a central enterprise. This information is visualized through a common user-configurable web-based user interface. Another example, the ability NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 5

to connect between information rich environments, such as NOAA enterprise for environmental data, a DHS enterprise for customs and port activity data and a DOD enterprise for intelligence data, would allow for comprehensive situational awareness for a port or other monitored area of interest. D-3 Academic Entrepreneurship: A Paradigm Shift In Higher Education C. Christodoulatos1, T. Lechler1, V. Hazelwood1, and S. Furnbach1 Stevens Institute of Technology


instrumental in helping Marion County attract the attention of high tech companies. Julie Sheppard, IHMC General Counsel and Special Assistant to the Director, will discuss IHMC approaches to funding innovation, job creation, intellectual property, collaboration, community outreach and other aspects of IHMC culture that foster talent, promote ideas and encourage innovation. D-5 From Student Project to Student Profit: Developing a Technology Company in an Academic Environment Brian Butka1 Associate Professor, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University


Stevens Institute of Technology established the Office of Academic Entrepreneurship (OAE) in 2008 to foster and promote institute-wide innovative and entrepreneurial research and educational programs with the objective of creating a vibrant faculty and student community culture of academic entrepreneurs. To that end, it integrates entrepreneurial concepts and ideas into undergraduate and graduate curricula and teaches students the business skills required for the creation of high-tech enterprises. This is achieved by: 1) The introduction of entrepreneurship in undergraduate and graduate education and, 2) The transformation of the traditional university technology transfer and commercialization process into a technology driven innovation exploitation process. One major undertaking is the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Program, which aims to incorporate innovation and entrepreneurship (I&E) formally into all undergraduate curricula spanning all four years of study via: Traditional Training - Courses, senior design, business plan competitions, summer internships, seminars, E-minor and Experiential Learning - apprenticeships, internships preferably to new start-ups, practicum, etc. Students also have the opportunity to perform innovative research through various summer research opportunities mentioned above. Moreover, OAE organizes relevant events for the academic community including intellectual property (IP) training seminars, IP audits, entrepreneurial networking events, elevator pitch Olympics, industry workshops, etc. D-4 Talent, Ideas and Innovation Julie Sheppard1 General Counsel and Special Assistant to the Director, Institute for Human & Machine Cognition

This presentation will follow the creation of the company NuovoWind from its roots in a student honors project to a University funded research grant to a for profit company. As a student project Dr. Butka and Manu Sharma developed a vertical axis wind turbine intended for low-cost single household use. The team later won an internally funded University research grant to develop a prototype wind turbine for characterization. As publicity of the wind turbine prototype grew, the list of possible applications grew to include the need for ultra-low cost power in rural African villages. As part of a special topics class a vertical axis wind turbine design was optimized for low cost materials and assembly in the target country using local labor. As the wind turbine grew from a research project to a commercial product the development work was performed in a mix of classes used for graduation, University funded research and work outside of the University. The University IP policy independently addressed each of these development scenarios with differing determinations of the ownership of the IP. This problem is not unique to this project nor this university. Encouraging student inventions and student entrepreneurship will often result in IP developed through a mix of class work, university resources and external efforts. A flexible IP policy is required to address these challenges. D-6 Electronic Distillation of Verbose Technology Descriptions Anton J. Hopen1 Innovation Express Corporation



Researchers at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IMHC), a not-for-profit research institute of the State University System of Florida, pioneer ground-breaking technologies aimed at leveraging and extending human capabilities. The Institute is home to over 100 top scientists and engineers collaboratively engaged in cutting edge developments in the fields of artificial intelligence, robotics, humanmachine interaction, cognitive psychology, and related fields. This interdisciplinary team of researchers works together on a daily basis to produce revolutionary technology advances that could only be found at the intersection of their fields. Since its inception, IHMC has become known as a habitat for innovation, re-energizing Pensacola’s downtown, spurring new development and jobs nearby, and making major contributions to the local economy. Recently, IHMC opened a second facility in downtown Ocala and has been

A computer based utility distills the state of the art, the invention, market potential, and funding requests to an array of text strings, each string forty (40) characters or less. These core concepts are electronically assembled into a terse distillation of the technology. The visual and logical constraints on verbosity compel the inventors to identify the novelty, value and commercial target of the invention with precision. The process generates a number of immediate benefits: (1) the 40-character limit in the graphic user interface provide a visceral filter to convey the true invention; (2) an “elevator pitch” is assembled from the string array in an order and format most useful for evaluation by an investor; and (3) the constrained data fields permit a normalized grid-type display of active technologies seeking movement or continued momentum towards commercialization. Yet another benefit of the system is increasing the efficiency and precision in which patent applications are drafted. Patents define the

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metes and boundaries of an invention to thereby exclude competitors from practicing the invention. By collecting the core components of prior art, novelty, benefit and marketability the central inventive concept may be filtered from what is normally and necessarily a lengthy disclosure. The central inventive concept can subsequently be accurately identified and explored further. FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 2012 S ES SION E E-1 Training the Next Generation of Innovators M. J. S. Van Scott1 1 Office of Technology Transfer, East Carolina University Eastern North Carolina is a rural 29-county region whose economy was rooted in agriculture (farming, forestry and fishing), textile and furniture manufacturing, and tourism. Economic decline has been aggravated by degeneration of the tobacco industry and movement of manufacturing jobs overseas. East Carolina University, the regional academic center and thought leader, has sharpened its focus to engage, equip and empower the next generation of innovators, inventors and entrepreneurs to produce new products and businesses, and drive economic recovery. A partnership between ECU’s Office of Technology Transfer, the Entrepreneurial Initiative and the Innovation Design Laboratory has resulted in a series of programs and opportunities designed to build a foundation of skills for our next innovation and development leaders. Among these is a new undergraduate honors course that will explore the history and economic impacts of the innovation process and combine it with exposure to innovation design and entrepreneurship principles. At its conclusion, students will have identified problems, evaluated solutions, defined value propositions, and established and presented a preliminary ideation plan for potential new product development. Students looking for more dynamic action may participate in ECU’s Innovation Design Academy or IDEA internship program for concentrated exposure to product development opportunities. Finally, students may also take advantage of institutional resources to advance their own product development ideas. Outcomes to date include an e-team focused on development of products to improve farm safety; formation of an entrepreneurship club; and collaborative partnerships among faculty, students and entrepreneurs. E-2 University and Corporations: Contrast Between Two Cultures Leonard D. Young1 Associate General Counsel and Director of the Technology Transfer Office, Cleveland State University


After spending over 25 years in industry, 10 years as chief legal counsel of a 2 billion dollar specialty chemical company, and now as director of Technology Transfer Office of Cleveland State University, there is no doubt in my mind that the interests of the university and the industrial partner are very different. These differences are evident in the

negotiations around university licenses, but even more so when a company and university discuss collaborating in research projects. In this presentation, I will introduce the concept of strategic alliance between a corporation and a university. Strategic alliance is not simple agreements and is not boilerplate documents. It is a well thought out arrangement that benefits both parties and builds confidence and trust between the company and the university. I will use the master research agreement between P&G and 14 Ohio public universities to illustrate this concept. E-3 Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonists: From Bench to Product John J. Kopchick1 Edison Biotechnology Institute and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University


Employing a structure/function approach to the understanding of the molecular topology of growth hormone (GH), we discovered that glycine (Gly) 119 of bovine GH and Gly 120 of human GH were important amino acids required for GH activity. Substitution of this Gly residue with a variety of amino acids resulted in molecules that lacked growth-promoting activity. More importantly, these molecules inhibited the actions of GH both in vitro and in vivo. These results (obtained more than a decade ago) were the basis for the discovery of GH receptor antagonists. Since that time, we have focused our attention on establishing the mechanism by which they inhibit GH action. An update of that data will be presented. Expression of GH antagonist genes in mice results in dwarf animals with low levels of IGF-1. These mice are physiological normal and are protected against diabetesinduced glomerulosclerosis and ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. Additionally, injection of GH antagonists into diabetic mice inhibits kidney enlargement, glomerular hypertrophy, and urinary albumin excretion. Together, these results laid the foundation for the clinical use of GH receptor antagonists when endogenous GH levels are elevated or when GH is a factor in the progression of a clinically important disorders. Three such indications are acromegaly, diabetes induced end organ damage, and certain types of cancer. The ‘convoluted path’ from the discovery of the GH receptor antagonist to commercialization will be outlined. Finally, the GH antagonist, SOMAVERT TM (Pegvisomant for Injection), has been approved for use in acromegalic individuals. An update on this data will be given. S E S S ION F F-1 Changing the Academic Culture: A Proposed Model for Limited Resource Institutions Felix A. Okojie1 and Tanaga A. Boozer2 Vice-President for Research and Federal Relations, Jackson State University 2 Director, Office of Technology Transfer, Licensing and Commercialization, Florida A & M University 1

While the Bayh-Doyle Act has had a significant impact on larger more established research institutions, its impact on small and Limited Resource Institutions (LRIs) has been NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 7

marginal. New federal policies aimed at promoting commercialization of university research must be broad in scope, but robust enough to catalyze the intellectual talents of researchers at all American universities. The proposed approach offers LRIs a viable model while avoiding the ‘Act of Congress’ needed to amend the Bayh-Dole Act. The proposed model sets forth a unique educational and experiential approach involving administrators, faculty and students working within the existing legal framework to change the culture, fund innovation and successfully commercialize university research. F-2 (no abstract) S ES SION G G-1 Strategies for Translating Basic to Clinic in Cell Therapy of Stroke at CMU Chapter Shinn-Zong Lin1,2,3, Demeral Liu1, and Woei-Cherng Shyu1,3 Neuropsychiatry Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan 2 Department of Neurosurgery, China Medical University Beigan Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan 3 Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan 1

China Medical University owns two medical hospitals in central Taiwan, i.e. Taichung and Beigang University Hospital. Cell therapy trials in stable stroke patients have been conducted in these hospitals by using autologous CD34 stem cells. Basic research was focused on the effectiveness of CD34 stem cells in treating acute or chronic stroke in rats and mice. Molecular mechanisms of therapeutic affect were elucidated including the production of homing factors for attracting stem cells to the injured brain, and protein production for enhancing drgiogenesis and neuro-genesis. Lastly, the safety of cell implantation in animal brain was carefully evaluated. These research results were published in various well known journals including Circulation, J of Neuroscience, J of Clinical Investigation etc. Based on these basic research results, clinical trial was conducted in Taiwan after getting approval from IRB and Taiwan FDA. Phase I pilot trial was conducted in 6 chronic stroke patients. Phase II trial was conducted in 30 chronic stroke patients in a randomized, open labeled controlled fashion. This randomized control study demonstrates that a therapeutic strategy using G-CSF combined with autologous implantation of PBSCs mobilized by G-CSF transplantation for old stroke patients is safe, feasible, and shows preliminary evidence of improved neurological outcomes. G-2 Racing Safety Through Invention D. L. Sicking1 Midwest Roadside Safety Facility, University of NebraskaLincoln


For many years, safety measures at high speed race tracks focused on containing race vehicles to minimize risks for spectators. Rigid concrete walls proved to be the most effective method for containing high speed race vehicles. 8 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

Even in the top NASCAR and open wheel racing series where vehicle safety systems were optimized, these barriers produced approximately 2 driver fatalities, and many serious injuries annually through the 1990’s. Tony George, President of the Indy Racing League (IRL) recognized the need for developing a safer barrier system and he enlisted the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to meet this need. The search for a solution to this difficult safety issue explored many different alternative concepts and materials and eventually produced the Steel and Foam Energy Reduction Barrier, (SAFER). Since its introduction on all major US race tracks in 2004, no driver in any of the nation’s top racing circuits has been seriously injured or killed by an impact with a containment wall treated with the SAFER Barrier. The invention process used during the development of the SAFER Barrier has been employed to develop numerous highway safety systems. In fact, it is nearly impossible to travel more than one mile on any major highway in the US without encountering a product developed by one or more members of the MwRSF team. This proven method for fostering creativity and directing it produce meaningful inventions is presented as it was applied to the development of the SAFER Barrier. G-3 Camalexin, the Phytoalexin from Cruciferous Plant, as a Treatment for Aggressive Prostate Cancer Basil Smith1, Roman Mezencev2, Mahendranauth Chetram1, BaoHan Vo1, Cimona Hinton1, and Valerie Odero-Marah1 Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Development, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 2 Department of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 1

Camalexin is a phytoalexin that accumulates in various cruciferous plants upon exposure to environmental stress and plant pathogens. Besides moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity, camalexin was reported to also exhibit antiproliferative and cancer chemopreventive effects. We hypothesized that camalexin would reduce viability of prostate cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS)mediated cell death. As models, we utilized less aggressive LNCaP and ARCaP prostate cancer cells stably transfected with empty vector (ARCaP-Neo) or their more aggressive counterparts, C4-2 and ACRaP cells stable transfected with constitutively active Snail cDNA (ARCaP-Snail) that are more tumorigenic and metastatic. We found that the more aggressive cancer cells (C4-2 and ARCaP-Snail) express more ROS than LNCaP and ARCaP-Neo, respectively. Camalexin treatments led to higher ROS as shown by H2DCFDA staining. MTS cell viability assay indicated that camalexin treatments decreased cell proliferation more significantly in C4-2 and ARCaP-Snail cells, as compared to LNCaP and ARCaP-Neo cells, respectively, while PrEC normal prostate epithelial cells were unaffected. Conversely, camalexin treatments increased apoptosis associated with increased p21 and p27 anti-proliferative markers and cleaved PARP apoptotic marker as shown by western blot analysis. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) ROS scavenger abrogated camalexin effects. Therefore, camalexin retarded prostate cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via increased ROS generation. Interestingly, it was more potent in aggressive PCa cells expressing higher levels of ROS and did not affect

normal cells. Hence, this phytoalexin has a strong potential as a novel therapeutic agent. G-4 What Might Have Happened if the America Invents Act Had Been a Law in 1886 Dean F. Martin1 Distinguished University Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida


Persons are debating the implications of the America Invents Act, which brings a certain rule of the Patent and Trademark Office in compliance with patent practices in the rest of the world. Time will tell, but it is interesting to speculate on the consequences had the law been in effect in 1886. One consequence is that Charles Martin Hall, American discoverer of the electrochemical reduction of cryolite, a major aluminum ore, would not have received the critical patents; Paul L. T. Héroult, a Frenchman would have . Héroult had obtained a patent in France and applied for a U.S. patent about the same time. The rule at the time, and until last summer, awarded the patent to the inventor who first reduced the invention to practice. In the patent trial of 1886, Hall was able to show that he was the first to invent. Consequences were that the supporters of Hall formed the Pittsburg Reduction Co., which was later converted into ALCOA, which held a monopoly in the US until after WWII. Hall became a multimillionaire, generously enhanced the endowment of Oberlin College, his alma mater, and ALCOA ran aluminum processing plants that made a significant contribution to the production of airplanes during WWII. G-5 (no abstract)

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 9

Poster Abstracts

for the Inaugural Annual Conference of the National Academy of Inventors (alphabetical by author)

In-Vivo Effects of the Novel PKC-ι Inhibitor, ICA-1 on Breast Cancer and Glioma Xenografts Acevedo-Duncan, M.1 1

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida

Protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) confers resistance to druginduced apoptosis in cancer cells. This research focuses on the in-vivo effects of the novel PKC-ι inhibitor, ICA-1, on breast cancer and glioma xeno-grafts. ICA-1 targets a unique sequence in the catalytic domain of PKC-ι. The breast cancer xenograft study evaluated 12 athymic nude mice while the glioma xenograft study comprised of 6 female athymic nude mice. The breast cancer xenografts were divided into saline control (n= 4) and xenografts injected with ICA-1 (20mg/kg; every other day, n = 8). The six glioma nude mice were divided into two groups consisting of saline controls (n = 3) and xenografts injected with ICA-1(80 mg/kg; every other day) when the tumor reached 100 mm3, day 5 post implantation (n = 3). MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells and human glioblastoma cell line U-87 MG was also injected into different mice subcutaneously in right flank. Results showed that ICA-1 prevented glioma tumor growth even after stopping dosing at day 9 and continued monitoring of tumor growth for an additional nine days. Glioma tumor volume in these ICA-1 treated mice decrease by 51% compared to controls. ICA-1 was also effective decreasing breast cancer xenograft growth by 50%. The weight of either ICA-1 treated breast cancer or glioma xenograft mice did not decrease compared to controls. These results indicate that ICA-1 is effective in preventing the growth of breast cancer and glioma xenografts. Ehancing the Performance of Wireless Body Area Networks Arrobo, G.E.1, and Gitlin, R.D.1 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida


We present a new and efficient feed-forward error-control technology, Cooperative Diversity Coding (CDC), to enhance the throughput and increase the reliability of Wireless Body Area networks, especially for applications where a link failure can have potentially drastic consequences. Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) promise a significant improvement in the reliability of monitoring and treating people’s health issues. A WBAN comprises a number of intelligent biosensors or actuators that may either be implanted (in vivo) or mounted on the surface of the human body, and that are capable of wirelessly communicating with one or more external nodes that are in close proximity to the human body. WBANs are an attractive application for CDC because of the low complexity, limited power, and high reliability requirements. Furthermore in real-time applications, such as video/medical imaging, the feed-forward nature of CDC

10 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

is very attractive, since retransmissions are not a viable alternative. We demonstrate that by implementing this novel technique, we can achieve significant (> 40%) improvement in throughput compared to extant WBANs. Cooperative Diversity Coding has the following attractive features: 1) low complexity since the Diversity Coding coefficients are stored in the source and destination nodes; 2) high reliability because of the use of a cooperative relay that helps to transmit the packets; and 3) real-time transmission because the source node transmits the data packets as soon as they are in the queue and simultaneously creates the protection packets that are transmitted after the data packets. Optimizing Performance of Location-Aware Applications Barbeau, S.J.1, Winters, P.L.1, Perez, R.2, Labrador, M.A.2, Georggi, N.L.1 Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida 1

Global positioning system (GPS)-enabled devices, such as cell phones, can pinpoint our location when the device is turned on and that pinpointing can have many benefits. Lost hikers have been found and crime victims have been located because an application on that device was generating a locating signal every four seconds. However, all that location reporting is draining the battery before a user ever makes a call or checks an email. A group of researchers at the USF College of Engineering’s Center for Urban Transportation Research and Department of Computer Science and Engineering were recently awarded a patent (U.S. Patent No. 8,036,679) that minimizes the energy drain. This location-aware method dynamically adjusts software parameters in Location-Based Service (LBS) applications in real-time based on environmental conditions and application requirements. This “auto-sleep” function saves power expended during position calculations while increasing application performance, optimizes settings for the applications based on real-time conditions, and reduces bandwidth used. The patented software automatically recognizes that the phone is in the same approximate location and gradually increases the time between tracking from seconds to minutes. Once the software recognizes movement outside that “point of interest” (e.g., home, work, store) by going outside the “fence” (a pre-determined radius around all those data points at the current location), the listening frequency snaps back to the initial rate (e.g., four seconds). This presentation will discuss how it optimizes performance of location-aware applications.

Antimalarial Activity of Halogenated Monoterpenes from Plocamium Cartilagineum Barhate, C.1, Maschek, A.1,3, Amsler, C. D.2, McClintock, J.B.2, Mutka, T.2, Kyle, D.2, Baker, B. J.1

Evaluation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function Employing a Diagnostic Test Using Growth Hormone Secretagogues Bercu, B.B.1

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida Department of Global Health, University of South Florida 3 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah


Malaria is still a worldwide health problem and impacts most devastatingly on developing nations, especially in Africa. Widespread resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and quinine has necessitated the search for new lead compounds to ensure a supply of new drugs. While terrestrial plants have been a productive source of drugs and lead compounds for the treatment of malaria, the marine environment has received relatively little attention in this context. Plocamium species are known to yield numerous polyhalogenated monoterpenes that vary for given species depending on collection location and season. The largest variety of halogenated monoterpenes has been isolated from Plocamium cartilagineum. P. cartilagineum was collected by SCUBA from the vicinity of Palmer Station, Antarctica. Extraction was carried out with 3:1 CH2Cl2;MeOH followed by at room temperature. Screening of the organic extracts of P. cartilagineum against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum has been productive and showed promising activity with IC50 < 10 Îźg/mL).

The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) insufficiency has been a diagnostic dilemma for many decades. Over the years, we have developed rodent and nonhuman primate models to address this clinical challenge in children and adults, including the adult aging population. Deficits in GH secretion can be attributed to pituitary and/or hypothalamic ideologies with the most common cause (especially in children and aging adults) being insufficient production and/or secretion of neuroregulatory hormones (GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and ghrelin). Here we present a patented innovative three-step provocative test as an improvement over traditional provocative testing. This diagnostic approach better addresses the physiologic neuroregulatory control of GH secretagogues on pituitary function. This sequential and combined stimulation with GHRH and ghrelin-mimetics supports the hypothetical model for the complementary relationship of GHRH and ghrelin. Data are presented to support the utility of this diagnostic procedure.

1 2

Black Fly Pheromones and the Eradication of Onchocerciasis Beau, J.1, McGaha, T.J.2, Noblet, R.2, Unnasch, T.3 and Baker, B.1 Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida 2 Department of Entomology, University of Georgia 3 Department of Global Health, University of South Florida


Onchocerciasis or river blindness disease is a parasitic disease caused by infection from the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The parasite is transmitted to humans by black fly vectors of the genus Simulium. Most of the infections occur in central Africa, with significant incidence also in Central and South America. According to the World Health Organization an estimated 18 million people suffer from onchocerciasis. However, since the disease is endemic to only the poorest regions of the world it is difficult to gain exact reports and statistics about the disease. The current method for monitoring the spread employs human bait, which is neither optimal nor ethically sound. The need for a new monitoring method is very important. It was noticed that gravid flies are attracted to egg masses recently deposited by other flies of the same species. This paper will describe our efforts to isolate and identify the pheromone responsible for this attraction, which we then plan to develop as bait for a field trap for monitoring vector pressure. In the long term, field traps may be useful in eradication of the disease.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida

Crossing the Entropic Barrier to Coupled Folding and Binding Borcherds, W. M.1, Mishall, K. M.1, Wu, H.2, and Daughdrill, G. W.2 University of South Florida Center for Drug Discovery and Innovation, University of South Florida

1 2

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) function in many important cellular pathways, and their disruption contributes to many human diseases. IDPs display minimal if any secondary or tertiary structure in their unbound forms, but will often fold into ordered structures upon binding. It is believed that the coupling of folding and binding is important in balancing the affinity and specificity of the interaction due to the reduction in conformational entropy of the residues at the binding interface. Potential mechanisms include induced folding and conformational selection, which are not mutually exclusive and the predominant method utilized may be biased by the entropic barrier in coupled folding and binding. To study this phenomenon we use a model system comprising the transactivation domain of the tumor suppressor p53 (p53TAD) and its binding partners, the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and its homologue MDMX. p53TAD is an IDP that folds when binding with MDM2/X. The conformational entropy of p53TAD is systematically varied using mutagenesis and these mutations result in significant and predictable changes in the binding affinity. This is the first attempt to quantify how differences in the conformational entropy of an IDP affect the binding affinity of a coupled folding reaction, and should give a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this kind of binding. The importance of this research is highlighted by the high frequency in which folding is coupled to binding in protein-protein interactions.

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts â&#x20AC;˘ 11

The Journey from the Laboratory Bench Through the Patent Office and Into the Clinic Boyd, T.1, Potter, H.2, and Pfeiffer, E.3 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida 2 Director of the Florida Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (NIA) 3 Suncoast Alzheimer’s Center, USF Health Byrd Alzheimer Institute, University of South Florida 1

Our research investigated the curious relationship between Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in which RA patients do not tend to develop AD. While commonly assumed that RA patients’ usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) helped prevent onset of AD, NSAID clinical trials have proven unsuccessful in AD patients. To determine whether intrinsic factors within RA pathogenesis itself may underlie RA’s protective effect, we investigated the activity of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors, upregulated in RA, on the pathology and behavior of transgenic AD mice. We found one of these factors, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), could rapidly reverse cognitive impairment and reduce cerebral amyloidosis. During histopathological analysis of these AD mice, we used large amounts of expensive reagents, which prompted us to develop a device that reduced the reagent amounts used by over ten-fold. We subsequently submitted for patent protection on this device. Our findings with GMCSF were also novel, and a patent application was filed for a method to treat cognitive impairment. Since recombinant human GM-CSF has been FDA-approved and safely used for over 20 years to treat leukopenia, we initiated a clinical trial within AD patients. A retrospective analysis of bone marrow transplant patients at Moffitt Cancer Center, who also garner cognitive deficits from the irradiation, showed GM-CSF to be associated with cognitive improvements, and resulted in us filing a Continuation-In-Part patent application. Future research aims to investigate GM-CSF in other neurodegenerative diseases. Quinazoline are Novel and Effective Antimicrobial Agents Against Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Burda, W. N.1, Van Horn, K.2, Manetsch, R.2, Shaw, L. N.1 1 2

Department of Cell Biology, University of South Florida Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality by a lone infectious agent in the United States. Uniquely, it is responsible for pathologies in almost every ecological niche of the human body, ranging from mild skininfections to life threatening invasive diseases. Treating staphylococcal infections has become increasingly difficult due to the rise of multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains, e.g. MRSA. As such, with the rapid emergence of pan-resistant organisms, it is vital that we uncover novel agents to treat infections caused by this organism. During a screen of novel fluoroquinolones by our group, we identified 2 quinazoline compounds as having potent anti-MRSA activity. A sub-library based on these compounds was generated, and tested for activity against a wide range of multi-drug resistant organisms. From a library of 78 derivatives, 40 quinazoline agents demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity towards

12 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

a variety of MRSA strains. We also demonstrate broadspectrum activity of these compounds towards a variety of other bacterial pathogens, including B. anthracis and E. coli. Analysis of spontaneous mutation frequencies revealed a very low incidence of innate resistance towards these drugs. Moreover, the low level resistance observed did not appear to be mediated through mutations in known targets, such as DNA gyrase/topoisomerase or dihydrofolate reductase. Finally, when screening for toxicity, we observed no hemolytic activity of lead agents towards human erythrocytes. These findings support the use of quinazoline derivatives as potential new antimicrobials that would appear to function via complex, multi-target modes of action. Isolation and Identification of Antimalarial Compounds from High-Throughput Screening of Niche Microbiota Calcul, L.1, Waterman, C.1, Beau, J.1, Ma, W.1, Mutka, T.2, Chow, R.3, Baker B.1, Kyle, D.2, Van Olphen, A.2, Vrijmoed, L.3, Pearce, C.4, and Pang, K.5 Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida College of Public Health, University of South Florida 3 Department of Biology, City University of Hong Kong 4 Mycosynthetix 5 Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University



Malaria, a vector-borne plasmodium parasite, is responsible for 200-300 million infections and approximately 1 million deaths each year according to the World Health Organization. Children in developing countries, particularly SubSaharan Africa, are the most heavily afflicted by the parasite. The two most common species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, are becoming resistant to all forms of treatment. Thus, a need exists for the development of new drug therapies. The chemical constituents of approximately 55,000 terrestrial and endophytic fungi and 1,000 Antarctic microorganisms were extracted and bioassayed to determine which microbes were harnessing antimalarial constituents. The extracts showing the highest level of activity were scaled-up and separated into 5-10 fractions using MPLC. The resulting fractions were evaluated for inhibitory activity against P. falciparum (3D7) and for cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549). The fractions active against malaria with low cytotoxcity were further purified using HPLC. Purified compounds were identified by LCMS, NMR and comparison with the literature. Potential anti-malarial drug candidates were identified by having low nM levels of activity and a high therapeutic index. Collaborative Innovation Networks of Industries in Florida Caliskan, F.1, Reeves K.A.1, Ozcan O.2, Zeller D.3 1 Industrial Management and Systems Engineering, University of South Florida 2 Chase Bank Florida 3 Department of Sociology, University of South Florida

The United States economy is losing momentum in what has long been its major competitive advantage: innovativeness. Though the current administration’s commitment to science, technology and innovation is promising —with $147.7B budgeted for 2011— an effective investment strategy is equally important. The proposed research aims to inform investment

decisions regarding how to encourage growth in innovation within a network. As industrial innovation requires recombination/reconfiguration of knowledge, it is vital to investigate the relationship structure among actors. We focused on Florida’s high tech industries, in order to assess the impact of organizations’ supply chain and alliance network structures on their innovation performance using social network analysis methods. The proposed model has the potential to impact the regional economy, especially through the identification of universities’ new role in encouraging innovation. A Method and Composition Using a Putative Pseudophosphatase of Plasmodium Falciparum as an Antimalarial Drug Target Campbell, C.O.1, Balu, B.1, Maher, S.P.2, Manetsch, R.2, Adams, J.H.1 1 2

Department of Global Health, University of South Florida Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida

the transplantation group were significantly lower than the control group. The MRI showed rats of the transplantation group had an oval low signal area at 12 hr after operation; the low signal range gradually expanded and the signal intensity gradually decreased over 14 days after operation. The low signal range in the control group disappeared 12 hr after the operation. After Prussian blue staining, rats of the transplantation group contained blue granules with no significant hypertrophy or edema in hepatocytes, while the control group showed no blue granules with significant hypertrophy and edema. The BMSCs transplanted into the injured rat liver gradually migrate to the surrounding liver tissue and partially repair the liver surgical injury in rats. BMSCs may represent an effective therapeutic approach for acute liver injury. Single Port Laparoscopic Access Tool Constantino, J.1, Hart, S.2, Lai-Yuen, S.3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida 2 College of Medicine, University of South Florida 3 Department of Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, University of South Florida 1

Genomic analysis of Plasmodium has revealed vital information about the parasite biology and pathogenesis, however much of the encoded proteins remain uncharacterized. PF13_0027 is a conserved protein phosphatase expressed in all stages of development. A null PF13_0027 parasite revealed an altered cell cycle resulting in an attenuated growth phenotype. Genetic complementation rescued the wild-type phenotype and revealed that PF13_0027 is important for asexual development. Further analysis has uncovered that it may not participate in signal transduction but in a role characteristic of a pseudophosphatase. The conserved substitution of one of the catalytic residues suggests that it may retain substrate-trapping ability without dephosphorylation. Currently there is an urgent need for new antimalarials because of increasing resistance to common drugs and the absence of an effective vaccine. Blocking the expression of PF13_0027 to create a null parasite reduces the malaria parasite’s ability to survive thus providing a novel drug target or an attenuated blood stage parasite vaccine. Therapeutic Effect of Transplanting Magnetically Labeled Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells in Liver Injury Chen, X.1, Liang, J.2, and Zhou, S.2 The First People’s Hospital of Shunde affiliated to Southern Medical University 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida


There are a number of studies on the application of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of chronic liver diseases, but only few reports about the use of BMSCs for the treatment of traumatic liver injury. This study aimed to study the therapeutic effect of fluorescence-labeled bone marrow stromal stem cells administered to male SD rats subject to traumatic liver injury. Male SD rats with a 70% resection of the liver were injected with feridex-labeled BMSCs which could be induced to functional hepatocytes in vitro. Liver function was assayed and the liver scanned by 1.5-T MRI at 12 hrs and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 postoperation. The pathological changes of liver sections were monitored. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin (DBIL), and total bilirubin (TB) in

In an embodiment, a laparoscopic tool includes a solid base (e.g., handle) having a longitudinally-extending bore formed therein, an elongate outer tube secured to the base and having a lumen in axial alignments and in open communication with the bore, and an elongate inner rod slideably mounted in the lumen of the outer tube within the bore. The proximal end of the inner rod extends proximally from the bore and thus can be engaged by a user to extend the inner rod in a forward direction or retracted direction. The tool also includes a clamp that is formed of a memory alloy and is detachably connected to the distal end of the inner rod. The tool also includes an electrically-conductive suture thread that holds the clamp to the inner rod. The inner rod and the clamp have a combined length that when the tool is engaged, the distal end of the clamp extends beyond the distal end of the outer tube. Conversely, when the tool is disengaged, the distal end of the outer tube extends beyond the distal end of the clamp to allow for piercing the skin of a subject. The tool also includes a source of electrical power that is in switched electrical communication with the electrically-conductive suture thread. The clamp has two positions, an open position and closed position, wherein a change between the two positions is heat activated. Heat is generated when current flows through the electricallyconductive suture thread. Non-Scarring Multifunction Mini-Laproscopic Device Cooper, J.R.1, DeSouza, S.M.1, Walker D.J.1, Lai-Yuen S.2, and Hart S.3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida 2 Department of Industrial Engineering, University of South Florida 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida 1

Currently no mini-laparoscopic device exists on the market that is ≤ 2mm in diameter and multifunctional. Our team designed a mini-laparoscopic instrument that is 2mm in

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 13

diameter, and serves multiple functions in one device such as grasping, cutting, and cauterizing. The smallest currently available laparoscopic instrument is 2.3mm in diameter, and is limited by the clamp retracting from the target tissue when in use. This is especially problematic since the surgeon visualizes the procedure on a two dimensional screen, and depth perception is limited. Examining existing mini-laparoscopic instruments as a basis for the design, and consulting with a surgeon that performs laparoscopic surgery on a routine basis, a mini-laparoscopic device was conceived that does not require a separate port for insertion of the instrument, but inserts directly into the patient due to its small diameter. This instrument does not retract during normal use and allows the surgeon to grasp and cut tissue in a more natural manner. This device is also unique in that it does not need to be removed during surgery to switch instrument tips by using a novel cartridge mechanism for swapping instruments. In addition, due to the small size of the incision, the risk of postoperative scarring and hernia formation is minimal, and no sutures are required to close the incision in the abdominal wall. This will dramatically reduce blood loss, trauma and pain while improving recovery times, and only a Band-Aid is required for the incision. Resolving the Cryopyrin/NLRP3 Inflammasome Cox, R. Jr.1, Hodgkins, A.1, Parthasarathy, P.T.1, Kaminsky, M.1, Rajanbabu, V.1, Fukumoto, J.1, Fukumoto, I.1, Lockey, R.1,and Kolliputi, N.1 Division of Allergy and Immunology, Joy McCann Culverhouse Airway Disease Center Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida


The cryopyrin/NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex that stimulates caspase-1 activation and the processing of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β is an inflammatory mediator of acute lung injury (ALI). Mutations in NLRP3 have been linked with various acute and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of the NALP3 inflammasome offer therapeutic promise. Resolvins, derivatives of omega-3 fatty acids, have been shown to decrease inflammation in acute injury. However, the ability of resolvins to regulate the inflammasome has not been studied. We investigated whether resolvin treatment inhibits the inflammasome and ameliorates the effects of IL-1β secretion in vitro. Methods: In our study, the NLRP3 inflammasome was activated by ATP and H2O2 in the presence and absence of resolvin D1 and D2. Inflammasome activation was assessed by analyzing IL-1β release and caspase-1 cleavage in THP-1 cells. In another set of experiments, supernatants from these cells were added to A549 and human primary small airway epithelial cells (HPSAEC) to study inflammasome mediated functional effects. Results: Resolvin treatment ameliorated inflammasome activation as indicated by decreased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β release. Resolvin treatment also inhibited IL-1β mediated epithelial cell activation as indicated by suppressed IL-8 release and ICAM expression. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that resolvins can be used to modulate the inflammasome and blunt the effects of the IL-1β. These results may offer a therapeutic approach to diseases such as acute lung injury, where ungoverned pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion exacerbates the disease pathology.

14 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

A Modular Microdevice for Recapitulating the Essential Functions of the “Neurovascular Unit”-on-a-Chip for Toxicology, Therapeutic Screening, and Pathobiology of Cerebral Infections Crouse, R.B.2, Taylor, A.J.1, Bannister, E.C.2, Sundaram,S.1 and Achyuta, A.1 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Bioengineering Center, Tampa, Florida 2 University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 1

The common denominator of most neurodegenerative maladies is the dysfunction of the “neurovascular unit” (NVU). Recapitulating the essential functions of the NVU in vitro, would not only enable deep understanding of pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders, but might also aid as a screening tool for CNS interventions. In this work, we report a modular microdevice populated with neurovascular cells mimicking the basic functions of NVU, in vitro. The device comprised of a neural chamber juxtaposed below a vascular channel separated by a microporous polycarbonate membrane. Once fabricated, the neural chamber was loaded with freshly isolated E-18 rat cortical cells and cultured for 7 days prior to seeding rat brain endothelial cell line (RBE4) in the vascular channel. Cellular components in the neural chamber and vascular channel showed > 90 ± 5% viability. The E-18 cells in the neural chamber were differentiated into a mixture of functional neurons (5%), astrocytes (94%), and microglia (1%). The rat brain microvascular endothelial cells expressed tight junction proteins (ZO-1) when co-cultured with neural cells. Lastly, when the vascular side was stimulated via TNF-α, microglia were activated on the neural side where as ICAM-1 was upregulated on the vascular side: a hallmark initial step of neuroinflammation. This microsystem not only offers extensive control over culture parameters such as cell ratios, input conditions, inflammatory stimulus, toxin entry, but also allows for direct visual observation of the critical pathobiology following a stimulus, a feature that is limited in vivo. Low Profile Tunable Antenna for Biomedical Radiometry Applications Cure, D.1, Weller, T.M.1, Miranda, F.A.2 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida 2 NASA Glenn Research Center


Low-profile antennas are desirable in many applications (e.g., mobile devices, aircraft fuselage, missile nose cones, vehicles, space suits, etc.) due to characteristics such as low cost, light weight, conformability, and simple integration. A major challenge in low-profile antenna designs is the compromise in performance given the reduced antenna height. One way to improve this trade-off is using a HighImpedance-Surface ground plane (HIS). Herein a low-profile planar antenna using a HIS and operating at 2.4GHz is presented. The goal of this effort was to establish a baseline approach for realizing a flexible antenna with moderate bandwidth that can be used in applications such as body-worn sensors. For electromagnetic sensing, e.g. in the case of radiometric sensors, reduction in backside-radiation is important in order to maximize the detection sensitivity. Accordingly, a design backed by a ground-plane is appropriate. Furthermore, in this particular effort, the ability to

tune the operating frequency is desirable as this allows realtime adjustment of the sensing depth. The antenna uses an electronically-tuned HIS which does not include interlayer wiring. This feature is desirable to minimize the fabrication complexity and facilitate the use of flexible substrates. The antenna is ultra-thin (~λ/50), light weight, immune to external radio frequency interference and allows adjustment in response to adverse environmental loading. The measured data demonstrate tunability from 2.3 GHz to 2.7 GHz with efficiencies that range from 60% to 95% and instantaneous bandwidths of 100 MHz to 250 MHz within the tuning range. Growth of Cancer Cells on a Functionalized Multilayered Nanofibrous Scaffold Davis, Y.1, 2, 3, Wang, C.1, 2, 3, Howell, M.1, Garapati, U.2, Ravi, S.2, Mohapatra, S.2, 3, 4, Mohapatra, S.1, 2, 3, 4 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida 2 Nanomedicine Research Center, University of South Florida 3 Signature Program in Allergy and Immunology, University of South Florida 4 Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida 1

Objectives: 3D culture systems used in cancer research are intended to increase cancer cell malignancy and retain the in vivo phenotype by mimicking the structure of the tumor micro-environment. They may come in the form of nanofiber scaffolds constructed from natural or synthetic polymers. Surface immobilized nanofiber scaffolds with bioactive molecules provide great opportunities for developing in vitro models to study tumorigenesis and therapeutic delivery of drugs. The aim of this study was to develop a functionalized multilayered nanofiber (FMN) scaffold to enhance proliferation and attachment of cancer cells in a biomimetic tumor microenvironment. Methods: The functionalized multilayered mPEG-PLA-PLGA scaffold was first electrospun on an electrospinner, then coated with chitosan and further modified with RGD and VEGF. The morphology of the FMN scaffold were characterized by SEM. Cancer cells were cultured, then tested for viability and proliferation using calcein/ EthD-1 and Ki67 assay respectively. In vivo studies of FMN scaffolds seeded with cancer cells and transplanted into mice show increased tumor size and weight compared to naked unmodified scaffolds and control. Results: The functionalization of the scaffold allowed for increased distribution of cationic charges and made the scaffold more hydrophilic, thus allowing for better attachment and proliferation of cells compared to non-functionalized scaffolds and monolayer cultures. The addition of RGD and VEGF enhanced attachment and proliferation of cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the scaffolds can be used as a promising biomaterial for in vitro culture models to screen therapeutics for cancer.

Design of a Robotic Hands-Free Control User Interface De Laurentis, K.J.1, Elineni, S.K.1, and Wills, M.2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida 2 Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida 1

This paper presents the design of a novel user interface that provides hands-free control of a device. This versatile compact, modular robotic control system user interface can be used alone or added to a device to provide multi-directional hands-free movement of said device. This system has multiple plates with sensors fixed to the device that moves, tilts or deflects via the user’s movements, body lean, or gestures to allow the desired device operation. The movement of this plate system will cause the device to move in a manner that corresponds with the user’s positioning. Example applications of this control system are mobility devices, video games, skateboards, robotic devices, surveillance or movie camera controllers, or construction equipment. Furthermore, this hands-free user interface (HFUI) has utility anywhere continuous attention is needed to control a device by the use of one or both hands, for instance where a joystick is currently the primary user interface. The upper body movement or leaning that the user does to operate the HFUI can be compared to the action needed to manipulate a joystick. If this controller replaces the joystick on a power wheelchair, as is currently being done, greater freedom and range of upper body motion can be achieved. The HFUI can increase one’s environmental and social interaction, and enhances the user’s capability for daily activities. It provides the user opportunities for a wide variety of exercise, participation in dance or sport, sustainability of fitness, and rehabilitation. Why Innovative Solid State Chemistry Matters to Pharmaceutical Science Duggirala, N.K.1, Smith, A.J.2, and Zaworotko, M.J.1 Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida



Solid-state chemistry has an important role in drug development as the majority of drugs (nearly 80%) are marketed as solid forms. These solid-state forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have a broad range of implications in formulation and drug development since each form has unique physicochemical properties. Additionally, novel solidstate forms are important for protecting intellectual property (IP). With continually changing IP protection and regulatory restrictions, the pharmaceutical industry is facing new challenges to develop solid-state forms with optimal physicochemical properties that are safe and enrich their IP. In this scenario a new class of solid-state forms, Co-crystals, has gained the attention of academics and industry professionals in the past decade. Co-crystal forms offer distinct advantages with respect to intellectual property, safety, stability, solubility, and bioavailability. Thus, Co-crystals represent an emerging class of solid-state forms with important implications in pharmaceutical science.

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 15


Bioformatic Prediction of the MicroRNA That Regulate ABC Transporter Genes Guzman, K.1, Wang, Z.X.1, Liang, J.1, Sneed, K.B.2, and Zhou, S.F.1



K-12 Teacher Preparation Workshop to Link Stem with Innovation and Invention Gilbert, R.1, Barger M.2, Hopen A.3 College of Engineering, University of South Florida Florida Advanced Technological Education Center, An NSF Regional Center of Excellence 3 Smith & Hopen, Patents and Intellectual Property Although innovation and subsequent invention is partially driven by the individual, the integration of innovative and inventive practices with the STEM component of K-12 education will add depth and breadth to a student inventive experience. This presentation, conducted by charter members of the Nation Academy of Inventors, will provide an overview of a Professional Development workshop conducted for K-12 educators within the Greater Tampa Bay region. Workshop agenda with its item connected strategy will be discussed. The workshop’s role to meet The School District of Hillsborough Country Teacher In-Service professional development requirements as well as promoting the Young Inventors Competition conducted annually at USF will be illustrated. Details and suggestions as to how to import this workshop into other school districts will be provided. MARVEL: A Wireless Miniature Anchored Robotic Videoscope for Expedited Laparoscopy Gitlin, R.D.1, Ross, S.2, Sun, Y.3, and Rosemurgy, A.4 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida 2 Department of Surgery, University of South Florida 3 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida


This paper describes the design and implementation of a Miniature Anchored Robotic Videoscope for Expedited Laparoscopy (MARVEL) camera module that features wireless communications and control. This device decreases the surgical tool bottleneck experienced by surgeons in stateof-the art Laparoscopic Endoscopic Single-Site (LESS) procedures for minimally invasive abdominal surgery. The system includes: (1) a near-zero latency wireless communications link, (2) a pan/tilt camera platform, actuated by two tiny motors that gives surgeons a full field of view inside the abdominal cavity, (3) a small wireless camera, (4) a wireless luminosity control system, and (5) a wireless humanmachine interface to control the device. An in-vivo experiment on a porcine subject was carried out to test the general performance of the system. The robotic design is a proof of concept, which creates a research platform for a broad range of experiments in a range of domains for faculty and students in the College of Engineering and Medicine and at the Tampa General Hospital. This research is the first step in developing semi-autonomous wirelessly controllable and observable communicating and networked laparoscopic devices to enable a paradigm shift in minimally invasive surgery.

16 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of minute RNA molecules (approx. 22 nucleotides long) which act as post-transcriptional regulators. By targeting specific mRNA sequences, miRNAs regulate gene expression through RNA interference. Multiple studies have shown that miRNAs are responsible for the regulation of 30% of the human genome. The genes being regulated by miRNAs involve cell development, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis. Recently, there has been a limited amount of data regarding miRNA’s role in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC family). ABC transporters can carry many types of sterols, lipids, and drugs across membranes. This study has investigated the miRNAs which are responsible for regulating the ABC transporter genes through the computer program TargetScan. Among the 48 predicted ABC transporter genes, a total of 5,428 matching sites were found, which means there were around 113 candidate miRNAs for each gene. From the TargetScan data, ABCA4, ABCB2, ABCB9, ABCC3, ABCE2, and ABCG4 were regulated by 38, 132, 89, 181, 124 and 219 miRNAs, respectively. Conserved miRNAs included miR-124, miR-1271, miR-96, miR-182, and miR-495, while examples of poorly conserved ones are miR-17, miR-155, miR-23, miR-205 and miR-186. Also, it was shown that a single miRNA might regulate different ABC transporter genes. For example, miR-383 could regulate ABCA9, ABCC10, ABCC11, ABCG1, and ABCG5, as well as miR-1227 might regulate ABCA9, ABCA10, ABCB10, ABCC5, ABCG4, and ABCG8. Totally 682 miRNAs were involved in the regulation of these 48 ABC transporters genes. Benchmarking studies are undergoing to validate our computational data. Copyrighting Terpsichore©: Multimedia Dance Software Gwee, N.1 Department of Computer Science, Southern University and A&M College


Terpsichore© is computer software for dance training and education. Using intelligent search algorithms, it generates custom amalgamations comprising figures from our proprietary compilation of the International Standard Ballroom Syllabus. We demonstrate the training, development, and research aspects of Terpsichore©, and show how it promotes liberal arts education using advanced multimedia technology, made possible by best practices in Software Engineering. As a training tool, Terpsichore© offers several coaching modules, from video presentations, displays of foot positions and alignments, to time-sensitive delivery of amalgamations that comply with the requirements of recognized ballroom dance syllabi. As a development tool, Terpsichore© enables computer programmers to enhance aspects of its interface, solution engine, and knowledge base to accommodate other dance genres as well as related artistic endeavors, such as music composition. This software product grew out of our research into dance choreography, which

we have shown to be an NP-Hard problem. To solve nontrivial instances of such problems, dedicated heuristic and machine learning algorithms, and greedy and meta-heuristic procedures are required. As a research tool, therefore, Terpsichore© provides an ideal platform for synergistic exploration of solutions to significant related NP-Hard problems in operations research and industry. Based on these considerations, we propose more meaningful requirements in copyright applications for such computer software. We suggest specifications that can more clearly highlight the originality of the software code, and afford more accurate benchmarks for future related applications. Developing the Next Generation of Innovators Hopen, Anton J.1 Director of Young Innovator Program, University of South Florida


Commercialization of a new invention or discovery requires a spectrum of interdisciplinary skills ranging from science, engineering, finance, marketing and public speaking. While many of these skills are taught in isolation, forward-thinking universities have implemented entrepreneurship curriculum. For many individuals first exposure to this information occurs in graduate school. By then, a substantial number of creative and enterprising individuals have already been diverted to other areas of study or careers. Since 2009 over 700 Tampa Bay area K-12 students have participated in the University of South Florida’s Young Innovator Competition. This program combines both STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) and business aspects together. Students in an eight-county area submit invention disclosures including plans on how to commercialize the disclosed invention. The top 15 submissions are selected by the University of South Florida chapter of the National Academy of Inventors. Those 15 finalists attend a presentation workshop conducted by experts including university faculty, industry executives and successful entrepreneurs. With their presentations fine-tuned, they compete for thousands of dollars in cash every February (coinciding with Thomas Alva Edison’s birthday). A number of participating students have filed patent applications and commercialized their technology. More importantly, the program’s outreach to local educators has resulted in the integration of innovation curriculum into elementary and middle schools. By fostering an appreciation for invention and commercialization this program lays an important foundation for future entrepreneurs. Correlation Between Vasculogenesis and Neurogenesis in Stroke Post Human Cerebral Endothelial Cell Transplantation Ishikawa, H.1, Tajiri, N.1, Sinozuka, K.1, Glover, L.E.1, Vasconcellos, J.1, Mayo-Perez, A.1, Metcalf, C.1, Kaneko, Y.1, Kim, S.U.2, Borlongan, C.V.1 Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA 2 Department of Neurology, University British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada


Background and aims: Stem cell therapy emerged as an experimental treatment for stroke. The mechanism of action underlying this treatment remains elusive. Reconstruction

of the neuronal circuitry has yet to be demonstrated, with functional recovery characterized by low graft survival and rare neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells. In view of the neurodevelopmental process involving vasculogenesis and neurogenesis, we examine the fate differentiation of transplanted human cerebral endothelial cells (HEN6) in stroke animal models. Methods: 10-week old rats underwent a one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were randomly assigned to receive stereotaxic transplantation of vehicle, 1, 2, or 4 million HEN6 three hours after occlusion. Rats were sacrificed 7 days post-reperfusion for immunohistochemistry using antibodies against neuronal, vascular, and specific human transplanted cell marker. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was conducted in alternate sections to reveal infarct volume. Results: Both neuronal and vascular markers were detected in the stroke core and peri-infarct area, and were closely adjacent to the transplanted cells. Some transplanted cells differentiated into a microvascular phenotype and juxtaposed to the host vasculature. Neurogenic and vasculogenic upregulation was more pronounced in animals that received the four million cell dose, but the other doses also exhibited both regenerative processes. Infarct volume in transplanted stroke animals was significantly lower than vehicle animals. Conclusions: We found a correlation between vasculogenesis and neurogenesis following transplantation of HEN6 suggesting a dual pronged regenerative process in stroke animals. Asymmetric Allylation and Propargylation of Aldehydes Jain, P.1 and Antilla, J. C.1 1

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida

Chiral homoallylic and homopropargylic alcohols are important class of versatile intermediates used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and natural products. Current methods available for synthesis of these useful compounds are limited by a few drawbacks restricting their use in syntheses. We have developed a simple and highly efficient chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed allylation and propagylation of aldehydes. The protocol provides a highly enantioselective method for the synthesis of homoallylic and homopropargylic alcohols from simple starting materials. The usefulness of this organocatalytic reaction is highlighted by the stability and commercial availability of the substrates and the catalyst. This work also has the potential to open new vistas for chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed activation that were not previously evident. A Multi-Scale Modeling Study of MDH-Catalyzed Bio-Fuel Cell Kharidehal, P.1 and Mainardi, D.S.1 Institute for Micromanufacturing, Chemical Engineering Program, Louisiana Tech University


Enzymes have been considered as alternatives to metal catalysts in fuel cells. Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is one such enzyme which has been used as an anodic catalyst for methanol-fed fuel cell producing enough power (~100 mW/cm2) for small electronic device applications. In practice, however power output limitations associated with this MDH fuel cell have been identified, which may potentially be eliminated or reduced if the reactivity of this enzyme during the oxidation of methanol at the molecular level is clearly NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 17

understood. In this work, a multiscale modeling approach has been employed to study methanol oxidation by MDH. Based on the exposed enzyme residues methanol molecules face upon approaching the MDH active site through the enzyme binding pocket, a MDH active site model was considered to investigate the methanol oxidation mechanism using Density Functional Theory calculations. Information regarding energy barriers and pre-exponential factors thus obtained determine the reaction rates involved in each step of the methanol oxidation mechanism by MDH. These microscopic details are then provided as inputs in a Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) program, and the methanol oxidation process MDH is then investigated in real time. These simulations help evaluate the kinetics and their dependence on various factors like obstacle density (enzyme amino acids other than the ones in its active site), substrate (methanol) and product (formaldehyde) concentrations, temperature and time, and the nature of the ion in the MDH active site. Laser and Deep UV LED Fluorescence Instruments for Real Time Sensing of Compounds in Drinking Water, Wine and Other Liquids Killinger, D.K.1 1

Department of Physics, University of South Florida

Our research group has developed UV laser and LED optical fluorescence sensors that can detect dissolved organic compounds (DOCs) and plasticizers (Bisphenol-A, BPA) in drinking water, wine and other liquids. Our system is 1,000 times more sensitive than previous instruments, and can measure BPA concentrations near the part-per-trillion (ppt) levels. Patents have been obtained and we are working on refining the concept for eventual commercialization. Details of the technology will be shown. 20 Years of Academic Development and Commercial Selling of HITRAN-PC Laser Atmospheric Transmission Software Killinger, D.K.1 1

Department of Physics, University of South Florida

For over 20 years, our laser remote sensing research group at USF has developed a unique software program HITRANPC that calculates the transmission of laser or optical beams through the atmosphere or a gaseous cloud. The software was found to be essential for remote sensing and scientific studies of environmental and global change gases, and has been used by researchers and industrial instrumentalists throughout the world. The software is sold by a commercial software company, but is continually updated and modified at USF as operating systems and other data bases become available. Aspects of developing the software within a university setting, initially selling the programs within USF, marketing, and licensing to an outside software house will be discussed.

18 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

Sign Language Tutor Krishnan, R.1, Duncan, K.1, Souza, F.1, Sarkar, S.1, Loeding, B.2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida 2 Department of Special Education, USF Polytechnic


Sign language learning systems are useful for a wide range of domains. In this work, we develop an automatic sign language learning system that provides real-time feedback to the user as he/she performs a sign. The feedback consists of scores in response to common questions such as “Am I on the right track?”, “How am I doing overall?”. Sign language sentences are performed by hand gestures. However, nonmanual signs, such as facial expressions, play an important role in the construction of a sentence and its meaning. Hence, we compute both hand and face features of the user and match them to pre-computed features of a model using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). We demonstrate results on a database of 20 signs that involve both hand motion and facial expression. Individual sign performance and overall performance mean scores improve as the user gets better at performing signs over time. Using the sign learning system to learn sentences is hard. For this, we first find recurring patterns of signs in multiple sentences of the Continuous ASL Sentence videos using a probabilistic framework. Each ASL sentence is transformed into a multidimensional time series representation, capturing the motion and shape features of the sign. Given this representation, signemes are extracted from multiple sentences using Iterated Conditional Modes. Results are shown for learning multiple instances of 10 different signs from a set of 142 sign language sentences. Nanotechnology Research and Education Center at the University of South Florida Kumar, A.1, Tufts, R.1 Nanotechnology Research and Education Center, University of South Florida


The Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (NREC), housed in the Nanotech I building, is a university wide user fabrication and metrology center providing state-of-the-art equipment, professional support personnel and infrastructure to enable multidisciplinary research. The Nantech I facility supports research projects of faculty, graduate students, undergraduates and industrial researchers. The research and development work done by the researchers including industrial users at the NREC has led to develop a competitive processes and commercialization of technology. The infrastructure and expertise offered at the NREC is open to external users from other academic institutions as well as from industry. Research areas include: nanomaterials and micro/ nano fabrication methods related to fundamental materials science, sensors, actuators, electronics, bio-systems, medical products, optics and integrated micro and nanoscale systems. The NREC has also very strong commitments to integrate education and research related activities for the University of South Florida community.

Proteomic Response to AcupunctureTreatment in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Lai,X.1, Liang, J.2, Sneed, K. B.3, and Zhou, S. F.2 Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 3 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida 1


Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is a viable alternative or supplementary treatment to modern medicine in the management of hypertension. However, the mechanism of action through which acupuncture modulates blood pressure has not yet been explored. This study is the first to investigate the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Each day, blood pressure was measured 5 min after acupuncture. After euthanasia on the 7th day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat’s systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01), though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: 2-DE image revealed 621±30 proteins in normal SD rats’ medulla, 621±20 proteins in SHR’s medulla, 621±40 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 621±20 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture. This study identifies proteomic responses as potential novel biomarkers for acupuncture treatment and helps optimize the treatment regimen of acupuncture. Identification of Herbal Inhibitors for Human Cytochrome P450 1A2 and Implication in Herb-Drug Interactions Le, P.1, Nguyen, D.1, Yang, L.P.2, Liang, J.1, Sneed, K.B.3, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital of Health Ministry 3 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida


Inhibition of CYP1A2 by herbal compounds may cause clinical herb-drug interactions. This study aimed to explore the binding mode of ligands with CYP1A2 and to screen potential inhibitors from a library of herbal compounds using computational and in vitro approaches. The heme prosthetic group and six residues including Thr124, Phe125, Phe226, Phe260, Gly316, and Ala317 in the active site of CYP1A2 were identified as important residues for ligand binding. Ala317 and Asp320 were highly conserved in most human CYPs with known crystal structures. In the in vitro inhibition studies, only tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone exhibited remarkable inhibition on CYP1A2,

with IC50 values of 0.027, 0.187 and 0.910 μM, respectively. In addition, baicalein, osthole, quercetin, cordycepin, and sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate showed moderate inhibition on the CYP1A2, with IC50 values of 1.22, 1.49, 3.97, 6.69, and 7.08 μM, respectively. In molecular docking, 19 of the 56 herbal compounds examined were identified as potential inhibitors of CYP1A2. Up to 21 of the 56 herbal compounds were hit by the pharmacophore model of CYP1A2 inhibitors developed and validated in this study. In the in vitro inhibition study, 8 herbal compounds were identified as moderate to potent inhibitors of CYP1A2. Five of the 8 herbal compounds predicted to be potential inhibitors were confirmed as CYP1A2 inhibitors in the in vitro study. A combination of computational and in vitro approaches represents a useful tool to identify potential inhibitors for CYP1A2 from herbal compounds. Novel Polymeric Nanoparticles Containing TanshinoneIIA from Chinese Herbal Medicine: Preparation, Characterization, and Antitumor Activity Li, Q.1 and Zhou, S. F.2 Department of Oncology, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 1

Novel polylactic acid nanoparticles containing tanshinone IIA (TS-PLA-NPs) were synthesized by a single oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method. In this study, the optimized nanoparticles were characterized for morphology, mean particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug-loading content, X-ray diffractometer measurement, and in vitro release kinetics. The obtained nanoparticles were spherical and intact. The mean particle size was 192.5 nm with polydispersity index being 0.029 and zeta potential 226.27 mV. The mean entrapment efficiency and loading of tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) in TS-PLA-NPs were 86.35 and 1.61%, respectively. The in vitro release study was performed at pH 7.4 using a dialysis membrane. Without initial burst effect, the TSIIA sustained release from TS-PLA-NPs for more than 7 days. The mean in vitro cumulative release percentage of TSIIA from TS-PLA-NPs vs. time curve fitted well with the Higuchi Equation (Q = 2.0365 + 13.564 × t1/2; r = 0.9950). In pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution studies, the concentrations of TSIIA were higher in hepatoma and lower in blood, heart, kidney, spleen, and lung at 2 hr after TS-PLA-NPs was administered via caudal vein. TSPLA-NPs were effective in destroying the human liver cancer cells by the mono-nuclear cell direct cytotoxicity assay (MTT) assay, and the growth-inhibitory effect of TS-PLANPs on human liver cancer cells was concentration and time dependent. The effect of TS-PLA-NPs on hepatoma in mice was also performed. The results of TS-PLA-NPs were markedly more effective than both of TSIIA and blank PLA nanoparticles in preventing tumor growth and increasing survival time of mice with hepatoma.

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 19

Osteogenesis of Goat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by Transfection of BMP-2 and BFGF Liang, J.1, Nabar, N.R.1, Guo, Q.F.2, Xu, H.H.2, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida 2 Department of Orthopedics, Guangzhou First Municipal Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical College


The advent of tissue engineering and stem cell based regenerative medicine has provided hope for a novel approach to managing bone degeneration, since bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) strategies have shown promise in preliminary studies. Both bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been implicated in inducing bone formation from BMSCs. However, exogenous bone induction factors easily lose activity through protease breakdown and thus cannot trigger continuous local stimulation and bone induction effect. On the other hand, gene therapy resulting in integration into the host genome can overcome these issues with direct application of exogenous growth factors. This study investigated the gene expression and bone formation of goat BMSCs transfected by adenovirus-mediated BMP-2 and bFGF. After construction of a recombinant adenovirus Ad-BMP2-bFGF-GFP vector, goat BMSCs were transfected with Ad-BMP2-bFGFGFP and Ad-GFP at different multiplicity of infection values. Expression levels of BMP-2 and bFGF were analyzed by ELISA and staining was performed to determine the level of osteoblast differentiation. After 48 hours, the results indicated significant expression of BMP-2 and bFGF within AdBMP2-bFGF-GFP group and differentiation of BMSCs of the Ad-BMP2-bFGF-GFP treatment group into osteoblasts as confirmed by ALP staining. The difference was most obvious 6 days after transfection, and was detected over a period of 20 days. This treatment lays the foundation for bone regeneration through stem cell use, with the potential of increasing the efficacy of skeletal reconstructive treatments. Predicting the Phenotype of Deleterious Non-Synonymous SNPS in Human Alcohol METABOLISM-Related Genes Liang, J.1, Wang, L.L.2, Sneed, K.B.3, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University 3 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida 1

The highly variable alcohol toxicity in a given population has been ascribed to the distinct eliminating rate of alcohol in individuals. Hepatic oxidation is the main path of alcohol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and catalase. In this study, a number of nsSNPs have been found in these alcohol metabolism-related genes but there is poor knowledge on the relationship between the genotype and phenotype of nsSNPs in these genes. We have identified a total of 203 nsSNPs in 29 human alcohol metabolismrelated genes from the NCBI dbSNP and SWISS-Prot databases. Using the PolyPhen and SIFT algorithms, 43% of

20 â&#x20AC;˘ NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

nsSNPs in alcohol metabolism-related genes were predicted to have a functional impact on protein function with a significant concordance of the prediction results between the two algorithms. The prediction accuracy is about 77-81% of all the nsSNPs based on the results of in vivo and in vitro studies. These amino acid substitutions are supposed to be the pathogenetic basis for the alteration of metabolism enzyme activity and the association with disease susceptibility. The phenotype of nsSNPs predicted as deleterious needs to be clarified in further studies and the prediction of nsSNPs in human alcohol metabolism-related genes would be useful hints for further genotype-phenotype studies on the individual difference in susceptibility to alcohol related diseases. Employing an experimental approach is almost impossible to complete the identification of functionally important nsSNPs, and thus computational approach becomes a feasible way to identify initially functionally important nsSNPs. Biological Imaging by Digital Holographic Adaptive Optics Liu,C.1 and Kim, M.K.1 Digital Holography and Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of South Florida


Digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO) is a recently proposed imaging modality that is based on the principles of the Digital holography (DH) and dispenses with the wavefront sensor and wavefront modulator of the conventional AO system. Digital holography (DH) is an emergent new imaging technology that gives direct numerical access to the phase of the optical field, thus allowing precise control and manipulation of the optical field. Incorporation of DH in an ophthalmic imaging system can lead to versatile imaging capabilities at substantially reduced complexity and cost of the instrument. Except its potential application in vision science, it also opens application in biological imaging. Due to the lens aberration or aberration incurred by the medium in underwater imaging, the images are somehow blurred. If we could actively remove these aberrations from the imaging system, the final images would be greatly improved. In the paper, we apply the DHAO to correct for the images affected by a lens with aberration. The results demonstrate that the DHAO compensated images show remarkable improvement compared to those without correction. Metabonomics Study on Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells Treated with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Luo, R.J.1 and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida


The molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is complicated, involving multiple signaling pathways and altered cellular behavior. Early and timely diagnosis of HCC is difficult due to lack of selective biomarkers and specific clinical symptoms. In HCC, there is often increased expression of angiogenic factors including VEGFs, EGFs, and PDGF, which represent useful therapeutic targets that can be hit by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Multiple TKIs have been tested in the treatment of HCC, and sorafenib is the one already approved by FDA for advanced HCC treatment. Metabolite profiles represent sensitive biomarkers of both genomic and phenotype changes. HPLC-MS is an

effective way to find the biomarkers. In this study, an HPLCMS based, metabonomics method has be applied to monitor the endogenous metabolite profiling in HCC cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B and SK-HEP-1 upon treatment with commonly used TKIs. Concentration of phosphorylated sugars and adenosine phosphates will be measured first. In addition, TKI drugs and their metabolites will be quantified to establish pharmacokinetic concentration at cellular levels to clarify the effect of drug metabolism on therapeutic outcome and establish concentration-response relationships. Identification of Novel Biomarkers for Cancer and Pharmacotherapy Using the Metabolomics Approach Luo, R.J.1 and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida

studies of ICI56,780 analogues have been accessed. In addition, discussions of frontrunner compounds for hit-tolead development currently being studied which possess in vivo liver and in vivo blood stage activities and gametocytocidal activity. The results suggest that ICI56,780 and analogues thereof have potential for the development of a novel chemotype to treat multidrug resistant malaria, to eradicate EE stages, to block transmission, and to eradicate malaria. We are grateful to NIH (GM097118) for financial support. Salinity Gradient Power Generation Opportunities Using Bi-Polar Membranes Merz, C.R.1 College of Marine Science, University of South Florida



Metabolomics involves systematic study of metabolites in a biological system, attempting to reveal the unique chemical fingerprints associated with specific cellular processes. In this regard, metabolic profiling can generate an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of a cell and thus can be used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis, pathology, pharmacology, and toxicology. In this study, we attempted to identify the metabolome of cancer and the metabolite fingerprints of pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Firstly, untargeted metabolomics analysis was employed to identify the abnormal metabolites in HepG2 in a comparison with normal human hepatocytes THLE-3 using HPLC coupled with mass spectrometer. The most different metabolites in peak intensity between the normal and cancer cell lines were noted. We also investigated the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the metabolite profiles in HepG2 cells. The affected metabolic pathways and specific metabolite patterns were identified by comparing their MS/MS spectrum with the databases METLIN and KEGG. The MTT assay and Western blot analysis were run to explore the cytotoxicity and biological activities of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the relationship with the altered metabolomic profiles. These studies have provided preliminary evidence that metabolite profiles are potential biomarkers for cancer and cancer treatment. Synthesis, Antimalarial Activity, and Physicochemical Properties of 7-(2-Phenoxyethoxy)-4(1H)-Quinolones Maignan, J. R.1, Namelikonda, N. K.1, Cross, R. M.1, Luong, L.1, Flanigan, D. L.1, Mutka, T. S.2, LaCrue, A. N.2, Kyle, D. E.2, and Manetsch, R.1 1 2

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida Department of Global Health, University of South Florida

There are a few antimalarial classes which possess activity against blood stages of malaria. However, very few compound classes have been shown to be active against the exoerythrocytic (EE), liver, erythrocytic and gametocyte stages of the parasite’s life cycle. Casey et al. reported quinolone ester ICI56,780 to be active in eradicating dormant EE parasites in Plasmodium cynomologi infected rhesus monkeys. This discovery was stalled due to the rapid resistance induction that appeared. Because of recent advances in preclinical efficacy models and ease of assessing physicochemical properties, this class of compounds, which was worked on more than 20 years ago, has been revisited. Herein, structure-activity relationship and structure-property relationship

Besides wind and solar based renewable energy technologies, marine sources are also being actively discussed. Sources of marine renewable energy traditionally have included ocean currents, ocean waves, tides, thermal gradients, and salinity gradients. Salinity gradient power is an attractive marine renewable resource because it possesses not only the largest energy potential but likely the largest total available resource as well, especially when highly concentrated lake and industrial waste brines are considered. Considering the vastness of the potential resources available, even inefficient extraction could be acceptable as long as there is an adequate return on investment. Although numerous Salinity Gradient Power (SGP) solutions have been discussed in the literature, the most often cited technologies focus on Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) and Reverse Electrodialysis (RED), where a significant driving force in the industrial development of membranes already exists. Process analysis reveals a need for a simplified energy generating system that does not suffer from the complexities of dual monopolar ion-exchange membranes/solution pathway systems, especially when a plurality of membranes are used in tandem, while also allowing for direct osmosis driven water flux transport. The presentation will discuss the current status of SGP, including the author’s recent research in water flux transport and ionic transport capabilities across Bi-Polar membranes which offer promise in SGP technologies. New Florida Solutions for Dengue Fever Eradication Milhous, W.1, Johnson P.1, Unnasch T.1, Adams, J.1, Adams, J.1, Kyle, D.1, White, M.2, Manetsch, R.2, Baker, B.2, Hochaus, G.3, Sneed, K.4, Quarrie, B.5, Morris, G.5 Global Health Infectious Disease Research Program (GHIDR), University of South Florida 2 Center for Drug Discovery and Innovation (CDDI), University of South Florida 3 School of Pharmacy, University of Florida 4 School of Pharmacy, University of South Florida 5 Emerging Pathogens Institute (EPI), University of Florida


With funding from the New Florida Cluster Award Program, The USF Center for Drug Discovery and Innovation (CDDI), USF-COPH Global Health Infectious Disease Research Program (GHIDR), Florida’s Schools of Pharmacy at UF and USF, and the UF Emerging Pathogens Institute (EPI) have developed a consortium for novel solutions for the Detection, Prevention and Treatment of Vector Borne Diseases. Vector borne diseases including dengue fever,

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 21

malaria, and viral encephalopathies, represent a significant health care challenge for Florida and the tropical world, but there has been little economic incentive for the pharmaceutical industry to develop interventions. This consortium is critical to catalyze the development of efficient strategies able to solve this regional/global health-care challenge for life threatening diseases. The proposed consortium is providing a “case study” to introduce the FDA’s Critical Path Initiative Development Toolkit to Florida institutions, with a focus on developing powerful scientific and enabling technologies such as in vitro, animal or computer-based predictive models, biomarkers for safety and effectiveness and new clinical evaluation techniques for a streamlined and efficient drug development as well as for establishing new validated methods of detection and preventions. Special emphasis is placed on product innovation and translational medicine which allows students and faculty to participate as team members in high profile epidemiological, drug discovery and development projects. Our consortium will “pull” and our Centers and Institutes will “push” the best emerging biomedical and biopharmaceutical technologies in Florida. Resulting infrastructure will facilitate faculty scholarship. Selective Tumoricidal Activity of Target-Specific Magnetic Nanoparticles Mohammad, F.1, Kumar, S.S.R.C.2, and Uppu, R.M.1 Departments of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, Southern University and A&M College 2 Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University 1

Development of technologies that allow for simultaneous diagnosis and selective destruction of malignant cells and their tumors, often referred to as theranostics, have become the new frontiers of cancer treatment. The current technological advancements in the area of nanomaterials address the potential challenges arising from variation in physical, chemical and biological components. We have synthesized gold-coated, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-bound super para-magnetic iron (II/III) oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs@Au-Cys-LHRH; linker: cysteamine or Cys) and studied the effects of hyperthermia-induced by these magnetic particles in bringing towards cancer cell destruction/death. LHRH receptor over expressing noncancerous murine GT1-7 hypothalamic neurons and human prostate carcinoma cells (LnCap) were pretreated with SPIONs@Au-LHRH for periods up to 24 h. The cells were then exposed to the magnetic field operated at a frequency of 44 Hz (465 Oe). The existence of differences in terms of resistance from heat-induced stress between GT1-7 neurons and human LnCap prostate carcinoma cells led us to understand clearly that (i) mitochondrial membrane potential changes, (ii) caspase-3/7 activity and (iii) heat-shock protein-70 (HSP70) expression can make the cancer cells easily vulnerable as against the non-cancer cells. Exploring the molecular mechanisms of the destruction of cancer cells is underway.

22 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

Re-conceptualizing Wheelchair Design Through the Lens of Dance and Implementing Assessment Strategies Morris, M.L.1, DeLaurentis, K.J.2, Highsmith, M.J.3, Carey, S.2, and Mengelkoch, L.J.3 Department Theater & Dance, University of South Florida Department of Mechanical Engineering/Center for Assistive Rehabilitation & Robotics Technologies, University of South Florida 3 School of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of South Florida 1 2

This poster presentation will summarize the development of a patented hands-free prototype mobility chair for dance, and explain research progress thus far on the first prototype iteration. Individuals often dismiss their capacity to pursue or continue dancing when faced with a temporary or long-term injury condition/ diagnosis. Assistive mobility devices can provide dance performance options, and innovation in this area is needed. An interdisciplinary team re-designed a powered (wheel) chair to enable dancers to operate it hands-free, serving as an extension of the dancer’s body. Sensors beneath the seat respond to weight shift by the user; therefore, the prototype design enables dancers to control direction and speed of movement by leaning the torso, leaving the dancer’s upper extremity free to move expressively. This exploratory study assessed the effects of an innovative, patented hands-free prototype mobility chair on dancers’ core muscle activation, metabolic demands, and ability to move expressively. Ultimately, considerable core muscular (abdominals & thoracic spinal extensors) activity, in an anticipated pattern, was required to control the chair. Metabolic testing revealed significant differences (p<0.05), and nearly linear patterns in oxygen uptake and heart rate comparing: prototype, manual, and joystick controlled chair with able-bodied dancer and dancer w/disability (C7 spinal cord injury). Qualitative analysis of the experience of dancers using the hands-free chair suggests that individuals felt freer to move expressively. Osthole Alleviates Nucleus Pulposus-Evoked Nociceptive Responses Through the Suppression of Overexpression of ASIC3 Muscarella, M.N.1, Andruski, B.1, Qiu-Lan He, Q.L.2, Liang, J.1, Sun, L.B.2, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University 1

Chronic sciatica and low back pain induced by lumbar disc degeneration or herniation (LDH) is a common musculoskeletal disease affecting about 5% of individuals worldwide. However, the mechanism of painful radiculopathy caused by a herniated intervertebral disc remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ost on nucleus pulposus–evoked nociceptive responses and ASIC3 overexpression in the rat dorsal root ganglion. Radicular pain was generated with application of nucleus pulposus (NP) to nerve root. Mechanical allodynia was evaluated using von Frey filaments with logarithmically incremental rigidity to calculate the 50% probability thresholds for mechanical paw withdrawal. ASIC3 protein expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) was assessed with Western blot and

immunohistochemistry. Membrane potential (MP) shift of DRG neurons induced by ASIC3-sensitive acid (pH 6.5) was determined by DiBAC4(3) fluorescence intensity (F.I.). NPevoked mechanical hyperalgesia model showed allodynia for three weeks, and ASIC3 expression was up-regulated in DRG neurons, reaching peak on day 7. Epidural administration of Ost induced a remarkable and prolonged antinociceptive effect, accompanied by an inhibition of over-expressed ASIC3 protein and of abnormal shift of MP. Amiloride (Ami), an antagonist of ASIC3, strengthened the antinociceptive effect of Ost. Up-regulation of ASIC3 expression may be associated with NP-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia. A single epidural injection of Ost decreased ASIC3 expression in DGR neurons and the pain in the NP-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia model. Osthole may represent a new type of pain killer for LDH. Identification of Novel Genetic Polymorphisms in Short Tandem Repeat Loci in Two Ethnic Minority Populations in China Nabar, N.R.1, Liu, C.2, Liang, J.1, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Guangzhou Criminal Science & Technology Institute 1

The advent of DNA profiling for individual identification had a widespread impact on anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic science. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a database funded by the FBI, contains information on specific short tandem repeats (STRs) in the human genome that have been validated as useful and informative for forensic practice. Useful STRs must show no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage disequilibrium in population samples. Often, information on STRs in ethnic minority populations isolated from mainland population provides better insight into the power of these STRs as genetic biomarkers since minority populations are more likely to deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In this study, we investigated 9 polymorphic STR loci (D18S1364, D12S391, D13S325, D6S1043, D2S1772, D11S2368, D22-GATA198B05, D8S1132 and D7S3048), which are not included in the standard sets of forensic loci, in 181 Miao and 166 Gelao unrelated individuals in the Guangxi municipality, South China. Genepop V 4.0 was used to perform a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test after allelic identification using PCR, and no deviations were observed in these two populations. PowerStats V1.2 software was used to calculate forensic parameters with the cumulative matching probability of the 9 STR loci in Miao and Gelao population calculated as 5.18×10-8 and 1.20×10-8 respectively. The cumulative exclusion powers were 0.9999894 and 0.9999064, individually. Our study showed these 9 STRs as highly informative and suitable for use as candidate genetic markers in genetics and forensic practice.

A Murine Study of a Novel Vaccine Using Mutated β-Amyloid Sensitized Dendritic Cells in Alzheimer’s Disease Nabar, N.R.1, Luo, Z.Q.2, Lin, X.Y.3, Cao, C.H.1,3, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin, China 3 USF Health Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute, University of South Florida 1

Currently there is no cure or prevention for Alzheimer’s disease. In 2001, a clinical trial using a β-amyloid vaccine (human wild type Aβ peptide, AN-1792) has shown that dementia scale scores of the active vaccine group were considerably lower than that of AD patients given the placebo. Unfortunately, severe adverse reaction occurred in about 6% of the patients, and after autopsy, one was confirmed to have died of meningoencephalitis. A long-term follow up study showed clear benefit from the vaccine. Prior studies in our lab explored a safer method to obtain sufficient anti-Aβ antibody titer without the use of an adjuvant. The developed method focused on use of dendritic cells (DCs), the most powerful antigen presenting cell in the immune system. This study utilizes mouse models of AD to study this mutant Aβ142 sensitized DC as a vaccine in vivo with regards to efficacy and safety. The mutant Aβ1-42 peptide contains the same epitopes as the full length Aβ peptide with T-cell epitope mutations. The results indicate that use of mutant Aβ142 vaccine results in durable antibody production, but wild type vaccine does not induce antibody response at all. The antibody generated from antigen sensitized Dendritic cells is against the same epitope as other Aβ vaccines. Our result also showed cognitive function benefit without the global inflammation seen in prior Aβ vaccines. As this vaccine showed promising results in animal models and has many advantages compared to contemporary treatments, we suggest that this vaccine enter clinical trials. A Novel, Multi-Component, Multi-Targeted Cocktail from Natural Products for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease Nabar, N.R.1, Zhang, Z.1, Bai, G.2, Cao, C.H.1,3, Liang, J.1, Sneed, K.B.4, and Zhou, S.F.1 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida 3 USF Health Byrd Alzheimer Institute, University of South Florida 4 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial, heterogeneous disorder involving multiple biochemical pathway changes, and thus must be treated as a networked disease accordingly. A number of potential targets and signaling molecules have been identified in seeking new drugs for AD. Our approach focuses the discovery of a novel multi-component therapeutic (‘cocktail’) targeting multiple pathways for AD. β-Amyloid (A²), Tau hyperphosphorylation, and inflammation are considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of AD. We postulate that targeting multiple pathogenic AD pathways will result in a synergistic effect. To test this

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 23

hypothesis, panels of natural compounds were examined for their effect on AD using cellular and mouse AD models. Thus far, four compounds (galangin, berberine choride hydrate, indirubin-3’-monoxime, and honokiol) showed modulatory effects on the expression of Aβ in N2a APP cells and were suitable for drug use based on ELISA and MTT assays. These four compounds were further tested on their effects on the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the Th1-related IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α production, and Th2-related IL-4 and IL-10 secretion. Western blot analysis was applied to check the change of JNK, p38 MAPK, Erk, PKCθ, and NF-κB. Based on these results, various combinations of the four natural compounds will be investigated in N2a APP to determine the ratios that maximally suppress the expression of Aβ while beneficially modulating the immune response. Our natural compound library will be expanded and screened. The optimal cocktail will be further tested on the animal model of AD. Polymorphisms in Folate Pathway Genes and Response to Methotrexate Treatment in Rheumatoid Arthritis Naif, A.K.1, Patel, A.R.1, Mo, X.L.2,3, Chen, X.2, Liang, J.1, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University 3 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systematic autoimmune disease that involves the inflammation of multiple joints. In this study, we aimed to study the impact of SNPs in folate pathway-related genes including RFC1, FPGS, GGH, MDR1 and MTHFR to MTX response in RA patients. A total of 113 Chinese RA patients were recruited, and categorized into good and poor responders to MTX based on disease activity score. A patient was classified as a good responder when both the tender joint count and the swollen joint count were 20% improved from baseline after at least three months therapy and at least three of the following criteria were met: visual analog scale (VAS) 20 mm, 20% improvement in ESR, in physicians global assessment of disease activity, in patients global assessment of disease activity, and in the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). A total of 6 SNPs from the above five genes were genotyped and tested for association with MTX response using 2 test, logistic regression along with clinical variables, and genegene interaction analysis using multifactor dimensionality reduction. The probability of remission of RA symptoms was about 1.4-fold higher in carriers of the MDR1 3435TT genotype as compared to patients with the 3435CT genotype (P = 0.020; OR = 1.368; 95% CI = 1.160˜1.614). There was a likely interaction between SNPs in the RFC1 and MTHFR genes. The results from the present study suggest that the polymorphism of MDR1 3435C>T may influence the efficacy of RA therapy with MTX in Chinese RA patients.

24 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

Design and Immunogencity of a Novel Synthetic Antigen Based on the Ligand Domain of Plasmodium Vivax Duffy Binding Protein Ntumngia, F.B.1, and Adams, J.H.1 1

Department of Global Health, University of South Florida

The Duffy binding protein is considered a leading vaccine candidate against asexual blood stage Plasmodium vivax. The interaction of merozoites with human erythrocytes through Duffy binding protein (DBP) and its cognate receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is vital for parasite invasion of erythrocytes. The ligand domain of DBP (DBPII) is polymorphic, showing a diversity characteristic of selective immune pressure that tends to compromise vaccine efficacy associated with strain-specific immunity. We hypothesized that the polymorphic residues, which are not functionally important for erythrocyte binding, comprise variant epitopes that tend to divert the immune response away from more conserved epitopes. A previous study resolved that a polymorphic epitope in the central portion of DBPII, containing highly polar or charged residues, was the dominant B-cell epitope target of human inhibitory anti-DBP antibodies. In this study we designed, expressed and evaluated the immunogenicity of a novel artificial DBPII allele, termed DEKnull, which lacks any of the naturally occurring polymorphic residues of this dominant neutralizing epitope. The DEKnull antigen retained erythrocyte-binding activity and elicited antibodies to the shared epitopes of native Sal1 strain from which it was derived. Our results confirmed that removal of the dominant variant epitope in the DEKnull vaccine lowered immunogenicity of DBPII, but inhibitory anti-DBPII antibodies were elicited against shared neutralizing epitopes on Sal1. Focusing immune responses towards more conserved DBP epitopes may avoid development of a strain specific immunity to enhance functional inhibition against broader range of DBPII variants. Universal Laparoscopic Suturing Device Onal, S.1, Hart, S.2, and Lai-Yuen, S.1 Department of Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, University of South Florida 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida 1

We present a novel device to facilitate suturing during minimally invasive surgery (MIS). MIS or laparoscopic surgery has revolutionized modern surgery and has increasingly become an alternative to many open surgical procedures. Operations are performed through small incisions in the abdomen, thus avoiding the need for large incisions. This results in less tissue trauma, less scarring, and faster postoperative recovery time. However, the inherent challenges of laparoscopic procedures include limited visibility, constrained working space and the need for advanced surgical tools to safely and efficiently perform the surgical procedure. During laparoscopic surgery, suturing and knot tying are among the most difficult and time consuming procedures. These procedures significantly increase the operative time and require advanced surgical skills and techniques. Although suturing devices for MIS are commercially available, there is still a need for improved laparoscopic suturing devices to enhance the efficiency of this procedure. The proposed device aims to minimize the number of instruments

needed for suturing through the use of a single device design that is intuitive, easy to use, and enables the use of any type of suture. This is expected to reduce the surgical procedural time and reduce costs. Beclin 1 and Nuclear Factor-κBP65 as Potential Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pathak, S.1, Kang, K.F.2, Liang, J.1, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Pathology, The First People’s Hospital of Shunde, Foshan

question is not If they need you…but rather without a concentrated effort will they find you? Novel ZNO/ST-Quartz Biosensor that Combines Biofouling Removal and Sensing Richardson, M.1 and Bhethanabotla, V.1 Sensors Research Lab, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida



There are no sensitive and specific biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was to determine the expression pattern of beclin 1 (BECN1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κBp65) in patients with (HCC) at both mRNA and protein levels. We used immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect the expression of hepatic BECN1 and NF-κBp65. The expression patterns were compared to those of liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, and normal liver tissues. The expression of BECN1 protein in cancer tissues was significantly higher than that of cirrhosis tissue, hepatitis tissue, and normal tissue. The expression of BECN1 protein in hepatitis tissues was significantly higher than that of cirrhosis tissue and normal tissues. The expression of BECN1 mRNA in cancer tissue was significantly higher than that of cirrhosis tissues and normal tissues, and the expression of BECN1 mRNA in hepatitis tissues was significantly higher than that of cirrhosis tissues and normal tissues. The expression of NF-κBp65 protein in cancer tissue was significantly higher than that of cirrhosis tissue, hepatitis tissue and normal tissue. The expression of NF-κBp65 mRNA in cancer tissue was significantly higher than that of cirrhosis, hepatitis and normal tissues. BECN1 expression was positively correlated with the NF-κBp65 expression in HCC. The abnormal expression of BECN1 and NF-κBp65 was closely associated with the development of HCC. These results suggest that BECN1 together with NF-κBp65 may serve as useful biomarkers for HCC. Inventing Outside the University System and How You Can Help Reyland, M.1 Executive Director, The United Inventors Association of America


We have all heard of Tech Transfer offices, university labs where great innovations are born, of business schools packed with brilliant market strategist - But what role can those programs play in bridging the divide between the power of organized education and the inventor working alone in their basement. Although most inventors have some local resources. The vast majority of those novice inventors working in sheds and basements around the nation have no access to the level of tools found at even a small university. From the core of a collegiate education itself, to the specialties of engineering and design, and even the commercial guidance found in the college of Business – The university system is a yet to be discovered oasis of help to novice inventors swimming toward the stream of commerce. The

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with shear horizontal (SH) polarization, enable label-free, sensitive, detection of biomarkers in real time by detecting mass accumulating on the surface. An inherent problem of mass sensitive techniques is that of non-specific binding of interfering proteins, which generates spurious signals and degrades the signal to noise ratio. In this work, devices are fabricated that utilize the optimum properties of a piezoelectric thin film, ZnO, and a piezoelectric bulk crystal, ST-Quartz. The sensor configuration is similar to a conventional Love wave sensor. A pair of interdigital transducers (IDTs) is fabricated on the surface of the ST-Quartz substrate, with ZnO deposited as a guiding layer. The presence of the ZnO thin film causes the wave energy to be confined at the interface which increases sensitivity to biomarker detection. For this study, the ZnO thin film will have dual functions. The first function, mentioned above, is to act as a waveguide that converts a SH mode into a Love mode. The second function is to remove loosely bound material from the sensor surface. This is accomplished by fabricating a second set of IDTs on top of the ZnO film which will generate an acoustic wave with particle displacement normal to the surface, thereby, creating an acoustic streaming phenomenon at the liquid interface that is responsible for removal. Results show the effectiveness of ZnO as a waveguide material and the ability of Rayleigh waves generated in the ZnO layer to remove non-specifically bound proteins. The successful demonstration of these abilities will lead to future biomarker testing and this will show that this design is better suited for biosensing than existing SAW sensors. Silicon Carbide Biotechnology: A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications Saddow, S. E.1,2, C. L. Frewin2, Oliveros, A1, Coletti, C.3, Schettini, N.4, Afroz, S.1, Register, J.1, Weeber, E.2, and Thomas, S.1 Electrical Engineering Department, University of South Florida 2 Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida 3 Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia 4 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engr., Universidad del Norte


Silicon carbide (SiC) has a long history as a robust material, first used as a cutting material in the 19th century, and later as a harsh environment semiconductor for advanced applications in the 20th century. There are many aspects to SiC, the most important being that it can be formed as amorphous, polycrystalline and multiple (>200) singlecrystal forms. The USF SiC research group has proven that SiC is both bio- and hemacompatible, which has led

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 25

to considerable patent activity. The goal of this presentation is to introduce Silicon Carbide to biomedical engineers, medical professionals and scientists, thus bringing together technologists from across many disciplines to help realize the ultimate use of SiC for advanced biomedical devices. Crystalline SiC was evaluated in vitro by directly culturing immortalized skin, connective tissue, and neural cell lines along with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Cell proliferation and attachment were evaluated using MTT assays, fluorescent microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Fluorescent microscopy was used to assess platelet adhesion to the SiC surfaces, where significantly lower adhesion to 3C-SiC was observed. Initial in vivo implantation within mouse brains showed no adverse glial reactivity after 30 days, and neural tissue remained in contact with the implant. The reported results show that SiC is indeed an excellent manmade interface to biological matter. Current research to develop in vivo glucose sensors, brain machine interfaces, biocompatible carbon electrodes, and a novel long-term neuroscience test bed (electrical and optical stimulation) to understand the processes of learning and memory will be presented. Do Sigma Receptor Agonists Provide Long Term Neuroprotection in the Rat Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model of Stroke Shahaduzzaman, M.1,2, Grieco, J.1, McAleer, J.1, Green, S.1,2, Almerico, K.1, Huguet, C.1, Antilla, J.3, Cuevas, J.4, Pennypacker, K. R.4, Willing, A. E.1,2,4 Center for Excellence in Aging & Brain Repair, University of South Florida 2 Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida 3 Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida 4 Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida 1

There are few pharmacologic agents available for treatment of cerebral ischemia or stroke. Since most patients do not seek treatment until after the therapeutic window of most tested drugs has expired, it is necessary to target the pathological processes occurring at delayed time points after stroke onset. When administered 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) decreased infarct size, presumably by binding sigma 1and 2 receptors to induce both neuroprotection and immune modulation. The goal of this project is to develop new sigma agonists that induce better motor recovery than DTG. Male Sprague Dawley rats were tested in a battery of behavioral tests prior to undergoing permanent MCAO. Twenty-four hours later sigma agonists (Bromo-DTG [8.2 mg/kg/day], meta chloro-DTG [8.5 mg/kg/day], NAPH-DTG [0.86 mg/kg/day]) or vehicle were injected s.c. daily for 3 days. One month post MCAO, the animals again underwent behavioral testing. Rats treated with Bromo-DTG and meta Chloro-DTG had no significant improvements in any of the motor or cognitive tests while NAPH-DTG treated rats had less motor asymmetry on the elevated body swing test than controls (p < 0.05). Only NAPH-DTG significantly decreased infarct size compared to vehicle control (p < 0.05). These results suggest that NAPH-DTG may potentially be a good molecule for further development as a therapeutic for stroke. Supported by a Team Science Grant from the James and

26 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

Esther King Biomedical Research Program (#09KT-02, Project PIs JA, JC, KRP and AEW). Newly Synthesized Sigma Receptors (σRS) Agonist Failed to Improve Motor Function After Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Shahaduzzaman, M.1,2, McAleer, J.1, Glover, J.1, Antilla, J., Cuevas J., Pennypacker, K.R.3, and Willing, A.E.1-3 1 Center for Excellence in Aging & Brain Repair, University of South Florida 2 Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida 3 Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida

The main challenge in acute stroke therapeutics is developing a drug or treatment that is effective at treating the underlying pathophysiology occurring at the time the patient seeks medical treatment. Current therapies have a very narrow treatment window that precludes most patients. Sigma1 receptors (σ1Rs) agonist (1,3 di-o-tolylguanidine [DTG]) treatment decreased short-term infarct volume when administered 24 hour post- stroke, but the effect was not maintained long-term and therefore did not improve behavioral outcomes (Leonardo, Hall et al. 2010). The objective of this project was to develop new sigma agonists based on the structure of DTG that would enhance behavioral recovery and decrease infarct size. In this study we administered a newly synthesized mixed σ1/σ2Rs agonist, N,N’-di-p-nitrophenylguanidine HCL (NDH) to examine its therapeutic effects on long term neurobehavioral outcomes and infarct size. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (n=16/ group) after performing a battery of pre-stroke behavioral test. Daily subcutaneous injections of NDH or vehicle were administered for three days starting at 24 hour post-stroke. Our behavioral data at four weeks once again showed that NDH failed to improve motor function after MCAO. Other endpoint measures to be examined include infarct volume and the influence of NDH on neuronal, microglial, and oligodendrocyte (OL) survival. If NDH differentially affects neural populations, it may still hold promise as an adjunct therapy for stroke. Empathy in Stroke Rats: Cage Mates Do Matter in Post-Stroke Recovery! Shinozuka, K.1, Weinbren, N.1, Tajiri, N.1, Kaneko, Y.1, and Borlongan, C.V.1 Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida


Background and Objective: “Empathy” has a behavioral correlate in rodents. Previous studies have revealed that certain kinds of psychological states, such as pain perception, can be triggered by co-habitation with cage mates subjected to an aversive event. The present study investigated the effects of co-habitation with rodent cage mates that were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke using pain perception as endpoint indices of empathy. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three caging conditions: a stroke rat with a stroke rat (S-S), a stroke rat with a naive rat (S-N), and a naive rat with a naive rat (N-N). The rats were tested 1 day before and 0, 1, 2 and 3 days after MCAO surgery. Subjects’ expression

of pain was rated using a modified Rat Grimace Scale (RGS; Sotocinal et al. Molecular Pain 7, 55, 2011). Results: Pain scores before MCAO revealed no significant differences across groups. Following MCAO, significant treatment effects on pain score were detected. Pair-wise comparisons revealed significant differences in pain score from day 0 to day 3. Stroke subjects in the S-S group showed higher pain score than those in the S-N group. Conclusions: This study showed empathy in a disease model of stroke. These results suggest that patient care and management of stroke patients, at least in the acute setting, may benefit from a careful consideration of patient interaction with other patients and caregivers in the hospital or at home. Innovation Opportunities from Failure: A Journey from Laboratory to the Clinic Shytle, R.D.1 and Sanberg, P.R.1 Center for Excellence in Aging and Brain Repair, Departments of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida


This presentation discusses the basic and clinical translational studies on nicotinic therapeutics for Tourette’s syndrome and depression carried out in our laboratory to demonstrate how academic innovation can lead to patenting and commercialization. The discovery that mecamylamine, a nicotine antagonist, reduced symptoms of mood instability and depression was unexpected. The discovery was made during a trial that sought to explore the effectiveness of this drug in providing symptomatic relief for patients suffering from Tourette’s syndrome. Even though this trial failed, it led to a new hypothesis regarding the mechanism of action of antidepressants as well as a series of successful independent trials employing mecamylamine, and its active enantiomer, TC-5214, as an augmenting agent in the treatment of major depression. This resulted in a license agreement in late 2009 with Targacept and AstraZeneca for the global development and commercialization of TC-5214. In this presentation, we will use this example to highlight the important role of innovation in academic research and the benefits of translational science. We will also argue that, in scientific research, failure can many times lead to unanticipated positive outcomes and technological innovation. The Role of Patents and Commercialization in the Tenure and Promotion Process Stevens, A.J.1, Johnson, G.A.2, and Sanberg, P.R.3 Past President, Association of University Technology Managers 2 Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida 3 President, National Academy of Inventors, Senior Associate Vice President for Research & Innovation, University of South Florida 1

14 from Canada, were included in data analysis. The data from the survey indicated that the majority of the sample does not take into consideration commercialization criteria in their tenure/promotion process. We also found that commercialization was defined by most institutions as ‘US patents issued’ and ‘US patent applications filed’. An unexpected finding was the fact that most institutions do not publish their tenure/promotion criteria. Overall, this poster sheds light on current transformations taking place in academic culture where faculty and staff are starting to actively participate in translational science and are becoming engaged in economic development. Repositioning of the FDA-Approved Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Targeting Histone Deacetylases, B-RAF and Other Proteins Sun, J.Z.1,2, Yang, L.3, Li, M.H.1, Wang, Z.X.1, Sneed, K.B.4 and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida 3 Bio-X Center, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University 4 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida


Drug repositioning represents a fast, economic and effective approach in drug discovery. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are an important group of drugs used in cancer treatment and so far there are 12 TKIs are approved by FDA for clinical use. We hypothesize that these TKIs act on other molecular targets in addition to tyrosine kinases, facilitating cancer cell killing. Using a simple docking approach with our established chemical-protein interactome (CPI) and 11 FDA-approved TKIs, we have identified 301 PDBdeposited proteins corresponding to 353 ligand binding pockets among a total of 1,780 PDB-deposited human proteins. Surprisingly, sorafenib and dasatinib had a CPI binding score (ZZ_score) of -2.958 and -1.02334 against histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and 7A, respectively. In addition, both TKIs achieved high ZZ_scores against B-Raf as well VDR-3, suggesting a high binding affinity of sorafenib and dasatinib with these proteins. Our preliminary studies have showed that both acetylated-lysine in a-tublin and oncogenic Raf-signaling were inhibited significantly in human B-Raf (V600E) multiple melanoma 1205Lu cells by these two TKIs. Taken together, FDA-approved TKIs may be repositioned to become a “magic bullet” concurrently targeting tyrosine kinase, HDAC, and BRaf, shedding a light for future broad-spectrum anti-cancer drug development. Further validation of additional “hot targets” such as HDAC, B-Raf, Akt and VDR-3 by TKIs are undergoing at our laboratory.

This poster presents the findings of a survey cosponsored by the Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) and the National Academy of Inventors (NAI) on commercialization tenure/promotion considerations in US and Canadian institutions. The purpose of the survey was to determine if universities evaluate commercialization considerations when deciding faculty tenure and identify the commercialization criteria used by these institutions. A total of 106 institutions, 92 from the US and

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 27

Traumatic Brain Injury Accelerates Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Behavioral and Histological Pathologies in Transgenic Mice Tajiri, N.1, Glover, L.E.1, Kellogg, S.L.3, Arendash,G.W.2, Shimizu,T.3, Borlongan, C.V.1 Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida 2 Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology, & Molecular Biology, University of South Florida 3 Department of Psychology, University of South Florida 1

This study examined the possible mechanistic link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by characterizing the behavioral and histological effects of TBI in presymptomatic APP/PS1 AD-transgenic (tg) mice. To assess behavioral changes following TBI, all mice were subjected to 14 days of pre-TBI training in the radial arm water maze. Following pre-TBI training, half of the AD-tg mice, and half of non-tg mice received an experimental TBI on the right parietal cortex using the controlled cortical impact model. AD-tg mice exposed to TBI made significantly more errors in the radial arm water maze compared to the controls in all test periods and also exhibited Aβ accumulations throughout the cortex and hippocampus. Conversely, age-matched AD-tg mice that were not exposed to TBI or non-tg mice exposed to TBI did not display detectable Aβ plaques. These results suggest that TBI may precipitate AD-like behavioral and pathology in presymptomatic AD-tg mice. A recent paper (Tran et al., J Neurosci 2011) reports that TBI promoted 3xTg-AD mice to display intra-axonal Aβ accumulations and increased phospho-tau immunoreactivity at 24 hours and up to 7 days after TBI. The present study replicated the accelerated Aβ aggregations in the APP/PS1 tg mice, but also extended such AD pathology up to 6 weeks post-TBI and showed the exacerbation of cognitive deficits in AD-tg mice subjected to TBI. Our observed histological and behavioral data should allow correlative analyses between Aβ accumulations and cognitive impairments providing support for a causal role of TBI in AD-related pathologies. Identification of Ligands for Human Cytochrome P450 2D6 Using Virtual Screening and Molecular Modeling Vachon, D.M.1, Mo, S.L.2, Sneed, K.B.3, Liang, J.1, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida 2 The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University 3 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida 1

The role of individual active site residues of CYP2D6 for ligand binding is unclear. In this study, we explored the binding mode of various inhibitors to CYP2D6 using modeling approaches. During docking studies, the binding modes of CYP2D6 inhibitors were compared between wild-type and virtually mutated CYP2D6. Firstly, we developed and validated a pharmacophore model for CYP2D6 inhibitors, which consisted of two hydrophobic features and one hydrogen bond acceptor feature. Secondly, we constructed and validated a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for CYP2D6 inhibitors which gave a poor to moderate prediction accuracy. Thirdly, a panel of CYP2D6 inhibitors

28 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

were subject to molecular docking into the active site of wild-type and mutated CYP2D6 enzyme. We demonstrated that 8 residues in the active site (Leu213, Glu216, Ser217, Gln244, Asp301, Ser304, Ala305, and Phe483) played an important role in the binding to the inhibitors via hydrogen bond formation and/or p-p stacking interaction. All the four inhibitors tested could not be docked into the active site in CYP2D6 with the mutation of Thr309Val, while Ala305Asp failed to dock pimozide, quinidine, and halofantrine. The Ala300Glu, Leu121Trp, Leu248Asp, Phe120Ala, Phe483Ala, Ser304Ala, and Val119Met mutations eliminated the hydrogen bond formation of bufuralol with Ser217. Leu248Asp and Ser304Ala completely abolished the hydrogen-bond forming capacity with halofantrine. Apparent changes in the binding modes of the inhibitors have been observed with Phe120Ile, Glu216Asp, Asp301Glu mutations in CYP2D6. Our study has provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of interaction of compounds with human CYP2D6. USF Chapter of the NAI: First Year Strategies and Accomplishments Wade, T. E.1 and Killinger, D. K.2 Professor Emeritus, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida 2 Professor Emeritus, Department of Physics, University of South Florida 1

The University of South Florida (USF) Chapter of the National Academy of Inventors was started in the fall of 2009, and has grown to encompass over 230 members and a very active Executive Committee. Strategic planning, membership considerations, and accomplishments will be presented. Key accomplishments include the development of a set of Bylaws, helping to host the USF Young Innovator Competition, hosting a spring seminar on The Basics of Intellectual Property Protection through the USF Technology Transfer Office, development of a faculty Speakers Bureau for outreach seminars, hosting a fall awards luncheon to recognize new patents and NAI members, hosting a fall seminar series on Commercializing Technology (attended by over 75 members), creating a new USF Chapter website which lists chapter events and chapter members linked to their patents, and helping to host the NAI’s inaugural conference. MIR-150 Inhibits Inflammation by Suppressing NKT Cells and Cytokine Production Wang, J.1,2,3, Li, K.4, Hellermann, G.1, Mohapatra, S.3,4, Lockey, R.F.2,4, and Mohapatra, S.S.1,2,3,4 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine,University of South Florida 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Morsani College of Medicine,University of South Florida 3 Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida 4 James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, Tampa, FL 1

Rationale: Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in regulating T cell response and inflammation in asthmatic lungs; however the mechanism of Treg generation and function is poorly understood. A micro-RNA profile in Tregs from asthmatic mice showed a significant

decrease in miR-150 expression. MiRNA150 may thus be useful as an anti-inflammatory treatment for asthma. Our goal was to determine the effect of miR-150 overexpression on T cell response and lung pathology in a mouse model of asthma. Methods: Total RNA was isolated from Treg and non-Treg cells and subjected to miRNA profiling. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-150 were generated by pronuclear injection. T cell responses, inflammation and airway hyperreactivity were measured in asthmatic mice given miR-150 chitosan nanoparticles. Conclusions: MiR-150 decreases inflammation in asthma by inhibiting cytokine production, inducing apoptosis and repressing cell growth by regulating critical genes including Akt, Elk, Cbl1 and p53. Deregulation of miR-150 may be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Thus, overexpressing miR-150 may be useful as a safe anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy for attenuating lung inflammation. A Universal miRNA Profiling Method with High Sensitivity and Specificity Wang, J.1,2,4 , Li, K.4, Lockey, R.F.1,4, Mohapatra, S.2,3,4, and Mohapatra S.S.1,2,4 Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida 2 Division of Translational Medicine-Nanomedicine Research Center, University of South Florida 3 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida 4 James A. Haley Veterans Medical Center, Tampa, FL, 1

Background: miRNAs can be used as robust biomarkers for diagnosis, staging, prognosis and the response to therapy in various diseases. Although a wide spectrum of miRNA detection techniques have been developed, none can accurately and sensitively perform genome-wide high-throughput miRNA profiling (Chen, C., D.A. Ridzon, A.J. Broomer, Z. Zhou, D.H. Lee, J.T. Nguyen, M. Barbisin, N.L. Xu, et al. 2005. Real-time quantification of microRNAs by stem-loop RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 33:e179). This problem stems from that miRNAs are only ~22 bases, and multiple species of nucleic acids that contain the mature miRNA sequences are present in the total RNA samples that are usually used for miRNA detection. Methods: A novel RT-qPCR miRNA assay (UQmiR, universally quantitating miRNA) was developed to overcome the difficulty. This assay requires only one RT reaction and one universal set of multiple hydrolysis probes to detect all miRNAs, using one universal RT primer, a common reverse primer, and individual miRNA-specific forward primers. A computer program (MSPPD, miRNAspecific primer and probe designer) was developed for the assay. Results: The UQmiR has the advantages, but not the disadvantages, of the two mostly used miRNA assays. It has the specificity of hydrolysis probe assay and the universal detection of SYBR Green assay. This assay is more sensitive and specific than the commercially available hydrolysis probe assay and SYBR Green assay. Using this method, we have successfully detected 91 out of 96 miRNAs in 0.8ul of plasma for each miRNA. Conclusion: This approach affords a highly specific, sensitive, economical and convenient system to profile the expression of all known miRNAs.

Bioinformatic Predicition of MicroRNAs that Regulate Human Cytochrome P450 Genes Wang, Z.X.1, Sneed, K.B.2, Liang, J.1, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida 1

miRNAs are involved in the regulation of a number of genes that are involved in development, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. There are limited data on how miRNAs regulate drug disposition in humans. This study investigated the miRNAs that probably regulated human CYP genes using a bioinformatic approach. Among 57 functional human CYP genes, miRNAs regulating each of them were predicted by TargetScan, PicTar, EMBL, EIMMo, Miranda, miRBase Targets, PITA TOP, and mirWIP programs. Among all programs used, only TargetScan gave a comprehensive prediction. Among the 55 predictable CYP genes (no prediction data for CYP2C19 and 26C1), a total of 5,880 matching sites were found, with 106.9 sites for each gene. A total of 787 miRNAs were involved in the regulation of these 55 genes, with 647 (82.2%) miRNA being poorly conserved and 140 (17.8%) being conserved. Each CYP gene was regulated by 14.3 miRNAs. The TargetScan program predicted that CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 were regulated by 72, 18, 126, 34, 69, 4, 10, and 110 miRNAs, respectively. Conserved miRNAs included miR-16, miR-17, miR-141, miR-147, miR-1324, let-7a, etc, while examples of poorly conserved ones are miR-100, miR105, and miR-1178. A single miRNA may regulate different CYP genes. A small number of the miRNAs that were predicted to regulate human CYP genes have been confirmed by benchmarking studies. These studies provide initial insights into how CYPs genes are regulated by miRNAs. A High Throughput Screening Approach to Investigating How Nuclear Receptor Ligands Affect Human Cytochrome P450s Wang, Z.X.1, Sun, J.Z.1,2, Liang, J.1, Sneed, K.B.3, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida 3 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida


Nuclear receptors (NR) are a class of proteins which are responsible for sensing steroids, thyroid hormones and certain other molecules, and they work with other proteins to regulate the expression of target genes, thereby controlling the development, homeostasis, and metabolism of the body. This study investigated the effect of a library of nuclear receptor ligands (n = 80) on human CYP1A2, 2D6, 2C9 and 3A4 and the structure-inhibitory activity relationship. The inhibitory effect of NRs on human CYPs was examined using high throughput screening kits with fluorescent probes as the model substrates. Selective inhibitors such as furafylline and quinidine were used as the positive controls. The SAR was studied using AutoDock and Discovery Studio software. The NR ligands exhibited differential inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, 2D6, 2C9 and 3A4, while some NR

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts â&#x20AC;˘ 29

ligands showed activating effect on CYP2C9. For example, 6-formylindolo-[3,2-b]-carbazole was a potent inhibitor for CYP2D6 with an IC50 of <1 µM, but enhanced the activity of CYP2C9 3-fold. Among all the 80 NR ligands, about 10% showed significant inhibition (IC50 ≤ 1 µM) to CYPs; other NR ligands exhibited moderate to minor or negligible inhibitory effects on CYPs. Only taurocholic acid inhibited two CYPs CYP 2C9 (IC50d 1 µM) and 3A4 (IC50 = 1 µM). Our docking studies demonstrated the tight binding of these inhibitors to respective CYPs. The findings can be used to predict important drug interactions between NR ligands and other drugs whose disposition is regulated by NRs. High Throughput Screening to Investigate the Effect of Kinase Inhibitors on Important Cytochrome P450S Wang, Z.X.1, Sun, J.Z.1,2, Liang, J.1, Sneed, K.B.3, and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida 2 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida 3 Department of Pharmacotherapeutics and Clinical Research, University of South Florida


Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in targeted cancer treatment are often metabolized by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and show remarkable inhibitory effects on CYPs, raising the potential of TKI-drug interactions. This study investigated the effect of a library of KIs (n = 80) on human CYP1A2, 2D6, 2C9 and 3A4 and the structure-inhibitory activity relationship. The inhibitory effect of KIs on human CYPs was examined using high throughput screening kits with fluorescent probes as the model substrates. Selective inhibitors such as furafylline and quinidine were used as the positive controls. The SAR was studied using AutoDock and Discovery Studio software. The KIs exhibited differential inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, 2D6, 2C9 and 3A4, while some KIs showed activating effect on CYP2C9 and 3A4. For example, SP 600125 was a potent inhibitor for CYP1A2 with an IC50 of <1 µM, but enhanced the activity of CYP2C9 4-fold. Similar results were observed for GW 5074 and KN-62. Among all the 80 KIs, about 15% showed significant inhibition (IC50≤ 1 µM) to CYPs; other KIs exhibited moderate to minor or negligible inhibitory effects to CYPs. About 3% of the KIs inhibited two CYPs, e.g. KN-93 inhibited CYP 2D6 (IC50≤ 1 µM) and 3A4 (IC50 = 1 µM); apigenin inhibited CYP1A2 (IC50 = 1 µM) and 3A4 (IC50 = 1 µM). Our docking studies demonstrated the tight binding of these inhibitors to respective CYPs. The findings can be used to predict important drug interactions between KIs and other drugs that are extensively metabolized by CYPs. Advantages of Dual-Laser Ablation in the Growth of Multicomponent Thin Films Witanachchi, S.1, Mukherjee, D.1, Hyde, R.1, and Mukherjee, P.1 1 Center for Integrated Functional Materials (CIFM), Department of Physics, University of South Florida

Laser ablation has been the method of choice for fabricating thin films of complex materials towards the development of new device concepts. Simplicity of the process and the flexibility of this method to accommodate

30 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

variety of material systems make laser ablation attractive for industrial R & D work. However, it also presents few drawbacks such as particulate formation and small area of growth. At USF we have developed a novel dual-laser deposition process (US patent 5,660,746) to overcome these drawbacks and produce high quality thin films for device applications. In this presentation application of dual-laser ablation to grow stoichiometric films of the piezoelectric material PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) and the thermoelectric material Ba8Ga16Ge30 is presented. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infections in Elderly Mice Result in Altered Antiviral Gene Expression: A Bioinformati Wong, T.M.1, Kamath, S.2, and Mohapatra, S.S.1,3 Department of Molecular Medicine and Signature Program in Allergy, Immunology & Infectious Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine-Division of Translational Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida 2 Department of Global, Health College of Public Health, University of South Florida 3 James A. Haley VA Hospital 1

RATIONALE. RSV-induced pneumonia causes significant morbidity and mortality in elderly; however, the molecular basis for increased susceptibility to RSV infections in elderly remains unclear. Since altered PRR signaling, particularly deficits in TLR3 and TLR7, contribute to RSV-induced inflammation, we investigated PRR gene expression and TLR7 function in young and elderly mice with or without RSV infection. METHODS. Aged (>20mo.) and young (1-3mo.) BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with RSV or mockinfected and 24hrs later, PRR gene expression was compared using qRT-PCR analysis of lung RNA. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on another group of aged and young mice for isolation of alveolar macrophages and TLR7 activation was determined after incubating adherent cells with TLR7 ligand, R848, for 20hrs. Cytokine levels in culture supernatants were analyzed by ELISA for IL-6 to indicate TLR7 activation. RESULTS. RSV infection induced >2-fold upregulation of 17 PRR genes in elderly mice compared to 39 genes in the young. Of 84 genes assayed, >20 genes including TLR7, TLR9 and LGP2, were downregulated in aged mice. TLR7-stimulated alveolar macrophages from aged mice secreted less IL-6 than cells from young mice. CONCLUSIONS. RSV-infected elderly mice had altered expression of PRR genes, proinflammatory cytokine profiles, and dysfunctional signaling of TLR7. Bioinformatics analysis of the aged RSV model provides insight to age-associated changes in PRR gene expression. SUPPORT: USF Signature Research Fellowship to TW; Research Career Scientist and VA Merit Review Award to SSM

Novel Targeted Cyclodextrin Based Nanoparticle Delivery Systems for Cancer Chemotherapy Yin, J.J.1 and Zhou, S.F.1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida


Tumor resistance and drug toxicity are two major limitations for cancer chemotherapy. A possibly efficient approach to overcoming drug resistance and serious toxicities is the application of targeted nanoparticles covalent linked to or encapsulating cytotoxic drugs. In this study, novel selfassembly targeting supramolecular nanodrug complex was synthesized using folic acid or intergrin targeting cyclodextrins (CyDs) and doxorubincin in the therapy of tumor. The novel targeting supramolecular drug complex were obtained through host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin and the tripeptide RGD with sequence Arg-Gly-Asp or folic acid which can give rise to specific binding to integrin avb3 and folate receptor-over expressing tumor cells. The guest molecule was a cytotoxic prodrug obtained by the reaction of adamantyl chloride and doxorubicin hydrochloride in which the adamantly group serves as a perfect candidate for the host-guest interaction with CyDs. The host moiety was obtained through the reaction of mono-6-deoxy-6-amino-βcyclodextrin deriving from β-cyclodextrin and the carboxylterminal of the oligopeptides, or folic acid instead. The structure of the synthesized nanoparticle complex has been confirmed by LC-MS and NMR and the cytotoxic and antitumor activities are undergoing investigation.

portion of the vagina communicates to the abdomen through few tissue layers, and is distant from vital anatomic structures. Combined with its ease of access and repair, the vagina is the safest and most convenient access site to the abdomen. The TVSED uses a novel sheath and mechanism to deploy a pouch into a woman’s abdominal cavity and extract a large (multiple-centimeter) specimen(s) through the vagina. This device obviates the need for morcellation of tissue or enlarging incisions in the abdominal wall to remove the specimens, thereby minimizing scarring and allowing faster recovery following surgery.

Transvaginal Specimen Extraction Device Zakaria, M.A.1, Simoes, M.A.2, Hipol, P.J.3, and Hart, S.R.4 Instructor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida College of Medicine 2 Intern, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida Center for Advanced Medical Learning and Simulation 3 Director of Operations, Tampa Bay Research & Innovation Center (TBRIC), University of South Florida Center for Advanced Medical Learning & Simulation 4 Medical Director, Tampa Bay Research and Innovation Center (TBRIC), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida College of Medicine 1

Objective: To develop a novel device used to extract specimens, transvaginally, during laparoscopic surgery. Setting: Academic medical center Patients: Women undergoing laparoscopic surgery Interventions: The removal of multiple-centimeter sized specimens utilizing natural orifice (i.e. vagina) access during laparoscopic surgery. Methods: Pilot device. Conclusions: In laparoscopic surgery, small (5-10 mm diameter) incisions are made in the abdominal wall through which instruments dissect and remove specimens that may be several centimeters in diameter. Usually, the removal of these specimens requires either enlarging these incisions or cutting the tissue, called morcellation, to allow removal through the sub-centimeter ports. The Transvaginal Specimen Extraction Device (TVSED) allows the removal of tissues or organs from a woman’s abdominal cavity using a novel approach. In women undergoing minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery, the vagina is the ideal entrance to access the abdominal cavity. Its elasticity allows stretching to accommodate removal of large specimens. The posterior

NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 31

Technology and Innovation Proceedings of the National Academy of Inventors® AIMS AND SCOPE The journal Technology and Innovation - Proceedings of the National Academy of Inventors® is a forum for presenting information encompassing essentially the entire field of applied sciences with a focus on transformative technology and academic innovation. Owing to the broad nature of the applied sciences, authors should be guided by the interest of the readers who are likely to be knowledgeable non-specialist scholars. Contributions containing the following information will be considered for publication: n Translational technology and science including research studies with a broad interest n Articles on historical, social, and ethical aspects of science, engineering, medicine n Critical assessments of a segment of science, engineering, medicine, or other technologies n Technology, innovation, and public policy n Environmental and health impacts of various technologies n Intellectual property protection n Invention AUTHOR GUIDELINES Because Technology and Innovation serves a multidisciplinary audience, authors are urged to avoid writing for specialists. In particular, they are discouraged from using expressions that are understandable only to a select audience of specialists. For example, mathematical expressions should be explained in words to assure their appreciation by nonmathematicians. All contributions will be subjected to peer review, and will be evaluated on the basis of their general usefulness for the readers including scientific quality, originality, and compliance with the style and format of the journal. The following categories of contributions will be considered for publication: Articles: Most articles will be review format with no minimum or maximum length. The journal subscribes to the concept that the length of an article is determined by its content. Commentaries and discussions, letters to the editor, editorials, and similar contributions: These are subjected to peer review, are required to follow Technology and Innovation’s format and style, and must be consis-

32 • NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts

tent with the requirements of a scholarly journal. The discussion of contested areas of science where consensus is lacking is included in this category. Commentaries are shorter than regular manuscripts and must contain information that is likely to invoke scientific discussion with the objective of promoting the development of a consensus. Patent reviews: New patents of interest to the readers of Technology and Innovation are included in this category. Book reviews on innovation and technology: Solicited or unsolicited short reviews of relevant books are considered for publication in this category. PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS Submissions to Technology and Innovation should be made via email to Provide separate files for text and figures/tables. Text submissions must be in English, in an editable Microsoft Wordcompatible electronic file, typed, double-spaced, formatted for 22 x 28 cm (8.5 x 11 in) with a margin of 2.5-3 cm (1 in) at the top, sides and bottom of each page. Title page: Each paper should include a title page with the title of the paper, name(s) of author(s), and complete affiliation(s). Provide a short title to be used as running head. Indicate the author to whom correspondence and proofs should be addressed, and provide a complete physical mailing address, phone, fax and email address. Title: The title should be as short as possible, but fully descriptive. Abstract and key words: The abstract should contain a summary of the article, including its results. Because many abstracting services use the abstract without reference to the content, the authors are urged to provide the essence of the paper in the 200 words allocated for the abstract. Provide 3 to 6 key words after the abstract. Financial disclosure: The authors should indicate any financial or other relationships with the information in the article. If the authors do not have financial disclosures, they can include a statement saying “the authors declare no conflict of interest”. Tables and figures should be understandable without excessive reference to the text; particularly, units and quantities should be clearly identified. In general, material should be presented in tables or figures, but not in both. Avoid very wide or long figures and tables that would not fit on a printed page. If color figures are necessary, there is a charge for reproducing color figures.

Figures: All figures must be high-quality art work in electronic format. Figures should be submitted separately from the text, in two files: (1) an editable file that is Microsoft Office-compatible (e.g., Word, PowerPoint, Excel) and (2) a high-resolution PDF or JPG format, to show how the figure should appear when published (no TIF files). Lettering should be large enough to be readable when reduced to fit page or column size. Avoid light lettering and gray shading. Cite all figures sequentially in the text and provide a legend for all figures on a separate page at the end of the manuscript (do not incorporate legends as part of the figure). Tables: Present each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or in a separate file. Provide a short title for each table. Cite all tables sequentially in the text. Follow the Figures instructions above for submitting tables. Equations: All equations should be typewritten. Mathematical notations should be simple and suitable for a multidisciplinary audience. For example, fractions within fractions, and subscripts within subscripts should be avoided. Where possible, incorporate equations into the text, rather than as a separate figure. Units, quantities, and abbreviations: Use SI (metric) units and international quantities and abbreviations. Equivalent values in other systems may be used, provided their metric equivalents are included in every case. Note that percent, ppm and ppb are not metric units. Footnotes: Avoid text footnotes. Footnote material should be incorporated into the text for the benefit of the readers, editors and printers. Acknowledgement: If an acknowledgement is necessary, it should not contain lengthy descriptions of the reason for the acknowledgement. References: Within the text, references should be cited with numbers in parentheses. At the end of the manuscript, provide the references in a numbered alphabetical list. Follow the style of the examples below: Article 1. Addison, S. R.; Fetcenko, M. A.; Ross, J. A. Nickel metal hydride for electric vehicles. Science 260:176187; 1993. 2. Bhushan, J. P; Morones, H. S. Nanotechnology through biology: Benchmarks for high performance applications. Nature 393:440-442; 1999. Book 3. Henderson, P. Inorganic geochemistry. New York, NY: Pergamon Press; 1982.

Book Chapter 5. Rajotte, R. V.; Lakey, J. R. T.; Warnock, G. L. Adult islet cryopreservation. In: Ricordi, C., ed. Methods in cell transplantation. Austin, TX: R. G. Landes Co.; 1995:517–524. Proceedings or Edited Book 6. Swedjemark, G. A.; Midnes, L. Exposure of the Swedish population to radon daughters. In: Berglund, B.; Lindvall, T.; Sundell, J., eds. Proc. 3rd international conference on indoor air quality and climate, vol. 2. Stockholm: Swedish Council for Building Research; 1984: 37-43. Regulation 7. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. National primary drinking water regulations: Fluoride. 40 CFR Parts 141, 142, and 143. Fed. Reg. 50:47142-48933; 1985. Electronic/Online Sources 8. Working Group on Peer Review of the Advisory Committee to the Director of the NIH. Enhancing the peer review at NIH. Retrieved June 2009 from The designated corresponding author will receive a proof of their article in PDF format via email before publication and should answer all queries and carefully check all editorial changes within 48 hours of receipt. Corrections at this stage should be limited to printer’s errors and minor changes. No major changes or rewrites are allowed. Offprints can be ordered on the Offprint Order Form, which will accompany proofs. The author filling in the order form should make sure that all co-authors’ needs for reprints are incorporated into the total order. Offprint order forms must be received before printing in order to qualify for lower prepublication rates. Open Access: An Open Access option is available from the publisher. Authors may choose to make their articles available for free download by paying a fee. Information regarding cost will be provided with proofs. Copyright: If data from any other source is used in tables or figures it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission to reproduce such material. Provide proof that permission has been granted from the original publisher and indicate the source. For any questions relating to the formatting or submitting of manuscripts please contact: Dr. Cecilia Vindrola Padros, Managing Editor Email: Tel: +1-813-974-1347 Fax: +1-813-974-3348

Report 4. National Research Council. Biologic markers in immunology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1992. NAI Inaugural Annual Conference Abstracts • 33




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