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Tourism

峇里島旅遊業走和諧發展之路

作者/By Steve Lunt

Tourism in the Bali Balance

As one of the world’s most

popular tourist destinations, Bali has often been praised as the “Best Island in the World” by international travel magazines. This paradise island of gods and temples is one of the mainstays of Indonesia’s tourism industry. 峇里島是享譽世界的度假勝地,被國際旅 遊雜誌譽為「世界最佳島嶼」。這座在神 靈神廟庇佑下的天堂之島,是印尼旅遊業 的中流砥柱。

The 2002 Bali bombing was a terrible human tragedy, and a huge blow for its economy: the rate of tourism decreased by 31%. More bombings have followed in Jakarta, and Bali was hit by a second attack in 2005. Yet despite these devastating attacks, concerted efforts to revive Bali’s tourism industry have been successful: improved security measures

and efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice have restored international confidence that Bali is safe. 2002年的峇里島爆炸案是一場人間悲 劇,嚴重打擊了經濟:遊客人數驟降31%。 後來雅加達又發生多起爆炸案,2005年峇 里島再度遇襲。恐怖襲擊過後,人們痛定 思痛,齊心協力重振峇里島旅遊業:安保 措施全面升級,罪魁禍首得到嚴懲,峇里 島的安全重獲國際信任。

Consequently, more than two million foreign tourists visited Bali in 2008 -- almost a third of Indonesia’s overall target for that year. And international tourist arrivals in Bali for the seven months to July 2009 were recorded at over 1.2 million -- a growth of around 12 percent over the same period in 2007. 結果,2008年峇里島吸引外國遊客超過 兩百萬人,幾乎是印尼當年目標總數的三 分之一。2009年7月之前的七個月,抵達

峇里島的國際遊客人數達到創紀錄的120萬 人,比2007年同期增長12%左右。

Balinese tourism operators and government officials have been sufficiently encouraged by these figures to say that Bali’s tourism industry has not only fully recovered from its near collapse in the aftermath of the bombs, but even surpassed its pre-bombings growth rate. Moreover, this strong performance continued despite the global financial crisis and H1N1 pandemic. 這些數字足以令峇里島的旅遊業者和政 府官員鼓足底氣說,峇里島旅遊業不僅徹 底走出爆炸案過後慘淡經營的局面,甚至 已超越爆炸案之前的增長速度。更可喜的 是,就連席捲全球的金融危機和H1N1流感 亦未能阻擋峇里島前進的腳步。

But the rapid growth of development in tourism has had a big impact and influence on Balinese tradition and lifestyles. Local MARCH 2010 | ASIAN TIGERS INVESTOR REPORT


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Tourism

Speaking at a workshop on tourism held recently in Bali, Dr. Salim warned: “If seen solely from the quantity of tourists coming to Bali in the last few years, there has certainly been an increase, but the income derived from each tourist as measured in money spent, and length of stay is still far below the corresponding numbers from Malaysia. This is because Bali has lost its character and bearings, otherwise often referred to as ‘branding’”. 最近在峇里島舉行的一次旅遊業研討會 上,薩利姆博士警告說:「過去幾年前來 峇里島的遊客數量確有增長,但是從人均 消費看,每名遊客所產生的收入,以及停 留時間依舊遠遜馬來西亞。這是因為峇里 島喪失了它的個性和內涵,換言之就 是『徒有其表』。」

observers believe its tourism industry has been overdeveloped, with some Indonesian media commentators even going so far as to say that Bali is on the brink of destruction, due to mismanagement in tapping its local potential. They argue that tourism, which initially functioned merely as a supporting sector, has been excessively developed -while agriculture, formerly the backbone of the island’s economy, has been neglected or even sacrificed for the sake of tourism. They point to examples, such as the widespread conversion of paddy fields and beautiful landscapes into construction sites for hotels and villas.

然而,旅遊業的飛速增長卻給峇里人的 古老傳統和生活方式帶來了巨大衝擊和影 響。本地觀察人士認為峇里島的旅遊業開 發過度,更有印尼媒體評論員尖銳指出, 因為對自身潛能管理不善,峇里島已瀕臨 毀滅的邊緣。他們說當初旅遊業不過是一 個輔助產業,但是現在已經開發氾濫,從 前作為島上經濟支柱的農業卻被冷落,甚 至為了旅遊業而不惜犧牲農業,比如大片 的農田和優美的山水,現在都變成了酒店 和別墅的建築工地。

Bali may still be the icon of Indonesian tourism, but according to a senior Indonesian economist, Professor Dr. Emil Salim, it is destined to lose its true bearings as a religious, cultural, and nature destination, which will result in a decline in the quality of international tourists drawn to the island. 峇里島是印尼旅遊業的象徵,但印尼資 深經濟學家和教授埃米爾•薩利姆博士卻認 為,峇里島註定將會失去它作為宗教,文化 和自然勝地的真正內涵,隨之而來的必然 是前來島上觀光的外國遊客質素的下降。

Dr. Salim is an advisor to President Yudhoyono, and a respected Indonesian elder statesman. He is a US-trained economist, who held four cabinet portfolios between 1971 and 1993. Dr. Salim also advises the World Bank, which lists him as an “Eminent Person”. 薩利姆博士是蘇西洛總統的顧問,是國 內德高望重的老一輩政治家。作為曾在美 國深造過的經濟學家,他於1971年至1993 年四次入選內閣。薩利姆博士亦是世界銀 行的顧問,世行稱他是「顯要人物」。 ASIAN TIGERS INVESTOR REPORT | MARCH 2010

The Bali Tourism Board claims: “It is the Balinese civilization that makes the island different from other destinations.” But in reviewing the current state of tourism to the island, Dr. Salim referred to a popular dish of mixed blanched vegetables served with a peanut sauce, saying: “Tourism, as it is currently developing in Bali, has become ‘gadogado tourism’ that calls on a wide assortment of tourist attractions. This is very different from Malaysia with promotes ‘Truly Asia,’ India with its ‘Incredible India,’ and Singapore with its ‘Uniquely Singapore.’ This is the reason Indonesian tourism is being left behind.” 峇里島旅遊局說「峇里文明讓這座島嶼與 眾不同。」然而談及峇里島旅遊業的現狀, 薩利姆博士用花生醬拌蔬果拼盤這道美食做 個比方,他說:「現在峇里島的旅遊業已經 成為『大雜燴』,景點繁多,眼花繚亂,這 與馬來西亞所宣揚的『亞洲真本色』,印度倡 導的「不可思議的印度」,還有新加坡打造的 『獨一無二的新加坡』都大相徑庭。印尼的 旅遊業之所以落於人後,原因就在於此。」

Dr. Salim said he hoped Bali’s tourism would focus on quality, spending, and

They argue that tourism, which initially

functioned merely as a supporting sector, has been excessively developed


length of stay – rather than merely pursuing quantity: “We do not need to pursue tourists on the basis of quantity – because quantity without quality will result in a loss of concern for the environment. Make religion, culture, and nature as the identity or character of Bali tourism. Bali will obtain quality tourists through staying faithful to the concept of ‘Tri Hita Karana.’” 薩利姆博士說他希望峇里島的旅遊業注 重質素,消費,還有停留時間,而不要只 盯著數量:「我們沒必要過分追求遊客人 數,因為『有量無質』的結果必然是對環 境的忽視。要把宗教,文化和自然作為峇 里島旅遊的特色或象徵。惟有恪守『三界 和諧』的信念,峇里島才能引來高質素的 遊客。」

The central theme of Bali’s civilization is that life should always be related to the tripartite model of “Tri Hita Karana” – a spiritual relationship between God, humans, and their natural environment. 峇里文明的中心思想是生命中貫穿「三 界和諧」的觀念,即神,人與自然三方和 諧共處。

Indonesia’s former Minister of Culture and Tourism, I Gede Ardika, supported Dr. Salim’s speech by calling for adherence to Tri Hita Karana and the need to consolidate religion, culture, and nature as the benchmarks in developing the island’s tourism. 印尼前任文化和旅遊部長阿迪卡贊同薩 利姆博士的觀點,他呼籲人們恪守「三界 和諧」,把宗教,文化和自然結合在一起, 作為開發峇里島旅遊業的方針。

Ardika said: “The main asset of Bali tourism is the culture of Bali itself. Because of this, let us all work together to protect and preserve that which draws tourists to Bali.” 阿迪卡說:「峇里島旅遊業的資本就是 峇里本身的文化。所以,讓我們一起保護 和保存峇里島賴以吸引遊客之處。」

Tourism leaders in Bali have tried to Indonesia’s former Minister of Culture and Tourism, I Gede Ardika, supported Dr. Salim’s speech by calling for adherence to Tri Hita Karana and the need to consolidate religion, culture, and nature as the benchmarks in developing the island’s tourism.

encourage this approach by arranging events such as the Tri Hita Karana Tourism Awards, for businesses who strive to promote balance and harmony in the relationship between God, society and nature. 峇里島旅遊業的領導者們舉辦了各類活 動來宣揚這些理念,像「三界和諧旅遊 獎」便是一例。該獎項旨在表彰為促進 神,社會和自然三界和諧共處作出貢獻的 企業。

The Balinese Food Festival in 2009 celebrated traditional drinks and food, which had to be specially prepared according to health and presentation standards. Each participant had to prepare a typical Balinese menu, with a customized decoration as the theme. Wayan Siana, Chef at the Four Seasons Hotel in Jimbaran, said: “With the theme of Tri Hita Karana, we try a unique way. We choose the old style of food, digging into the culinary history of our ancestors to bring it to life once again.” 峇里美食節融匯了各色傳統美食佳餚,營 養健康,色香味俱佳。參賽者需做出地道的 峇里菜餚,並要精心點綴以突出主題。金芭 蘭四季酒店的廚師夏納說:「我們試圖以別 具一格的方式,展現『三界和諧』的主題。 我們選擇古老的菜餚,並從祖先的烹製技藝 中汲取靈感,令它重煥生機。」

Bali’s tourism chiefs also have more reason to celebrate following the UN’s recent selection of their island as the site for a new green tourism project.

The United Nations World Tourism Organization has chosen Bali for a pilot project to develop environmentally friendly tourism. 最近峇里島又迎來喜訊,它被聯合國選 為一個新型綠色旅遊項目的基地。聯合國 世界旅遊組織選中峇里島來實施一個旅遊 環保開發試點項目。

Geoffrey Lipman, the UNWTO assistant secretary general, said Bali was chosen because of its local wisdom regarding the balance between mankind,


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nature and spirituality. The question now, according to Lipman, was how to apply this wisdom to meet actual challenges – such as climate change – that could damage the environment. Although Bali’s natural environment was relatively well preserved thanks to the intimate relationship between its people and nature, it was still at risk, especially without proper planning, he said. Lipman confirmed his agency would work to help Bali in meeting these challenges: initially, the UNWTO would analyze the island’s problems and needs, including such issues as alternative energy sources and natural conservation. It would also try to help Bali secure financial support from international donors, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. 世界旅遊組織副秘書長李普曼表示,之 所以選擇峇里島,是因為它追求神,人與自 然和諧共處的傳統智慧。李普曼說,當前 的問題是如何發揮這智慧來應對現實的挑 戰,比如氣候變化,這些挑戰對環境構成 威脅。他指出,得益於當地人與自然之間 的親密關係,峇里島的自然環境保持得比 較好,但是對於風險,尤其是規劃不善的 風險,決不能掉以輕心。李普曼說他所在 的組織將會幫助峇里島應對這些挑戰:首 先,世界旅遊組織將分析島上的問題和需 求,比如替代能源和自然保護。它還會嘗 試幫助峇里島從國際上如世界銀行,亞洲開 發銀行獲得資金援助。

Lipman said it was necessary to implement the green tourism concept as part of a green economy: “The concept encompasses reduction of carbon dioxide production, environmentally friendly investment, the use of alternative energy, preservation of biodiversity and other issues.” 李普曼說把綠色旅遊理念作為綠色經濟 的一部份加以推廣很有必要:「這個理念 涵蓋了二氧化碳減排,環保投資,使用替代 能源,保護生態多樣性等方方面面。」

Bali Governor I Made Mangku Pastika expressed his hope that the nomination would strengthen the island’s reputation as an environmentally friendly tourist destination. He hoped tourists who visited Bali would be those who appreciated the preservation of the natural environment and culture. Pastika said the nomination challenged all Balinese people to reconsider nature and its preservation. 峇里省省長帕斯迪卡希望這次入選可以 提升峇里島作為綠色旅遊勝地的知名度, 並希望前來峇里島觀光的遊客能理解當地 保護自然環境和文化的一片苦心。帕斯迪 卡說,這次入選引發了全體峇里人民對於 自然和自然保護的反思。

And Bali’s tourism leaders can also take heart from the latest 2009 figures, which record the highest year-on-year increases for tourists coming from China, France, and Australia – of about 55 percent, 40 percent and 39 percent respectively. 2009年的統計數據令峇里島旅遊業界鼓 舞,來自中國,法國和澳洲的遊客人數年 比增幅創歷史紀錄,分別達到55%,40%和 39%。

With a strong domestic demand, loyal repeat visitors from Japan, Europe and Australia – and potential new markets such as China, India, and Russia – analysts at Jones Lang LaSalle in Indonesia say the Bali tourism industry is expected to outperform other markets globally. 因為有旺盛的內需,有日本,歐洲和澳洲 的回頭客,還有中國,印度和俄羅斯等新興 市場,仲量聯行駐印尼的分析師認為,峇 里島的旅遊產業可望領跑全球。

They also highlight additional factors contributing to the continued growth of Bali’s tourism: improved aviation safety standards recently enabled the EU to lift ASIAN TIGERS INVESTOR REPORT | MARCH 2010

And Bali’s tourism leaders can also take heart from the latest 2009 figures, which record the highest year-on-year increases for tourists coming from China, France, and Australia -- of about 55 percent, 40 percent and 39 percent respectively.

its two-year ban on selected Indonesian carriers, including Garuda Indonesia; new luxury hotel developments such as St. Regis and the Banyan Tree will reinforce Bali’s positioning as a destination favored by affluent travelers; and the country’s political stability under a strong government is conducive to the continuation of sustainable infrastructure developments – which should help to preserve a healthy, green and prosperous balance for Bali’s tourism. 他們還列舉了一些有利於峇里島旅遊業 持續發展的因素:隨著近期航空安全水準 的提升,歐盟解除了對於嘉魯達航空等若 干印尼航空公司為期兩年的禁令;包括瑞 吉酒店,悅榕酒店在內的新豪華酒店相繼 開發,鞏固了峇里島在富裕遊客心目中的 地位;國家在強有力的政府領導下政局穩 定,確保基礎建設持續進行。凡此種種, 皆有利於峇里島旅遊業的健康,環保,繁榮 發展。|AT|

November 2010  

Asian Tigers Investor Report November 2010

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