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WOAKABILITY genta ishimura

jonathan yu

kevin zhang


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

CONTENTS intentions 4 section one introduction 5 what is walkability? why is walkability important? what makes a neighbourhood walkable? section two scope and history 6 first impressions neighbourhood demographics housing types workplace distribution median household income population in low-income households section three documentation & analysis 10 modes of transport land use 5 min walking radius service coverage level of service typical sections connectivity transit coverage visibility permeability grey network long sections section four conclusion 20 findings closing comments section five tools & references 21

contents

3


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

All truly great thoughts are conceived by walking. Friedrich Nietzsche

This study will allow us to analyze real-world built forms in terms of concepts discussed in Urban Planning. It will familiarize us with the theory, measurements and implications of walkability. By comparing three different neighbourhoods, we will be able to obtain quantifiable measurements of the indicators explored in class. This allows us to use extrapolate findings to aid us in future design projects.

4 intentions


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1 INTRODUCTION

What is walkability?

Walkability is the extent to which the built environment is friendly to the presence of people living, shopping, visiting, enjoying or spending time in an area. - Stephen Abley, Walkability Scoring

What makes a neighbourhood walkable? A walkable neighbourhood has good proximity to necessities, well connected infrastructure and pedestrian oriented amenities. - Ronald Kellett

Why is walkability important? In the last 20 years, child obesity rates have quintupled in Canada. People who live in spread-out, car-dependent neighborhoods are likely to walk less, weigh more, and suffer from obesity and high blood pressure and consequent diabetes, cardiovascular and other diseases, as compared to people who live in more efficient, higher density communities. -Report on Public Health and Urban Sprawl in Ontario

introduction

5


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

3 1 2

SCOPE AND HISTORY Oak Street

Oak Street is a major arterial street in Vancouver. From north to south, it runs through a very busy commercial district, then by Vancouver General Hospital, then some very expensive Vancouver neighbourhoods, then to Marpole District, and into Richmond. One can drive from Mexico to Vancouver and the first traffic lights they hit are at Oak and 70th avenue. - Erick Villagomez Fairview 1886 Fairview was named by CPR Land Commissioner L.A. Hamilton. Hamilton’s survey established the numbered system of east-west avenues and named the cross streets after trees. 1920s Fairview Slopes was zoned for 3 storey apartments and throughout the 1950s, the area south of Broadway developed as an apartment district. 1972 Plans initiated for the redevelopment of both Fairview and Granville Island for higher density residential and commercial uses.

Shaughnessy

1885 Shaughnessy developed on 6,000 acres of prime land in the heart of Vancouver to lure the city’s elite from the West End. 1907 CPR spends more than one million dollars developing the site before selling. 1914 Shaughnessy Settlement Act restricts development to single-family houses. 1922 Shaughnessy Heights Building Restriction Act prohibits the subdivision of lots and limits construction to one single-family dwelling per lot. 1930s Depression causes many homes to be repossessed and turned into rooming houses. Marpole 3500 B.C. Two early village sites discovered along the north shore of the Fraser have been documented by archaeologists. 1929 Marpole is amalgamated into Vancouver. Saw mills along the river make it the industrial centre of the lower mainland. 1957 Oak Street opens and draws business and development away from old district 1960s Area south of 70th Avenue was rezoned and low-rise stucco walk-ups began to replace the original homes.

6

scope and history


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fairview

marpole

shaughnessy First Impressions of the Sites Before starting detailed analysis, we immediately noticed the different densities, building types, traffic flow and vegetation of each site. Qualitative aspects of the neighbourhood contribute greatly to the attractiveness of pedestrian routes.

scope and history

7


Fairview

woakability |

19 and under 20-39 ends 440 | 2008 40-64 65 and over

9.3 42.7 34.6 13.4

Shaughnessy 21.6 23.1 37.1 18.1

Marpole 19.9 30.5 37.1 12.5

Age Groups

NEIGHBOURHOOD DEMOGRAPHICS (%)

50.0 43 37.5 37

35

37

31 22

20

25.0

23

9

12.5

18 13 13

19 and under 20-39

0 40-64 65 and over

Singledetached house

Semidetached house 0.3 70.5 26.2

Detached duplex 0.7 0.8 5.5

Row house

0.3 6.1 8.7

Apartment, Apartment, 5 under 5 or more storeys storeys Fairview Shaughnessy 3.8 67.3 27 2.8 17.3 2.5 4 53.4 2.1

Marpole

Neighbourhood Demographics play an important role in determining the walkability of a region. Fairview, which has a large portion of young professionals, can better deal with less ideal walking conditions, such as low lighting and steep slopes. Shaughnessy, on the other hand, has a greater portion of people over 65; therefore, the walking requirements are more stringent. Paths with optimal safety and ease are needed. Fairview

HOUSING TYPES (%) Shaughnessy

Marpole

2%

3%

0% 1% 0% 4%

17%

27%

26%

3% 6% 1%

53% 6% 71%

68%

Fairview Single-detached house Detached duplex Apartment, under 5 storeys

Shaughnessy

9% 4%

Marpole

Semi-detached house Row house Apartment, 5 or more storeys

Housing Types not only give character to a neighbourhood, they also contribute to the overall walking environment of a region. Fairview, which has predominately low-rise apartments, has many semi-private spaces in front of buildings, adding to the neighbourhood’s social spaces. Shaughnessy, with mostly single-detached houses, has ample gardens and lawns abutting the roads, contributing to the attractiveness of a path.

8

scope and history


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Work place distribution

WORKPLACE DISTRIBUTION (%)

4 57

6 54

Work Commute is the single biggest contributor to transportation costs.

100

7 47

The closer one lives to their work, the less demand there is on the environment and the more likely they are to walk.

75

50 10

17

8

28

38 23

Marpole has the least people working from home, and the greatest demand on transportation. This can be attributed to the its economic characteristics below.

25

Fairview 0

Shaughnessy Marpole

Median household Income Population in low income household

Fairview 52458

19.2

Unemployment Rate Working in the City, outside the home Working at home Shaughnessy Marpole 105731 41125 Other 14.8

32.2

MEDIANMedian HOUSEHOLD INCOME ($) household income

POPULATION IN LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS (%) Population in low income household

110000 40

105731

82500 30

32 52458

55000 19 41125

20 15

27500

10 0 0

Fairview

Shaughnessy

Marpole

Fairview

Shaughnessy

Marpole

Socioeconomic Factors such as median household income and amount of population in the lowincome household bracket affects the tendency to walk. In Shaughnessy, families usually have more than one vehicle and will drive more frequently. However, in Marpole, people own less cars and are more likely to walk and take public transit. As a result, neighbourhoods like Marpole have slowly and physically transformed to be more accommodating to pedestrians.

scope and history

9


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

3

DOCUMENTATION & ANALYSIS Modes of Transport

Transportation mode data has been collected for each of the three sites and are the most accurate measures of walkability. Vancouver as a whole, has a greater portion of people walking to work and services compared to areas surrounding it. This study will look at the three indicator sets below to determine how formal design factors contribute to the different levels of walkability.

Proximity

Proximity measures the relationships between a resident and all their necessities. This will be measured by mapping neighbourhood services, 5 minute walking radii and service coverage. Connectivity Connectivity measures the ease at which one can walk to one’s destination. This will be measured through crosswalk availability, path choice, block size, and other formal characteristics displayed in section. Attractiveness Attractiveness measures the intangible attributes of a walking route. This will be measured through safety, vegetation, visibility and permeability.

10 documentation & analysis


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

Car, truck van as driver Car, truck , van as passenger Public transit Walked to work Bicycle Other method

Fairview Shaughnessy 46.5 69.4

Marpole 59.7

3.5

7

6.4

24 20.2

12.1 6

27.1 4.4

4.4 1.5

3.5 2

1.4 1

MODES OF TRANSPORT TO WORK (%)

Mode of travel to work

0 50 100 Fairview 47 4

24

20

Shaughnessy 69 Marpole 60

7

12

6 4

2

6 27

Car, truck van as driver Public transit Bicycle

4 2

41 1

Car, truck , van as passenger Walked to work Other method

Modes of transport records the actual amount of people walking to work; and is a good indicator of walking in general. Fairview has by far the greatest percentage of people walking. The following analyses will probe into why that is from multiple perspectives.

documentation & analysis 11


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

Land Use A mixture of land uses and dense residential developments provide the ideal conditions for walking. Fairview’s services are concentrated on two strips on Broadway and 6th. Shaughnessy’s services are concentrated around the node of Oak and King Edward. Marpole is bisected by 70th and has dramatically different zoning on either side. } residential attached } residential detached } residential mixed } residential stacked } commercial general } commercial mixed } civic general } open space natural } open space park

fairview

shaughnessy

5 min Walking Radius A quarter mile radius around a representative housing unit in each neighbourhood measures the availability of services. Service Coverage A holistic representation of the service coverage in each neighbourhood. Level of Service Combining the previous two diagrams, we see the complete picture of service availability in each region. Fairview is the best served because it has multiple commercial zones spread out through the neighbourhood.

marpole

5 minute walking radius }commercial mix }commercial general }public open space }civic general 12 documentation & analysis


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residential attached residential detached residential mixed residential stacked commercial general commercial mixed civic general open space natural open space park street alley street local street collector street arterial

fairview

shaughnessy

marpole

service coverage }commercial mix }commercial general }public open space }civic general

level of service }area with 3 or more services }area with 2 or more services

documentation & analysis 13


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fairview building buffer 1m | sidewalk 1.5m | traffic buffer 1m | road 10m | corner radius 5m

shaughnessy building buffer 17m | sidewalk 1.6m | traffic buffer 3m | road 7.5m | corner radius 4m

marpole building buffer 6m | sidewalk 1.6m | traffic buffer 1.8m | road 10m | corner radius 4.5m

Typical Sections reveal much about the spatial relationships of a pedestrian and their surroundings. Fairview and Marpole both have street facing facades. However, Fairview’s buildings are at a more human scale. Shaughnessy has the most distance between the sidewalk and housing, offering the pedestrian more space, but a less involved walk. CONNECTIVITY STATISTICS Fairview

Shaughnessy

Marpole

Average road width

10 m

7.5 m

10 m

Average block

133 m

190 m

172 m

Intersections

16

13

13

Intersections per

80

49

57

Distant between choices length Total road

133 m

190 m

172 m

3.37 km

4.33 km

3.94 km

Total road per km2

16.9 km

16.2 km

17.5 km

km2 area Total

0.2 km2

0.267 km2

0.225 km2

Physical characteristics of the infrastructure determine many factors of walkability, most notably: safety. Narrower roads, more intersections, and smaller cornering radii all reduce vehicle speeds. Fairview has the smallest average block size and also the most intersections per square kilometer. This reveals a denser and more finely connected neighbourhood, which provides pedestrians more path choices and a shorter distance between two points.

14 documentation & analysis


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

Public transit is crucial for a walkable neighbourhood. Bus stops must be within 5 minutes of the residence. Larger stops like a SkyTrain station will have a greater service area.

Housing served by:

22% 5 stops 34% 4 stops 11% 3 stops 8% 2 stops 25%

IRONWORK PASSAGE

6 stops

GE

WA

EEN

S ING

LK

N TL SCA

LAMEY'S MILL ROAD

W 6TH AV

While all neighbourhoods are well served by transit, there are distinct patterns for each.

W 7TH AV

W BROADWAY

7 stops

LAUREL ST

OAK ST

SPRUCE ST

W 8TH AV

Fairview’s bus stops are all on two large east-west fairview streets of Broadway and 6th Avenue. Therefore, pedestrians must walk north and south frequently. This could be a problem because of the steep slopes in that direction.

W 23TH AVE

WILLOW ST

OAK ST

OSLER ST

SELKIRK ST

W 24TH AVE LAUREL ST

53% 6 stops 17% 5 stops 3% 4 stops 3% 3 stops 9% 2 stops 15%

L GR

OO SCH FO R

W KING EDWARD

Shaughnessy’s bus stops are all concentrated around the node of Oak and King Edward. While this results in a small area with very high transit coverage, shaughnessy the areas surrounding the node are not well served.

W 26TH AVE

W 27TH AVE

Marpole’s bus stops are arranged in an axial fashion along Oak and along 70th. This method is very efficient as it offers everyone in the neighbourhood medium transit coverage. More people are encouraged to walk to bus stops.

W 64TH AVE

4% 6 stops 3% 5 stops 4% 4 stops 45% 3 stops 30% 2 stops 12% 7 stops

FREMLIN ST

SHAUGHNESSY ST

OAK ST

OSLER ST

SELKIRK ST

W 67TH AVE

W 70TH AVE

W 71TH AVE

W 72TH AVE

marpole documentation & analysis 15


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

Visibility of the surroundings is a key factor in determining the attractiveness of a walking route. People are more likely to walk on paths where they can have views of water, parks, squares and other attractive neighbourhood features. These diagrams map the visibility of every pedestrian accessible point in each neighbourhood.

fairview

Due to Fairview’s dense residential developments, the only areas of high visibility exist in the park on the northern side. Many people will take a longer route just to enjoy the scenery along the water. Shaughnessy has sparse residential developments and this results in large view corridors along roads. Combined with substantial landscaping along the sidewalks, this neighbourhood becomes an area where people from other regions come for leisurely walks.

shaughnessy high visibility

Marpole, similar to Fairview, has dense residential developments. This results in areas of high visibility only at intersections. The exception is Eburne park to the south. However, permeability becomes a problem, as shown in the next section.

low visibility

16 documentation & analysis

marpole


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

OAK ST

fairview park LAMEY'S MILL ROAD LAMEY'S MILL ROAD

W 72TH AVE

W 6TH AV

W 6TH AV

W 27TH AVE W 27TH AVE

OAK ST

OAK ST

W 71TH AVE

W 72TH AVE

R

ED

SW

M

IN AR

E RIN

DR

MA

The large open space of False Creek has edge conditions that are pedestrian friendly. Limited vehicle access, density, wide pathways and the water as an edge to the north allows for safe and attractive walking conditions. Braemar Park is surrounded by single-detached Residential Mixed housesResidential and Mixed the G.F. Strong None Rehabilitation CentreCommercial on General the west side. Commercial GeneralThere is Moderate relatively low trafficResidential flowDetached Residential Detached of traffic which is a result Heavy Civic General circles. In addition, the Civic General 30 km/hr speed limit for Open Space Park parks reduces the speed of Open Space Park vehicles. Large trees are planted along the edge of the park to give it some sense of separation.

WILLOW ST

WILLOW ST

LAUREL ST

LAUREL ST

W 26TH AVE

eburne park

} high accessibility W 72TH AVE } medium accessibility } low accessibility SW

W 26TH AVE

braemar park

OAK ST

OAK ST

EEN

OAK ST

EN

L GR E

O SCH O

OL GR

SCH O

Permeability measures the accessibility of a site to pedestrians. All of the three respective parks are highly visible. However, they must W 71TH AVE also have enough entrances W 71TH AVE and exits for them to truly add to the attractiveness of a route.

Eburne Park is located next to the off ramp of the Oak Street Bridge. There are no trees on the edge of the park. Because of its location, the average vehicle speed is significantly higher than the other sites. There are also no crosswalks.

documentation & analysis 17

R

SW

MA


woakability | ends 440 | 2008 2

6

8 6

2

6

8 6

IRONWORK PASSAGE

R EEN

OL G

SCH O

4 6

4 4

6

GE

8

GS N TLIN SCA

WA

LK

6

6

FOR

6

6

8

6

12

6

6

8

12

12

8 12

LAMEY'S MILL ROAD 8

12

8

4

8

4

W 6TH AV

22

14 16

W 7TH AV 24

18

38

W 8TH AV

36

34

LAUREL ST

OAK ST

SPRUCE ST

26

28

W BROADWAY

44

48 42

32

46

74

56

58

72

64

W 23TH AVE

62

72

72

72

72

WILLOW ST

LAUREL ST

OAK ST

OSLER ST

74

66

74

68

SELKIRK ST

W 24TH AVE

74

74

W KING EDWARD

66 68

68

W 26TH AVE

68

66

68

68

68

W 27TH AVE 78

68

82

76

68

68

68

84

46

48

W 64TH AVE

2

32

38

FREMLIN ST

OAK ST

OSLER ST

SHAUGHNESSY ST

26

W 67TH AVE

SELKIRK ST

36

Combining contours 44and 42 the grey network shows the relationship of the built environment and the natural 34 landscape. In all cases, a geometric grid has been imposed on the land, with 28 Fairview suffering the biggest consequence. Its north south streets have slopes of 43%, which are well over the comfortable walking threshold of 8%.

W 70TH AVE

18

22

residential attached

residential detached residential mixed

residential stacked commercial general commercial mixed

} street alley } street local } street collector } street arterial

14

civic general

open space natural open space park

W 71TH AVE

16

street alley

street local

street collector

4

14

W 72TH AVE

8

18 documentation & analysis

6

12

street arterial


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

]

Broadway 40m

6th Ave 10m

] Spruce St. 36m

Laurel St. 26m

] 22nd Ave 74m

27th Ave 70m

] Selkirk St. 68m

Willow St. 72m

] 64th Ave 150m

72nd Ave 50m

] False Creek -4%

-3%

Fraser River -2%

-1%

0%

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

6%

7%

8%

9%

Slope Diagram Legend

Path Sections display the overall slope of the land. Fairview is extremely steep north-south, with a maximum slope of 43%. Shaughnessy is the most walkable in terms of terrain, with no path above 4%. Marpole has a maximum slope of 6% by the Fraser river. However the rest of the neighbourhood is fairly level. The section of Oak Street from False Creek to the Fraser River shows all three neighbourhoods in a greater context and is vertically exaggerated 50 times.

documentation & analysis 19


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

3 4 CONCLUSION

FINDINGS

After analyzing Fairview, Shaughnessy and Marpole based on proximity to necessities, connectivity and route attractiveness, we found that there are many contributing factors to walkability. While each neighbourhood has its strengths, Fairview is more walkable in most categories. What is also important is how a neighbourhood deals with major arterial streets. In Fairview, Oak street ends, but its density and services diffuse deep into the region. In Shaughnessy, Oak street operates more as a node with King Edward. This concentrates the services and density to a fairly small area, relative to the rest of the neighbourhood. In Marpole, both Oak street and 70th act as corridors, with businesses and civic areas along its length. This is a very efficient way of maximizing service area in a gird system.

CLOSING COMMENTS It is evident that the lifestyles we live today are unsustainable and we are finally starting to take actions in different areas. Although one may think that walking on a regular basis may not contribute to protecting our environment; as a community, it makes a big difference. Increased walking will reduce GHG emissions, ecological footprint, increase social capital, and health benefits. It will be the responsibilities of designers and planners to create built environments that prioritize pedestrians.

Fairview

Marpole

Path directness 1.17

1.44

1.27

Total road/km2

16.2 km

17.5 km

49

67

16.9 km

Intersection/km2 80 Road width

10 m

7.5 m

10 m

Average block length

133 m

190 m

172 m

Visibility

Medium

Medium

Low

Permeability

Medium

High

Low

Average slope

15%

2%

3%

Service access

High

Medium

Medium

Low

Medium

Transit coverage High

20 conclusion

Shaughnessy


woakability | ends 440 | 2008

3 5

TOOLS & REFERENCES TOOLS Depth Map http://www.vr.ucl.ac.uk/depthmap/ Google Earth http://earth.google.com/ Google Map http://maps.google.com/ Map My Walk http://www.mapmywalk.com Microsoft Live Search Maps http://maps.live.com/ VanMap http://vancouver.ca/VanMap/ Walk Score http://www.walkscore.com

REFERENCES

City of Vancouver. 2001 - 2002 Pedestrian Study http://vancouver.ca/engsvcs/transport/pedstudy/index. htm Community Services: Insights into Transportation http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/cityplans/ transportation/insightintotransportation.htm Fairview Community Web Pages http://vancouver.ca/community_profiles/fairview/ Marpole Community Web Pages http://vancouver.ca/community_profiles/marpole/ Shaughnessy Community Web Pages http://vancouver.ca/community_profiles/shaughnessy/ Ewing, Reid H. Beyond Speed: The Next Generation of Transportation Performance Measure Kansas City Walkability Plan. Measuring Walkability: Tools and Assessment Krambeck, Holly. The Global walkability Index: Talk the Walk and Walk the Talk http://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/ articles-60499_paper.pdf Metro Vancouver Sustainability Community Breakfast http://www.metrovancouver.org/region/breakfasts/ Presentations/CreatingWalkableCommunitiesCheeyingHo.pdf Southworth, Michael. Designing the Walkable City

tools & reference 21


The sum of the whole is this: walk and be happy; walk and be healthy. The best way to lengthen out our days is to walk steadily and with a purpose. Charles Dickens

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