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FIELDS OF EXPLORATION - LIMITS OF EXPLOITATION +

Master Studio in Landscape Architecture Oslo School of Architecture and Design Winterspring 2012

4 COLLECTION Reflections

+

D&U


Xin Su: China in the Arctic. China in the world of minerals. Irene Crowo Nielsen: Drill drill drill Ingrid Aas: Scars and Masses Patrycja Perkiewicz: Cross Border Mining Jingyuan Hu: Opportunity out of the extreme Francisco RodrĂ­guez Saa: Cross-Border Stories in Kvalsund, Norway Annabel Danson: MINEOPOLIS Annisah Solihah: Upgrading Svalbard Mathilde Grellier: Mine & City or Mine vs City Hao Liang: The Northern Mining Landscape--- Type/Transformation/Reuse Kit Ting Karie Yu: Kiruna on the move Kari Sanne Havnevik: Chasing endorsment Linn Riise Handal: Hidden Complexity of the Northern Landscape Hanne Johnsrud: Confrontation Ahead


A ! E N V U O R I M K E H T ON E

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GE U F E

Y R O ST

OR N IN

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DE WE

KIT TING KARIE YU


2012

under the ground

+

stadshuset (city hall). Kiruna kyrka (church)

OUT!

CITY CENTRE

but where?

e: n u mm king! o K ! na ac Kiru nd is cr ove out grou ave to m we h

BUT WH .... ERE ?

RESIDENCE FOR 18,000 ?

LKAB in favor of moving north

Kiruna Kommune decieded to move east 203

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201

5

relocation of city centre


under the ground

+

s r e v

e n ng

i v o M

! p to

RESIDENCE FOR 18,000 ?

2030

OUT!

WH

ERE

Deformation never stop after relocation of city centre and areas with higher threat. In 2060, half of the city space will be under deformation. The municipality needs to look for space to relocate the ‘refugees’.

206

0

?


A ! E N V U KIR HE MO T N O Underground mining continues, deformation became more severe. The Old Kiruna will be totally “eaten up by crack�.

New Kiruna is on the threat. Mines in different sites have started drilling for a while, and most of the neighboring area are bought by mining companies for explorations and drilling. Seems there is no save ground to move?

2090


A ! E N V U KIR HE MO T N O Where to move THIS TIME?


A ! E N V U KIR HE MO T N O How big is the scale of this move?

Because of unfavourable living condition,people (especially youth) move out of Kiruna every year.

Because of mining, the Kiruna city is moving and expected to be on move every decades.

KIT TING KARIE YU


A ! E N V U KIR HE MO T N O

If Kiruna is just a mining town three possible sceniros in 2090:

population unchanged

RESIDENCE FOR 18,000 ?

+

New technology development, on site mining workers are no longer needed, the city of Kiruna may not be needed, population decreased dramatically. RESIDENCE FOR 1,000 ?

CITY CENTRE

Development of neighbour mining sites brings labours to the area, Kiruna develops as the HUB of the northern Scandinavia

The dream of MODEL CITY? RESIDENCE FOR 38,000 ?


A ! E N V U KIR HE MO T N O Speculation: Moving Kiruna is not about moving house. It is about regeneration of the social landscape and eco-system. Is the current ‘refugee way of relocation’ a sustainable way to rebuild a city? Kiruna was built to be an ideal town, Mining , created the town but it ‘s also destroying. Can mining and the city co-exist sustainably? Where does Kiruna go the next? Or .... does Kiruna still exist in the next century? Where is the dream of model city? What are we going to do with the after-mined and deformed landscape?

KIT TING KARIE YU


Chasing endorsement? Kari Havnevik AHO 2012


Introduction Bigjovagge copper and goldmine in placed in a green rock belt in Finnmark, on the border of Troms municipality. The mine is about 2,5 km long, and is located 40 km North-East of Kautokeino. The mine has been exploting copper and gold over two periods of time, and is now planning to reopen. The first period of extraction from 1970-1975 the mine was only extracting copper. When Finish Outokumpu acquired the mine in -84 they started to extract a lot more gold, but because of the low copper price on the market they had to close down. Today the Swedish firm Artic Gold AB has bought the mine and is planning to operate by 2013. There has been a protest from the indigenous hearding people in the area together with locals and nature environment directorate. The conflict occurs because the mine is located in the hearding area for the reindeers, and one of their moving tracks goes through the mining area. The process of opening a mine is long and demanding. Since 2010 have Arctic Gold been struggling to get all the permits and permissions they need to reopen the mine. The new mineral act was implemented in 2009 and has improved the laws to be better, more simple and precise. The mineral law is not the only legislative power in the process. There are other acts and laws the companies has to get permits and permissions from in order to get their operation permit which leads them to the next step in the process.


Conflict area Bidjovagge

Reisa Nationalpark

Spring pasture 1

Spring/Autum pasture 1

Jorba

Autum pasture 1 Autum pasture 2 Autum/Winter pasture 1

Kautokeino Moving tracks

The map is showing the location of the regulated mining area, and how it collide with the reindeers spring pastures and their moving track from south to north.


Actors involved in the opening of Bidjovagge 17

128 9 3 71 111 10

46 1 5 16 35

Placement of headquartes

1

Directorate of Nature Management

10

Sami Parliament

2

KLIF- Directorate of Climate and pollution

11

Kautokeino Municipality

3

NIKU- Norwegian Institute of culture heritage reserch

12

Nordreisa Municipality

4

Road managment

13

The Norwegian Parliament

5

NIVA- Norwegian Institute of Water Research

14

Arctic Gold AB

6

Statskog

15

Outokompo

7

Fefo- Finnmarkseiendommen

16

Directorate for Mineral management

8

The Reindeer Management

17

Dalradian Resources

9

Local residents

18

Dalradian Resources

3 3 25 1353 2 4 5

15 14

18


How far is Arctic Gold in the process of reopening Bidjovagge? The Mineral act Exploration permit Extraction permit The operating license for the commencement of mining

Planning and building act Zoning and environmental impact assessment Building permits and land acquisition / Delin

Pollution Act Discharge Permit (water / noise / dust)

Water Resources Act / Energy Act The license for the extraction of water The license for the performance of power line


Biedjovagge Nordreisa

KLIF

The King Kautokeino Sametinget

NIVA Reindrift

Statskog/Fefo

Private companies are challenging the municipal zoningplan and planning program in Kautokeino municipality.

Dig, Dug, Digged

National scanning Global market

Chain of acts Political pressure

The interests of Bidjovagge depend on the global marketprice of gold and copper. Is this exploitation more valueble than the landscape, culture and enviroment in this area?

Operation permit

Other regulations and acts

This temporary klondike are creating conflicts in the temporary society. Reopening the mine upsets the raindeer hearders. They are fighting for their “right� of the area.

Planning and Building act

$$

Legislation for exploration The Mineral act

Corporations all over the world will be able to buy rights to exploration. Global intrests are taken care of, what about the indeginous and local interest?

Klondike

Enviormental Ministry decides

The Norwegian government are allowing free search rights. A principle of first come, first served. International actors will be in control of Norwegian exploitation.

Global interest

Securing Sami interests

Free search rights


Free search rights

Global interest

Free searching right Everyone has the right to explore for minerals deposits of state ground as long as they do not performing damage to the ground which can cause damage of significance Minerals Act ยง 2. The explorers must always notify the property owner and user of the ground no later than one week prior to exploration initiated. In certain areas, exploration is prohibited or it is required permission from the landowner, the user and competent authority Minerals Act ยง 47.

In addition to the requirements of the Minerals Act ยง 47, the activities associated with exploration being prohibited or restricted by other legislation, such as:

Cultural Heritage Act Nature Pluralism Act The Motor Traffic Act

Free search


Global access to exploring rights in Norway

The King

Finnmark does not provide the the right to explore or take samples before the Directorate of Mining has given a specific permission.

Sametinget Statskog/Fefo

$$

Enviormental Ministry decides

Securing Sami interests

Klondike

The explorer must apply to the Directorate of Mining for an exploration permit. Prior exploration work in Finnmark can start, it is also required a special permit from Directorate of Mining Minerals Act ยง 17. The purpose is to clarify and adapt the operations in relation to indigenous interests.

Culture and Interests

Examines should take reasonable steps to obtain information on directly affected Sรกmi interests in the area to be examined. Special permission may be refused if the interests of Sami interests speaks against the processing application. In the assessment there should be significant emphasis on Samiculture, reindeer herding, commercial activity and social life. If the application is granted, conditions may be imposed to satisfy these concerns.

By processing the application will the Directorate of Mining give the landowner, the Sami Parliament, the municipality and the administration of the area and the reindeer hearders an opportunity to comment. If the Sami Parliament or the landowner opposes the application is granted, the Environmental Ministry will decide. If the Ministry grants the application in the circumstances mentioned, an appeal to the King from the Sami Parliament or the landowner that will have a suspensive effect on the process.

In addition to the requirements of the Minerals Act ยง 47, the activities associated with exploration being prohibited or restricted by other legislation, such as

Cultural Heritage Act Nature Pluralism Act The Motor Traffic Act


Legislation for exploration

Operation permit

Other regulations and acts

Planning and Building act

The Mineral act

Enviormental Ministry decides

Dig, Dug, Digged

In Norway you do not need a permit to look for minerals. In order to get exploration rights you need to go through a though application process. The planning and building act regulate areas for different purposes. These purposes are made to create a good plan of society on a municipal scale.

Legislation for exploration needed:

The acts demand a sustainable and efficient municipal operation which corresponds with the regional and govern tasks.

If all the requirements above are approved the explorer will get the

The goal is to build a good local society where all authorities and interests are taken care of. The mineral act is the legislative power in terms of exploring minerals. But this act does not work alone. There are nine other laws the developer need permits and permission from in order to start exploring.

Handeling the regulation plan and impact study takes time, while waiting the companies use the time to obtain the other needed permits. If the company gets all of the permits and permissions it will get their operation permit to start.

Search- and exploration rights An approved regulation plan and an impact study Obtain all the other permits and permissions

Operation permit

It all comes down to the opertation permit...


Culture Heritage Act

Secure culture heritage sights and environments

Regulate areal planning and manage building permits

Sami culture memory automatically preservation if older than 1000 years If there is any Conflict

County administration

Sami parliament

The Directorate for Cultural heritage decides

Soil act

The Planning and Building Act

Secure areal operations

Automatically preservation if a memory is older than 1537,

Necessary legislation to explore and exploit mineral resources in Norway

Plan decision

Exploring and searching

Obligation to report

Regulation for raw materials

Culture Heritage Act

Secure rearranging tillage and infield areas

Exploration or searching in the top soil layer is an exception in the act

Motor Traffic Act

The Planning and Building Act

Soil act

Secure biological, geological, ecological processes and landscape

Regulation plan Operation permit

Municipality

Timeconsuming These two processes work parallel

Dispention

Impact study and Regulation plan Obtain other required permits

Motor traffic in the outlying fields and close to water systems

Cautious movement in the hearding area

Searching methods requires vehicles like helicopter and heavier cars

Result

Reindeer Act

Operation permit

Motor Traffic Act Pollution Act

Movingcamps must not be shut down

Secure the environmental areas for emissions, pollution and waste

The Mineral act

Discharge permit KliF (gov. minerals)

Fylkesmannen County governor (ind. minerals)

Water Resource Act

Water Resource Act Pollution Act Deposit in the sea

Planning and building act

Frame Directive for water and management

Grunnloven §110

Extracting masses in the area of lakes or water course could affect the ground water by drainage

Deposit on land

Finnmark Act Secure biological, geological, ecological processes and landscape

FN and ILO Declarations Municipal, Regional and Governmental Considerations

Classifying the waste

Natural Pluralism Act

Considering sami culture, industry and social life Finnmark Act

Manage the property of natural resources in a balanced and ecological sustainable way

Society and areal planning

Management of naturalresources

Demand of carefulness

Demand of knowledge Proactive

Planning and Building Act

Seccure the social interests of use and management of water systems

Permit

Mineral Waste Directive

Obligation to report and impact study

Sustainability

Areal management in the hearding area

Protect the general interests of a lake or water way

Larges emission problems

Natural Pluralism Act

Reindeer Act

Secure the reindeer operating area in the Sami reindeer herder area as the industry’s most important resource basis

Sustainable

Management Types of nature

Ecosystems

Species

Total impact The most environmental friendly techniques and localization

Ecological

decision

This bearing shows all the acts you need to pass in order to get a exploration right. A bearing cannot function without all the all the pellets. When all pellets are in the bearing can start twirling.

Finnmarksproperty Fefo, owns 95% of the land in Finnmark.

Change of use of outlaying land must be a physical and practical change

Sami parliament and Finnmark county council runs Fefo

Take care of Sami interests


Summary of the most used words in the Mineral Act


Future endorsement? The focus of mining in Norway has increased the last couple of years after the new mineral act was implemented in 2009. The act states the limits of exploration and secures the resources, and demand to maintain indigenous interests. The new act is simplified and improved in order to easier understand and clarify the laws. Has the new mineral act made it easier to go through the application process and start operating? Is it the mineral act or the other legislative laws that secures the landscape and environment? The additional powers are the ones to set boundaries for decreased impact of the nature. The Environmental Ministry has right to endorse or disallow the application. There are no rules for how many times you can apply for the sanction. Will the procedure of applying become stricter over the years, or will the Ministry loosen up and pass more applications? The Norwegian and indigenous people trust them to maintain our interests and secure our environment and culture heritage.

Sources: The Mineral Act: http://www.lovdata.no/all/hl-20090619-101.html#11 Guide to The Mineral Act: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/NHD/Vedlegg/ Veiledninger%20og%20brosjyrer/mineralloven_ veileder_des2011.pdf Reindeer management: reindrift.no Arctic Gold AB’s Regulation plan and impact study


HIDDEN COMPLEXITY OF THE NORTHERN LANDSCAPE REINDEER HERDING Linn Riise Handal


THE DISCUSSION IS GOING STRONG. IS IT POSSIBLE TO COMBINE MINERAL INDUSTRY AND REINDEER HERDING, OR WILL ONE OF THE INDUSTRIES HAVE TO GIVE UP? WHY ARE POLITICIANS STATING SOMETHING ELSE THAN THE REINDEER HERDER? DO THEY ACTUALLY KNOW HOW THIS LANDSCAPE IS BEING USED? WHY CAN THE REINDEERS NOT MOVE TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE MOUNTAIN?


Limitations of grazing The limitation of grazing and the high preassure on the used herding areas is the main argument against a “new” mineral industry in the North. Why do they need these big areas? Reindeer herding has access to approximately 40% of land area in the Norway. The reindeers are adapted to an environment where almost nothing can grow, and this is why they are constantly on the move over large areas. They feed on different crops in different seasons, and the reason for this is the nutritional value the plants have according to the time of year, the climatic conditions whichvary from place to place, and the amount of insects which are different from place to place. This way of following natures processes is the reason why the reindeer industry is devided in eight pasture seasons.

The coastal mountains has - Green pastures - Cool and moist climate - Lots of snow and ice in winter - Few insects that irritates the animals

Spring is the starting period of a new year in the reindeer industry. In the spring time mooving of the animals is easy and goes fast, while in the atumn it takes more time. The landscape surroundings affects how the animals behave. For example in the calving period, in spring, they thrive in landscapes with small hills, no rivers and no steap slopes. When it gets warmer in the summer the animals gather in bigger groups while they move to higher terrain to reduce irritation from insects. The reindeer herder relates to the animals natural way of using the landscape. They know when to gather them for slaughter and when to move them to the winter pastures. The herders has a multifunctional way of using the landscape and they know where their own animas are allowed to graz related to the organization of the industry. Topographical conditions as well as lakes and rivers is the reason why mooving between pastures normally takes place through the same herding routes every year. The herding routes follow ancient traces, and this has given them a stong protection through § 22 Flyttleier (herding routes). In some places the animals will have to move through narrow passages or through built-up areas. Barring of a herding route may in worst case mean that adjacent pastures no longer can be used.

The Inland areas have - Sparse vegetation with lots of lichens - Dry climate and low rainfall - Cold winters - Hot summers - Lots of insects in summer

Today there is a great pressure on the animal’s grazing land. Intervention and interference in the grazing areas makes it hard for the animals to access areas where they have usually been eating. The Lichens pastures in the autumn and spring districts is completely dilapidated, while Lichens pastures in the winter districts is greatly reduced. Due to the grazing pressure the production of lichen resources are greatly reduced, which again affects the animals and the quality of the meat.

Bruk av land og vann i Finnmark i historisk perspektiv, Statens trykking, Oslo 1994 reindrift.no


Organization of work When looking at this map we understant that there is much more happening in the wilderness areas than meets the eye. A landscape which looks hardly used, is actually full of information. How is the reindeer industry organized? Why can not the herders in the affected area just move to another pasture?

grazing district much used tent area gamma herders cabin slaughter plant label and slaughter fence

closed fence tracking route herding route gathering area transport

1 2 3 4 5

summer pasture atumn pasture atumn - winter pasture winter pasture spring pasture

Norway consists of six grazing areas, which are again devided in several grazing districts. In the grazing district different Siida’s are operating. A Siida is a group of one or several families, which are often related, and have reindeer in one herd. The Siida sheme plays a key role in defining the distribution of grazing areas as well as the patterns for moving between the seasonal pastures. Traditionally grazing distribution was respected within the industry, but over the past decades the internal distribution of grazing has been characterized by conflict. The conflicts occur because of preassure on the areas. New roads and cabins fragments the pastures, which leads to an internal justice discussion. The past years Siida’s have started grazing on others pastures, especially on Finnmarksvidda.

1

2

3

4

5

http://www.sof.ntnu.no/SOF_R03_08.pdf reindrift.no http://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reinbeitedistrikt


http://www.sof.ntnu.no/SOF_R03_08.pdf http://www.eoearth.org/article/Climate_change_and_reindeer_nomadism_in_Finnmark,_Norway http://www.sametinget.no/ http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ad/dok/regpubl/stmeld/2001-2002/stmeld-nr-33-2001-2002-/14.html?id=327466

Conflicting wishes?

Based on the national obligations under the Constitution § 110 a, international obligations under ILO Convention No. 169 concerning indigenous peoples, and UN conventions such as Convention on Civil and Political Rights, Article 27; reindeer herding is seen in a general Sami and social policy context. Reindeer policy is therefore based on both the industrial production policy and the politics regarding sami culture value.The Planning- and Building Act is the most important policy to secure the resource base in the reindeer industry. The Act states that the herders, through the herding district, must take part in discussions in the process of planning. Even though reindeer herders have the law to deffend them, the law does not deny development, which is the industries main challenge. The sum of many small interventions is here much bigger than each intervention would indicate. The fragmentation of pastures does not go together with the reindeers need for big free areas and tracks for mooving. As we see it is not only the big plans for future mining clustures that are threathening this traditional industry. The reindeer is extremely sensitive to anything foreign. Tourism, electricity lines, windmill parks and development such as roads are other threaths. While new development is interfering with the industry, the result of this is that also the reindeer industry develops and finds new strategies. Most of these are actually not for the best. To make the herding go easier use of snowmobile and also motorcycle has become normal. Driving on bare ground has led to increased wear on the nature and thus pastures. Another affect of development is the increased use of fences, which further damages the grass. The Sami parliament has hopes for development and new jobs; the reindeer husbandry is a growing industry, and the plans for northern exploration is only increasing. Is it only a question of time for this industry? We do not know where the limits of eploitation goes. Future planning in case of coexistence is strongly needed.

1950

1970

Servey work regarding reindeer herders in Sør-Trøndelag, Nord-Trøndelag og Vest-Finnmark

In Finnmark almost 35% of the reindeer habitat has been lost over the last 60 years. The future speculations is showing projected development of infrastructure, roads and houses. The scenario is based on the historical development of infrastructure, the distribution and density of the human population, the existing infrastructure, the known location of natural resources, distance from the coast, and vegetation type. Illustrations are based on maps made by The International Arctic Science Committee.

2000

2030

2050


Confrontation. (con路fron路ta路tion) noun 1. an act of confronting. 2. the state of being confronted. 3. a meeting of persons face to face. 4. an open conflict of opposing ideas, forces, etc. 5. a bringing together of ideas, themes, etc., for comparison.

CONFRONTATION AHEAD


Any new map launches new realities. The resource mapping adds new pressure to the landscape. In order to confront this, we need to draw the alternative maps, launch the other realities, gather knowledge and make strategies for visualisation and democratisation. Kjerstin Uhre, 21.11.2011, Facebook

The lines we draw on a map The way we draw a landscape changes its story, adds a new narrative. The map of Finmark, with the superimposed grid of mineral exploration rights resembles colonial maps of north Africa or the American mid-west. The straight connecting lines of the point grid erase shape and scale of the landscape, and ignore the flows and traits of the lives lived in it. The grid renders a powerful and quantifiable terminology of landscape, of something that is, or is not. And the exploration map confronts us with the reading of Finnmark as a source of unlimited mineral exploitation.


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Map data: ©Norges Geologiske undersøkelse / ©Statens kartverk

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The new mineral law has been followed by heavy investment in magnetic and radiografic exploration surveys on land and offshore. The swung geological lines are translated into point references. The green stone belts of Finnmark are marked in blue.

Looking beneath the surface. Geological maps exceed national borders, the timespan of human history and the scales of nature. As the quest for natural resources continues under ground, maps of fish stocks, fresh water streams, waterfalls, arable lands and bountiful forrests are replaced by magnetic and radiomagnetic maps of mineral deposits. Gradually changing the perceived reality


Snapshot of exploration rights 28.03.12 Dalradian Resources LTD Greenland Gold Resources LTD Sydvaranger Gruve AS Arctic Gold AB Antaeus AS Scandinavian Resources AB NUSSIR ASA Mineralia ANS Kimberlitt AS Metallica Mining ASA Store Norske Gull AS Heli Holding AS REE Mining Drake Resources LTD Kiruna Iro AB Nordic Mining ASA Terra Control AS Norwegian Resource Ventures Ailu Fuchsit AS Pending applications

Below the ground and above our heads? While underground territories are explored according to the UTM aligned grid, a fluid constellation of international investment and mineral exploration companies is forming above ground. Capital flows across national borders and between the companies active in the search for new mineral resources. Companies change owners and exploration rights change hands at the ebb and flow of global economy.


Bog asure, 1:15

ver survey The land co

ino ihas of Kautoke

been carr

ied out by

e re. Map m rid structu g a f o s an

000

me

Forest

Lake BiggejĂĄvri Bog

Open area

Lake

The quiet stakeholder At latitudes north of the polar circle, low temperatures and short seasons leads to slow growth and decomposition of organic material, resulting in meager soils and slow revegetation. Reindeer lichen grows very slow, only 3–5 mm per year and may take decades to return once overgrazed or trampled. It easily crumbles when it is cold or dry. Lake

Open area

Every plant is a result of a process of adaptation to the conditions and to the geologically formed landscape. A cliff can give shelter from the wind and store heat from the sun; a shadovy vale can retain snow meaning more water, and a shorter growth season, the slow weathering of rocks adds minerals to the soil and water. Redused pasture areas, overgrazing and motorisation, this is already an exhausted landscape.

Bog

Bog


g

cin

fen

collecti ng area

One year is not another’s brother

tagging and slaughter

g rin sp

top og rap hic line s

much used sites for lĂĄvvu

her di n gr ou tes

fol low

re tu

s pa the

spring pasture: calving area, preferably hilly without cliffs and rivers, dry ground and open landscape

collecting area

reindeer herder cabins

Jahki ii leat jagi viellja. sami proverb The practice of reindeer herding has developed over time, as a flexible organisation in continous interaction with the variations in seasons, vegetation and precipitation and the number of animals. The choice of route followed between seasonal pastures are negotiated with topography, composition of the herd, availability of pasture, snow cover and customary agreements between herding families. Increased pressure on pastures and routes, motorized herding and fencing are changing the terms of this negotiation.

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In autumn, the reindeer migrate inward from the coast, feeding on pasture autumn grasses and mushrooms.

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te win d r- an

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vinter pasture: herds are split during winter to find food as the snow changes from light and dry to packed and icy. LANDSCAPE OF EIGHT SEASONS

Photo: Thomas Vermes, ABC Nyheter

In summer, the reindeer migrate towards the coast and higher ground. Does and calves travel separately from the bucks, more slowly across easier routes


60 SOSI standard 4.0: <<CodeList>> ArealressursArealtype

+ Built area and infrastructure = 10 + Built area = 11 + Infrastructure = 12 + Agriculture = 20 + Fully cultivated land = 21 + Superficially cultivated land = 22 + Home fields grazing = 23 + Forest = 30 + Open firm ground = 50 + Bog = 60 + Glacier = 70 + Water = 80 + Fresh water = 81 + Ocean = 82 + Not surveyed = 99

60

99 ka sjoh Kara

30

99 Karasjok Municipality.

30 60 60

30

Land resource data are used in impact assessments and area planning. The standards of the general feature catalogue uses suitability for agriculture as its measure for mapping land resources

11 Karasjok 60

Ka

ra

30

23 30

ka

21

21

oh

23

sj

21

23

21 21

21

21 21

30

21 Ka

Drawing a map with the tractor ra

sj

ohka

21 30

The pattern of farming along the Karasjohka river has develped in a negotiation with the meandering river, the terrain and geology of the valley and developments in farming equipment. Contrary to the sami reindeer herders, the farmers own the land, and have continously worked within the same boundaries, to the edge of their property and the limits of cultivated soil. Negotiation with nature continues, as farming becomes less profitable and former home field grasslands are reclaimed by the forest.


The road to Náránaš

In 2002, the municipality of Kautokeino decided to build a road to the natural stone quarry at Náránas, centrally located, north east of the town of Kautokeino. The newspaper trail revealed a case of coolliding economic, cultural and spatial interests. Involving local, regional and national decicionmakers, public and private stakeholders, conservation and preservation in conflict, global economic impacts and a bridge that was too short.


Area council

The Area council: objected to alternative 1 as the road crosses three herding routes and cuts through a vinter pasture area

Gievdneguoika

The ministry of agriculture: followed up on the opposition from the reindeer industry to alt. 1 The county governor: alternative 1 is not wanted The quarry company: costs of keeping the longest route might mean an end to operation

He

The Sami Parliament: opposed the municipal decision as the planned road would disturb a sami cultural heritage landscape at Heammonjávvi

Herding district

The municipality: had planned Náránaš as an area for rawmaterial exploitation and see this industry as a source of income and work places. Establishing a new road was a political priority and the planned alternative 2 was adopted in 2002

rdin g ro ute

RV

HeammonjávviS

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Long, 6 km, 175

m bridge, 13,7 MM

Náránaš

ute

3

He r

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1 e g p U ra d

,1 road g n ti exis

Gaskabeaivárri

The area council: objected to alternative 3 as it would cut through hitherto intact vinterpastures The ministry of agriculture: supports the area council opposition to alt. 3.

m

The existing road cross three herding routes and cut through vinter pastures

Following the line of argument Exploitation of mineral resources impacts the specific site of extraction, but the infrastructural implications extend much further. Mines or quarries in remote areas may be relatively small in their actual footprint, while the roads for transporting the resources out disrupt existing spatial relationships over a large area.

Undisturbed pasture area used for dividing the up the herds after crossing the river. 20-30 000 reindeer pass through this area every spring

Area council

93

bridge, 7,5MM d, 90 m roa Gardejohkka

RV

tio rec Di

autok

2

ute

km

eaidnu / K

ovdag n Gu

g ro din Her

Heammonjávvi is a living cultural landscape with two sami inland farms, an unique and particularily diverse vegetation and 24 buildings of which 12 are automatically protected.The area is listed as a nationally important cultural landscape

93

The Sami Parliament: considered alternative 3 to be acceptable in regards to sami cultural heritage.


Verde Lapponia | Lappia Green | Atlantis The green Masi quartzite has a folded structure with colour variations from white to emerald green. The green colour is due to the green, chromium-rich muscovite called fuchsite

The Directorate for Cultural Heritage: reccomended to reject alt. 2 as the road cuts through the coherent cultural landscape of Heammonjรกvvi. A bridge across the river would disturb this landscape. Noise and dust from the traffic might negatively influence the continued habitation and farming

Mineralutvikling A

The county governor: reccomended under doubt alternative 2, with the added decision to keep the road closed between 1. Nov. and 15.

Detailing of the bridge revealed the need for deeper ancoring of pilars. Instead of 90 meters, the bridge is now 120 meters, divided in three spans of 40 meters. A rental agreement with the mineral companies that uses the road should cover the repayment of construction loans taken up by the municipality.

S

Site inspection 13. March 2003

The road to Nรกrรกnas: 4 km long x 4 m wide, gravel

Mineralutvikling AS

Herding district

Area council

The Ministry of environment: Confirmed the original municipal decision giving priority to the importance of local industrial development. none of the alternatives were concidered a better solution.

The expence of income

Photo: ร…se Pulk, NRK

The reindeer industry: preferred alternative 2 as long as the existing road would be discontinued and revegetated

Area council

The quarry company: preferred alternative 2 as the shortest, least expensive to upkeap and easiest to transport men and machinery. Herding district

Mineralutvikling AS

The deposits are presently operated by Fuxit AS, a subsidiary of Terra Control AS, and MQ Granite AS that took over operations after Mineralutvikling AS went bancrupt with failing demand.


The grid of the exploration map is a snapshot of the rush for access to resources in the north. It is however placed on top of an already pressured landscape, where the definition and prioritisation of resourses and not least the rights to access them are highly conflictive. instead of a a slow process of negotiation and adaptation, there is a constant confrontation of values, interests and needs. Wherever the grid meets the ground, new confrontations will find place. This time with multinational corporations at the table, supported by strong national interests and governmental strategies.

The new mineral strategy must not be seen and written solely from the resource perspective of the mineral industry and government industrial strategies. The multi-layered interests already at play in the north, must be part of the discussion. A strategy for minerals can not only be about when,, how and where, but should also be strong enough to say, where not, how not, and why not. The mineral strategy sets the scope for mineralexploitation, it should also establish the limits of exploitation


Retracing the steps, references Unless otherwise statet on the image: All aerial photos from Nord atlas, Fylkesatlas for Finmark, http://www.nordatlas.no/ default.aspx?gui=1&lang=2 Digital maps from: Norge digitalt, Statens kartverks kartdata, N50, elevation, administrative borders, FKB, heritage registration, reindeer herding, land resources http://www.statkart.no/ Norge_digitalt/Norsk/Metadata/Nedlasting_av_data/ Geological data from: Norges Geologiske undersøkelser, NGU, http://www.statkart.no/Norge_digitalt/Norsk/Metadata/Nedlasting_av_data/ Information on Mineral exploration: Directorate of Mining, http://www.dirmin.no/default.aspx Information on reindeer herding: Reindriftsforvaltningen: http:// www.reindrift.no/ Information on Finmark kultural and natural landscapes: Miljøstatus i Finnmark, Naturområder, http://finnmark.miljostatus.no/ msf_themepage.aspx?m=4480 (accessed 24.03.2012) Information on Kautokeino municipal plans: http://www.kautokeino.kommune.no/finnmark/kautokeino/kautokeinok.nsf/id/ 74E8232B903CA91241256C4B004DFD82?OpenDocument Inspiration from: Corner, J. and MacLean, A.S., Taking Measures Across the American Landscape, Yale University Press, October 1996, 208 p Lecture notes and discussions with students and teachers during the Studio course, Field of Exploration, Limits of Exploitation Hanne Johnsrud, 29. March 2012

FIELDS_AHO_COLLECTION-3_2012  

landscape architect student work

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