Page 1

FIELDS OF EXPLORATION - LIMITS OF EXPLOITATION +

Master Studio in Landscape Architecture Oslo School of Architecture and Design Winterspring 2012

1 ATLAS The Big Picture

+

D&U


Teachers: Knut Eirik Dahl Kjerstin Uhre Espen Røyseland Øystein Rø www.dahluhre.no www.0047.org www.aho.no http://www.fieldsofexploration.blogspot.com/

students: Irene Crowo Nielsen, Annabel Danson, Mathilde Grellier, Linn Riise Handal, Kari Sanne Havnevik, Jingyuan Hu, Hanne Johnsrud, Gudrún Lilja Jónsdóttir, Hao Liang, Patrycja Perkiewicz, Francisco Rodríguez Saa, Annisah Solihah, Xin Su, Kit Ting Karie Yu, Ingrid Aas


Fields of Exploration, Limits of Exploitation The 9 week studio took off from the global appetite and dependency on metals and minerals, and related it to national initiatives and strategies for mineral extraction as they now are in the making in Northern Norway. During 2012 the Norwegian government will present its own mineral strategy. The studio aimed to unfold the social, legal and environmental implications of an increased extraction seen through the lenses of the landscape architect. Through the themes The Big Picture, the Perforated Landscape, the Multi Layered Landscape, and a collection of individual Reflections the studio discovered how a new version of the territory are being mapped, described and conceived. Mining doesn’t only denote big profits; its industry also entails large scale impacts on landscape, nature and society. The notion of actuality, on taking part in the debate and acting in the world while things are happening discusses the landscape architects agency in taking part in the shaping of futures. For å få utsagnskraft i forhandlingen om framtiden må arkitekturen med sine verktøy agere i den delen av nåtiden der framtiden er i spill. Gjennom 9 hektiske vårvinteruker, der informasjon om raske endringer i det globale og økonomiske mineralbildet hele tiden kom strømmende mot oss, gjorde studioet sammen med 20 eksperter i feltet en oppdagelsesreise i overlappingen mellom forskjellige kunnskapsområder som angår mineralindustrien. Gjennom temaene Det store bilde, Det Perforerte Landskap, Det flerprogrammerte Landskap, og en samling av individuelle Refleksjoner utforsket studioet hvordan en ny versjon av Nord-Norge er i ferd med å bli unnfanget, kartlagt og beskrevet gjennom nasjonale tiltak og strategier for resursutvinning. Det oppdaget hvilket mulighetsrom Regjeringens kommende mineralstrategi bereder grunnen for og hvilket press dette legger på kultur og landskap.


Kursets oppbygging /Course structure: DET STORE BILDET Studioets første fase fokuserer på kartlegging av gruvedriftens globale systemer gjennom å bygge opp et atlas. Vi studerer drivkreftene bak gruvedrift, det økende ressursforbruket, mineralnæringens globale nettverk og infrastruktur og ser på hvordan dette utspiller seg i sirkumpolare områder. THE BIG PICTURE The first phase of the course is about mapping and building up an atlas on the global system of mining. We will study the forces that drive mining, the increased resource consumption, mining’s global network and infrastructure and how this plays out in the circumpolar areas.

DET PERFORERTE LANDSKAP Den andre fasen bygger opp en katalog over gruvedriftens innvirkning på landskapet, nye geologiske undersøkelser, forskjellige typer gruvedrift, livssyklusen til en gruve og kortsiktige og langsiktige miljøvirkninger. THE PERFORATED LANDSCAPE The second phase creates a catalogue on mining’s impact on the landscape, study new geological surveys, modes of mining, the life cycle of a mine and mining’s environmental impacts.

DET FLERPROGRAMMERTE LANDSKAP I denne fasen vil vi undersøke virkningen av gruvedrift på lokalsamfunn, den overlappende arealbruk, lovverk og urfolksrettigheter og konkurrerende landskapsbruk ved å lage et magasin med kronikker. THE MULTILAYERED LANDSCAPE In this phase we will examine the impact of mining on communities, the indigenous dimension, the overlapping use of land, legislation and competing activities by making a magazine of chronicles.

REFLEKSJONER Basert på kunnskapsinnhenting, studiereise, samtaler og workshops med kursets lærere og eksterne eksperter formulerer studentene sine refleksjoner sammensatt av de kunnskapene som er tilført studioet. Kolleksjonen viser bredden, dybden, muligheten og konsekvensene av dette nye nasjonale initiativet i Nord-Norge. REFLECTIONS Based on research, study travel, conversations and workshops with course teachers and external experts, the students formulate reflections composed of the knowledge acquired during the studio. The collection shows the breadth, depth, possibilities and impacts of this new national initiative in Northern Norway.


PROSJEKTNETTVERK/ Forelesere PROJECT NETWORK/ Lecturers 20 kapasiteter som på forkjellige vis har ekspertise på temaet mineralressurser, samfunn, kultur og planlegging holdt forelesninger og workshops gjennom hele kurset. 20 capabilities that in different fields have expertise on the subject of mineral resources, community, culture and planning gave lectures and lead workshops throughout the course.

Ivar Bjørklund, sosialantropolog, UiT Rognvald Boyd, geolog, NGU Karianne Bråten, biolog, UiT Jeff Corner, geolog, UiT Kelly Doran, arkitekt, Regional Architects Chrisopher Eads, senior editor, Economist Intelligence Unit Elisabeth Gammelsæter, Gen. Sek. Norsk Bergindustri Brynhild Granås, forsker, Høgskolen i Alta Siri Hermansen, kunstner Luba Kuzovnikova, daglig leder, Pikene på broen Hadi Lile, Senter for menneskerettigheter, UiO Harald Martinsen, Utviklingsdir. Sydvaranger Gruve AS Thomas Nilsen, Redaktør, Barents Observer Svein Helge Orheim, Daglig leder, Barents Institute Lina Persson, kunstner Philippe Rekacewicz, kartograf, Le Monde Diplomatique Øystein Rushfeldt, Direktør, Nussir Tore Tanum, Spesialrådgiver, UD Jack Ødegård, forsker, SINTEF Bente Aasjord, Spesialrådgiver, Fagforbundet Critics: John Palmesino, Territorial Agency / AA Ann-Sofi Rønnskog, Territorial Agency / AA


Early earth

The Big Picture xistence human e

ATLAS

Ice Age began, ended 20k years ago. Ice caps in both poles began to grow Notable in the context of offshore oil drilling Chalk mineral found Calcium carbonate found Coal noticeable Sedimentary rock formed (Quartz and Feldspar)

250 Ma

a

2.5 M

Ma

Triasic

Annisa Solihah, Follow the ore, Hao Liang, Xin Su 23

Paleogene

Follow the Ore

Triasic

Quaternary

a

0M

20

Follow the Money

Jurassic

Jurassic

CENOZOIC

35 Ma

Quaternary

Follow the politics

Neogene

MESOZOIC

Francisco Rodríguez Saa, Guðrún Lilja Jónsdóttir, Jingyuan Hu, Kari Havnevik,

Annabel Danson, Follow the politics, Hanne Johnsrud, Kit Ting Karie Yu, Mathilde Grellier, Paleogene

Ma 14 5.5

55

Ma

Ingrid Aas, Irene Crowo Nielsen, Linn Riise Handal, Patrycja Perkiewicz, 65.5 Ma

Cretaceous

“Future”

Follow the Flow

Cretaceous

Prentice Hall, Inc 2003


FOLLOW THE ORE Annisa Solihah Hao Liang Xin Su


Mineral Distribution


Ore Super-heated magma inside the earth triggering formation of the rocks, and of course, the mineral inside rocks. There are three basic transition that will distinguish type of rocks; Transition to sedimentary, Metamorphic, and Igneous

An ore is a type of rock that contain material

Rock Cycle

include metal in such quantities. Iit can be mined and worked commercially to extract

Svalbard, by Surya Dharma

that metal. The metal is

Transition to sedimentary

usually contained in

Weathering

chemical combination

Sedimentary rock can

with some other element

be formed from the lithification (pressing and

or

nsp Tra

compacting process) of

n tio

in addition to various

ta

impuritie.

fragments of rock / grain / organism.

Igneous rock (extrusive) Pluton

Deposition and compaction

Transition to metamorphic

wikipedia

Consolidation

Metamorphism Crystalization

Igneous rock (intrusive)

Transition to igneous.

Sedimentary rock

Magma, both from earth’s mantel and from melted rock will cooling down below the surface, then solidify into an igneous rock. Magma which comes out from the earth, as known as

Melting pressure

Magma

Metamorphic rock

Rock exposed to high temperature and pressure from igneous that heats up. Metamorpich rock also can be formed from crystalization by the heat of magma.

lava, at some point will cooling down and turn to solid rock.


Early earth xistence human e Ice Age began, ended 20k years ago. Ice caps in both poles began to grow Notable in the context of offshore oil drilling Chalk mineral found Calcium carbonate found Coal noticeable Sedimentary rock formed (Quartz and Feldspar)

a

250 Ma

Triasic

23

Ma

Paleogene

2.5 M

Triasic

Jurassic

Cretaceous 14

Ma

65.5 Ma

Cretaceous

“Future�

55

5.5

Ma

Paleogene

Jurassic

CENOZOIC

35 Ma

Neogene

MESOZOIC

Quaternary

a

0M

20

Quaternary

Prentice Hall, Inc 2003


Classification of Rock

Clastic

Sedimentary

Chemical Biologic Intrusive

Igneous

Limestone Dolostone Evaporites Coal Chert

Gabbro Diorite Granodiorite Granite

Extrusive

Basalt Andesite Dacite Rhyolite

Foliated Metamorphic

Slate Schist Gneiss

Non-foliated

stone-network.com

Conglomerate Breccia Sandstone Siltstone Mudstone Shale

Quartzite Marble

mohdabubakr@hotmail.com

essentiallyeducation.co.uk


Plates of the World Eurasian plate

North America plate

Cocos plate Pasific plate Indian-Australian plate

Nazea plate South America plate

African plate

Antartic plate

Divergent Boundary

Convergent Boundary

Transform Boundary

http://www.age-of-the-sage.org

Volcanic centers active within the last one million years.


Geology on Circumpolar Arctic Mainly sedimentary rocks Mixed volcanic, pyroclastic and sedimentary Mainly volcanic rocks Plutons Intrusive and metamorphic terrains

Tectonic assemblages, schist belts, melanges Ice Unclassified


Maps


SOUTH AMERICA Aluminum Chromium Coal Copper Gold Iron Lead Lithium Manganese Nickel Platinum REE Silver Tin Titanium Uranium Zinc Zirconium

Earth Tectonic Plates Contiental Convergent Boundary Contiental Rift Boundary Continental Transform Fault Oceanic Convergent Boundary Ocean Spreading Rift Ocean Transform Fault Subduction Zone

Holocene Volcanoes

Earthquake Last100 Days

Ore Location


AFRICA Aluminum Chromium Coal Copper Gold Iron Lead Lithium Manganese Nickel Platinum REE Sil Silver Tin Titanium Uranium Zinc Zirconium

Earth Tectonic Plates Contiental Convergent Boundary Contiental Rift Boundary Continental Transform Fault Oceanic Convergent Boundary Ocean Spreading Rift Ocean Transform Fault Subduction Zone

Holocene Volcanoes

Earthquake Last100 Days

Ore Location


ASIA Aluminum Chromium Coal Copper Gold Iron Lead Lithium Manganese Nickel Platinum REE Sil Silver Tin Titanium Uranium Zinc Zirconium

Earth Tectonic Plates Contiental Convergent Boundary Contiental Rift Boundary Continental Transform Fault Oceanic Convergent Boundary Ocean Spreading Rift Ocean Transform Fault Subduction Zone

Holocene Volcanoes

Earthquake Last100 Days

Ore Location


EUROPE Aluminum Chromium Coal Copper Gold Iron Lead Lithium Manganese Nickel Platinum REE Sil Silver Tin Titanium Uranium Zinc Zirconium

Earth Tectonic Plates Contiental Convergent Boundary Contiental Rift Boundary Continental Transform Fault Oceanic Convergent Boundary Ocean Spreading Rift Ocean Transform Fault Subduction Zone

Holocene Volcanoes

Earthquake Last100 Days

Ore Location


NORTH AMERICA Aluminum Chromium Coal Copper Gold Iron Lead Lithium Manganese Nickel Platinum REE Silver Tin Titanium Uranium Zinc Zirconium

Earth Tectonic Plates Contiental Convergent Boundary Contiental Rift Boundary Continental Transform Fault Oceanic Convergent Boundary Ocean Spreading Rift Ocean Transform Fault Subduction Zone

Holocene Volcanoes

Earthquake Last100 Days

Ore Location


OCEAN Aluminum Chromium Coal Copper Gold Iron Lead Lithium Manganese Nickel Platinum REE Sil Silver Tin Titanium Uranium Zinc Zirconium

Earth Tectonic Plates Contiental Convergent Boundary Contiental Rift Boundary Continental Transform Fault Oceanic Convergent Boundary Ocean Spreading Rift Ocean Transform Fault Subduction Zone

Holocene Volcanoes

Earthquake Last100 Days

Ore Location


World Production


Coal

World Total Production (2009)

Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases. Gross carbon dioxide emissions from coal usage are slightly more than those from petroleum and about double the amount from natural gas. Coal is extracted from the ground by mining, either underground by shaft mining through the seams or in open pits.

6,938,000,000 ton

RUSSIA POLAND

GERMANY

KAZAKHSTAN

USA CHINA INDIA

Top 10 producer of coal (2009) T 1 CHINA

3,050,000,000

2 USA

975,153,000

3 INDIA

566,157,000

4 AUSTRALIA

415,252,000

5 RUSSIA

198,000,000

6 SOUTH AFRICA

250,581,674

7 INDONESIA

245,000,000

8 GERMANY

184,828,142

9 POLAND

135,172,766

10 KAZAKHSTAN

INDONESIA

AUSTRALIA SOUTH AFRICA

91,493,082

World total production of coal (1941-2009)

8000000000

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

-Fossil fuel -Industrial purposes

6000000000 4000000000 2000000000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Fe

World Total Production (2009)

It is the most common element (by mass) forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth’s outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust. Iron’s very common presence in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production as a result of fusion in high-mass stars, where the production of nickel-56 (which decays to iron) is the last nuclear fusion reaction that is exothermic.

2,248,000,000 ton

RUSSIA CANADA UKRAINE USA CHINA

IRAN

INDIA

Top 10 producer of iron (2009) T 1 CHINA

880,171,400

2 AUSTRALIA

394,069,000

3 BRAZIL

327,000,000

4 INDIA

213,370,900

5 RUSSIA

92,000,000

6 UKRAINE

66,452,000

7 SOUTH AFRICA

55,313,053

8 IRAN

38,200,000

9 CANADA

31,699,000

10 USA

26,000,000

BRAZIL

AUSTRALIA SOUTH AFRICA

World total production of iron (1941-2009)

1500000000 1200000000 30000000

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

-Transportation, -Packaging -Household -Electronic shell -Electrical transmission

600000000 300000000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Al

World Total Production (2009)

Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth’s crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. Aluminium metal is too reactive chemically to occur natively. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite.

36,900,000 ton

RUSSIA

NORWAY

CANADA

USA CHINA BAGRAIN UAE

INDIA

Top 10 producer of aluminium (2009) T 1 CHINA

12,846,000

2 RUSSIA

3,815,000

3 CANADA

3,030,269

4 AUSTRALIA

1,943,000

5 USA

1,727,200

6 BRAZIL

1,535,900

7 INDIA

1,302,100

8 NORWAY

1,090,000

9 UAE

1,009,800

10 BAHRAIN

BRAZIL

AUSTRALIA

850,000

World total production of aluminium (1941-2009)

40000000 30000000 20000000 10000000 0

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Transport manufacturing industry - Packaing - Water treatment - Construction - Cooking utensils - Electrical transmission lines _Electronics, CDs and transisSource: British Geological Survey


Ag

World Total Production (2009)

Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

22,236,000 ton

RUSSIA CANADA

POLAND KAZAKHSTAN USA CHINA MEXICO

Top 10 producer of silver (2009) T 1 PERU

3,854,019

2 MEXICO

3,553,841

3 CHINA

2,900,000

4 RUSSIA

1,400,000

5 BOLIVIA

1,325,730

6 CHILE

1,301,018

7 USA

1,238,800

8 POLAND

1,150,000

9 CANADA

630,897

10 KAZAKHSTAN

618,100

PERU BOLIVIA

CHILE

World total production of silver (1941-2009)

25000000 20000000 15000000

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Precious metal - Electrical contacts and conductors - Mirrors - Catalysis of chemical reactions - Photographic film

10000000 5000000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Cr

World Total Production (2009)

Chromium is the 21st most abundant element in Earth’s crust with an average concentration of 100 ppm.[6] Chromium compounds are found in the environment, due to erosion of chromium-containing rocks and can be distributed by volcanic eruptions. Although rare, deposits of native chromium exist.

18,700,000 ton

RUSSIA

FINLAND

KAZAKHSTAN ALBANIA TURKEY CHINA INDIA

OMAN

Top 10 producer of chromium (2009) T 1 SOUTH AFRICA

6,864,938

2 INDIA

3,372,000

3 KAZAKHSTAN

3,333,197

4 TURKEY

1,770,029

5 OMAN

730,000

6 BRAZIL

700,000

7 RUSSIA

416,194

8 CHINA

280,000

9 ALBANIA

274,140

10 FINLAND

247,000

BRAZIL

SOUTH AFRICA

World total production of chromium (1941-2009)

25000000 20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Form stainless steel - Chrome planting - Dye and pigment - Wood preservative - Tanning - Refractory material - Catalysts Source: British Geological Survey


Cu

World Total Production (2009)

Copper has been in use at least 10,000 years, but more than 95% of all copper ever mined and smelted has been extracted since 1900. As with many natural resources, the total amount of copper on Earth is vast. However, only a tiny fraction of these reserves is economically viable, given present-day prices and technologies. Various estimates of existing copper reserves available for mining vary from 25 years to 60 years, depending on core assumptions such as the growth rate.

15,800,000 ton

RUSSIA CANADA

POLAND

USA CHINA

Top 10 producer of copper (2009) T 1 CHILE

5,389,600

2 PERU

1,274,725

3 USA

1,204,000

4 CHINA

1,029,000

5 INDONESIA

988,530

6 AUSTRALIA

854,000

7 RUSSIA

675,700

8 ZAMBIA

601,200

9 CANDA

494,524

10 POLAND

439,000

INDONESIA PERU ZAMBIA

AUSTRALIA CHILE

World total production of copper (1941-2009)

15000000 12000000

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Electronics and related devices - Archetecture and industry - Alloys - Antibiofouling application

9000000 6000000 3000000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Zn

World Total Production (2009)

Zinc makes up about 75 ppm (0.0075%) of the Earth’s crust, making it the 24th most abundant element. The element is normally found in association with other base metals such as copper and lead in ores. Zinc is a chalcophile, meaning the element has a low affinity for oxides and prefers to bond with sulfides. Chalcophiles formed as the crust solidified under the reducing conditions of the early Earth’s atmosphere.

CANADA

11,400,000 ton

KAZAKHSTAN USA CHINA INDIA

MEXICO

Top 10 producer of zinc (2009) T 1 CHINA

3,091,600

2 PERU

1,509,129

3 AUSTRALIA

1,290,000

4 USA

735,700

5 CANADA

698,901

6 INDIA

677,069

7 MEXICO

489,766

8 BOLIVIA

430,879

9 KAZAKHSTAN

418,600

10 NAMBIA

244,400

PERU BOLIVIA

NAMIBIA AUSTRALIA

World total production of zinc (1941-2009)

12000000 9000000 6000000

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Galvanizing - Brass and bronze - Alloys - Chemicals - Semi-manufactures - Miscellaneous

3000000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Pb

World Total Production (2009)

Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal. It is also counted as one of the heavy metals. Metallic lead does occur in nature, but it is rare. Lead is usually found in ore with zinc, silver and (most abundantly) copper, and is extracted together with these metals. The main lead mineral is galena (PbS), which contains 86.6 % lead by weight. Other common varieties are cerussite (PbCO3) and anglesite (PbSO4).

3,900,000 ton

RUSSIA CANADA

USA CHINA MEXICO

INDIA

Top 10 producer of lead (2009) T 1 CHINA

1,610,000

2 AUSTRALIA

506,000

3 USA

405,800

4 PERU

302,142

5 MEXICO

143,838

6 BOLIVIA

84,538

7 INDIA

84,025

8 RUSSIA

78,000

9 SWEDEN

69,293

10 CANADA

68,763

PERU BOLIVIA AUSTRALIA

World total production of lead (1941-2009)

40000000

1941

1950

Applications:

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Building construction - Batteries - Alloys - Bullets and shots - Weights

30000000 20000000 10000000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Au

World Total Production (2009)

Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. It is one of the least reactive solid chemical elements. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, usually with tellurium.

2,460,000 ton

RUSSIA CANADA

UZBEKISTAN

USA

CHINA

GHANA Top 10 producer of gold (2009) T 1 CHINA

320,000

2 USA

223,323

3 AUSTRALIA

222,000

4 RUSSIA

205,236

5 SOUTH AFRICA

197,628

6 PERU

182,390

7 INDONESIA

127,716

8 CANADA

97,367

9 GHANA

97,197

10 UZBEKISTAN

73,000

INDONESIA PERU

AUSTRALIA

SOUTH AFRICA

World total production of gold (1941-2009)

30000000 24000000 18000000

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Jewellery - Investment - Industrial uses - Dentistry and medicine - Catalyst and nanotechnology

12000000 600000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Ni

World Total Production (2009)

nickel is reactive with oxygen that native nickel is rare on Earth’s surface, being mostly confined to the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were protected from oxidation during their time in space. On Earth, such native nickel is always found in combination with iron, in keeping with those elements’ origin as major end products of the nucleosynthesis process in supernovas. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth’s inner core.

1,412,000 ton

RUSSIA

CANADA

CUBA PHILLIPINES Top 10 producer of nickel (2009) T 1 RUSSIA

261,900

2 INDONESIA

202,800

3 AUSTRALIA

166,000

4 PHILLIPINES

137,350

5 CANADA

136,594

6 NEW CALEDONIA

92,570

7 COLOMBIA

72,000

8 CUBA

67,000

9 BRAZIL

65,000

10 SOUTH AFRICA

34,610

COLOMBIA INDONESIA BRAZIL NEW CALEDONIA AUSTRALIA

SOUTH AFRICA

World total production of nickel (1941-2009)

2000000 1500000 1000000 50000 0

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

-Electroplanting applications -Alloys -Household -Construction -Chemical and food-processing industries - Batteries, jewellery and electrical components Source: British Geological Survey


Pt

World Total Production (2009)

Even though it has six naturally occurring isotopes, platinum is one of the rarest elements in the Earth’s crust and has an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/ kg. It is the least reactive metal. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production.

429,000 ton

RUSSIA CANADA

USA

Top 10 producer of platinum (2009)

T 1 SOUTH AFRICA

271,393

2 USA

116,485

3 RUSSIA

112,759

4 ZIBABWE

13,393

5 CANADA

13,340

6 COLOMBIA

929

7 AUSTRALIA

726

COLOMBIA

ZIBABWE AUSTRALIA SOUTH AFRICA

World total production of platinum (1941-2009)

1941 600000 500000

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Jewellery - Elecronics industry - Chemical industrial - Investment

400000 300000 200000 100000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Sn

World Total Production (2009)

Tin is the 49th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, representing 2 ppm compared with 75 ppm for zinc, 50 ppm for copper, and 14 ppm for lead. Tin does not occur as the native element but must be extracted from various ores.

279,000 ton

CHINA

VIETNAM Top 10 producer of tin (2009) T 1 CHINA

MALAYSIA

128,000

2 INDONESIA

46,078

3 PERU

37,530

4 BOLIVIA

19,581

5 AUSTRALIA

13,269

6 BRAZIL

10,000

7 CONGO

9,400

8 VIETNAM

5,400

9 RWANDA

3,154

10 MALAYSIA

CONGO

RWANDA

INDONESIA

BRAZIL

PERU BOLIAVIA

AUSTRALIA

2,412 120000

150000

World total production of tin (1941-2009)

25000000

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Solder - Specialized alloys - Tin plating

20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


REE

World Total Production (2009)

Despite their name, rare earth elements are relatively plentiful in the Earth’s crust. However, because of their geochemical properties, rare earth elements are typically dispersed and not often found in concentrated and economically exploitable forms. The few economically exploitable deposits are known as rare earth minerals. It was the very scarcity of these minerals that led to the term “rare earth”.

123,190 ton

RUSSIA

CHINA INDIA

MALAYSIA

BRAZIL

Top 10 producer of rare earth element (2009) T 1 CHINA

120,000

2 RUSSIA

2,500

3 BRAZIL

650

4 MALAYSIA

20

5 INDIA

20

World total production of rare earth element (1941-2009)

150000

1941

1950

1960

Applications: 1970

1980

1990

2000

- Consumer electronics - Environmental technologies - Military applications

120000 90000 60000 30000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


U

World Total Production (2009)

Uranium is a naturally occurring element that can be found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. Uranium is also the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on earth and is always found combined with other elements. Along with all elements having atomic weights higher than that of iron, it is only naturally formed in supernovae. The decay of uranium in the Earth’s mantle is thought to be the main source of heat that keeps the outer core liquid and drives mantle convection, which in turn drives plate tectonics.

50,700 ton

RUSSIA

CANADA UKRAINE

KAZAKHSTAN UZBEKISTAN

USA

CHINA

NIGERIA

Top 10 producer of uranium (2009) T 1 KAZAKHSTAN

14,020

2 CANADA

10,173

3 AUSTRALIA

7,982

4 NAMIBIA

4,626

5 RUSSIA

3,564

6 NIGERIA

3,243

7 UZBEKISTAN

2,429

8 USA

1,453

9 UKRAINE

840

10 CHINA

750

NAMIBIA AUSTRALIA

World total production of uranium (1941-2009)

60000 45000 30000

1941

1950

Applications: 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

- Production of electricity in nuclear power stations - Propulusion of ships - Research - Desalination - Military ordnance

15000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Distribution of 14 Minerals

Coal

Cu

REE

Sn

Fe

Au

Ag

Pb

Al

Ni

Zn

Cr

Pt

U

10,000,000,000

World total production of 14 minerals (1941-2009)

80,000,000

6,000,000,000 Coal

60,000,000 40,000,000

2,000,000,000 0

World total production of the “others” minerals (1941-2009)

100,000,000

8,000,000,000

4,000,000,000

120,000,000

Iron Others

20,000,000 0

Source: British Geological Survey


Cu

REE

Sn

Fe

Au

Ag

Pb

Al

Ni

Zn

Cr

Pt

U

Coal

Growth Rate of Minerals (1990-2009)

Indian Ocean Earthquake Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The Gulf War

1990

1991

1992

Iraq War

The formation of World Trade OrganThe Euroization pean Union was formally established

1993

1994

1995

September 11, 2001 attacks

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

global financial crisis

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009


Follow the Money Group Jingyuan Hu Kari Havnevik Guðrún Lilja Jónsdóttir Francisco Rodríguez Saa


World Overview


2003

file:///Users/amy/Dropbox/jj/commodity/stream.html 2004 2005 2006 2007

Gordon Brown became prime minister of Great Britain

Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy

North Korea claims nuclear test

FIFA World cup

Hurricane Katrina in Amercica

9.0 Asia quake leaves 212,000 dead European Union expanded

Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece

Conflic in Suan escalated into war

Start of the colour revolutions

U.S. launches war against Iraq

Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, U.S.

Switzerland joins United Nations

002

FIFA World cup

2008 2009 2010

2003

Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada

FIFA World cup

2002

The shutdown of the UK tabloid News of the World

GM enters kankruptcy protection

Barack Obama wins election IMF: Global economy worst in 60 years

Lehman Bros files for bankcruptcy

Global economic crisis

Summer Olympics in Beijing, China

Quake death toll 22,000 in China

2011

Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan 2004

Iqaq War is declared formally over

England riots

Streamgraph

nickel lead iron gold copper aluminium zinc uranium tin silver

2/1/12 8:18 AM

nickel lead iron gold copper aluminium zinc uranium tin silver

World Economy

fuel price

industrial inputs price commodity price Page 1 of 1


Coal


Energy and Coal

Real cost of coal

Coal burning has existed for centuries, and its use as a fuel has been recorded since the 1100s. It powered the Industrial Revolution, changing the course of first Britain, and then the world, in the process. In the US, the first coal-fired power plant – Pearl Street Station – opened on the shores of the lower East River in New York City in September 1882.1 Shortly thereafter, coal became the staple diet for power plants across the world.

Value

in Process

thermal/ steam

electricity genernation

metallurgical, coke

Cost

steel production

thermal/ steam cement manufacture

mining

preparation

transport

type

use

in US The Annual Economically-Quanti!able Costs of Coal

Electricity

Emission

Land Disturbance: Carbon & Methane

$ 5.5B [Hg] Mercury Impacts

40%

However, coal combustion caused

In 2009, of the world electricity is generated by coal

2%

Chemical and petrochemical

2%

Iron and steel

7%

Cementation metallic mineral product

4%

Energy sector

3%

Residential

74%

Electricity transformation

3%

Other

80%

GHG emission in electricity generattion

$ 187.5B

$ 1.8B

$ 2.2B

$ 74.6B

Fatalities Among the Public Due to Coal Transporation by Rial

Public Healthy Burden in Appalachian Communities

Emissions of Air Pollutants from Combustion

$ 8.8B

$ 3.2B

Abandoned Mine Lands

Subsidies

$ 61.7B Climate Contribution from Combustion

$ 345B and More

Coal is pretty cheap on the electronic bill, however, in reality we are paying a much higher cost in the long run, if we look at the big picture. The whole process and its impact on human being and environment can somehow tell the true cost of coal.

30 coal miners dead in America in 2008, 3200 in China. The death rate of coal mining is much higher than imagined

As in the graph, American actually spent a lot on different issues and problems that brought by coal mining. Though the number is roughly calculated, it reveals the truth behind the “cheap coal”. The high death rate of coal mining is also a serious problem.

Nuclear Oil

Coal

population coal consumption

1950

1965

1980

1995

2010


2010

2000 Export 206114

Import

Export

Japan Korea, South 67944 Taiwan 50410 Germany 39386 Russia 28323 United Kingdom 26377 Canada 26303 India 25736 Netherlands 25461 Spain 24014

Australia Indonesia Russia United States South Africa Colombia Canada Kazakhstan Vietnam China

168586

World shar of coal consumption

Australia China 77450 South Africa 77061 63332 Indonesia United States 59634 43981 Russia Colombia 39522 Kazakhstan 37990 Canada 35695 Poland 29474

Import

206702 195062

122095 83178 76683 76380 36920 36305 24676 22658

125807 101563 71130 55154 30030 29358 23734 22831

million tons

China is developing fast as well as its domestic demand. Its energy supply replies on coal resource. It has transformed from a big coal exporter to a giant importer through the last decade.

Export vs Imprt

Transforming China

Japan China Korea, South India Taiwan Germany Turkey United Kingdom Italy Netherlands

328131 316151

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


Iron


2010

2001

Dom. R.

M

Ve

G

Ta

Pe

Br

Za

Bo N

Ch

Dom. R.

M

Ve

Ar

Iron Ore - Production

G

Ta

Pe

M

Br

Za

Bo

Zi

Ch

Sa - V

Ar

M Zi

N

B

B Sa - V

Mauritania Venezuela Mexico Kazakhstan Iran Canada Other countries United States South Africa Ukraine Russia India Brazil Australia China

Mauritania Kazakhstan Sweden South Africa Canada Ukraine United States India Other Countries Russia Australia Brazil China 0

50

100

150

200

0

250

200

400

600

800

1200

Cast Iron Sub Part or Sub- component

From Coal Metallurgical Coke is used as fuel

Annual Report 2010 S&B Industrial Minerals S.A.

Assemblage

Iron Ore 3rd. Shipping

2nd. Shipping

1st. Shipping

4th. Shipping

Foundry Refractory Bricks & Monolithics

Iron ore

1000

Pelletizing machine

Pig Iron ingot

Automotive Industry

Cast Iron Auto Part

Iron Ore Pellets

Ship Building

Blast Furnace

Pig Iron

Formed Steel Continuous Casting

Other ingredients Cast Iron Scrap +

Reinforced Concrete


2010

Dom. R.

M

Ve

G

Ta

Pe

Br

Za

Bo N

Ch

M

Iron ore is the source of primary iron for the world's iron and steel industries. It is therefore essential for the production of steel, which in turn is essential to maintain a strong industrial base. Almost all (98%) iron ore is used in steelmaking. Iron ore is mined in about 50 countries. The seven largest of these producing countries account for about three-quarters of total world production. Australia and Brazil together dominate the world's iron ore exports, each having about one-third of total exports.

15

Za

Bo

Zi

N

Ch

Imports Iron Ore - Demanding Countries (Consumers) Importers

10

Ta Br

B Sa - V

5

G

Pe

Albania New Zeland Norway Mexico Philiphines Venezuela Peru Chile Kazakhstan Bahrain United States Ukraine South Afirca Sweden Canada India Australia Brazil 0

Iron Ore Price

Ar

20

25

30

35

200 180 160 140 120 100 Series1

60 40 20

Dec 2001 jun.02 Dec 2002 jun.03 Dec 2003 jun.04 Dec 2004 jun.05 Dec 2005 jun.06 Dec 2006 jun.07 Dec 2007 jun.08 Dec 2008 jun.09 Dec 2009 jun.10 Dec 2010 jun.11 Dec 2011

0

Sa - V

5

10

15

20

25

30

Over the last 40 years, iron ore prices have been decided in closed-door negotiations between the small handful of miners and steelmakers which dominate both spot and contract markets. Traditionally, the first deal reached between these two groups sets a benchmark to be followed by the rest of the industry

US Geological Survey 2011 Annual Report Iron Ore Worldwide

80

Ar

M Zi

B

Malaysia Finland Spain Slovakia Oman Turkey Argentina Romania Netherlands Canada Poland Austria Czech Republic Belgium United States Italy France Germany Japan China 0

In 2009, China imported almost two-thirds of the world’s total iron ore exports and produced about 60% of the world’s pig iron. Since international iron ore trade and production of iron ore and pig iron are key indicators of iron ore consumption, this demonstrates that iron ore consumption in China is the primary factor upon which the expansion of the international iron ore industry depends.

Iron Ore - Market

Dom. R.

M

Ve

Exports Iron Ore - Supplying Countries from the ore (before sub-parts or sub-components are made)

2010

This benchmark system has however in recent years begun to break down, with participants along both demand and supply chains calling for a shift to short term pricing. Given that most other commodities already have a mature market-based pricing system, it is natural for iron ore to follow suit. Although exchange-cleared iron ore swap contracts have developed over the past few years, to-date no exchange has established a proper futures market for the largely seaborne $88 billion a year iron ore trade.[6]

35

40

To answer increasing market demands for more transparent pricing, a number of financial exchanges and/or clearing houses around the world have offered iron ore swaps clearing. The CME group, SGX (Singapore Exchange), London Clearing House (LCH.Clearnet), NOS Group and ICEX (Indian Commodities Exchange) all offer cleared swaps based on The Steel Index's (TSI) iron ore transaction data. The CME also offers a Platts based swap, in addition to their TSI swap clearing. The ICE (Intercontinental Exchange) offers a Platts based swap clearing service also. The swaps market has grown quickly, with liquidity clustering around TSI's pricing. By April 2011, over US$5.5 billion dollars worth of iron ore swaps have been cleared basis TSI prices.


2006 Northwest Territories British Columbia Ontario Michigan Nevada Saskatchewan Arizona

Bolivia Dominican Republic Venezuela Argentina Brazil Peru Chile Mexico

North America

South America

5 - 14 %

NW. Territ

13% of Net R. 2% of Net P.

Bri. Colum.

10 %

Ont.

2-7% 2-5% 5 % of Net P. 2%

Europe 5%

India Mongolia China Myanmar Papua New Guinea Philippines Indonesia

Ghana Mozambique Botswana Namibia South Africa Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe

Sweden Greenland

1-6%

Mining Royalties & Mining Taxation

Africa

Bo

Ve

0-3%

Ar

0,2 - 3 % Br NV

0-3%

Saskatch.

India

2.5-7.5%

Mon

1- 4 %

Ch

Variable SA - V Ta 0-5%

1-7.5%

Mya

2%

Za

2%

N. Gui, Phi

0%

Zi

3-12 %

MI Pe Ch, M AR

Australia 0.4-20 %

GM

Dom. R.

3-4%

Northern Territories New South Wales Western Australia Queensland

Asian & Pacific Countries 3-10 %

B

5-10 %

N

18 %

4 - 7 % N. S. Wales 2.5-7.5% W. Aus. 2.7 %

0% Sw, Gr

Unit Based Indo.

NW. Territ. Bri. Colum.

Saskatch.

Ont. Mon

MI NV

Ch

AR

India

Dom. R.

M

Mya Phi

Ve

G N. Gui Ta

Pe

Br

Za

Bo N

Indo

M Zi

B W. Aus.

Ch

Ar

SA - V

“Many nations impose royalty tax, but some nations -as diverse as Chile, Greenland, Mexico, Sweden, and Zimbabwe- do not. In most nations that impose royalty tax, policy nakers are interested in determining whether the level of royalty and its computational method are competitive and efficient.� Mining Royalties A Global Study of Their Impact on Investors, Government, and Civil Society.

North. Territ.

North. Territ. Queensl.

Queensland


Steel


EU 27 China Japan South Korea India Russia Ukraine USA Canada Brazil

Exp

Import

Import and Export of Steel between 1999-2006 shown in %


600

600

500

500

500

400

400

400

400

300

300

300

300

200

200

200

100

100

100

600

600

500

200 100 0 1998

2002

2006

0

0

2008

1998

600

600

500

500

400

400

300

300

200

200

100

100

0 1998

2002

2006

2008

2002

2006

1998

2008

2002

2006

0

2008

1998

2002

82 %

Production

0 1998

2002

2006

2008

1998

2002

2006

2008

62 % 55 %

55 %

25%

South America Latin America

600 500 400

EU 15

Asia

(not Asia)

China

20 %

World

Utilization in steel production

Degree of consolidation of steel between the world regions

Consolidation is less pronounced in China. In China the top five producing companies have a market share of aprox. 20 %.This is a relatively low level reflects that there is more room for consolidation in the steel industry in China.

2008

Utilization Capacity

Capacity and production are displayed in million tonnnes. Utilization is calculated as percentage of production to capacity. Thus the the two x axes are showing production and capacity on the left side and procentage on the right which applies to utilization.

The EU15 steel industry is highly consolidated with a marked share higher than 60 % for the top five regional companies. Consolidation in the steel industry in Latin America is even higher. The market share of the top five producing companies is higher than 80%. The comparative figures for North America and Asia (not China) are approximately 55%.

2006

300 200 100 0 1998

2002

2006


The largest EU steel production contries 2007

5,1%

3,6 %3,5 % 3,4 %

5,1 %

Poland

Chech Republic

Romania

23,3 %

1989

6,9 %

9,1%

2000

15,4% 9,2% -30,5 %

-59,7%

-66,7%

Top World Exporters, million of Rolled Steel, tonns

The change in the steel production in the New member States of EU from 1989-2000

Production in New EU member states Particularly the large steel producing regions in the New Member States, Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania have experienced massive restructuring and reorganization since the collapse of the planned economies. From 1989 to 2000 total steel production decreased by between 30-66 % in these major steel producing countries. Outdated capacities were dismantled and former volume output has increasingly been shifted towards quality-output. From 2002-2007, total steel production in the new EU Member States has stabilized.

Germany

2009 2008 2007

South Korea

2009 2008 2007

Ukraine

2009 2008 2007

Russia

2009 2008 2007

Japan

The largest EU steel producing countries are Germany, Italy, France, Spain, the UK, Belgium, Poland, Austria, Nederland and the Czech Republic. These relative positions have been steady for years. All together, the output level among New Member States are modest compare to the largest producing steel companies the EU 15 and only two New Member States are in the top 10.

2009 2008 2007

15

25

35


al 55 .8

ln Stee

& Co Coke

8.8

Iron Ore & Pellet 136.2

g yclin

Limestone 13.1

Rec l for Stee

Lime 8.1

rted Expo

Steel Collected for Recycling 91.7 ll ot Co

Recovered Steel from Recycling 94.5

ected 5.8

d

rte po Im g Pi n Iro 3. 5

Consumtion of Pig Iron and Recovered Steel 196.8

l in M f Stee

o Import

ctured

anufa

BO Exported Pig Iron 0.6

BF Slag 24.1

rt eel Impo Crude St

Recovered Steel from Production

F9

EA

F6

9.3

Steel in Society

9.8

Recovered Steel from Manufactured Goods

s

Good

Constr

uction

Consum

er Good

s

Others

hed

is i Fin

em &S hed 5.3 s i n i 1 of F cuts 1 ort u Imp l Prod e Ste

Machin

ery

Packag in

g

Automo ti

ve

Illustration of Steel Flows in EU 15, 2004

Crude Steel Consumtion 161.8 Cru de Ste el E xp ort

Production of Finished and Semi Finished Steel Products 156 Steel in Manufactured Goods

Export

Exp

ort o

f Fin

ishe

d an

of Stee

l in Ma

nufactu

red Go

ods

d Se

mi F inish

ed S

teel Prod u

cts 1

23.7


Gold


223,000

4000

4000

3. Australia

222,000

3500

3500

3000

3000

90,000

10. Ghana

86,000

11. Papua N.Guinea 12. Brazil

20

500

BIGGEST GOLD PRODUCERS (bykg)

66,000

60,000

13. Mexico

1000

0

51,000

14. Colombia

18. Tanzania

40,000

JEWELLERY 52%

19. Philippines

37,000

20. Kazakhstan

22,000

1000 500

SUPPLY AND DEMAND Gold demand in the third quarter of 2011 reached 1,053.9 tonnes, an increase of 6% compared to the same period last year. This equates to US$57.7bn, an all-time high in value terms. Demand growth was driven by investment demand, which rose by 33% year-on-year to 468.1 tonnes, generating a record quarterly value of US$25.6bn.

42,000 40,000

1500

0

47,000

17. Chile

2500 2000

(Year 2010)

Mine Net production producer Total hedging mine Official supply sector Recycled sale Total gold supply

47,000

15. Argentina

DEMAND

Total supply

9. Uzbekistan

Recycled gold

1500

97,000

Official sector sales

8. Canada

16. Mali

2000

130,000

$4,000

7. Indonesia

Total mine supply

6. Peru

SUPPLY &

2500

182,000

Technology

190,000

$4,151

5. Russian Federation

Jewellery

197,698

Mine production

4. South Africa

Total demand

2. United States

Total bar & coin demand

320,000

1. China

PRIVAT INVESTORS 19% CENTRAL BANKS HOLDINS 16%

WHOBUYSTHEGOLD?

INDUSTRIAL USE 11% LOST 2%

30 years ago the price of gold went up by more than 250% in one year, hitting an all time record of $850 per ounce. Then almost as320,000 quickly it collapsed.

20%

GOLD IS COMMODITY MONEY Gold has intrinic value because it is used in industry and in the making of jewelry. Historically gold has been a common form of money because it is relatively easy to carry, measure, and verify for impurities.

$2000

Gold price continues to rise and further grow of the price is predicted.w

$1500

August 1999 – Gold falls to a low of $251.70 on worries about central banks reducing their gold reserves and mining companies selling gold in forward markets to protect against falling prices.

$1000

Gold price falls, massive global economic recession after the collapse of Lehman Brothers.

December 2003 – January 2004 gold breaks $400, reaching levels last traded in 1988. Investors increasingly buy gold as risk insurance for portfolios.

Gold price rises, driven by a weaker dollar and economic uncertainty.

n.82

1982

Dec 1982

1983

Dec 1983

1984

Dec 1984

1985

Dec 1985

1986

Dec 1986

1987

Dec 1987

1984

1984

$ pr/ounce

1984

1984

$500

1988

Dec 1988

1989

Dec 1989

1990

Dec 1990

1991

Dec 1991

1992

Dec 1992

1993

Dec 1993

1994

Dec 1994

1995

Dec 1995

1996

Dec 1996

1997

Dec 1997

1998

Dec 1998

1999

Dec 1999

2000

Dec 2000

2001

Des 2001

2002

Dec 2002

2003

Dec 2003

2004

Dec 2004

2005

Dec 2005

2006

Dec 2006

2007

Dec 2007

2008

Dec 2008

2009

Dec 2009

2010 2011 Dec

Dec 2010


FOLLOWINGTHE

GOLD

Still hold the record as the biggest gold miners in the world. Based on Toronto, Canada. Operates 27 mines worldwide. The second largest gold producer in the world with headquartered in Denver, Colorado , USA. For first 9 months, their production of gold was 4,715 million ounces that came from 9 location worldwide.


3 OF THE TOP 10 MINERAL PRODUCTING COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD ARE SITUATED IN THE ARTIC


GLOBAL MINERAL POLICY STRATEGIES; MAPPING OUT TENDENCIES USA Major mineral producer Major consumer Looking to import and invest globally Sees recycling and substitute-materials as a future potential Is more preoccupied with the affairs of “mainland” America and consideres it´s arctic territories somewhat of a periphery. Has shown an increasing interest in the arctic lately. Canada: Major mineral producer Relatively self-sufficient on minerals, with some exceptions. Asia; Approximately 50% of the world mining production, with China and India as top producing countries. China; Major producer Major consumer Looking to invest, especially in Africa and now in the potential mining possibilities opening up in the Arctic. Signalised a signifigant reduction of exports of Rare Earth minerals in 2010, the same year as they reached a 95% near monopoly on the production of Rare Erth minerals. Understandably this gave the rest of the world a nasty suprise(Ref: http:// geology.com/articles/rare-earth-elements/). Definite interest in the Arctic; Mining in Greenland, access to the opeing shipping routes and applying for observer status in the Arctic council. India; Major producer, but in Chinas shadow. Japan: Is not a major mineral producer and is therefore interested in the artic, also because of the potential new shipping routes; has an independent arctic institute. Africa: Interest in investments from China and India (Asia) 95% of investment in Africa comes from mining, oil and gas

EU; Minor producer, except from Poland, which are one of the top 10 mineral producing countries in the world. Mineral strategy announced in 2008 Looking to import and invest globally 80% import dependant One of the major mineral-political strategies is recycling Also applying for observer status in the Arctic council Russia; Major mineral producer Norway: Major Petroleum Industry Minor Mineral producing and lacking in a broad competence


GLOBAL MINERAL SITUATION

USA

Canada

production

Russia

China

India

Australia

production

production

production

production

consumption

Africa

consumption

consumption

export

export

import

import

export

EU

export

export

export

import

import

export

export

import

The selection of countries in the diagram is based on the top 6 mineral producing countries in the world, including the EU as a major consumer (and prorelatively relatively relatively relatively ducer), and the whole of Africa, as a continent where there is a lot of mineral production.

insufficient

self sufficient

self sufficient

insufficient

self sufficient

self sufficient

insufficient

Sources: Production: Based on statistics about the 10 top most mineral producing countries (British Geological Survey 2009) Consumption: Based on statistics on the world consumption from 2007 (Crowson 2008)

Export/Import: Based on a comparative analysis of the world 7 top most countries exporting and importing minerals by Irene Crowo Nielsen.

Thus the whole scheme is not directly comparable, but displays a general tendency, shedding a clearer light on the various countries mineral strategies.


GLOBAL MINERAL POLITICAL STRATEGY

Canada

USA

Russia

?

China

India

Australia

Africa

EU

? Resulting Policy research

Legend

extrovert

introvert

open

Looking outside country boarders to invest and import

Protecting ceirtain resources for domestic use

Open to outside investments and exporting resources

closed

recycling

? Researching new possibilities and technologies

Closed to outside investments

Interested in using recycling as a source of future resources

Source: This diagram is based on extracts from and on the independent mineral strategies of the USA and EU, analysis of the import/export diagrams and conversations with the Norwegain Foregin Ministry, Polar department (26.01.2012), Andreas Østhagen from the Arctic Insitute (25.01.2012), Jack Ødegård from SINTEF (18.01.2012) and Christopher Eads from the Economist Intelligence Unit (1.02.2012), all in Oslo.


ARTIC MINERAL SITUATION AND POLITICAL STRATEGIES

USA

Canada

Russia

Greenland

Norway

major producer

major producer

major producer

future producer?

minor producer

export

export

export

export

export

import

import

import

import

import

?

?

Iceland

EU

producer

Source: This diagram is based on the same sources as the Global Mineral Strategy Diagram and the Global Mineral Situation Diagram.


GLOBAL EXPORT AND IMPORT FLOW The selection of countries in the diagram is based on the top 6 mineral producing countries in the world, including the EU as a major consumer (and producer), and the whole of Africa, as a continent where there is a lot of mineral production that isn´t legal, and thus is partly unrepresented in the general statistics.

Canada

USA

In addition, Japan is included as a major consumer, and Norway as the country we will eventually zoom into later on in the process.

Russia

Norway Japan

EU

The statistics used does not focus solely on mineral exports and imports, but as it includes the countries where the theme is relevant it displays a clear tendency, though it must be read critically.

China

Africa

India

Main source (2005-2006): http://www.exportnation.com/research/ EU source (2010): http://ec.europa.eu/trade/creating-opportunities/ bilateral-relations/statistics/

Australia

Africa supplementation source (2010): http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/africa/ export-import.html US supplementation source (2012): http://economics.about.com/cs/1/a/importexport.htm


EXPORT - IMPORT

USA EU NORWAY CANADA RUSSIA AUSTRALIA CHINA AFRICA INDIA JAPAN

-

EU USA EU USA EU CHINA USA JAPAN CHINA USA JAPAN EU JAPAN EU US US CHINA CHINA US

These countries are dependent on the other countries SUPPLY AND DEMAND

EXPORT

USA - CHINA JAPAN CANADA EU EU - CANADA RUSSIA AUSTRALIA - INDIA These countries are dependent on the other countries DEMAND

IMPORT

JAPAN USA NORWAY CHINA EU EU AUSTRALIA JAPAN

-

RUSSIA USA CANADA CHINA INDIA EU AUSTRALIA

These countries are dependent on the other countries SUPPLY Why is it not vice versa? Because the other countries do not have the same dependency on their supply and demand, with the exception of EU and USA, who are dually dependent on each other´s supply and demand.

Otherwise it is interesting to note that both China and Africa have the same dependency on Japan, EU and USA; India and Japan both have the same dependency on China and the US, whilst no one is dependent on Canada, Russia and Australia (even though they are major mineral producing countries)


ARCTIC REGION ARCTIC CIRCLE The Arctic Circle is the circle of latitude at 66 degrees 33 minutes N (2606 kilometers/1619 miles from the North Pole) that encloses a northern area about 8 percent of Earth s surface. The Arctic Circle is the southern limit of the midnight sun, where north of the circle there is at least one day each year when the sun does not set. ARCTIC REGION There is no fixed boundary for the arctic region. The definition of arctic determined by the specific aspects of the region. The most commonly refered boundary is AMAP Boundary. AMAP BOUNDARY The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) “area” essentially includes the terrestrial and marine areas north of the Arctic Circle (66°32´N), and north of 62°N in Asia and 60°N in North America, modified to include the marine areas north of the Aleutian chain, Hudson Bay, and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean including the Labrador Sea. Within the AMAP area, 10 “key areas” have been identified that are a special focus for coordinated and harmonized monitoring and research activities. AHDR BOUNDARY Some extent of the Arctic as a region was determined by the use of biophysical criteria. While some was determined by cultural, economic, or political terms. for instance the Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR). In the AHDR Arctic. It encompasses an area of over 40 million square kilometers or about 8% of the surface of the Earth, a sizable domain by any standards . But the human residents of this vast area number only about 4 million, of whom almost half are located within the Russian Federation 10oC and TREE LINES are determined by the use of biophysical criteria.

A

A

A source: - http://arcticportal.org/en/amap - Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) Oran R. Young, University of California at Santa Barbara,U.S.A., and Níels Einarsson, Stefansson Arctic Institute, Iceland - Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Arctic Pollution Issues: State of the Arctic Environment Report (AMAP, Oslo, 1997). - T. Armstrong, G. Rogers, G. Rowley, The Circumpolar North (Methuen, London, 1978).

1 Arctic Circle AMAP Boundary AHDR Boundary 10C July line Tree line

T


THE ARCTIC COUNTRIES SAILING ROUTES

USA

SAILING ROUTES

RUSSIA

USA USA

RUSSIA

CANADA

CANADA CANADA

GREENLAND

GREENLAND GREENLAND FINLAND

Accoriding to the international legal instrument governing maritime jurisdiction and boundary delimitation United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) which entered into force in November 1994, a coastal state is entitled to a sovereign territorial sea extending up to 12 nautical miles (nm) from its coastal baseline. The normal baseline is the low200-mile line area water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts, but equidistance line straight baselines can also be drawn across the mouths of rivers and some bays, and along coastlines which are “deeply indentedagreed border 200-mile line area and cut into� or fringed with islands. claimed continental shelf equidistance line Beyond the territorial sea, the coastal state is entitled to 200-mile line area unclaimed agreed border claim an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) extending up to 200 nm equidistance line claimed continental shelf from its baselines. agreed border

unclaimed Where zones of jurisdictional entitlement overlap, the states in claimed continental shelf question need to agree a maritime boundary. unclaimed

source: http://www.lecerclepolaire.com/articles_archives/Pratt_maritime_Arctic. html

ICELAND NORWAY ICELAND

FINLAND NORWAY

ICELAND NORWAY


SAILING ROUTES

SAILING ROUTES

ASIA

In the summer 2011 the Arctic Sea Ice melt-down reached a new record low since the beginning of satellite data record ranging back to 1979 as well as other recorded data ranging back to the 50’s.The Northern Sea route is vastly free of ice. Russians are taking advantage of that, sending numerous vessles through the route, amongst them the largest ever tanker to go through the route.Shipping in the Arctic is becoming a reality and all the Arctic nations are getting ready. The shipping and sailing will only increase with less sea ice. source: http://www.arcticportal.org/arcticshipping-maps

AMERICA

ice surface 2010-30 EUROPE

ice surface 2040-60 ice surface 2070-90 north-west passage north-east passage northern sea route future central arctic shipping route


POPULATION

RUSSIA 1980 000

ALASKA (USA) 649 000

Almost half are located within the Russian Federation. Russia thus consider itself as the major country of arctic and takes aggressive approaches to the arctic policies.

CANADA 130 000 The biggest proportion of area lies in Canada terriotories. The arctic population however is comparatively low. Canadianarctic policy focus on ecosystema and resources.

GREENAND (DANMARK) 57 700 Majority of Greenland population are indigenous, the policy to indigenous people is in high priority in Danmark Arctic policy.

In the area of over 40 million square kilometers or about 8% of the surface of the Earth (AHDR Arctic). Human residents of this vast area number are about 4 million, which is about 0.057% of world population. source: Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR)

indigenous-people

ICELAND 290 000

FAROE ISLAND (DANMARK) 47 700

NORWAY 380 000 Norway has comparatively high arctic population and one of the most active countries to arctic policies.

FINLAND 201 000 non-indigenous people


RESOURCES IN THE ARCTIC

potential oil & gas

There is rich storage of resources in the arctic-oil/gas, fish, minerals. Thanks to the melting ice the resources is more accessible than before, the interests to the arctic from different nations and organization are therefore increase. source: http://arcticportal.org/en/amap

fishing area

<10%

very low

10%-30%

low

50%-100%

medium

100%

high


MINERAL ACTIVITIES

The diagram is showing the changes from 1992 to 2007. Because of the ice melting in arctic and Chinese decresing mineral export, there will be a new mineal arctivity trend in the coming decades in the arctic. source: Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR)

changes in mineral activities 1992-2007 200% or more increase

1-99%decrease

100-199% increase

no mining

1-49% increase

new production


ACTORS IN THE ARCTIC ACTORS IN THE ARCTIC

ARCTIC COUNCIL

BARENTS EURO ARCTIC COUNCIL

BARENTS REGIONAL COUNCIL

NORDIC COUNCIL

CAPITALS OF THE MEMBER COUNCTRIES


Norwegian Constitution Capitulation of Russia to Japan _ end of Tsarism _ Frirst Russian Revolution, democratisation

1814 1905

01/06/1990

1990

15/01/1988

1984

Single maritim boundary agreed

Geopolitic on the Kola Peninsula : strengthening of the national minorities and indigenous rights Nordic countries but also in Russia

Bilateral agreement on environmental protection

Nordic Council

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

10/12/1982

Islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) agreed Continental shelf boundary and joint zone agreed

Fisheries boundary following the

28/01/1980 22/01/1981

Continental Shelf boundary agreed 17/12/1973

strat of a Nordic economic cooperation, Finland didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t take part at the beguining

Continental Shelf boundary agreed

The Nordek plan :

joint the Nordic Council as members of, respectively,

Inauguration of the Nordic House in Reykjavik, design by Alvar Aalto

Agreement on a Nordic Cultural Fund Support cultural projects involving a minimum of three Nordic countries

Nordic Constitution, known as the Helsinki TreatyThe joint Nordic labour market

Nordic Passport Union : more clearly defined than the Passport-free travel

Maritime boundary partially delimited

Nordic Council Nordic Convention on Social Security

Passprt-free travel was introduce between the Nordic countries

Nordic Council ratified

The Danish Prime Minister Hans Hedtoft, at the Nordic Interparliamentary Association proposed the creation of The Nordic Council a consultaion body in which Nordic parliamentarians would meet on a regular basis

Failed negociation to a Nordic Defence Alliance => part of NATO

=> Northern war

Changes of the border Finland-Soviet Union, Norway occupied by Germany, Alliance Finland-Germany

Changes in the geopolitical situation

1971

1970

08/1968

30/01/1966

1955

15/02/1957

1955

1952

19/08/1951

1949

(Russia-Finland)

WWII + Winter War

Treaty of Svalbard/Spitsbergen

End of constant competition and warfare between Denmark, Sweden and Russia => New period of agricultural colonisation of the north. New Swedish constitution

1809

09/02/1920

Sea way to the white sea in northern of Russia by The English Compagny of Merchant Adventurers

Transformation from ethnic communities to states comunities.

Local autonomy : differents ethnics groups competed and cooperated, establishment of territorial states and Christiany

1553

16th century

9th century

TIMELINE OF ARCTIC GEOPOLITIC


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Creation of the Barents Region with the Barents Cooperation The Kirkenes declaration establish Barents Euro Arctic Council and Barents Regional Council United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in force Continental shelf and fisheries boundary agreed Arctic Council with the Ottawa Declaration Continental shelf and Fisheries boundary agreed Tripoint agreed

09/05/1992 11/01/1993

16/11/1994 18/12/1995 19/09/1996 11/11/1997

Commission Communication on the European Union and the Arctic Region

20/11/2008

Agreement on the maritim boundary in the Barents Sea Ocean signe but still not ratified Conference Statement of the Ninth Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region 15/09/2010

12/05/2011

Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) agreement, Arctic environmental protection strategy

Nuuk Declaration by the Arctic Council

security prospects in the Arctic region, particularly the military aspects of the High North

Security

NATO's new Strategic Concept, approved by Heads of State and Government at the Lisbon Summit

Statement on Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy 28/08/2010

Environment

11/2010

Finland's strategy for the Arctic Region 04/06/2010

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) USA's Responsible Arctic Energy Development Act

Canadian Northern Strategy Canadian Act to amend the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act

08/2009

Economy

2010

Russian national security strategy until 2020 05/2009

American National Security Presidential Directive, Homeland Security Presidential Directive

Boundary

09/01/2009

USA's Arctic Oil Spill Research and Prevention Act USA's Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment Implementation Act

Basics of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic for the period till 2020

12/09/2008

Minorities and Indigenous policies

2009

Ilulissat Declaration adopted at the Arctic Ocean Conference

28/05/2008

Joint Danish and Greenlandic strategy for the Arctic

Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples by the United Nations General Assembly

13/09/2007 05/2008

Extention of the Norway-Russia maritime boundary

11/07/2007

Norwegian Government's Strategy for the High North

Partnership Agreement

Continental shelf and fisheries boundary agreed

Policy of countries and different organisations

2007

20/02/2006

(Svalbard)

New Baltic Sea

09/04/1992

Nordic Sami Convention

EU membership

12/03/1992

2005

EU membership

01/06/1991

History EU relations

+

(R

1


INTERACTION BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT ACTORS IN THE ARCTIC

INTERACTION BETWEEN THE DIFFERENTS ACTORS IN THE ARCTIIC

Official inter-parliamentary body in the Nordic Region Globalisation , Climate, Freedom of movement, East of the baltic

ARCTIC COUNCIL

Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway, Sweden

Canada, Denmark (Greenland, Ilses Faroe), Finland, Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, United States

NORDIC COUNCIL

Global politic Arctic Contaminants Action Programme (ACAP) Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) Conservation of Arctic Flora end Fauna (CAFF) Emergency Prevention. Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) Sustenaible Development Working Group (SDWG)

BARENTS COOPERATION Day to day politic

BARENT REGIONAL COUNCIL Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia, working Groop on Indigenous Poeples (Saami of norway) interregional cooperation on 6 frame sector programmes : Forestry, Mining and minerals, Oil and gas, Tourism, EastWest logistics, Higher education

BARENT EURO

CHINA

ARCTIC COUNCIL Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway, Russia, Sweden, European Commission intergovernmental cooperation on issues in the Barents Region : energy, environment, indigenous peoples, economy

EU EU


The “Arctic Five” and the Arctic Council

The 1996 Ottawa Declaration created the Arctic Council, which is comprised of eight states, six permanent indigenous organizations and several “observer states.” While China and EU apply for permanent observership to the Arctic Council, with particular reference to the governance of the northern sea routes, the five Arctic Ocean costal states have met as the “Arctic Five” to discuss issues like searchand rescue capabilities, oilspill cleanup capabilities and maritime shipping regulations.

Chinese research vessel Snow Dragon

The Five have agreed to be committed to existing Law of the Sea adjudication of competing sovereignty and resource claims and the coastal states see “no need to develop a new comprehensive international legal regime to govern the Arctic Ocean,”

“The Arctic belongs to all the people around the world, as no nation has sovereignty over it... China must play an indispensable role in Arctic exploration as we have one-fifth of the world’s population.” Foreign Ministers of the Coastal Arctic states meet in Chelsea, Canada. March 29, 2010.

Chinese rear admiral Yin Zhuo, March 2010


Norway Arctic Policy 2011 The High North, Visions and Strategies 100 most used words

Norwegian foreign policy is based on the respect for international law and cooperation. As one of the five Arctic littoral states, Norway has a strong position in the Arctic Council and the strategy of cooperation has been confirmed by the establishment of a permanent secretariat for the Arctic Council in Tromsø.

Murmansk, 15. Sept. 2010. Norway and Russia signing the treaty on maritime delimitation and cooperation in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

The main drivers for the Norwegian arctic policy are: Climate change - establishing northern Norway as a laboratory for climate change. A polar research hub Resources - partly a consequence of the first, access to and knowledge about new resources become available. The expectations of oil and gas and consequences for regional development are only rivalled by the environmental concerns. Relationship with Russia - “Norway’s policy with Russia is based on pragmatism, interests and cooperation.”


Denmark Arctic Policy 2011 Strategy for the Arctic 2011-2020 100 most used words

Greenland achieved self-rule status in June 2009. This gave the Greenlanders recognition as a distinct people with the right to self-determination and more control over its gas, gold and diamond reserves, while security and foreign policy remain the competence of Denmark. In view of the self-rule, the policy paper is using the term Kingdom of Denmark, referring to Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Like the Norwegian policy, cooperation is high on the agenda, as is climate and research. Among the main words are also oil, exploitation, gas, industry and mineral. EU and Canada are the only partners that make it on the list.


USA Arctic Policy 2009 National Security Presidential Directive-66 on Arctic Region Policy 100 most used words

The United States is a major Arctic player through the state of Alaska. But as the Senate has failed to ratify the UN convention on the Law of the Sea, the US has not been able to join in as other countries have sent in territorial claims in the region. Nuuk, 11. May 2011 Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton arrives at the 7th Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council,

The Arctic policy calls for a more active and influential presence to protect US interest and to secure free passage through the Northwest Passage and the Northern Sea Route.


Canadian and US research vessels on joint programme in the Arctic ocean

Canada Arctic Policy 2009 Our North, our Heritage, our Future 100 most used words


Russia Arctic Policy 2008 The Fundamentals of state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic in the period up to 2020 and beyond 100 most used words

Russia’s Arctic strategy emphasizes the region’s importance to Russia’s economy as a major source of revenue, mainly from energy production and profitable maritime transport. Defining the limits of the country’s continental shelf by 2015 is listed as a top priority. Among other strategic goals the document points at developing the transport and communication infrastructure in the region, particularly connected to the Northern Sea Route as a national, integrated transportationcommunication system

President Putin at Franz Josef Land to tag a polar bear in April 2010


The European Union has three memberstates in the Arctic sone, Finland, Sweeden and Denmark. But as Greenland opted out, the Union has no Arctic coastline. The Parliament resolution of 2011 argues that a future accession of Iceland to the EU would transform the Union into an Arctic coastal entity and that this represents a strategic opportunity. Iceland is however not concidered one of the Arctic littoral states among the Arctic Five. The EU seeks a closer cooperation with, and status as permanent observer in the Arctic Council. There is no dispute as to the soveregnity of the Arctic states, but the prospect of northern shipping routes makes the northern dimension increasingly important.

European Union policy 2006 The Northern Dimension 100 most used words

European Parliament in Session

EU Parliament 2011 Resolution on a sustainable EU policy for the High North 100 most used words


THE BIG PICTURE New technology China increases manufacturing

Increased demand for ICT

Call for environmentally sustainable solutions Strict environmental regulations

Climate change

Increased demand for REE and other minerals

China reduces export quotas

China h 95% o olds f REE! !

Green mining New shipping lanes across the arctic Ocean

Arctic Ice cap is melting

New N orwegian mineral law 2009 New Arctic harbours

Access to new Visibility of Need for delineation recources climate change of borders and attracts political responsibilities attention

Financially viable to explore deposits and (re-)open mines Norwegian mineral strategy in Norway and Barents in 2012

Norway Arctic strategy International cooperation and legal order

Value creation Tromsø as Polar and employment resarch hub and Sustainable use Arctic capital of resources UN law of the seas UiT - AHO cooperation

Foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources achieve globally diverse supplies Barents Euro Arctic Council Infrastructure development in Barents area

UNCLOS 1994 AC-Secretariat Research and development of new knowledge and technology

Arctic Council 88 member states

6 permanent indigeneous organisations

USA mineral strategy

EU raw materials initiative

Access to markets

Norway-Russia border treaty 2010

Mineral prices sky rocket

Global scare on mineral supply chain disruption

Norwegian Sametinget Saami Council

Exploring the Arctic for new mineral sources

identify substitute minerals

Improve capacity for recycling, reuse and more efficient use of materials

Investment in and development cooperation with African mining countries


AHO 03.02.2012


TOP SELLERS THE TOP 7 EXPORT COUNTRIES OF MINERALS

EXPORT DEFINITION: “ship the goods and ser-­ vices out of the port of a country. In international trade “export”refers to selling goods and ser-­ vices produced in home country to other mar-­ kets” This illustrates the trends of the top 7 exporting countries worldwide. Australia comes out on top with Canada close behind. According to world trade organization, worldwide mineral export has grown rapidly over the years. For example; the volume grew by 4.1 % annually from 1950-­ 2003.

NO. 1 2 3 4 5 COAL

IRON

COPPER

ZINC

GOLD

ALUMINIUM

SILVER

URANIUM

CHROMIUM

NICKEL

REE

6

7

PLATINUM

source: www.indexmundi.com, , www.usgs.gov, www.mbendi.com, www.thebusinessofmining.com, www.infomine.com


THE HUNGER THE TOP 7 IMPORT COUNTRIES OF MINERALS

IMPORT DEFINITION: “To bring in the goods and services into the port of a country. An import is any good or service brought in from one country to another coun-­ try in legitimate fashion”

Usa and China are number ones on importing. Europe is close behind. There is a visible tendency for less developed countries from southern hemisphere to almost not take part in import of minerals.

NO. 1 2 3 4 5 COAL

IRON

COPPER

ZINC

GOLD

ALUMINIUM

SILVER

URANIUM

CHROMIUM

NICKEL

REE

6

7

PLATINUM

source: www.indexmundi.com, , www.usgs.gov, www.mbendi.com, www.thebusinessofmining.com, www.infomine.com


WORLDWIDE MINERAL SHIPPING ROUTES

JAPAN/PACIFIC OCEAN

PORT OF VLADIVOSTOK

EUROPE

NORTH & SOUTH AMERICA

PORT OF BERGEN PORT OF PETERSBURG

PORT OF VANCOVER PORT OF LOS ANGELES

PORT OF DOVER

PORT OF HOUSTON

PORT OF ROTTERDAM PORT OF MANZILLO PORT OF KOLKATA

PORT OF BUSAN

PORT OF LISBON PORT OF KOBE

PORT OF HAIDAR PASH

PORT OF COLON PORT OF VENEZUELA

PORT OF JEBEL ALI

PORT OF SHANGHAI PORT OF HONG KONG

PORT OF COLOMBIA

PORT OF YANGON PORT OF KAMSAR

PORT OF PERU PORT OF CHILE

PORT OF TANJUNG PRIOK

PORT OF BUENOS AIRES PORT OF PERTH

PORT OF CAPE TOWN PORT OF NEWCASTLE

Shipping routes reflect world trade flows. In this case mineral shipping across the globe. Busiest port in the world is Shanghai, China with 561.1 million tonnes of cargo enter-足 ing. Rotterdam is the busiest port in Europe with an annual shipping tonnage of 401.1 million tonnes cargo and Port of Vancouver is the largest port on the west coast of North America with 76,5 million metric tonnes cargo entering. We might see changes in these flow patterns of cargo if the Artic ice meltdown opens up for new and shorter connections between West & East.

source: www.infranetlab.org


EXPORT WEIGHT COMPARISON Comparison of the top 7 exporters worldwide to give an impression of the differences in weight and scale

source: www.indexmundi.com, , www.usgs.gov, www.mbendi.com, www.thebusinessofmining.com, www.infomine.com


HOW MUCH IS 1 TON OF THE MINERAL? Average weight of a human: 70 kg

298 tonnes COAL

205 000 000 000 tonnes IRON

16 500 000 000 tonnes COPPER

876 548 tonnes ZINC

2 188 tonnes GOLD

1.9 tonnes ALUMINUM

2 620 tonnes SILVER

4 257 people

2 928 571 429 people

235 714 286 people

12 522 114 people

31 257 people

27 people

37 428 people

7 490 000 tonnes CHROMIUM

107 000 000 people

250 000 tonnes NICKEL

3 571 428 people

30 184 tonnes REE

163 tonnes PLATINUM

431 200 people

2 328 people

source : www.eduarea.wordpress.com , www.globalsecurity.org, www.worldsalaries.org, ogy Survey, ‘World Statistics on’ ‘Mine Injury and Work time, Quarterly’ U.S. Department of Labor 2010, ‘International Mining Fatality Database’ Patrick MacNeil


FOLLOW THE FLOW 2 Transportation to shipping port

HOW DEEP CAN YOU GO?

1 Extraction from the mines 4 Processed at factories

3 Shipped off to desired location

5 Desired product

source: www.LiveScience.com , www.nkmz.com, www.fas.org


THE CIRCLE OF MINERAL LIFE

source: ‘Minerals and Metals Management 2020’International Council of Mining and Metals


source:www.usgs.gov, ‘World Mineral Production’ British Geological Survey, www.mbendi.com

...IN THE END THERE WAS A PRODUCT


THE DEATH OF THE MINERAL

source: www.kristw.yellowpigz.com, British Geology Surveys on Minerals,


TO PRODUCE 1 TONE OF THE MINERAL YOU NEED...

source:‘Mining waste generated from aluminum production’ maps.grida.no, World Watch Institute


I WANT TO RIDE MY BICYCLE

Mined in Brazil as bauxite

Aluminium works in Swe-足 den

Made into tubes in Asia

Handlebar in the USA

Taiwan to be fit-足 ted to the bike

Europe for sale

source : Abfahren magazine

FOLLOW THE FLOW BIKE FLOW -足 AN ALUMINIUM EXAMPLE


THE STORY BEHIND AN iPHONE

source: studio9consumption.ning.com, www.mapsofworld.com


THE DARK SIDE OF MINERAL FLOW

Every cellphone and computer contains important minerals, several of these come from the ores in Kongo. Lot of these minerals are smuggled ille-足 gal across the borders to neighbouring countries. Smuggling points are controlled by armed groups (mafia), they earn money by tax and stealing .

From this point the minerals are mainly shipped il-足 legal out of Africa and towards Asia When reached desired destination the minerals are refined and mixed with other minerals. By doing this it is al-足 most impossible to trace the origin of the minerals and they are sent to countries all over the world for further developments of different components.


source: www.gao.gov, www.bloodinthemobile.org, www.crossedcrocodiles.wordpress.com

THE GOLD TOUR


NEW CONNECTIONS

source: www.maps.grida.no, www.timetoast.com

Less ice opens up for new and shorter transportation routes be-足 tween East and West. New sea lines of communication have al-足 ready opened up through the North East passage. There will also be routes straight across the North Pole. In a few years the shortest sea transport passage will be via the Barents Sea. It will reduce the distance between Asia and the western world by more than 7000 kilometres, and significantly reduce sailing time.


source: www.maps.grida.no

THE RE-DISCOVERY OF NEW POTENTIAL


INFRASTRUCTURE POTENTIAL

source: www.eternalmoonlight.net

FIELDS_AHO_ATLAS_2012  

Landscape architect students assesment on mining.

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