FIELDS OF EXPLORATION - LIMITS OF EXPLOITATION +
Master Studio in Landscape Architecture Oslo School of Architecture and Design Winterspring 2012
The Perforated Landscape
DET PERFORERTE LANDSKAP En katalog over gruvedriftens innvirkning på landskapet, nye geologiske undersøkelser, forskjellige typer gruvedrift, livssyklusen til en gruve og kortsiktige og langsiktige miljøvirkninger. THE PERFORATED LANDSCAPE A catalogue on mining’s impact on the landscape, study new geological surveys, modes of mining, the life cycle of a mine and mining’s environmental impacts. Teachers: Knut Eirik Dahl Kjerstin Uhre Espen Røyseland Øystein Rø www.dahluhre.no www.0047.org www.aho.no
students: Irene Crowo Nielsen, Annabel Danson, Mathilde Grellier, Linn Riise Handal, Kari Sanne Havnevik, Jingyuan Hu, Hanne Johnsrud, Gudrún Lilja Jónsdóttir, Hao Liang, Patrycja Perkiewicz, Francisco Rodríguez Saa, Annisah Solihah, Xin Su, Kit Ting Karie Yu, Ingrid Aas
NUSSIR Francisco Rodríguez Saa, Guðrún SVEAGRUVA/LUNCKEFJELL (SVALBARD) Annisa Solihah, Hao Liang, Xin Su
BJØRNEVATN Mathilde Grellier, Hanne Johnsrud
BIEDJOVAGGI Jingyuan Hu, Kari Havnevik
KIRUNA Annabel Danson, , Kit Ting Karie Yu
REGIONAL CONTEXT Ingrid Aas, Irene Crowo Nielsen, Linn Riise Handal, Patrycja Perkiewicz
STORIES FROM THE EDGE OF THE MAP INGRID
Source: www.barentsinfo.org, www.barentsobserver.com, maps.grida.no
WHERE THE MAP ENDS...
BARENT’S SHORT STORY.. THE HISTORY OF THE BARENT REGION SHOWS A STRONG RELATION BETWEEN NEIGHBORS. IT IS CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTAND POLITICAL ROUTES AND STRENGTHS OF HUMAN RELATIONS,THE TRUST THAT UNITES PEOPLE. EVEN IF THE CREATION OF THE BARENTS REGION TOOK PLACE TO INDICATE THE END OF ‘COLD WAR’ ERA IT IS NOT ONLY A POLITICAL ESTABLISHMENT. THE DEVELOPMENT IS POSSIBLE THANK TO THE BOND THAT EXISTS IN THE BARENTS REGION AND IT HAVE BEEN CULTIVATED FOR THE LAST CENTURIES..
Source: www.barentsinfo.org, www.barentsobserver.com, maps.grida.no
A STORY OF PEOPLE... THE AMOUNT OF PEOPLE LIVING IN BARENTS REGION IS APROX 5,5 MILLION. MOST OF THE HABITANTS LIVES IN RUSSIA. HOWEVER AFTER 1989 THE AMOUNT OF POPULATION ON THE RUSSIAN SIDE DECREASED. IN THE LAST 10 YEARS 440.000 MOVED OUT OF THE REGION. HOWEVER THE GENERAL TENDENCY INDICATES A GROWING POPULATION. AS A STABLE POLITICAL SITUATION AND NEW OPPORTUNITIES IT IS LIKELY THAT THIS NUMBER WILL CONTINUE TO RISE.
Source: www.arcticstat.org, www.barentsinfo.org, www.barentsobserver.com
WHAT WILL HAPPEN WHEN THE DRIVE FOR NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND MINES WILL FULLY DEVELOP IN THE NORWEGIAN TERRITORIES? WILL IT ATTRACT NEW INHABITANTS? WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO THE EXISTING TOWNS? WILL THEY TRANSFORM DUE TO THE HUGE PROSPECTING INDUSTRIAL BASE CITIES?
THE INDUSTRIAL SUBLIME.. Source: www.barentsinfo.org, www.barentsobserver.com, www.beac.st, www.ipyeaso.aari.ru
THE NORTHERN TOUR... INFRASTRUCTURE THE COUNTRIES IN THE BARENTS REGION HAVE FOR MANY YEARS BEEN WORKING ON A HARMONIZED TYPE OF JOINT INFRASTRUCTURE. DIFFERENCES IN LINGUISTICS, COUNTRY ECONOMICS AND LANDSCAPE FUTURES LEAVES LOTS OF SPACE FOR POSSIBLE FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS. AS THE AMOUNT OF EXTRACTED MINERALS WILL RISE SO WILL ITS TRANSPORTATION NEEDS . DUE TO OPENING POSSIBILITIES FOR NEW SEA ROUTES GOING THROUGH NORTHERN NORWAY AND RUSSIA INVESTMENTS IN DEVELOPING THE NEW PORTS WILL BECOME PRIORITIES THE BARENT REGION WILL PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE BUSINESS COOPERATION WITH ASIA,THEREFORE THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF SEA PORTS MUST GROW TO BE ABLE TO HANDLE THE POSSIBLE NEW ECONOMIC ADVENTURE.
CURRENT INFRASTRUCTURE SITUATION IN BARENTS REGION RAILWAY CONNECTION ROAD CONNECTION SEA ROUTE PORT AIR PORT
Source: www.barentsobserver.com, ‘Northern Experiments’0047, eivind.npolar.no
NEW DISCOVERIES, NEW INDUSTRIES, NEW DEVELOPMENTS..OLD ROADS..?
POTENTIALS THE MISSING TRACKS.. SHORT TERM POTENTIAL ARCHANGELSK CORRIDOR - DIVERSE TRANSIT RUUKI,IRON PALLETS FROM SEATO RAIL LONG TERM POTENTIAL NEW CORRIDOR TRANSIT TRANSPORT OF CONTAINERS MURMANSK- KIRKENES STEELTRANSPORT MINING BASED INDUST RY STEEL SCRAP TREE TRANSPORT
RAILWAYTRACK MISSING LINK
ACCESS TO SEA PORTS WILL REQUIRE A GOOD RAILWAY CONNECTION. THE CURRENT RAILWAY STANDARD IN MANY AREAS OF THE BARENTS REGION NEEDS TO BE UPGRADED AND ADAPTED TO NEW CARGO REQUIREMENTS. ONE OF THE MAIN GOALS TO ACHIEVE THIS WILL BE TO IMPROVE CROSSBORDERS TRAFFIC AT THE BORDERS AND MAIN CORRIDORS. AN IMPORTANT FEATURE IN THE LONG TERM PERSPECTIVE WILL BE TO BUILD THE MISSING RAILWAY CONNECTIONS, INCREASE THE LOAD CAPACITY OF ITS TRACKS, AND IMPROVE MULTIPURPOSE OF THE WAGONS. IN REGARDS TO SHORT TERM DEVELOPMENTS IT WILL BE CRUCIAL TO OPEN EXISTING RAILWAYS FOR INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIONS. AT THE SAME TIME THE UPGRADING OF IMPORTANT TERMINALS WILL BECOME A PRIORITY. WILL IT BE POSSIBLE TO GET ON THE TRAIN FROM KIRKENES TO ST.PETERSBURG? OR FROM NARVIK TO CHINA? WHERE WILL YOU BUY THE TICKET TO...?
1 - TECHNICAL SY STEM DIFFERENCES 2 - TERMINALUPGRADING NEEDED 3 - NARVIK PORT/ MORE CAPACITY INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDED 4 - MISSING TRIANGLECONNECTION ORE LINE - HAPARANDA LINE 5 - COASTAL RAILWAY MISSING 6 - AXLE WEIGHT LIMIT TOO LOW ANDPARTLY NON-ELECTRIFIED 7 - SALLA/ALAKUR TTI TRACK MISSING 8 - KIVIJARVITERMINALUPGRADING NEEDED 9 - LEDMOZERO - KOCHKOMA ELECTRIFICATION MISSING 10 - BELOMORSK - OBOZERSK AYA UPGRADE NEEDED 11 - SUOJARVI LINEUPGRADING NEEDED 12 - ROAD CONSTRUCTION NEEDED 13 - MISSING LINKS KARPOGORY - VENDINGAAND SYKTYVKAR - PERM
source: The Barents Region – Where Gas Meets Ore -Sintef, www.arctic-europe.com,ipy-nenets.npolar.no,www.interbaltic.org
TERMINAL OR LOGISTICS A
THE LOST HIGHWAY..
PRIORITISED CORRIDORS MAIN CORRIDORS NORTHERNAXIS
Source: www.ipyeaso.aari.ru,www.barentsinfo.fi,eivind.npolar.no,Raw materials and infrastructure in Northern Sweden, A Barents Transport Strategy -Progress proposal
MISSING ROAD CONNECTION INFRASTRUCTURE IN POOR CONDITIONS
THE EXPANSION OF THE REGION IS FURTHERED THROUGH TOURISM DEVELOPMENTS AS WELL AS OTHER INDUSTRIAL ADVENTURES. BY CREATING A POSSIBILITY OF “BARENTS TOURISM” COULD WE THEN INCREASE OPPORTUNITIES FOR OTHER TYPES OF INVESTMENTS? TOURISTIC ROUTES COULD BECOME AN ADVANTAGE FOR THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT. IS THERE A CHANCE FOR CONTINUATION OF THE NORWEGIAN ‘TOURISTIC ROUTES’ PROJECT? BARENTS ROUTES ? EXPLORATIONS ON THE TOP ?
A CRUCIAL PART OF DEVELOPMENT IS TO IMPROVE TRAFFIC SAFETY INCLUDING HEAVY VEHICLES AS WELL AS PASSENGER TRAFFIC. THE BARENTS REGION WILL BECOME MORE OPEN FOR INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE,THEREFORE ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS TO BE ADAPTED TO THE COMING NEEDS. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE NORDIC COUNTRIES IS CURRENTLY IN POOR CONDITIONS AND NEEDS TO BE IMPROVED. AT THE SAME TIME THERE IS A MASSIVE NEED FOR NEW SOLUTIONS; FOR ROAD USE AND REAL TIME TRAFFIC INFORMATION, SHOWING SPEED LIMITS, ROAD CONDITIONS, TRAFFIC VOLUMES, TOURISM AND ANY ROAD SERVICES. IT IS CRUCIAL TO CREATE SAFE ROAD CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE DESTINATIONS IN THE BARENTS REGION THROUGH THE YEAR. ALL OF THE DEVELOPMENT SHOULD BE STRICTLY LINKED WITH COOPERATION BETWEEN ALL OF THE ‘BARENTS’ COUNTRIES.
NATIONAL OFFICIAL TOURISM FUTURE RO ADS NATIONAL OFFICIAL TOURISM ROADS MISSING LINKS MARKETEDTOURISM ROADS (NOT OFFICIAL)
Source: www.arctic-europe.com, www.arcticweb.com, eivind.npolar.no
SEARCH-DESTROY MISSION AREAS WITH LIMITATIONS
DAMAGE DUE TO AIR POLLUTION FOREST DEATH AREA INNER VISIBLE DAMAGE ZONE OUTER VISIBLE DAMAGE ZONE INNER NON -VISIBLE DAMAGE ZONE OUTER NON-VISIBLE DAMAGE ZONE PROTECTED AREAS PROTECTED LANDSCAPE NATIONAL PARK NATURAL MONUMENT
Source:’Northern Experiments’0047, www.barentsinfo.org, www.barentsobserver.com, www.nkmz.com
...THE DRILLING HOLES OF THE NORTH : A PERFORATED LANDSCAPE
HIDDEN BENEATH THE GROUND.. In 2011 the mineral industry was allocated 25 million NOK, and the same amount will be given during the next 3 years. Focus on mineral resources will strengthen the quality of important data and give knowledge regarding the geology of northern Norway. Most of the money will go to geophysical measurements from aircrafts and helicopters, which will increase the possibility of finding mineral resources significantly. In the summer of 2011, NGU completed the task of taking geochemical samples from all of the northern regions. About 2200 morrain samples was collected by walking the terrain and digging holes every 30-40 km2. At the moment a massive search of minerals is taking place, and what lies hidden beneath the ground will soon determine the fate of this northern landscape.
Source: gtk,ngu, www.barentsinfo.org,sintef, www.nature.com, www.barentsinfo.org
...WHEN SWEDISH NEIGHBOURS SCANNED NORTHERN LANDS....
...AND THATâ€™S HOW FINISH NEIGHBOURS SCANNED THE AREA....
PASSENGERS... WHERE WILL THE UPCOMING DEVELOPMENTS TAKE US TO?
METAL-MINERAL RESOURCES Source: MINERAL RESOURCES IN NORWAY 2009 -NGU, maps.grida.no, www.arctic-europe.com, eivind.npolar.no, www.arcticstat.org
RE-DESIGNING THE EARTH FINDINGS
Source: www.arcticstat.org, www.arcticweb.com, MINERAL RESOURCES IN NORWAY 2009 -NGU
THE NORTHERN RE-FORMERS
WHAT’S UP? NORTH COMPARED WITH SOUTH
THE REINDEER THAT WALKED THROUGH LANDS REINDEERS HAVE LIVED IN THE BARENTS REGION FOR CENTURIES. MOST OF THEM HAVE BEEN DOMESTICATED. REINDEER HUSBANDRY GOES BACK FOR CENTURIES AND HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE’S LIVES.
DISTRIBUTION OF REINDEER POPULATION IN BARENTS REGION REINDEER HERDING AREAS
REINDEER CORRIDORS IN NORTHERN NORWAY AREA NORWAY REINDEER HERDING CORRIDORS SWEDISH REINDEER HERDING CORRIDORS
TYPES OF REINDEER POPULATION IN BARENTS REGION DOMESTIC OR SEMI-DOMESTIC REINDEER WILD FOREST REINDEER WILD REINDEER DOMESTIC AND WILD REINDEER
Source: maps.grida.no, kart.reindrift.no, www.nature.com, Action Plan for Indigenous Peoples in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region 2009-2012
AS AN ANIMAL, REINDEERS MIGRATE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR CREATING CORRIDORS ADAPTED TO THEIR TRAVEL. THIS PROCESS NOWADAYS IS QUITE REGULATED HOWEVER DUE TO THE INCREASING ROLE OF MINING INDUSTRY, HUSBANDRY WILL MEET LOTS OF PROBLEMATIC SITUATIONS LIKE A NEED FOR NEW ROUTES AND NEW CORRIDORS. EVEN IF REINDEERS ADAPTS TO THE NEW SITUATION AND CHOOSES NEW CORRIDORS FOR THEIR MIGRATION,OTHER ISSUES RELATED TO INDUSTRIAL WORK WILL HAVE AN IMPACT; LIKE THE AIR POLLUTION WILL BE A BIG AND IMPORTANT ISSUE. THERE IS A NEED FOR NEW SOLUTIONS.
NORTHERN STRATEGIES WHATâ€™S UP?
Source:, regjeringen: northern strategies, mineralloven
january 1st 2010
The following interests are safe-
Value creation & industrial commercial development
The purpose of the Act is to promote and ensure socially responsible administration and use of mineral resources in accordance with the principle of sustainable development.
B Foundation of Sami culture, commercial activity and social life
D Surroundings and nearby areas while operations are being carried out
Environmental consequences of extraction
Long-term planning relating to subsequent use or reclamation of the area
The Act applies to activities conducted with the objective of surveying mineral resources for the purposes of extrac-
The Ministry may issue regulations specifying the activities and extraction covered by the Act. The Directorate of Mining may make corresponding determinations by way of individual decision.
The Act applies to any extraction of mineral deposits. However, the Act does not apply to extraction that primarily forms part of other exploitation of the land.
Exploration in Finnmark is different an exploration permit does not confer a right to undertake exploration or pilot extraction until the Directorate of Mining has granted a spectial permit for such activities. an exploring party shall take reasonable steps to obtain information about directly affected Sami interests in the area that is to be explored. The Act applies on Norwegian territory, with the exception of Svalbard. At sea, the Act does not apply outside the boundaries of private property.
a special permit may be refused if granting the application would be contrary to Sami interests. In the assessment, special consideration shall be given to the interests of Sami culture, reindeer management, commercial activity, and social life.
If the application is granted, conditions may be imposed to safeguard these interests. When processing the application, the Directorate of Mining shall give the landowner, the Sameting (the Sami Parliament), the municipality, and the relevant area board and district board for reindeer management an opportunity to comment. If the Sameting or the landowner opposes the granting of an application, the Ministry shall decide the application. If the Ministry grants an application in a case as described in the fifth paragraph, an appeal to the King by the Sameting or the landowner shall have a suspensive effect. source: Mineralloven, Regjeringen 2010
THE NORTHERN EMPIRE STRATEGIC POINTS
Source:, The Barents Region â€“ Where Gas Meets Ore -Sintef, www.arctic-europe.com, www.arcticweb.com, www.samimuseum.fi
LOOKING TO... HOW DO THEY TO IT?
WHAT IS TO COME?
Additional funds, growing population & business activi ties
? No rw eg i a n / R u s s i a n b or d e r
No rwe g ia n / R u s s i a n b or d e r
Economic cooperation w ith Russia
Source: www.arcticweb.com, WORLD PORT KIRKENES GROUP AS, MINERAL RESOURCES IN NORWAY 2009 -NGU,ngu,sintef
ZOOMING IN.. CASE STUDIES
SYDvaranger GRUVE / Kirkenes
Fields of Exploration - limits of Exploitation
the perforated landscape Mathilde Grellier Hanne Johnsrud
SYDvaranger / Kirkenes
LKAB / Kiruna
SYDvaranger / Kirkenes
LKAB / Kiruna
From a 100 % crude iron ore you get...
... 32 % Iron at Sydvaranger/ Kirkenes in the form of iron concentrate
61% iron at LKAB /Kiruna, in the form of iron pellets
n de jor f n de ei N
E6 to Tromsø, Trondheim and Oslo
Bøk fjor den
Ko rsf jo rd
Høybuktmoen Airport en rd jo f ng La
E105 to Murmansk, St.Petersburg and Moscow
Fisketind East deposits
Kirkenes / Girkonjárga / Kirkkoniemi / Киркенес
Kirkenes 4. June 1899. Photo by Ellisif Wessel: pioneer in the trade union movement, cultural journalist, author, editor and photographer. She came to Kirkenes in 1886 as the wife of the doctor, Andreas Bredahl Wessel who worked to improve conditions for the poor
A/S SYDVARANGER AT THE START OF A TIMELINE THE POSITIONING OF A YOUNG NATION STATE IN A PERIOD OF POLITICAL TURMOIL AND WAR 1866 The iron ore at Bjørnevatn is registered by Tellef Dahll
1902 mapping of the iron ore at Bjørnevatn 1905 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden 1906 Chr.A Anker establishes A/S Sydvaranger after negotiantions with the state. The Same year the company was sold to a Swedish-German consortium
Chr.A Anker was an industrial pioneer at the turn of the century, starting chemical factories, sawmills and several mining ventures, iron ore in Sør-Varanger, Marble in Lier and coal at Svalbard
1906 Trade union Nordens klippe established 1909 Trade union Grubernes arbeidsmandsforening established 1910 The first train with iron leaves for the port and export to Rotterdam on the railroad Bjørnevatn-Kirkenes 1914-1918 World War 1 lead to a massive massive need for iron in the rebuilding of Europe, but the economic depression threathened the continued production
The large number of workers that came to Bjørnevatn had experience from other mines and this lead to an early establishment of trade unions. Sydvaranger was known as a company with minimal workers rights and low security. Numerous conflicts followed
1920 1925-27 Bankruptcy. The Norwegian state gives financial support, while the main interests remain Swedish, with backing of German capital
The mine grew to become the biggest open cast in Northern Europe, with miners coming in from all of Scandinavia.
The operations of AS Sydvaranger was from the start an important factor in confirming Norwegian supremacy in the border region. The area of Sør-Varanger was under pressure between the two world wars, from the new Sovjet Union and from Finnish plans of expansion. AS Sydvaranger made it possible to maintain a large and stable Norwegian inhabitation to balance this.
The mining company built roads and workers houses in addition to sewage and street lighting.
1940-45 Second world war. Kirkenes was strategically important to Nazi-Germany because of the allied supply route to Murmansk. 30 000 solidiers were stationed in the town, and Festung Kirkenes supplied 100 000 troops
Kirkenes was bombed more than 300 times before the Red Army defeated the Nazi forces. As the german troups withdrew, they burnt down everything, using the “burnt soil tactics” to prevent anything to fall in Soviet hands. 2500 people sought refuge in one of the mining tunnels at Bjørnevatn towards the end of the war
A/S SYDVARANGER AS A GOVERNMENT PROJECT FROM RECONSTRUCTION AND GOLDEN AGE TO POST INDUSTRIAL DOWNTURN
After the 2. world war, AS Sydvaranger was appropriated by the Norwegian government due to the German ownership. The Norwegian state became 43% owner. 1948 State ownership increases to 62% and majority 1952: The rebuilding and modernisation of the mining plant is finalised. WIth reconstruction after the war came also improvements in workers rights and security. The 1950 becomes a golden period with high production and marked prices.
After the devastations of the war, the mining company was central in rebuilding the new Sør-Varanger. Roads, sewage and electricity was all developed through Sydvaranger. Later, the company was also involved in planning and financing schools and sportsfacilities. Thereby securing an educated workforce and attractive institutions for families to stay in the area. The cold war and fear of communist take-over meant a close eye on trade union activities, and basically any other activity this close to the USSR border. Cold war aside, Norway and the Soviet Union cooperated on the construction of several power plants along the Pasvik river.
1960 Economic stagnation in the 1960s led to the need for new products to get higher prices. 1969: Starting pellets production
Good market prices and stable situation makes Sydvaranger the leading company in Northern-Norwegian Mining industry. 1978: New economic downturn means less resources to the community and the municipality of Sør-Varanger take over operations for roads, water and sewage.
In the 1980, AS Sydvaranger met the pressure from mining in a world economy. The combination of low prizes on iron, high wages and expensive mining in Norway and large sections of rock to remove in order to access further iron ore made the mining unprofitable, and the Norwegian government was no longer prepared to cover the expences.
1981 The state increases its ownership to 87,45% in responce to the need for new capital 1985 the govrenment as main owner adopts the plan to end mining operations at Bjørnevatn.
Einar Gerhardsen from the labour party was prime minister for 17 years between 1945 and 1965.
A/S SYDVARANGER IN TIME OF TRANSFORMATION FROM LANDUSE TO PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT - LOOKING FOR NEW OPPORTUNITIES IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY
1990 1996: State support ends and mining operations are stopped 1999: The energy company Varanger kraft buys A/S Sydvaranger from the state The municipality of Sør-Varanger buys some areas and technical infrastructure and become part-owner of Sydvaranger
1997-2002: Australian Bulk Minerals makes an unsuccessful attempt at operation at Bjørnevatn
February 2006: Sydvaranger is sold to the developer Nordberg Eiendom and shortly after bought up by its subsidiary Rådhusplassen 1 May 2006: Rådhusplassen 1 is bought in full by Tschudi Shipping Company (TSC)
At its 100 years anniversary, Sydvaranger operated as a real estate company. With plans for housing and center development. The increased focus on the Arctic, and new activities in oil industry and offshore drilling brought new interest for investment in Kirkenes, and especially the port and loading facilities that was developed by Sydvaranger. With increasing prices on iron ore, the possibility of reopening the mining operations became an important factor when the municipality decided to sell Sydvaranger.
Plans were made for the restart of mining under the name Sydvaranger Gruve AS Autumn 2007: 600 million kroner is invested in the restart of operations at Bjørnevatn through an Emission in Australia. The owner company Northern Iron Limited is listed at the Australian stock exchange
2010 Autumn 2011: The two major share holders of Northern Iron Limited, Tschudi Mining and OM Holding, considers a reduced or decontinued ownership in SVG
Northern Iron Limited is registered in Australia as the owner company of the Sydvaranger mines Substantial Shareholders (as at 30th June 2011) Tschudi Mining: OM Holdings Ltd: IOOF Holdings Ltd: Eley Griffiths Pty Ltd:
~26.5 % ~15.6 % ~8.4 % ~5.2 %
FROM MINING TOWN TO URBAN COMMUNITY 10919 10010
1st. World War and following depression led the industry in economic turmoil
1930s: rebuilding and rearmament in Europe means increased production
1911-1913 - plants finished and extended for full operation
1970s: Sydvaranger became the leading company in Norther-Norwegian Mining industry. 1530
1906: A/S Sydvaranger established
2nd World War
Population growth of SĂ¸r Varanger
2009: Restart mining as Sydvaranger Gruve
1980s: the iron ore at Kirkenes becomes unprofittable
1952: A rebuilt and modernised plant was ready 1000
Iron Ore Price $ per Metric Ton
1000 1969:starting pellet production
Kirkenes at the turn of the century. The church at the penninsula.
1910, building the steam power station, Sydvaranger Dampsentral
Sydvaranger production facilities at Kirkenes after 4. July 1944. Kirkenes. Briquette works and rails. Bombed and burnt.
19 1937 1938
Bergen Group Kimek shipbuilding hall makes the steam central small.
Number of employees Showing the tendency
5 2010 2011 2012
1996: AS Sydvaranger ends mining
1960s: stagnation led to production of pellets to increase product prices.
Centre of Kirkenes today, no longer just a mining town.
FIELDS OF EXPLORATION
Geological composition Gabbro / plutonic mafic igneous rocks Quartzite / metamorphic rock from sandstone Mica-gneiss, mica-schist / metamorphic rock Granite / intrusive felsic igneous rock Mineral resources / mapping by NGU Of great importance Of importance May be of importance Of no importance Sørvaranger Gruve mining prospects Sørvaranger Gruve concession area / 35km2 Bjørnevatn deposit / 110,8 Mt / 32,5 % Fe Fisketind east deposit / 7,8 Mt / 30,9 % Fe Kjellmannsåsen deposit / 13,7 Mt / 33,2 % Fe Iron ore Open cast
LIMITS OF EXPLOITATION 2035? Estimated amount of available iron ore: appr. 130 Mt Aimed annual production rate: 5-6 Mt Lifespan of mine: 20 - 25 years
The iron ore reserves cover an area of 35 km2 and consist of 23 separate ore deposits that differ in size and quality. Sydvaranger Gruve has the rights to all of them. 85 % of the remaining iron ore is located at the BjĂ¸rnevatn deposits.
BJĂ˜RNEVATN IRON ORE DEPOSITS
Sources : Independent technical report on the Norwagian mineral properties of northern iron limited - RSG Global
Sources : Independent technical report on the Norwagian mineral properties of northern iron limited - RSG Global
PLAYGROUND FOR GIGANTS
Primary crushing at mine
Primary crushed ore railed to concentrator
Non magnetic rejects Secondary & tertiary crushing in Kirkenes
Primary & secondary milling & magnetic separation Concentrate thickening
Concentrate drying, storage & shipping
Waste disposal in sea deposit
Pump house Salt water
Quais Traveling ship lauder
Secondary Bentonite and tertiary crushing milling Bentonite silo
Crushed ore silo 8.000T Main office Pellet storage 460.000T
Railroad to Bjornevatn
The crushing and concentrator facilities rests like a citadel or acropolis, with large structures overlooking Kirkenes
WHAT TO DO WITH THE WASTE ?
The extraction of iron produce two diferent kind of wastes. The non-magnetic rejects, are separated at the Bjornevatn site and deposed around the mine, creating fan-like shapes when spreading out. After the crushing, the taillings are discharged in the sea. The seadeposit in Langfjorden was used until 1974 when the fjord reached capacity. A pipeline of 275m was constructed in 1973 to discharge taillings in Bjokfjorden.
MINING IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT BJORNEVATN
+ Consequenses on poeples : -Silicosis due to inhalation of quartz dust -Mezothelioma from exposure to asbestos -Industrial deafness -Asthma from fugitive dust emissions -Respiratory problems from exposure to solvents or welding fumes -Exposure to hazardous substenses as dioxins
+ The waste from the 1st crushing in Bjornevatn is deposed around the mine, extending the surface of the site, destroing the vegetation, and preventing revegatation because of thegeochemistry of the boulderâ€™s ground
The drumps of waste form a protection to dust for the landscape around the mine detourning the wint. But it still have an impact on the vegetation and the population.
Penetration of toxic water in the ground Plants, agriculture ? The compagny is now using a pipeline for waste dispersal in Bjokfjorden. But dumping tailling and used water, which might have been in contact with chemicals, in the fjord have consequenses on the fauna and the flora. Between 1989 and 1990, investigations have shown moderate disturbances to bottom fauna up to 7km around kirkenes and detectable disturbances up to 13km away. This phenomene will for sure become worth if Kirkenes become the strategic point she aspires in the barent sea.
After the process, the water is dump in the fjord.
Limitation for water pumping to keep the lakes levels stable
The waste was bring to Langfjorden were it was trought into the sea.
KIRKENES MINING FLOWS
MURMANSK ZAPOLJARMYJ NIKEL
CHINA RUSSIAN RAILWAY
GERMANY BRITAIN GERMANY
IRON EXPORT IN KIRKENES
GREAT BRITAIN GERMANY
OIL TAX .
78 % Of net profits
MINERAL INDUSTRY .
28 % Regular company tax
+ Annual fee for mining operations 100 kr per 10.000 m2
IS THERE A LIFE AFTER MINING? 153 Agriculture and fisheries
Hotel and restaurant
Other business services
Public administration and armed forces
Building and construction
4469 Total number of employed people in the Municipality of SĂ¸r-Varanger 2006
Transport and communication
Industry, mining,oil and gas
Medical and social services
Other social and personal services
53 % public sector
398 Total number of employees at Sydvaranger Gruve in 2011
Half the workforce was employed by the public sector, ten years after the mine closed down in 1996. Still, a range of small and medium sized enterprises form a varied economy and competence base. The new mining operations, and the political decision makers are faced with a more mixed group of stakeholders in the local community.
URBAN FABRIC IN THE SQUEEZE
Public services and institutions Shops, businesses and hotels Offices and administration Industry, workshops and storage Housing
Coastal ferry terminal
Mix industry and businesses
Sydvaranger industrial area
Centrum and housing area meets in a wedge between the Sydvaranger industrial area on the hill to the west, and the sprawled industrial area along the coastline to the west.
KIRKENES AND TSCHUDI ... OR
Tschudi Shipping Company AS
Tschudi Rederi AS Rederiet Otto Danielsen A/S Estonian Shipping Company Ltd (Esco) Tschudi Shipping Estonia O체 Tschudi Shipping Company O체 (Kirkenes Transit AS) Loading and unloading Tschudi Arctic Transit AS Tschudi Logistics Oy Tschudi Logistics Holding AS Development and sale of property R책dhusplassen 1 AS Arbeidergata 3 AS Itc Management Bv Kirkenes Industrial Logistics Area AS (Sydvaranger Maritime Industrial Park AS) Operation of harbour Itc Ships Holding Bv Tschudi Bulk Terminals AS (Sydvaranger Bulk Terminals AS) Spedition Boreal Offshore AS Tschudi Mining Company AS Tschudi Kirkenes AS (Sydvaranger AS) Property management Kirkenesvannet Eiendom AS Tschudi Ship Management AS Tschudi Ship Management Iom Ltd Tschudi Kirkenes Eiendom AS Tschudi Aggregates AS
Tschudi Shipping Company is owned and run by Felix Henry Tschudi Traditionally Tschudi Shipping has operated as a ship owner and operator in cargo vessels, tankers, bulk carriers, with particular focus on the east-west trades of cargoes and projects involving the Northern regions of Norway and Russia.
ONE STOP SHOPPING SERVING THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY AND MARITIME TRANSPORT IN THE BARENTS SEA
Center of Kirkenes public services and private companies
4 SMIP deep water quay Approximately 400 metres in length
Bergen Group KIMEK. Shipbuilding hall, servicing the Russian fishing fleet
Tschudi Shipping Company AS
Kirkenes Industrial Logistics Area AS Sydvaranger Maritime Industrial Park AS SMIP
SMIP Area for development Additional 200 metres of deep water quay
Sydvaranger industrial park developed with focus on companies serving the coming oil and gas industry in the Barents Sea and Maritime transport and logistics
OR CREATING A NEW NATIONAL ATTRACTION?
KIRUNA / LOUSSAVAARA-KIRUNAVAARA AKTIEBOLAG
SØRVARANGER / KIRKENES
LKAB / KIRUNA
COMPARISON / CRUDE ORE // FINISHED PRODUCT
FROM A 100 % CRUDE IRON ORE YOU GET....
61% iron in LKAB /KIRUNA, in the form of IRON PELLETS
32 % Iron in SYDVARANGER/ KIRKENES, in the form of IRON CONCENTRATE
The townÂ´s original name was Lousavare after the Loussavaara mountian; the mine is situated in between the mountians Loussavaara, Kirunavaara and Haukavaara.
Kriuna is a mining city founded between the two mountains of Kiirunavara and Loussavaara at the turn of the 19th century due to the large reserves of iron ore that was possible to extract after the invention of the Thomas-process, separating the phosphorus from the iron. The town of Kiruna was planned based on the climatic conditions, but without consideration of the geological conditions, leaving the city with a coice between continued mining or an extensive urban transformation in the present day. The heart of the city and numeous of Kirunas oldest buildings will have to be moved to a new site. The state owned mining-company LKAB are argumenting that the city should be moved well out of the vicinity of the mines in an urban transformation process that will take approximately 10 years.
Discovery of iron deposit
Invention of Thomas process phosporous seperate from iron ore.
Railway construction started
Ore railway between Kiruna and Navik joined. Narvik-Kiruna-Gällivare-Luleå was the worlds northernmost railway
Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) founded
Architects’ (Per Olof Hallman and Gustaf Wickman) plan to the city was officially accepted
Kiruna got it´s official name 1907
tram in operation
Surface mining of Mountain Kiirunavaara In second world war , German used Kiruna to keep refugees and prisoners, the railway was used to ore and transport military equipment.
WWII bombing 1940s
City rights money from mines City renovation Kiruna Ariport Tourist industry developed LKAB start using Subsurface mining
high record of LKAB iron production Steel Crisis mines at Svappavaara, Tuolluvaara and Luossavaara closed
Sources: http://www.kommun.kiruna.se Wikipedia
2000 2004 2007
Relocation of city center decided Actual work on moving started
KIRUNAS CONNECTED LOCATIONS
책 le Lu
Sources LKAB Annual report 2010
LKAB EXPORTS // GLOBAL IRON PRODUCERS
Sources: LKAB Annual report 2010 Steelonthenet.com
THE IRON DEPOSIT IN KIRUNA
Only mines at Kiirunavaara is still under operation. Mines at Svappavaara, Tuolluvaara and Luossavaara closed in 1977 after steel crisis due to increasing compeition from Asia, Africa, Australia, South America.
Kiruna (1), Luossavaara (2), Rektorn (3), Henry (4), Haukivaara (5), Nukutusvaara (6) and Tuollovaar (7)
Kiirunavaara The total of the original iron ore was 1800 Mt
The total of the current reserve of iron ore is approx. 800 Mt
Bo de n
äl liv a
na Sv ap pa va ar a
av ik N
Malmberget / Gälliväre
Sources: LKAB Annual report 2010 Google maps
LKAB LIFE EXPECTANCY / / ANNUAL PRODUCTION VS RESERVES Million tons (Mt) 40
LKAB annual production capacity
LKAB Annual Production pr 2010: 27 Mt LKAB annual production capacity: 38 Mt
LKAB iron ore reserves pr 2010; Crude ore: 1150 Mt Produce: 701 Mt
LKAB current annual production
Kiruna and Malmberget has 1150 Mt crude ore left (probable), which equals to 701 Mt iron produce, which is the data used for the calculations in the diagram.
Sources: LKAB Annual report 2010 Mining-technology.com Calculations: Annabel Danson
PROGRESSION OF THE MINE
1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1965 1970 1980
began of underground mining
The island called “Ön”, close to the mine, was already phased out during 1960- 1970´s and is now a part of the fenced-in industrial estate
Part of the lake Luossajärvi has been drained and the road to the LKAB industrial estate has been relocated due to deformations in the ground
2005 Exploration pass 2012 1060m
1045m main haulage
1365m main haulage
The mining company LKAB applied for changes in the comprehensive plan of central Kiruna The council also decided that the new Kiruna city centre should be situated north west of today’s city centre, at the foot of Mt. Luossavaara actual work on moving the town started
comprehensive plan reviwed for new iron ore deposits
Manicipal decided the city centre to be in eastern part, north-west for toursim and recreation
Mine City Park approved, first part inaugurated in Sep.2011 location of city centre confirmed
THE ORE // PRODUCTION PROCESS
Mining type; sublevel caving mining (underground) http://www.infomine.com/publications/ docs/InternationalMining/Chadwick2010y.
Source: LKAB Annual report 2010
WASTE MANAGEMENT / / PRODUCTION
recover some apatite and rare-earth-elements
some rich in iron
waste rock: non-hazardous waste
Recirculation of water in outer system (approx. 75%)
unsorted waste reclaimable paper
mix with ore forms of the mine and are recycled
tailing dumps: fine grained waste rock
Mine water pumped up from mine
>95% of site waste are sorted:
ENERGY CONSUMPTION* / / PRODUCTION PROCESS
Source: LKAB Annual report 2010
* Refers to Kiruna, Svappavaara, Malmberget, Lule책 and Narvik, excluding subsidiaries and sales to external end users. ** Approximately 25% of the electricity comes from surplus heat recovered internally
30 % COAL
50 % ELECTRICITY **
20 % OIL
DISTRIBUTION OF ECONOMIC VALUE 2010
Source: LKAB Annual report 2010
Taxes Net Sales Employees
POPULATION GROWTH // LKAB EMPLOYEES In 1900 Kiruna had 222 inhabitants, of which 65 % spoke me채nkieli , 24% sami and 11 % swedeish-speaking. 40000
30000 Kiruna Population 25000
10000 LKAB employees 5000
Sources: LKAB Annual report 2010 Mining-technology.com Wikipedia
MINING PROGRESSION // URBAN TRANSFORMATION Kiruna Chuch
railway 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1965 1970
1900 Ore processing plants
Railway to Navik
2005 Exploration pass 1060m
1045m main haulage Sea level
1365m main haulage
LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATION // SHAKING GROUND ALL AROUND DEFORMATION
Sources: Kiruna Kommun Google maps Wikipedia
LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATION // WATER EXPLOITATION AND CONTAMINATION PUTTING POLLUTION IN A SYSTEM Tornelven / Jukkasjärvi
Ala Lompolo Source: Kiruna Kommun
Loussajärvi is a 260 hectare lake, drained of water through mining process and becasue of cracks in the ground. Currently consists of large parts of bog, sulfates, nitrates, becasue of weathering of carbonate and sulfide containing materials. The water in the river Loussajoki is signifigantly reduced.
1 meter deep, overgrown lake in the centre of Kiruna, downstream from Loussajärvi via Loussajoki. There are high values of merqury in the sediments due to wastewater from the mining-process in the 50ies.
230 kg Merqury 10 tons zink 3 tons copper 1.6 tons lead 1 ton molbyden 33 kg cadmium Source: 17000 unstable grenades Wikipedia High values of PCB Kiruna kommun
PROGRESSION OF DEFORMATION
LKAB urban transformation suggestion designed by Wilhelmson based on the comprehensive plan approved by the Kiruna municipality in 2007, which is now revised to a different site.
KIRUNA IN TRANSFORMATION the road to the LKAB industrial estate relocated Part of the lake Luossajärvi has been drained
1970’s the area called “Ön” (the Island) was emptied of residents and is now a part of the fenced-in industrial estate.
The whole city of kiruna has to be relocated. eventually. The areas closer to the mine are in higher prioity.
Kiruna city centre
SInce LKAB began underground mining in 1960s. Kiruna undergoes contiuous transformtation.
Train Iron deposit first affected area second affected area ultimate affected area
2000’s cracks appeared just a few centimetres of subsidence can damage electricity lines and water the first area pipes affected by deformations there are 313 apartments, cultural buildings, the City Hall, part of highway E10 and Mine City Park -buffer zone the railway between the city and the mine
Navik proposed new recreation & tourism center (2010)-Luossavaara
URBAN TRANSFORMATION ALTERNATIVES
northwest alternative proposed new city center (2007-2009) -foot of Mt. Luossavaara
In 2004, LKAB applied for change in comprehensive city plan, LKAB architect,Wilhelmson arkitekter suggested the Northwest alternative. The council also decided that the new Kiruna city centre should be situated north west of today’s city centre, at the foot of Mt. Luossavaara.
In 2009, the plan was revised because of NEW FINDINGS IN IRON DEPOSIT under Mt. Luossavaara. In2010, the city is confirmed to be relocated to the east of the current city.
confirmed new city centre, the main part of new housing and public servic (2010) - eastern part of kiruna
Kiruna city centre
Mine City Park -buffer zone between the city and the mine
Iron deposit mine city park northwest alternative (2007-2009) confirmed new city centre (2010) border to industrial area
a new highway E10 and road 870 to be finished by 2015
relocation of new railway to be finished by 2012
train E10 highway Luleå
TORNELVEN // URBAN TRANSFORMATION ALTERNATIVE ? Tornelven, also called JukkasjĂ¤rvi, is considered by some (not the municipality or LKAB) as an alternative, and maybe the best alternative for moving the city. It is a beautiful place, rich on natural experiences and activities. If there are no restritions to LKABÂ´s mining Tornelven might also be the most sustainable and logical place to move the city of Kiruna. It is well out of the vicinity of the iron ores and would not be within the zone of the deformations of the ground, following the mining process somewhat unpredictably into the centre of Kiruna at the currently. It is hard to say what the extrent of the iron ore is at the moment, and LKAB are showing no signs of considering to decrease their extraction of the ore; they are rather looking to expand their production as much as possible.
Kiruna Apporx. 10km
Source: LKAB profits LKAB Annual report 2010 12.281 MILLION SEK
Urban Transformation 2.997 MILLION SEK
OTHER INDUSTRIES IN KIRUNA
Kiruna tourism New industry branches Car testing
L E T
R Y G G EN
NUSSIR MINE In Finnmark, Norway
Francisco Rodríguez Saa Guðrún Lilja Jónsdóttir
“We need to view the fragility of the planet and its resources as an opportunity for speculative design innovations rather than as a form of technical legitimation for promoting conventional solutions. By extension, the problems confronting our cities and regions would then become opportunities to define a new approach” Quote from the book Ecological Urbanism that we think should be the guideline for Nussir mine program.
NUSSIR ASA COMPANY
NUSSIR ASA was established in 2005 to develop the Nussir and other nearby copper deposits in Kvalsund municipality, near Hammerfest in north Norway. Nussir is one of Norwayâ€™s major undeveloped copper deposits, and exploration has demonstrated that. The company aims at commencing mining operations on the ore deposit at Nussir and Ulveryggen simultaneously, with a common processing plant for copper ore at Repparfjord. The facilities will be the largest ever for copper in Norway.
LOCATION OF NUSSIR MINE
EA. NUS SI
NE IS L O
TIC POL A
The planned mining and industrial activities is in Kvalsund municipality in Finnmark county. The extraction area is located about 12 km in linear distance east / southeast of the town Kvalsund, about 9 km west of Skaidi and 35 km south of Hammerfest. Situated close to ice-free fjord with easy access to national highway, high powerlines and public services.
ED IN THE
R ep par
Nussir II K VA L S U N D M U N I C I PA L I T Y
N O R W AY
Finnmark - Cu Areas
Copper Sea Shiping
roads and communication Roads 3.7.1 Industriområdet related to the planned new mining operations will be attached to the RV. 94 as the Kvalsund går from Skaidi and on to Hammerfest. From Skaidi går Ev 6 on to Alta and Lakselv southwest towards the Southeast. From Folldal verk to the Kvalsund is approximately 14.5 km distance, while spanning approximately Skaidi is to 10 km. Route 94 går today at industriområdet by Folldal Works with turndown service på the upper side of the road and kai på nedersiden plant. Airports The nearest National Airport from Folldal verk is Hammerfest airport which is about 50 km away. Other airports are Alta lufthavn Lakselv airport and, both of which are respectively 92 and 99 km from Folldal verk. Furthermore, a new airport is planned to be på Grøtnes, which is located på-absolutely up to Kvaløya, Tromsø kommune boundary of Hammerfest. The existing airport in Hammerfest has strong restrictions på because of its unfavourable position. På this background created Hammerfest and Kvalsund municipality, an airport selection in 2006 to consider options for location of Hammerfest and Kvalsund airport. The Committee has appointed Grøtnes as the location for future Airport (Hammerfest municipality, 2009). Scheduled to regulatory work associated with future airport på Grøtnes start våren 2010. transit and ferry transport The public transport in Finnmark geography stubs are long route buses that take you daily to and from, inter alia, Hammerfest, Alta, Porsanger. Long route buses stop as of today only at the Skaidi. There are no local buses in Kvalsund. transport. technical infrastructure outside the 3.8.1 & utilities It is not accessible by municipal water or waste wires inside, or in the immediate vicinity of the plan area. Power Existing high-voltage cable running along the Bay on the South side of Rep. pair of Rv. 94. Connection to the existing network and the supply of electric power are considered problematic.
Melkøya - Industrial Island
Copper Sea Shiping
Kvalsund - Cu Areas
94 Kvalsund Nussir I
Relationship with Reppardfjord
Nussir Grinding Plant
Ulveryggen Nussir II
To Alta 70 km
To Smorfjord 25 km Lakselv & Kirkenes
To Kirkenes 240 km
Nussir Grinding Plant and Pier
Area Assigned for Nussir Activity within the Kommune Copper Ore Deposits, NGU
Open Pit Spots & Access to Ulveryggen Mine - Wega
94 Nussir Grinding Plant
Hammerfest has grown as one of the main ports on Coastal Norway. Snow White is the main productive enterprise influencing Hammerfest and Kvalsund surroundings, bringing in population and a demand for housing and new 1970’s infrastructure, this enterprise leads the economical activity in the area. Pollution is one of the issues, Melkøya Island, an Industrial settlement, has contaminated seafjord surroundings. The watersewage system concentrated on lake Storvatn from Hammerfest is also polluted, which is connected to the Fjord. A bridge connects Kvalsund, which is part of continental Norway, where mining is the driving force for economical growth. Together with Kvalsund, Skaidi is the closest town to the Nussir processing plant which is also influencing a river Delta at the botton of Repparfjord where copper tailings from Nussir processing plant are meant to be thrown on the fjord basin, therefore highlighting biotopes on the Fjord Seawater, and inland biotopes like reindeer affecting areas that were last open in 1970’s by previous interventions.
Pier Secondary Roads
Water river 94 Slow Lane Roads Landmark
MINING PLANS IN REPPARFJORD PLANS FOR THE MINING ACTIVITIES Folldal Works has been mining in Ulveryggen mountain since 1972, called Reppafjord mines. That is surface mine and waste is put in the open pit from the blow out. The new Nussir mines are devided in two; Nussir I and Nussir II. First phase is mining in Nussir I. Nussir mines and Reppafjord mines will have common prosessing plant. 1. Current open pit mining (purple) in Reppafjord mines and waste deposits (yellow).
Here are current and future plans for the mining activities in Kvalsund.
2. Plan sketch for underground mining in Nussir I. Possible tunnels, access tunnels and waste deposits.
2. Nussir I 4.
Repparfjord mines 1. ULVERYGGEN MOUNTAIN
3. Current prosessing plant for Repparfjord mines. The plan facilitates a lot of warehouse, storage area for asphalt production plant, as well as receiving, storage and shipment of oily waste from offshore operations.
4. Plans for new industrial area of 45 â€‹â€‹ acres, plus access and public recreation area of approximately 112 acres. The plan facilitates the earthworks of rock and soil and preparation for later development of industry area.
WHAT TO FIND AND WHERE EXPLORED ORES IN KVALSUND
CONTINUOUS ORE BODY The surveys that have been made, show continuous ore body in Kvalsund. With quite of metabasaltic lavas and tuffs about 2 km thick. The ore deposits in Repparfjord are mainly copper. Those deposit sits in sedimentary layer of dolomite and slate that contains very low levels of both sulphides and heavy metals.
Core drilling has followed the ore body up to 500m below surface–the character of the deposit suggests deeper ore body.
Nussir: Cu in the dolomite and shale ~ 3 m mighty and 8 km long. Reserves: 25 million tonn with 1.2% Cu + Au, Ag, Pt, Pd STEINFJELLET/ NUSSIR
Ulveryggen: Generated: 3 million tonn -0.7% Cu. Resource: 8 million tonn -0.8% Cu
ORE DEPOSITS IN KVALSUND ULVERYGGEN
approved extraction area approved exploration area
Surveys results Geophysical Mapping and Structural Geology Investigations:
1. Supports theory of continuous ore body.
2. Supports theory of possible extensionto the south-west.
3. Indications of double ore body in part of deposit
WASTE FROM THE MINE HOW MUCH WASTE OF TOTAL MASS
3% COPPER CONTAINING CONCENTRATE
About 97% of the ore is crushed to less than 0.1 mm size and must be deposited, while the remaining about 3% is a copper-containing concentrate which is shipped to smelters abroad for further processing. Possilbly to Sweeden and Germany.
POSSIBLE IMPACTS IN REPPARFJORD
CONFLICTS DUE TO SEAFILL Conflicts are between Nussir ASA and advocates for white fish, salmon, water quality and seabed cause of the impacts that seafill might cause.
Waste from coppermines are much more toxic than waste from other minerals The planned seafill will be about 25 million m3 BY DUMPING WASTE IN THE FJORD COULD CAUSE IMPACTS ON: Fish Salmon Marine life Water quality Seabed fauna Tidal zone
Possible seafill in Repparfjord
DAM CONSTRUCTION OR SEAFILL
“There are such high concentrations of heavy metals that it will be acutely toxic, and acute death in the parts that are affected by these emissions. There are five to seven square miles at least, so there are large areas” says senior researcher at the Institute of Marine Research.
Previous stages in the plan showed two options for the waste to be dumped: 1. Dam construction for a possible landfill 2. Plant for seafill in Repparfjord
ESTIMATED COST FOR DUMP OPTIONS
Now Nussir ASA has planned to dump 2,800, rising to about 5,500 tonnes/day in controlled seafill in Repparfjord
DAM CONSTRUCTION ON LAND
It has previously been deposited waste in the shallower part of the fjord. Nussir now plans a landfill further out in the fjord at 90 m depth.
SEAFILL IN REPPARFJORD
Tailing in the fjord will cause acute death in the area the seafill will be placed. ESTIMATED VOLUME OF LANDFILL:
2.800 - 5.500
tonnes / day
The cost is very high for building a dam construction on land, while it is much cheeper to place the waste in the fjord.
NUSSIR ECONOMY VALUE OF MINE
ABOUT 500 JOBS PROVIDED
Nussir ASA have applied for a permit for the operation of the coppermine: 1 million tonn masses pr year, with possible increase up to 2 million tonn.
The project aims to contribute that 40 % of all jobs associated with mining operations directly and indirectly, shall be lied by people from Kvalsund and surrounding areas.
The outlet will provide around 25 to 50,000 tonnes of copper concentrate per year. With yearly profit of 75 - 150 mill US$ / 450 - 900 mill NOK
Their calculations show that Nussir itself will provide
150 new jobs, an annual turnover of one billion and around 500 jobs as a result of the whole
The whole value of the mine is about 20 billion NOK calculated with estimated 35 million m3 of masses. Of that amount 1,2% is copper that will give about 420.000 tonn copper. If that is calculated with the current copper price the value of the mine can be estimated.
DIG OUT 35 MILL M3
60% Other workers
40% Local workers
CURRENT VALUE OF THE MINE:
420.000 TONN COPPER
20 BILLIONS NOK
COPPER PRICE & FINANCING The financing activities of the mine has followed the copper price
US$ pr. tonn 10.000
Copper price increases intensively; beginning of Nussir mine
New drilling programme commenced autumn 2007 after 2nd equity injection.
The program set on hold! Capacity costs have been substantially lowered The company has insufficient funds to finance necessary investments
Halvor H. Holta Holding AS takes over all shares from previous largest shareholder, BIO Information Technology AS, thereby entered position as largest shareholder in Nussir ASA
7.000 6.000 5.000
The program set on full speed!
+ PROFITABLE - NOT PROFITABLE
First new drilling season during autumn 2006 financed through equity injection.
4.000 3.000 2.000
In end of 2012 they plan to invest for 65 mill US$ with finace from own capital, bank loans and forward selling of copper.
Company transformed into public limited company (Allmennaksjeselskap)
The share placement of NOK 15 million was guaranteed by Halvor H. Holta Holding AS.
LIFE SPAN & TIMELINE OF DEVELOPING LIFE SPAN OF THE MINE This copper mine project is estimated about:
30-50 years of lifetime
Refund on Research projects on Soil Recovery and recuperation contaminted by copper
New drilling programme commenced Drill results and geophysical mapping indicates basically continuous ore body
Political planning decisions
TIMELINE OF DEVELOPING
PROSPECTING & EXPLORATION
First new drilling season
Ore body first discovered during1970’ies
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Exploitation concession application Discharge license Sporadic drilling along strike zone during 1980’ies and 1990’ies.
Company transformed into public limited company (allmennaksjeselskap)
Consultations in the reindeer herding and the Sami Parliament
Construction in 2013
Time Line Norway 22.08.2007 1) WMN2 Nussir Wega Mining Wega owns 25% of Nussir AS, which has an exploration permit in Kvalsund municipality. Nussir is believed to be Norwayâ€˜s largest copper deposit. A 2,700 meter drilling program was conducted in 2006, concluding a 2.5km long and 2.5-4.5m wide dolomite layer with 1.6-1.8% Cu extends in depth past 500 meters, indicating a targeted 10Mt deposit. Since 1979, 62 holes have been drilled. A decision to extend the survey at a grid size qualifying for a Bankable Feasibility Study will be taken during 2007. 2) WMN1 Repparfjord Wega Mining, through our Technical Director Tore Birkeland, holds exploration licences on the Repparfjord old copper site in Kvalsund municipality, Norway. Repparfjord was run as a copper mine for nine years, from 1971 to 1979, by Folldal Verk A/S, during which 4Mt of copper ore in the 1.5-1.7% grade range during the 1970s, after which it was closed due to poor profitability. Currently, a company involved in aggregates production operates in the area. We see a potential for profitable operations from Repparfjord provided a decision to develop Nussir. No drilling has been planned for the area for 2007
LIFESPAN MINE 2012
Details from near surface exploration works in the cublem part of the Nussir deposit, in the area section P-1 and P -2. Separate layer show copper, gold, and platinum/ palladium grades respectively. April 2008, GoodKart AS I.J Rai
Helicopter-Borne EM 34144 Hz. inphase and quadrature data
Site Landscape Elements 70.45ยบ N 24.27ยบO Hole on the Ground About 4 m Erected Landscape Element Concrete element Spot for Truck Maneuvers
Spot for Truck Maneuvers
Nussir - Deposites and Toxidity What to do with the waste ?
Landfills and tailings
Only Norway Defender coastal landfill! Sydvaranger Mine emits large amounts of mining waste in the sea. Nussir plans to do the same in Kvalsund. The Norwegian Government would like to base the Norwegian mining of such coastal landfill. However, around the world there are very few countries now use coastal deposition, and Norway is the only country that does it in relatively shallow water. This says in a memo that Mads Løkeland in nature protection Association have created about mining and international view of coastal deposition.
Nussir an applicant for a permit for the operation of the copper mine in Kvalsund, Finnmark (2010397) 26.01.12 Announcement in Altaposten, Finnmark Dagblad and Norwegian Dutch magazine that Nussir ASA applying for withdrawal of approximately one million tons of loads per year initially, with a possible increase to about two million tonnes per year. Consultation deadline is 9. March 2012. The outlet will give a similar production of 25-50 000 tonnes of copper concentrate per year. Mineralholdige output from turndown process (about 2800, rising to about 5,500 tons a day) are planned to be added in a controlled sea disposal in Rep. couple. The output will contain the remains of flotasjonskjemikalier. It is deposited in the shallower mine output section of the Bay. Nussir plans now a landfill later in the Bay of 90 metres. The measure is konsekvensutredet for the plan and building law and is the Manager of the municipality. Successful Conference on coastal deposition in Egersund In early september, it organized a Conference on the disposal of mine waste in Slough hotel with inspection of Titania. The Conference brought together experts on the topic from around the world. From inspection on land disposal Titanias A number of examples, both successful and not so successful the landfills were presented. Norway was from the sea and land Titanias landfill, AS Sydvarangers plans for disposal of Beech and Nordic sea deposition Minings plans in the Førdefjorden presented. It was also presented projects from Canada, Papua New Guinea, and Greenland. A number of professionals gave presentations that summed up the good advice on what it takes for such a project to be successful. In conclusion, it was worded message about what entake home for successful disposal of mining waste. Issue is being followed up by the Norwegian Mining industry has set up a working group to look into the issue of mining waste disposal sites. The working group consists of: Øystein Rushfeldt, Nussir Paul Norkyn, Nordic Mining Roar Sandøy, NCM Arnstein Amundsen, Hustadmarmor Per Weekend Høgaas, As Sydvaranger Mine
Nussir - Reclamation What is it to become?
Strings allow to read terrain shape from far
Operations Dig out non-toxic and Refill with toxic
On the ground
On the Ocean Basin
Space Technology Submarine Technology Double check Valve
to design Plastic Bag
Pick-up Ship Drag it.
Put in in a Plastic Bag and drag it.
20 MILLONES TON = 13.15 MILLONES M3 112 M2 CIRCLE BASE 120 KM OF PIPE OF 6M RADIUS
Rail to transport material from the shore
Buoyance force of an air bag
Sea le 0 m vel , +10 1atm m. . Air
13.15 MILLONES M3 1 BAG = 33510 M3 390 BAGS IF R=20M
-10 m +10 , 2at m. m. h
Copper tailings Density = 1,5210 ton/m3
air bag -20 vol m um +10 , 3a e. m.. tm. 1/4 . th a ir b ag vol um e
Seawater Density= 1,0280 ton/m3
Air Density at Sealevel means 1atm at 15ยบC = 0,001225 ton/m3
REINDEER HERDS AT NUSSIR THE SAAMI´S IN FINMARK There is little mention of the role of the Saami considering the Nussir mine. The Saami people are the Arctic indigenous people that encompasses in Finmark. For traditional, environmental, cultural and political reasons, reindeer herding is legally reserved only for Sami people in certain regions of the Nordic countries, including Finmark.
REINDEER ROUTES AT MINING AREA Grazing areas in Finnmark
The Finmark plateau is the reindeer herd´s pasture and some of these cores are in calving grounds. Areas of grazing in Finmark have been listed and Nussir mine and Repparfjord mines are affecting two of these areas. Area 20 and 22. Area nr 20 is grazing area that cover areas of the spring and autumn migration. Area nr 22 is grazing areas used for spring, summer and fall grazing. In spring the area is part of a major calving area where the bulk of the cow herd is present in the calving and imprinting period. The areas on and around Nussir also used as a staging area. Of these reasons the herders are conserned about losing presious pastures cause of the new plan of Nussir mine in the grazing areas.
Rep par fjor d Grazing areas in Kvalsund
20 spring and autumn
22 spring, summer and fall
POSSIBLE IMPACTS ON HERDS Saami herders are affraid that if the pastue areas will decrese cause of the mining activities, the reindeers will be forced go to other areas and the herds could get lost or mixed with other herds, that could lead to lot of other problems for the herders. Saami herders are conserned about the sum of all impacts the mining activities and other activities in Kvalsund can have on the herd. Impacts like: Nussir´s new mining operations Old mining (Repparfjord mining) Planed windmill park (north of mining area) Planned new electric powerlines Expanding recreational settlements All these issues are to scare the reindeers away or reduce their pastures.
Migration route spring April-Mai Migration route sept-okt
CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES There are two main conflicts because of Nussir ASA mining plan. The grazing areas for reindeers that are within the mining area and could be effected by the mining activities and the waste deposits that they wish to be tailed in to the bottom of Repparfjord.
Issue 1 -pasture areas for reindeers
Reindeer herders have consernes about the grazing areas they might lose with the establishing of the mine and that the herd will move to other places and get lost or mixed with other herds that could cause many problems. And other issues for the reindeer pastures are: old mining, planed windmill park, planned new electric powerlines and expanding recreational settlements. All these factors could scare of the animals or reduce their grazing areas.
Nussir I N
Issue 2 -tailing in Repparfjord
There are conflicts because of the possible impact the waste from the mine could have on: white fish, salmon, water quality and seabed fauna.
Nussir - Deal - Sami Parliament Mining prospects in arctic Norway also causing controversy A front page story in today's 'Norwegian news in English' proclaims, “Prospects Bright for Arctic Mining.” There is little mention of the role of the Saami considering these ventures are in the high arctic, in Finnmark Province, clearly in Sapmi. Test cores ha...ve been showing gold, copper and platinum. The mining company Nussir ASA intends to apply for permission to extract the minerals and if successful, production might start in year 2011 (the international mining company Wega Mining owns 18% of Nussir). Member of the Norwegian national parliament was quoted as criticizing reindeer husbandry for being subsidised, not moving with the times and standing in the way of development. “The Finnmark plateau is our pasture,” said reindeer herder Alf Johansen during a recent conference with Labour Party deputy leader, Helga Pedersen. He thinks that reindeer grazing areas should have as much legal protection as a crop farmer’s fields. Some of these cores are in calving grounds. Egil Olli continues to state that any mining projects will be rejected by the Saami Parliament in the Finnmark area.
sunday, april 25, 2010
Also at issue is if the mining moves forward, the Saami Parliament demands that resources and mineral exploration should benefit mainly the local Saami communities and population, as the proposed mines are in Saami lands, and will effect the ability to maintain a traditional livelihood. This brings up the controversial ongoing debates regarding indigenous land rights in the region. Additional links: http://www.reindeerblog.org/2008/07/24/mining-talk-heats-up-in-finnmark/ http://www.reindeerblog.org/2008/05/29/full-frontal-attackon-reindeer-husbandry-nrk-norway/ http://www.nrk.no/kanal/nrk_sami_radio/1.6035350 http://www.nrk.no/kanal/nrk_sami_radio/1.6148638 http://www.newsinenglish.no/2010/04/23/prospects-bright-for-arctic-mining/ posted by mervisalo at 1:41 pm 0 comments labels: mining indigenous sami
The Mine 5
The Mine Nussir
5 kM 2
Politics and News
Lifespan & Community http://www.bygg.no/2011/10/kobber-klondyke-i-kvalsund
• The population in Kvalsund municipality will increase by two percent each year starting in the second year of project implementation. • Number of new company formations in Kvalsund municipality will increase the project period with three new companies each year. In the region as a whole, the number of companies that supply goods and services to Nussir increase by a further three companies a year. • The proportion of people aged 20-34 years in Kvalsund municipality will increase by ten percent during the project period. • The proportion of women in Kvalsund be increased by 10 percent by the end of the project. - This is a community development project in a large scale. Here we want to mobilize all citizens in Kvalsund municipality, city manager says Oddbjørn Nilsen.
In the small Finnmark Kvalsund municipality they work hard for the local community will reap the benefits if Norway's next industrial adventure becomes a reality. By: Building industry | Published: 06/10/2011 2:05 p.m. | Last Modified: 06/10/2011 2:19 p.m - Through LUK, we have found the new regional co-operation models to ensure the effects of the mining effort. Nussir will be the mainstay, but this is not just a business project - it is also a community development project that is very important that småkommuner Kvalsund, says the mayor of the municipality Kvalsund Thu Myrseth. They have always known that the mountains of Reppardfjord was more than just mountains. There, on the south side of the 14 kilometer long fjord in Kvalsund municipality, there were copper deposits more tempted to try to bring out. But they did not find enough, it was too irregular, and one by one they gave up. The mining company Nussir ASA has not yet identified sufficient resources to profitable operations for 20 years if copper prices remain stable. Experience shows that increases the lifetime considerably by new discoveries if the operation first commences. Now they wait for the necessary permits. If everything goes all right to mine is put into operation at the end of 2013/2014. But wait Kvalsund municipality they do not.
Connects expertise In order to be ready when the train passes, Kvalsund municipality received help from the Finnmark County Council. The county has seen that many municipalities in the county are simply too small to handle the challenges they face, and will pave the way for new structures of cooperation across traditional municipal boundaries. As part of LUK-county effort has therefore helped Kvalsund municipality to develop a project for the ripple effect Kvalsund and the region that will use Nussir-establishment to increase the skills of "how regional industrial and social development can increase the impact of future industrial establishments." - We have tried to connect the municipalities that have slightly different skills. Alta has such a large plan area and can assist Kvalsund in this field, while Hammerfest can share their experience from a large industrial establishment in Snow White, said assistant business manager Per Øyvind Voie in Finnmark county. He gets support from the city manager Oddbjørn Nilsen. - Such ventures require extensive expertise in planning page. Each municipality, as Kvalsund, can not alone account for zoning and other plans. Therefore it is important to cooperate in the planning of a common infrastructure, said Nilsen, who sits in a project with the county council, regional council in West Finnmark, the municipalities of Alta and Hammerfest and mining company.
Several residents - The value of being prepared from day one, our "little" community and partners around us, will be located in both the social and economic. Cooperation between municipalities means a lot for the mining effort Nussir planner, says mayor Myrseth. The goals are high, very specific and thus easily verifiable:
-650 new jobs The challenge for Kvalsund and the region is to ensure that mining needs for services resulting in the food establishment and healthy jobs locally. The ripple effect the project has set a goal of 20 new jobs in Kvalsund region, outside of Nussir. It shall now by contributing to the establishment of new businesses and to increase the robustness of existing businesses locally and regionally.
The project aims to contribute to that 40 percent of all jobs associated with mining operations directly and indirectly, shall be filled by people from Kvalsund and surrounding areas. At the same time that municipalities and businesses in the region has sufficient knowledge of the mineral industry to the local and regional companies to offer services at least 2/3 of the contracts Nussir post. In the mining company are happy for local involvement. Their calculations show that Nussir itself will provide 150 new jobs, an annual turnover of one billion and around 500 jobs as a result of the operation. If specific goals - There are good examples of establishments that Nussir in Sweden and Finland, in the same areas that were characterized by depopulation and small private businesses. They are good references in order to see what effects such a project can get, says CEO Øystein Rushfeldt in Nussir ASA. He pulls himself up Talvivaara in Finland. There, the mining company 430 employees in their own companies. In addition, it has been established around 2000 jobs in other businesses and the public sector. It has been carried out investments for a little over four billion, of which the public sector has accounted for a tenth. - From the very beginning we have been Nussir clear that we would rather see that we organize ourselves in a common effort to help each other. The fact that we create a project with very specific goals, and work on a broad front with land, property developers, businesses that want to establish themselves and NAV, says Rushfeldt. Co-infecting Kvalsund municipality has been clear that they want more people aged 20-34 years. People who can revitalize the community, and "force" the new service and a different society. These are important terms that Nussir must take into account when the mining company to begin recruitment. But the project is about much more than the mining project. By developing good inter-municipal cooperation structure, hope Finnmark county that they can find the key to how local communities can solve future challenges. - We see that this could be the project to be followed in other areas, that local authorities work together on things that are important across municipal boundaries and where we can play the role of facilitator. An example is fisheries and aquaculture and the development of a regional plan for it. We hope the local authorities see that they get something in return for cooperation and that it can play more than in other areas, says Per-Øyvind Voie in the county. - You do not fear that the project crashes? - No. There is a tremendous drive for regional achieve this.
Sources: Sweco (2010). Planprogram: Reguleringsplan med konsekvensutredning for planlagt gruvedrift i Nussir og Ulveryggen i Kvalsund kommune. Mostafavi and Doherty (2006). Ecological Urbanism. Harvard Universty. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/1.7976120 http://www.nussir.no/opplastet/filer/201001241732_3572_2008presentation.pdf http://www.nussir.no/opplastet/filer/201001241801_30358_Shareholders_09_Q1_Report.pdf http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=copper http://www.nussir.no/opplastet/filer/201004162202_52816_Nussir%20Pressemelding%20Prisestimater%20deponi%2015apr10.pdf http://www.klif.no/horing2010-397 http://www.dagbladet.no/2010/08/30/nyheter/kobber/innenriks/13174176/ http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/distrikt/troms_og_finnmark/1.7817210 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sami_people http://www.bygg.no/2011/07/vil-aapne-landets-stoerste-kobbergruve http://www.nussir.no/?p=2_1.php&subMeny=2 http://www.kvalsund.kommune.no/areal-og-reguleringsplaner.31808.no.html Map with mineral profiles page 21, three spots including Nussir http://issuu.com/fields_of_exploration/docs/intro Google Maps Maps from: http://www.1881.no/ Pictures from Kvalsund Municipality and Hammerfest Municipality. Zoning Program for Nussir and Kvalsund Pictures: www.kvalsund.kommune.no/ Influencing factors from Hammerfest Municipality, City Pictures, and Land Use for Hammerfest: www.hammerfest.no/ Pictures from Nussir Time line Lifespan: www.nussir.no Environmental test for Nussir and analisysis from KLIFA webpage and specific documents listed on this page. NIVA: http://www.klif.no/horing2010-397 NRK Sapmi Radio
Bigjovagge copper and goldmine in placed in a green rock belt in Finnmark, on the border of Troms municipality. The mine is about 2,5 km long, and is located 40 km North-East of Kautokeino. The mine has been exploting copper and gold over two periods of time, and is now planning to reopen. The first period of extraction from 1970-1975 the mine was only extracting copper. When Finish Outokumpu acquired the mine in -84 they started to extract a lot more gold, but because of the low copper price on the market they had to close down. Today the Swedish firm Artic Gold AB has bought the mine and is planning to operate by 2013. There has been a protest from the indigenous hearding people in the area together with locals and nature environment directorate. Who will win? Will operation in of Bidjovagge take place, or will the indigenous and environmentalists be heard this time?
Brief History of Norwegian Oil
1950 no one believed there was oil or gas
1959 foundings in Netherland changed peopleâ€™s mind 1963, he government proclaimed sovereignty over the Norwegian continental shelf.
1971 First oil produced
1969 First commercial discovery
1974 A giant is found Statfjord was proven in the North Sea
1980 Alexanser L Kielland disaster created biggest disaster in Norwayâ€™s oil history
1981 Discoveries in the Norwegian Sea
1986 Go for gas
2000 Peak reached 2007 Production start and merge
1977 Bravo blowout
1992 Another pipeline
Swedish Company Bolide 1985
Finish Company Outokumpu
production ended Bidjovagge Gruber A/S 1991
low gold price
We try to find if there is any influence of the oil industry to mining in Norway, though we did not find any, we believe there must be some impact there.
Swedish Company Arctic Gold
Brief History of Bidjovagge
Here shows the annual production of Grasberg, the biggest gold mine in the world, Super Pit the tenth biggest gold mine and Kittil채, the biggest gold mine in Europe.
Super Pit, Australia
How big is Bidjovagge?
The backfill of rocks
The backfill of water
Picturs of Bidjovagge Today
Bidjovagge Mine Láhpoluoppa Lulli Lickà Reisa Nationalpark Searradas Stuorajàvri
Àvzi Fin lan
Basis map: https://kart.re eindrift.no/
Winter pasture Autum pasture Spring pasture
Seasonal raindeer pastures
= 5 People = 5 reindeer
5 people/ 1 family
Trym Ivar Bergsmo Boazojahki four seasons with the reindeer people
On average, 5 people (1 family generally) own a group of 2000 reindeers
Participants in the issue of reopening Bidjovagge Politics Mining Indigenous
Fefo Finnmark Property
NINA Norwegian Insitute of Nature Reserch
NIKU Norwegian Insititue for Culture Heritage
KILF Climate and Pollution management
DN Directorat for Nature Management
people Reindeer Properties Infrastructure Environment
Arctic Gold AB
Alcaston Exploration AB
The Norwegian Parliament
Why they are always being found together in the ore deposit? Many ore bodies are the result of late -stage melts of crustal or oceanic crustal rocks. What Silver, Gold and Copper have in common is a relatively low melting point so any late-stage situation can have these metals concentrated together.
Gold(Au) Copper(Cu) 1063 1083 Silver(Ag) 916
Magnesium(Mg) Alluminium(Al) 670 659
Total production of each period
How many people involved = 10 people
first period first period
B- Deposit B- Deposit
Nordfeltet Deposit Nordfeltet Deposit
Line of anrikningsverk Line of deponi for avgangsmasser Old gr책berg New gr책berg New gr책berg on old storage Mineralisation Ore Old sand deponi Old opencast
Deposit for avgangsmasser D- Deposit
Laura Deposit Laura Deposit
Deposit areas put into scale
30 000 m3
10 000 m2
30 000 m3 15 000 m2 Nordfeltet Deposit
165 000 m3
100 000 m2
640 000 m3
Laura Deposit 108 000 m2
Deposit areas planned masses
Sub surface mine
Typical subsurface mining
ventilation shalft main shalft ore pass
Underground mine Sub surface mine
main levels ore pass crusher skip
ore bin exploration drift
Typical surface mining
dust & noise buffle top soil to storage
backfill by overburden
In Bidjovagge 16 drillings
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Svalbard is part of Norway: Svalbard is completely controlled and part of the Kingdom of Norway. However, Norwayâ€™s power over Svalbard is restricted to limitations listed below Taxation: This allows taxes to be collected, but only enough to support Svalbard and the Svalbard government. This results in lower taxes than mainland Norway and the exclusion of any taxes on Svalbard supporting Norway directly. Also, Svalbardâ€™s
revenues and expenses are separately budgeted from mainland Norway.
Environmental conservation: Norway must respect and preserve the Svalbard environment Non-discrimination: All citizens and all companies of every nation under the treaty are allowed to become residents and to have access to Svalbard including the right to fish, hunt or undertake any kind of maritime, industrial, mining or trade activity. The residents of Svalbard must follow Norwegian law though Norwegian authority cannot discriminate or favor any residents of a certain nationality.
Military restrictions: Article 9 prohibits naval bases and fortifications and also the use of Svalbard for war-like purposes. It is not, however, entirely demilitarized.
SNSK Svea vest Svea nord Lunckefjell
Longyearbyen Arktikugol Pyramiden Barentsburg
Gruve 1 Gruve 2 Gruve 3 Gruve 4 Gruve 5 Gruve 6 Gruve 7
Production ( 1 billion tonnes)
Coal price ( USD/tonne)
Turnover & Profit after tax ( NOK billion)
41% of electricity generation in the world is from COAL.
98% of electricity generation in Norway is from hydroelectric power plants.
Shipped coal (1000 tonnes) Russia
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Svea SNSG’s principal operations are in the Svea Nord mine, which is about 60 kilometers south of Longyearbyen. Most of the company’s employees work in Svea. Svea Nord has been in normal commercial operation since 2002 and accounts for most of the company’s production.
96% of the coal sales from Svea, totalled 1,645,509 tonnes in 2010.
4% are from Gruve 7, totalled 65,202 tonnes. Svea Nord Gruve 7 Gruve 6 Gruve 5 Gruve 3 Gruve 2 Gruve 4 Gruve 1 1%
Landfill Contaminated soil Municipal landfill
Bad Acceptable Small
More than 99% of the pollution in Svea is acceptable with the current land use, most of them are put together inside the village area or near the port and wait for shipping to the mainland.
Longyearbyen Longyearbyen is the largest settlement and the administrative centre of Svalbard, Norway. Mining activies started in 1917 and still plays a major role in the community nowadays. Totally there is 7 mines in the area and 22 388 948 million tonnes of coal have been extracted so far.
Landfill Contaminated soil
Bad Acceptable Small
Svea Nord Gruve 7
Because of the different distance, most of the historical mines in Longyearbyen dump their waste in the city while the new ones, just drop them near the mine.
Landfill Contaminated soil
Bad Acceptable Small
Landfill Contaminated soil
Bad Acceptable Small
Barentsburg started as a Dutch mining town in the 1920s. In 1932 the Dutch sold their concession to the Soviet Union. Since 1932 the Russian state owned Arktikugol Trust has been operating on Svalbard. It is the second largest settlement on Svalbard, with about 500 inhabitants (2007), almost entirely Russians and Ukrainians. Coal is still mined in Barentsburg but Its outward image is depressingly run-down in comparison to its lively and prosperous neighbour Longyearbyen, and its population continues to decline.
The ghost town -- Pyramiden 22%
Pyramiden was founded by Sweden in 1910 and sold to the Soviet Union in 1927. Rapid development during the 1960s and 1970s had transformed it into a modern town hosting 1100 inhabitants and equipped with most urban facilities. But in 1998 when the Russian arctic mining company decided to end its activity there, it became a remarkably abrupt abandonment left behind a site devoid of humans but still filled with all stuff constituting a modern city.
70 employees work a 7/7 shift/rotation
The Gruve 7 mine is worked five days a week on daytimeshifts.
175 employees work a 14/14 shift/rotaUnderground
Sogn og Fjordane
70% of shiftworkers at Svea head to mainland Norway on the weeksthey are not in the mine.
Møre og Romsal
20 administrative and management staff work five days a week and commute weekly between Svea and Longyearbyen.
0.23 tonnes of from Svalbard to CO2 both ways/ Tromsø person
2.76 tonnes/ capita, by plane
5.83 tonnes/ capita, in China
2.76 tonnes/capita 5.83 tonnes/capita
Combusting the coal emits total to 5.5 million tonnes of CO2-equivalents annually.
7,710.50 Million Tonnes The mining operations give rise to local emissions of approximately 50 000 tonnes of CO2-equivalents.
39.58 Million Tonnes
Transporting the coal by sea from Svalbard to customers in Europe produces annual emissions of about 40 000 tonnes of CO2-equivalents.
Landscape architect students assesment on mining.