FIELDS OF EXPLORATION - LIMITS OF EXPLOITATION +
Master Studio in Landscape Architecture Oslo School of Architecture and Design Winterspring 2012
The Multilayered Landscape
DET FLERPROGRAMMERTE LANDSKAP I dette magasinet vil vi undersøke virkningen av gruvedrift på lokalsamfunn, den overlappende arealbruk, lovverk og urfolksrettigheter og konkurrerende landskapsbruk. Magasinet består av studentenes egne kronikker.
Teachers: Knut Eirik Dahl Kjerstin Uhre Espen Røyseland Øystein Rø www.dahluhre.no www.0047.org www.aho.no
students: Irene Crowo Nielsen, Annabel Danson, Mathilde Grellier, Linn Riise Handal, Kari Sanne Havnevik, Jingyuan Hu, Hanne Johnsrud, Gudrún Lilja Jónsdóttir, Hao Liang, Patrycja Perkiewicz, Francisco Rodríguez Saa, Annisah Solihah, Xin Su, Kit Ting Karie Yu, Ingrid Aas
THE MULTILAYERED LANDSCAPE In this magazine we will examine the impact of mining on communities, the indigenous dimension, the overlapping use of land, legislation and competing activities. The magazine contains student chronicles.
Xin Su: Threat or Opportunities? Irene Crowo Nielsen: First Come First Served? Ingrid Aas: Scars and Masses Patrycja Perkiewicz: Exhausted Landscapes Jingyuan Hu: Beyond what we see Francisco RodrĂguez Saa: Borders and Values Annabel Danson: Manifestations from the Sub Surface - on the destiny and effect of two lakes in the heart of Kiruna Annisah Solihah: Inside Svalbard - A Necessity of Preserving Coal Mining Industry Hao Liang: THE MINING TAKING PLACE IN THE CITY & THE CITY RELOCATING FOR THE MINEING SO, WHAT IS THE NEXT? Kit Ting Karie Yu: The Kiruna paradox Kari Sanne Havnevik: The environmental risks of mining in Finnmark Linn Riise Handal: There is no future in the future Hanne Johnsrud: Superimposed
Threat or Opportunities? The oriental dragon looks north. Xin Su
It is not a news China- the oriental dragon has a growing interest in the thawing north. Resistance or cooperation, Arctic countries stants in a crossroad. The history of the Arctic is the history of competition. Without any indigenous peoples, Svalbard, the last “no—man’s land” in the Arctic, was saw as a vital strategical battleground. In 20th century, mining companies were trying to occupy as much coalfields as possible, to strengthen the position of their government in future negotiations. That’s why soon after 1925, when Svalbard treaty established, the coal rush came to an abrupt end. With the melting ice in recent years, more opportunities are popping up within the Arctic region. It is pushing Arctic countries to face lots of tough challenges. The overlapping claims of the five littoral states remains unsolved, meanwhile, polity—makers around the world are turning their attention to the region, in order to access to any possible transformation. The Arctic is “hot”. Of course, China, as the rising power of the 21st century, would never miss it. “The Arctic belongs to all the people around the world as no nation has sovereignty over it…China must play an indispensable role in Arctic exploration as we have on-fifth of the world’s population.” The statement from Chinese Rear Admiral Yin Zhou has put China in the game. Obviously China needs to involve the Arctic, for the rich resources and the shorter shipping routes, since 90% of China’s foreign trades rely on shipping. Climate change is also an important issue, the whole costal area of China will be flooded if the sea—level rise one meter. But what is the response from the Arctic countries? Would they wish to share it with the world? Definitely not! In 2008 the five littoral states committed “orderly settlement of possible overlapping claims”, to excluded other countries step in. China has been asking for the permanent ob
server states for a long time, and so far Canada and Norway are the only countries to have thus far engaged with China in a formal bilateral dialogue on Arctic issues. United States, the most powerful country in the world, would never hope China to be its competitor in the Arctic. Russia, known as “Chinese strategic partner”, felt the challenges as well. And Norway, which in the past has said it would support China in its Arctic Council ambitions, will probably overturn its attitude and block China’s attempts. Even though China used its famous “panda diplomacy”— lent two pandas to Canada for the supporting, in 2013 they may fail again. It will be a wrong decision if they refuse China. Arctic needs China, especially those small states. It is peaceful right now, but no one can promise the peace will last forever. Arctic countries are building up their navies. In fact, it is the start of a new arms race. The Komsomolskaya Pravda even predicted the WWIII would break out in the Arctic. Indeed, their point of view is too extreme, but it still point out the new possibilities could open a new theatre for international conflict. Cooperate with China can strengthen the position of those small arctic states, balance the great disparity between them, Russia and the US. Otherwise they will be easily defeated in this game of “musical chairs”, especially facing the fact that the US has joined Russia’s Arctic oil and gas hunt. In addition to this, the cooperation can no doubt brings economical value. Offshore oil and gas are expensive to find, extract and transport - especially in such an extremely arctic region. To access these riches, Arctic countries will need strong markets and vast amounts of capital, both of which China is well positioned to provide. China is knocking on the Arctic’s door. Now it is the arctic to make the choice. To continue with the exclusive approach and risk confronting the oriental dragon, or seeking partnership that could seize the opportunities more efficient.
“I think it’s broader than oil. Their
real interest, I’m con-
vinced, is in transport, simply shipping their goods to Europe. You would save a lot of transport time.” ——Houlden, spokesman for Harper
“Grasp this historical opportunity and recognise the political, economic and military value of the Arctic and then re-evaluate China’s rights in the Arctic region and adjust its strategic plan.” —— Chinese academics “The Arctic belongs to all the people around the world as no nation has sovereignty over it... China
must play an indispen-
sable role in Arctic exploration as we have
one-fifth of the world’s population.” ——Yin Zhuo Chinese Rear Admiral
China has "natural and legitimate economic and scientific interests in the Arctic", The Danish government would
like to see China as a permanent
observer, and I think the others (members) are likewise willing to do that”
—— Friis Arne Petersen The Danish ambassador to China
“Whoever has control over the Arctic route will control the new passage of world economics and international strategies,”
——Li Zhenfu associate professor at Dalian Maritime University
“China can make a valuable contribution in the Arctic Region... China should be welcomed as observer to the Arctic Council. ” ——Jonas Gahr Støre Norway’s foreign minister
“Any country that lacks
comprehensive research on polar politics will be excluded from being a decisive power in the
Norway could shut China out of the Arctic Council if Beijing does not stop a campaign of diplomatic snubs imposed. —— Aftenposten
management of the Arctic and, therefore, be forced into a passive position.”
“Circumpolar nations have to understand that Arctic affairs
“The Russian Empire and the Soviet Union built the main navigable sea routes along Russian ter-
ritory in the Arctic. Anyone who uses the routes should follow Russia's laws. Should there be international regulations for routes in the Arctic, it is those Arctic nations that should make the regulations.” —— Oleg Khlestov vice president of the Russian International Law Association
are not ones.”
only regional issues but also international ——Guo Peiqing Chinese researcher on Arctic politics
“China does not have an Arctic strategy”, China’s wish to see disputes related to sovereignty resolved peacefully through dialogue.
——Hu Zhengyue China’s assistant minister of foreign affairs
FIRST COME FIRST SERVED? Irene Crowo
First Come First Served? by Irene Crowo Nielsen
Did you know that a Norwegian consumes an average of 12 tons of minerals every year and that it continues to rise? This means that during a lifetime every Norwegian has a consumption of approximately 1000 tons of minerals! Our growing addiction and reliability related to minerals are becoming stronger and bigger everyday. The scariest part is that the average person does not even know how to relate to this. We go on with our lives dependant on our cars, computers and mobile phones to function, we even expect this. We don’t think about that for example the average automobile contains more than a ton of iron and steel, 109 kg of aluminium, 22 kg of carbon, 19 kg of copper, 18 kg of silicon, 10 kg of zinc, and more than thirty other mineral commodities, including titanium, platinum, and gold. Most people are constantly reminded of the importance of gasoline, and its cost of keeping the car running, but what about the importance and cost of the mineral materials that make up the car? Our addiction of these minerals also relies on minerals produced in other parts of the world. The effect of a global shortage in minerals will be stronger than for oil, because it’s more difficult to substitute. China’s increasing control of the world’s metal resources is increasingly subject to EU and USA. What will happen if big exporters of raw minerals limit their exports due to protect their own interests because of the high consumption rate? It is scary to think about that prices may fluctuate due to only one country. We have already seen China trending towards this. In several mineral strategies across the world it is stated that it is extremely important to always be on the outlook for new mineral resources. As of lately the focus on mineral resources in north of Norway is a hot subject. But it is not only Norwegians who are interested, we need to pay attention to foreign actors and protect our own mineral resources before it ends up as another Klondike or Gold Rush. The Norwegian government has given NGU 100 million kroner over the past four years to look for minerals and metals in the north. Sampling is done at ground level, but mostly from the air by using magnet x-rays to scan the ground. Minerals such as gold and copper with a value of at least half the oil fund are hidden beneath the ground in the northern areas. As a result of price hikes on the global market, foreign companies are now interested in extracting resources in the north.
Very few Norwegian companies have shown interest in mining in the north. Why? This is probably because of the oil adventure we have witnessed over the past years. We keep finding oil reserves and therefore we settle for nothing less. While we should in fact look in other directions and gather the knowledge needed to start up when the time is right and not let someone else with the expertise come in and do it for us. And then there is the question on how to organize this knowledge structure. Should there be established a new Statoil structure? But then again; time has changed and so has Statoil. Minerals are a necessity in todays society, the future depends on them, and it is important to establish a knowledge base related to the mining industry. In fact we should have done this years ago so that we could have been prepared to face this ongoing pressure from the experienced foreign mining companies and set demands. We can’t let foreign companies come in and “steal” our minerals through loopholes in the minerals act which is based on the first come first served principal. Not having the knowledge needed will leave us vulnerable. A person who does not have the knowledge cannot interfere; he or she will pretty much end up feeling as the stupid one and therefore redraw. The foreign companies interested in Norway’s mineral resources have some of the best international mining people with expertise in looking for minerals anywhere in the world. They have often found great resources previously and the fact that they now look towards north of Norway should be an eye opener. There is no need for this to be turned into another Gold Rush. We need to slow down, take our time to establish a proper knowledge database and make rules to protect our own interest first and then meet the foreign companies. But as per today, in my opinion, we are rushing into this too fast. As one of the richest countries in the world we do not necessarily need the income created by these extractions today but we should focus on establishing research and knowledge strategies for the future to come. We should have in mind that a short-term economic pleasure is a long-term destruction of the national landscape. The current legislation (the act of minerals) has as mention before a loophole, it works on a “first come first served basis”, which means that it allows companies from all over the world to claim mineral deposits on Norwegian land. With the value of the mineral markets today this unfortunately attracts less serious actors. With the amount of money involved, (we are talking 1500 billions which potentially equals approximately half of the oil fund in today’s dollar value) it is clear that people with other intentions than the actual mining operation are involved.
For example in early December last year Bernt Stilluf Karlsen (61) via the dormant company “Klosters Rederi” had applied for an exploration permit for minerals in large parts of Norway, among other Finnmark, Troms and Nordland. These permits were then sold to a Canadian company called Dalradian Resources that now owns approximately 5 percent of the mineral exploitation rights in Norway (1.7 million acres). Because of the amount of money involved in the mining industry it will probably only be a matter of time before one or more of the major multinational companies such as Rio Tinto, Vale, BHP, Jiangxi and Anglo American invests heavier in the northern areas. Three of these companies have a market capitalization of over 1000 billion NOK. When wondering about this one can start to imagine different scenarios. For example: imagine a scenario where foreign companies own large parts of landmasses in the north. What effect will this have on infrastructure and society? What will the new societies look like? What about the people already living in the areas? Will the international companies find the Norwegian labour too expensive, and therefore hire foreign labour force cheaper. How will these new communities characterize the areas? Will theybecome fly-in fly-out communities with no connection or contribution to the local communities? What will happen to the already existing local communities? Will they disappear? Will North of Norway become a massive commuting state of country? Will north of Norway end up as a massive transit hub? This loophole in the act of minerals should be revised. Should not Norway protect and promote involvement of Norwegian companies instead of foreign speculators? Eventhough the hunt for money is tempting, its still necessary to discuss the complexity of the mining industry and its large impact on landscapes, economies and society.
Sources: Veileder til mineralloven , NGU Rapport 2011.030, direktoratet for mineralforvaltning, ”Canadisk kontroll over mineraljakt i nord” 27.01.12 (http://www.nordlys.no/nyheter/ article5901865.ece), “Kan mineraler og metaller få større betydning for utvikling av NordNorge enn olje og gass?” 21.09.11 (http://www.lu.no/landsdelskommentaren/item/3596bergverk.html)
First Come First Served? by Irene Crowo Nielsen
WHO has the right to mine in the north as of today? What will it become?
Tore Birkeland (NO)
Terra Control AS (NO) Antaeus AS (NO)
Tromsø Scandinavian Resources AB (AUS) Store Norske Gull AS (NO)
REE Mining AS (NO) Íverum Fírvaltning AB (?)
Greenland Gold Resources LTD (DE)
Nussir ASA (NO)
Nordic Mining ASA (NO) Mineralia ANS (?) Heli Holding AS (NO)
Geo Mining AS (NO) Robert Norman C/O Citco (Sweden) Hermansen (NO) AB Artec AB (SWE)
Dalradian Resources (CA) Kiruna Drake Resources LTD. (AUS) Mineralia ANS (?)
Store Norske Gull (NO)
Geo Mining AS (NO)
REE Mining AS (NO)
Sydvaranger Gruve Terra Control (NO) Norwegian Crystallites (US)
Scandinavian Resources AB (AUS)
Dalradian Resources (CA) Kimberlitt AS (NO)
Bodø REE Mining AS Råna APS Staten
REE Mining AB C/O Terra Control A/S Energy Minerals Scandinavian Resources AB A/S REE Mining Bleikvassli Gruber A/S
Northern Highlands APS (DK) Western Highlands APS (DK)
Dalradian Resources (CA) Gexco Norge AS (NO) REE Mining AS (NO)
Scandinavian Resources AB (AUS) Universitetet i Trømsø (NO)
Dalradian Resources (CA) Mineralia ANS (?)
Scandinavian Resources (AUS) Artic Gold AB (SWE) Drake Resources (AUS) REE Mining AS (NO) Tasmet AS (SWE)
Thoriumpower Holding AS (NO)
REE Mining (NO)
Scandinavian Resources AB (AUS)
C/O Citco (Sweden) AB Artec AB (SWE)
Sulitjelma Mineral AS (NO)
SGM AS (INDIA) Kaare Kvase (NO) Hannans Scandinavia ABTrond Brenden Veisal (NO) (AUS)
Kåre M. Lande Bengt N-Slund
Bindal Gruver AS (SWE) Metal Gruber A/S (NO) Prospecting AS Rana Staten (NO) (NO) Gexco Norge AS (NO)
Kaare Kvase (NO)
Gexco Norge AS (NO) Gøran Rehn (NO) Norsk Mineral AS (NO)
Hannans Scandinavia AB (AUS)
Source: http://www.ngu.no/kart/bergrettigheter, 11.03.12
Drake Resources LTD (CA)
SCARS AND MASSES THE MULTILAYERED LANDSCAPE
SCARS AND MASSES Ingrid Aas Our worldâ€™s growing appetite and dependency on metals and minerals has led to an expanding hunt for new resources. Continuously venturing into new and unexplored territories, the industry now has its eyes on the circumpolar areas of Norway. Promising survey results and prospects of combining local energy sources in the northern territories and the emerging trade routes makes an increasingly attractive landscape for extracting resources. In 2012 the Norwegian government will present its own mineral report, and it is expected to draw up an offensive strategy for mineral extraction in the arctic areas of Norway. But mining does not only denote big profits; its industry also entails large scale impacts on landscape, nature and society. What do we really know about these forces? Our focus on the oil industry, mining companies, governmental interests and our more tightened relationship with an unstable global economy is today highly discussed. But have we reflected on the consequences and impact of contemporary and future mining? Should not this be the main focus for debate? Mining cities can be seen as models for building communities. In this sence digging and turning the ground can be seen as a positive effect. The mining activity used to be the start for developing communities. RĂ¸ros is an example of a town that grew and established itself because of the resourses that was found in the area. The mining activity became the livelihoods for the community building. From adding growth and positive effect, the masses later on contributed to a situation where the city collapsed as a dominonoeffect. The masses had set its scar. It is frightening to witness the consequenses that Kiruna now is an example of. Turning the ground under the surface has set its mark on the landscape. As a chainreaction the landscape has now reacted to the deformation of the masses, the ground has become unstable and there will be dramatic consequenses if no one takes action.
The ground is no longer stabil and the city of Kiruna has become a part of a moving landscape. Because of this new humanmade landscape the whole city of Kiruna must be moved. The geologists on the other hand, have another perspective on duration of the landscape. They see the ground as layers of masses creating a landscape over time. According to the geologists time perspective and how quickly the mining companies have turned the masses around, the Kiruna example shows clearly how these forces can have a huge impact on the landscape. The vounerable landscapes in North have severe waste issues that must be addressed during and after the actual mining operation. Open-pit mining involves extraction of large quantities of waste rock in order to extract the desired mineral ore. The scar in the landscape itself is huge, but after handling the waste rock the wound gets even bigger. Low prices for these large quantities of waste materials means that it is not profitable to transport it more than three miles before the traveling costs get higher than the aggregate and gravel itself. This is a challenge that we have to solve. Today the discussion goes on wether we should put the waste on land or in the sea, but the negative consequenses are still an issue. Dumping the waste material at land causes problems for vegetation and animal life, for example reindeer herding. Reindeers need big pastures which in several cases collide with the mining activity. These conflict areas cause problems because of the human deformation of masses. We do not know how big consequences the dust and toxic problems connected to the activity will cause. In the same way we do not know the effect of the environmental issues for the biosphere in the sea. The fishing industry, which is an important resource and a big part of the identity in the Northern Norway, could be influenced and threatened. We have to think in new directions.
The interplay of nature is fragile and carefully matched. Changes in the ecosystem will affect the interraction and the system gets out of balance. Through time the mining activity have left its scars in the environment. Is the big hunt for new resources more important than taking care of the fragile landscape and its activities that has existed for millions of years? The scars in the landscape after periods of mining are still visible. Once the reserves have been extracted the mining site is traditionally abandoned as it is, leaving non-transportable mining infrastructure and settlements behind. Is it possible to heal this fractured, polluted and scared landscape? In my opinion this should be the main issue of this discussion. Who will reclaim this landscape and fit it in to its natural biosphere? Today the mining industry does not set aside money for cleaning up the landscape after the mining prosess. It is essential to secure a reclamation fund for these areas. To set up a deal with the mining company might be the only way to raise money to increase the natural quality of the area. In addition to an economic fund the reclaimation plans should also contain strategies that shows how these landscapes could function as a natural landscape again. The up tempo revolution of mining, with its scars and deformation of masses, have turned the landscapes of the North of Norway up side down. Eventhough the big profits are tempting to get a hand on, I think it is nessesary to show humility when we enter these uncharged territories. We do not know the consequenses and we are lacking research on how the mining activity will have an impact on landscape, nature and society. I am sure we are facing a landscape in change, but we should have the time to consider what forces are in play and how we can prepare tomorrows landscapes to be developed sustainable.
THE EXHAUSTED LANDSCAPES FROM MINE - LANDS WITH LOVE
landscape is a complex system, similar to the human body. An organism that is affected by all of lifeâ€™s effect. It breathes, grows, breeds and dies. It has the ability to memorize , to feel excitement as well as tiredness and disappointment. A system that due to human need of exploration and exploitation is wounded and suffers traumas. The mine as part of the landscape, is exposed to the same functions of life. Could we assume that the mine as well as the landscape could go through all different states of emotions? What itâ€™s reaction to catastrophic events? People can adapt to critical situations. For centuries earthâ€™s resources has been exploited, the landscape exposed to the depletion of the natural world. Due to personal experience we can prepare ourselves for uncertainty. Could we say the same about the landscape? The moment we step out of our safety zone and find ourselves in uncomfortable situations, could be a powerful force of creativity. People have a need to belong, to be part of something larger than ourselves. An identity that we can relate to, allow us to survive the destruction, the violence of any sort.
This drive to preserve the comfortable existence we inhabit, force us to treat the natural world as our very own smoere gos board. Very often this lead to the landscape being depleted voided. Eventually left broken and battered. A state it might never recover from. Observing the events, changes and trends in the mining industry similarities become very visible. Drilling is a traumatic event; human hunger and need of certain standard of living become a force for destruction and uncertainty. Mineral extraction takes away from landscape its identity. The same area that could be a potential new finding is a home for others. This illustrates the complexity of the system, which has the ability to all affect others, although always remain under their influence. Exposed to every change, without the possibility to take part in the decision making process. The natural world is our silent bystander.
n a world where everyone has its own agenda. Could time heal all wounds? A statement that seems oddly relevant everything is affected by time. Even the unwanted voice has the same mandatory needs for existence. But for the time being our Landscapes immune system is failing. The natural world is being depleted on a faster pace than it can be replenished. Exhausted…. Can the landscape be re-activated or else it will start to “oppose“ human evolutionary needs “gadgets”? The disappearance of minerals from our earth’s crust will create an overall chaotic situation. The desperate response that follows will force radical changes on many levels. New political strategies must be created for society, as it exists today to have a chance at a future. Basics become the new key priorities distributing food, water, medicine, to provide shelter to those who need. Further exploitation of the already existing mines could create a dramatic landscape response. Kiruna’s situation proves it. The mine will not need the town any more. We should listen: to the voices that want to be heard. This begs the question can human hunger coexist with our natural world?! Is there a place for compromise? Traumatic events force changes, creative solutions. Therefore a situation which from one side could be regarded as catastrophic, can and does open windows of opportunities. Recreating the idea of safety allow for radical changes to take place. Mines require large amount of space. Due to that consequences very often are on the scale difficult to imagine. How can we transform the depletion of the landscape into driving force for new opportunities? Maybe an answer lies in what we are most afraid of: the lifespan. Temporality could become an important part of future projections. Everything is affected by time. Why not to use the factor of the lifespan. Future “sites of trauma” should have an epheremental presence, the new mining villages” could and should move to where it’s needed a traveling circus of roaming landscape exploitation machines. At the end of an era when a mine is shutdown there should be no remnants but a hole in the ground. This could lower the chance of catastrophes like the situation currently found in Kiruna. Instead of being intruders, mining company would adopt the role of a visitor.
Guest that will disappear sooner rather than later, not claiming territory that does not belong to themselves. Not creating cities that are doomed to die and fade from the very beginning. In this time and age the last thing we need is wasteful resource management. With it comes another opportunity a responsibility really for reclaiming and reconstructing what has been lost in the sense of identity and belonging. Voices must be heard, futures must be considered, polices must be made. Views must be radically changed if these questions are not asked we might face a catastrophe that might, forever change human history.
Beyond What We See For the Multilayered Landscape Jingyuan Hu
Special thanks to Svein Lund,
who has taught me and helped me a lot.
Beyond what we see The mining industry is very close to life and it is also quite far away from where we are. We use metals from mining everyday but we don’t have any idea what a mine exactly is like, don’t we? What do you think of a mine after closure? A big hole in the ground that we can fill up with rocks and soil? Unfortunately it is totally different from that. Allen Berger defined a normal waste land as drosscape which he claimed was different from post industrial landscape 1. More over, a mining site after closure is called post mining landscape, which is even more complicated than normal manufactured sites. One of the big problems brought by mining is the acid drainage. As the Earthworks explains: Acid mine drainage is a concern at many metal mines, because metals such as gold, copper, silver and molybdenum, are often found in rock with sulfide minerals. When the sulfides in the rock are excavated and exposed to water and air during mining, they form sulfuric acid. This acidic water can dissolve other harmful metals in the surrounding rock. If uncontrolled, the acid mine drainage may runoff into streams or rivers or leach into ground water. 2 We can see how serious and complicated the problem is and it is the only one dark side of the pollution. A mine can have various impacts on vegetation, water, animals, climate, people, society, and so on. Since most of the damage and pollution happens after the closure of the mine, quick action is needed to repair the landscape. However, according to the complicated situation in the mine, the landscape reclamation is distinguished from other types of landscape reparation. Landscape reclamation is mainly used for the reconstruction of mined landscape 3. It is interesting to see the origin of the word reclamation. The etymological origin of the word reclaim is composed by re-, which means “back, again, against” and claim, “to ask for a right, or to call for”. The root claim derives from the Latin clamare, which means “ to cry out, or shout”. Together, reclamare, “to cry out against” 4. It looks sad from the word and it is indeed. We use reclaim because we could not restore the mined landscape, we could not return the materials extracted from the ground. There are very few examples of completely restoration of the natural landscape though, there are things we can do to reduce the harm and rescue the exhausted landscape. To see an example here, we can have more impression on how mining impacts on the environment. Biedjovaggi is a very small copper-gold mine in northern Norway, which has been closed for years and now in the process of reopening. The situation there is barely mentioned since the mine is separated from the town. An interview with Svein Lund may give a clearer view on the complicated and problematic situation there. Svein Lund is the chairman of the local association of nature (Naturvernforbundet) and he lives 40km from the mine of Biedjovaggi. Me: When did you start to look and investigate the mining area? S: I visited in 2004, and then I made some pictures showing the pollution in the mining area, the swamps and streams nearby. I have been there twice in the autumn of 2011, both times making picture of how it looks today, both the deposits and the revegetation project, which in the 1990’s was done in a small part of the area. Me: Do you believe the rumour that they dumped toxic soil directly into the open pit? S: It is so far only a rumour but it is very probably true that a lot was dumped there. We just don’t know, neither does the municipality. M: What’s the impact on reindeers? S: To some extent they may walk through the area after mine has stopped, but there is very little gracing land left. And the question is if it possible to reclaimed, if so it needs a lot of more work than this which is done so far. More over, statistics show that in period 1965-1975 the amount of reindeers in the most affected district was reduced to half, partly because of water power station, partly because of mining. They have partly restored but I have no numbers. Me: Now the Arctic Gold is going to reopen the mine. It is risky if the profit cannot meet the expectance, which happened before. What do you think about the reopening? S: Not easy to answer. If there will be no mining, there will neither be any reshaping and revegetation, as nobody is responsible and the municipality has no money. The municipality Kautokeino has for a long time had high unemployment and bad economy, therefore many people hope that mining will help. The argument against: The mining area is important for reindeers part of the year. If the mining starts, they will have to go to other places, which will result in bad grazing and mixing with other herds. There are also a lot of noise and dust. We have to be very concrete, say what should the municipality demand, and if they put such demands, the result will be one of the three: 1. The mine will be reclaimed better 2. There will be no mining as the mining company don’t accept the conditions 3. State will overrun the municipality and give permission in spite of local demands.
Me: Well, there are the same conflicts all over China. I don’t know the detailed situation in China. Though it’s getting better and better, it is still in a bad condition, many people are relying on working in the mine and suffering at the same time. The regulation and policy in China is not as complete and strict as that in Norway. S: As regards security for mine workers, yes it is probably better in Norway. I have heard about terrible accidents in China. We have also had in Norway, but a long time ago. As regards rules for protecting landscape and nature I am not sure if Norway is any better than China. Norwegian government permits deposing poisonous release from mines into fjords, I have heard that in China it is now allowed. Me: It is not allowed in China of deposing toxic waste into water, however, the situation is not completely under control. The environment has been seriously and permanently destroyed in some areas. I have been to Kirkenes and the had the chance to talk to different people there. The man from the mining company said that it’s impossible to stop dumping since all the infrastructure and equipment has already been built at the very beginning and the policy is there. He also claimed that if the policy force the company to change and stop, it will be a disaster that most mining companies in Norway have to close down. S: Disaster for whom? May be a disaster for the profit of the mining companies. First of all, mining companies are run all over the world without polluting the sea as they are allowed to in Norway. Much of this waste is material which could be used for other production. Only the mining companies say that sea dumping is the only possibility, just because it is most profitable for them. I think it is possible to run all the existing and planned mines in Norway without sea dumping. It is clearly technically possible, question is if it is profitable. I have one question when they say it is impossible to run mines without sea dumping in Norway, why do they plan a mine in Bidjovagge, where there is no sea to dump into, and anyhow they consider it to be profitable. Me: That’s certainly true. I have read about a report that the Sydvaranger Gruve SA dumps approximately 4 million tonnes of tailings per year at a depth of approximately 28 m into a designated national salmon fjord. That may show why they are so concern about it and do not want to give up the sea dumping. It is a very serious problem and I cannot understand that why this is still happening in such a rich country. S: Me neither. Me: Another thing bothered me is where and how to find the professional people to reclaim the landscape? Reclamation for the mine after closure needs people in different professions and it is also a time consuming work. Who would be willing to go to a small town and work for a long term period? S: It is a good question. In general there is too little research in this field but what I have read is that much of the research done in fact is done in the north. There are institutes of biological research (Bioforsk) both in Tromsø and near to Kirkenes. Me: One more question. Even if the mining company accepts the condition for Biedjovaggi, how to collaborate with them? Is there people that can negotiate and monitor their activities? These all require knowledge in some professions. S: It is just among the questions we (Naturvernforbundet) are putting up when writing our opinions on the plans for Biedjovaggi. Me: Thank you so much.
Hope that people will be more aware of the impact of mining when they are using their phones, watching televisions, surfing on the Internet, and so on. Also hope that more and more people will devote into the relamation of the mined landscape. Remember that we are always benefiting from the metallic ores as well as the harm to the natural landscape. It is unbelievable that Norwegian government allows sea dumping, here is a illustration showing the brief situation.
1. Alan Berger, Drosscape: Wasting Land Urban America, Princeton Architectural Press, 2006 2. Earthworks Fact Sheet: Hardrock Mining and Acid Mine Drainage, www.earthworksaction.org/pubs/FS_AMD.pdf 3. Alan Berger, Reclaiming the American West, Princeton Architectural Press, 2002 4. Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2011
Who is dumping? dumping site
Gross domestic product in Norway, valued by basic prices (Million Kroner) Norway is one of the richest countries in the world and mainly relies on its oil and gas industry, which makes almost 19% of it domestic productsâ€™ value while mining and quarrying makes only about 0.2%.
mining and quarrying
mining and quarrying
postal and courier activities postal and courier activities water supply, sewerage, waste water supply, sewerage, waste agriculture and forestry agriculture and forestry fishing and aquaculture
fishing and aquaculture
transport via pipelines transport via pipelines accommodation and food service activities accommodation and food service activities ocean transport ocean transport arts, entertainment and other service activities arts, entertainment and other service activities electricity, gas and steam electricity, gas and steam real estate activities real estate activities administrative and support service activities administrative and support service activities other transport activities other transport activities information and communication information and communication professional, scientific and technical activities professional, scientific and technical activities dwelling services dwelling services financial and insurance activities financial and insurance activities education education public administration and defense public administration and defense construction construction wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles manufacturing manufacturing health and social work health and social work oil and gas extraction including serveices
However, Norway is among a few countries that allow sea dumping all around the world. Many mining companies chose to dump the waste into the ocean which causes serious problems to the environment and the marine life.
Example: The Northern Iron Ltd. (Sydvaranger Gruve AS) iron mine at BĂ¸kfjord dumps about 4 million tonnes of taillings per year at a depth of approximately 28m into a designated national salmon fjord.
oil and gas extraction including serveices
source: 1. www.ssb.no 2.www.earthworksaction.org/files/publications/Troubled-Waters_FINAL.pdf
What part of those profits go to Reindeers, Birds and Plants? Why isnâ€™t Natural systems part of it? On Global Economy, whatshould have the biggest wheel on the system: Nature.
Iron Copper. Iron Ore Phosporous. Oil Nature
How do we value Nature if it is not part of the market?
Main Commodities moving the Market
Value Containers Hammerfest Taxation rate Skaidi Taxation rate Kvalsund taxation rate Sami Reindeers Community
Reppar Fjord Water & Delta
Taxation rate (From higher to lower)
Plants and Grassland
Borders and Values Where opposing tensions meet a border is created and sometimes they leave physical traces allowing us to point them out. Physically, a border can be seen as wide when differences on two substances are delicate and where therein lies a gradual blending from one substance to another; on the other hand we can say that it is thin whereas it lays clear-cut differences between them. These substances can be taken from other contexts like for example layers underground long past in earth history brought into the bio-layer where we are standing and living our daily lives. In space and other scales, a border can be a thin layer of nothing when trying to mix oil and water, so microcosms relate to density units to construct a bigger picture, relying on Science which is meticulous under the microscope as good as the satellites having a magnifying lenses to a broader territory act as tools that aid human senses to bring forth a common ground. There are some parallel concepts on Bateson’s “Double Bind”, within it uses several key concepts like “transcontextual process”. "Now I want to make one simple point here, and that is about what one might call the power geometry of it all; the power geometry of time-space compression. For different social groups, and different individuals, are placed in very distinct ways in relation to these flows and interconnections. This point concerns not merely the issue of who moves and who doesn't, although that is an important element of it; it is also about power in relation to the flows and the movement. Different social groups have distinct relationships to this anyway differentiated mobility: some people are more in charge of it than others; some initiate flows and movement, others don't; some are more on the receiving-end of it than others; some are effectively imprisoned by it." Doreen Massey.
Politically, it can either become a wall, when guarded by enforcement personnel in group aggressions, or even become an imaginary line, setting country limits. A political border can become a thin one when tensions gradually rise or a wide one when all parts have agreed and settled a tradition of use of their spatial limits and had accepted themselves as equals in similar conditions. Bateson, 1972 Look at Bateson’s Symmetrical relationships and Complementary relationships. Biologically, borders found in nature, are most likely to be in a soft transition, when we talk about living organisms, ecotones may appear, as a new set of relationships. In this way habitats or biotopes can become meeting points and battlefields where new relationships are challenged. In our study case, searching for future scenarios, zoning proposals of the mine and the communities’ living spaces, that are eminently existent, are in contradistinction. They not only belong to human spaces but larger or smaller living organisms as well, categorizing them in all ranges and scales. Ore deposits, Waste deposits, Bank deposits, or any deposits are usually regarded as savings or stored material for future use. They can be commodities that have already a value or materials with a potential value, therefore we accumulate and store them in containers or imaginary containers, so we usually find an economical value to whatever its worth saving for the future. Some ancient objects for example, under the twisted look of a collector or art dealer, who starts first buying them at a cheap price and then sell them as an entire
collection at a totally different value. So storing is involved and knowledge is embedded on the marketing strategy extracted from the objects so they reach a totally different category with a value never imagined and sometimes even absurd. When value is found it can be sold at an established price set according to its popularity of use. For instance, if we can measure and store sources for green Energy or clean air for future generations, these can become valuable, but most of these resources are taken for granted and yet they have not been valued properly. The idea of storage means money on the actual global Economy, if we could just â€œdisrupt the system temporally until the system can self-correctâ€? Bateson, 1972. We will have ideally a solution so we can gather resources to finance the future, and leave out problems that have to be solved by Science Research processes. And use this knowledge of science and cycles to reinsert wastes into the Mind as Bateson says, or just Nature, where there are not sub products of industrial processes.
References From The Big Picture, Royalty Tax percentages can become government savings or a deposit for future investment, From the perforated landscape, the vision of eroded land with its water bodies is challenged. Steps to an Ecology of Mind, Gregory Bateson, 1972. In the article entitled " A Global Sense of Place" written by Doreen Massey
These meänkieli names all say something about the different elements that the landscape is composed of.
The names of places in the landscape surrounding Kiruna are meänkieli and mean; yli, ylä - upper ala, ali - lower lombolo, lompola, lompolo - an expansion/opening of the river joki - river järvi – water, lake vaara – mountain
Jukkasjärvi / Torn river
These elements are gradually transforming and we can imagine the new names that will arise and that have already arisen in the landscape of Kiruna; Jänkkä, jänkä - bog kuru – cut, cleft, valley matala – shallow point in the lake/sea mella – sandbank, low bank on the river oja – stream, small river lantto - pond
Loussajoki Yli Lombolo Ala Lombolo
Manifestations from the Sub Surface on the destiny and latent effect of two lakes in the heart of Kiruna
The mining process in Kiruna is gradually transforming the landscape; deforming it, cracking and fracturing it; making visual manifestations on the surface of the landscape and telling a slow story of what is going on underneath the ground. Yet, there is more going on underneath the surface, than meets the eye, or indeed the ear; Some of us have heard of the slow draining of the lake of Luossajärvi, transforming it gradually into a bog. Fewer have heard of “the pit” in Malmberget/Gallivare, that is a 50-year-old manifestation of what will take place at an even larger scale in Kiruna in the near future; gradually deforming ground, following the rules of gravity as holes are made further and deeper in the ground than could once be imagined. Only very few of us have heard the story of what is hidden conveniently underneath the surface of two lakes, strategically placed at the centre of the Kiruna-community, as we know it today. Shallow water in the heart of Kiruna These two lakes are known as Yli Lombolo and Ala Lombolo, meaning upper and lower opening in the river in the Meankäli language. Both Yli and Ala Lombolo are shallow lakes, respectively with depths of 1 m and 3.5 m. They both contain high amounts of mercury /quick silver, but the crucial difference between them is that Ala is a sedimentary lake, whilst Yli isn´t. This is why Ala is a ticking bomb, both metaphorically and literally; As it turns out Ala Lombolo is not only at the heart of Kiruna, it is also the home of 17.300 grenades, dumped in the north/north-estern corner of the lake by the Swedish Army in the 1950ies (Kiruna municipality, 2012). This corner of the lake happens to be the part of the lake nearest the settled community. Furthermore, Kiruna municipality confirms that there are approximately 200 kg of mercury in the sediments of Ala Lompolo; 60-100 g of this travel further down the water system every year. The pike caught downstream of Luossajoki river, in Jukkasjärvi, also known as the Torn-river, contains 1 mg of mercury pr. kg of fish-meat. According to the authorities this is not dangerous to consume, but the fish upstream Jukkasjärvi do not contain the same amounts of mercury, and are definitely better to consume.
“Ala Lombolo has been a recipient of municipal waste water and dumped ammunition” (Hedlund, 2005). The municipal wastewater at the time in question also contained the wastewater from the LKAB mines, which is the reason you will find many heavy metals, not only mercury, within the sediments in Ala Lompolo. According to Hedlund “the sediments are heavily polluted with metals and PBC. Mercury, copper and zinc occur in very high concentration, while cadmium and lead occur in high concentrations. Other metals are present in low to very low concentrations”. In other words the dumping has indirectly been done by the Swedish State, through LKAB, Kiruna kommun and the Swedish Army. The Swedish Geological Survey (SGU) is now officially responsible for handling the situation in Ala Lombolo. A stable situation?
The mining activity in the area is causing the water levels of the river Luossajoki to decrease. This might effect the currently stable situation of Ala Lompolo, in the future, because major changes in hydrology, climate/temperature and light conditions can affect the contents of the lake significantly. The grenades in the lake are sensitive to temperature, light and pressure changes, which are hard to predict. However, if the lake dries up entirely the sediments will start reacting and affect the
immediate surroundings of the lake. If the lake is only partially dried up it will turn the current, innocent erosion of sediments, into a mass moving erosion-process; essentially contaminating Jukkasjärvi/ Torn-river to such an extent the authorities can no longer say that eating the pike and other fish downstream the river is not hazardous. (Hedlund, 2005) How to disarm Ala Lompolo?
LKAB are looking to make further large changes to the local water system, because there is a risk that water from Luossajärvi-lake will seep into fracture-zones resulting from the mining process, and thus disrupt the current mining process. Luossajärvi has already partially turned into a bog, and used to be the major lake feeding Loussajoki river and Yli and Ala Lompolo with water.
LKAB are suggesting alternatives for redirecting and displacing the water flow, from Loussajärvi around Ala Lompolo, and possibly leading it into Kalix river or Rantas river, eventually leading into Jukkasjärvi/Torn-river. There have been expressed concerns about this due to possible leakages from the mine into the Loussajärvi lake during the process of displacement. Meanwhile, the municipality predicts that Ala Lompolo dries up and that vegetation will grow on top of the sediments, covering them and redirecting them into the subconscious once again. However, Ala Lombolo might only dry up partially, and the leakages into the Jukkasjärvi/Torn-river in this scenario will be way worse than if there are partial leakages from the mine into Loussajärvi.
This leads me to conclude that the management of the water system as a whole seems inconsistent; the solution for Luossajärvi will affect Ala Lombolo and subsequently Jukkasjärvi/Torn-river. Furthermore, Yli and Ala Lombolo are nestled in-between the estimated fracture zones of 2013 and 2023; what will happen when the shaking grounds reach the 60 year old grenades? What is the destiny of the 17.300 grenades and 230 kg Merqury, 10 tons zink, 3 tons copper, 1.6 tons lead, 1 ton molbyden, 33 kg cadmium and high levels of PBC (Wikipedia, 2012) of Ala Lombolo in the far-toonear future? Putting pollution in a system The toxic tension of Ala Lombolo needs to be solved so the toxic mentals hidden underneath the surface doesn´t spread further into the environmental system of the surroundings. It needs to be solved, not only for the future Kiruna, but also for the future of the part of Tornedalen downsteam of LKAB´s mines, and their communities, founded on the natural resources found, and still present in the landscape today. A large portion of the other livelihood in the area is still based on these natural resources, which are under threat.
Subsequently, it is not really an urban transformation that is necessary to provide for a positive future in Kiruna. Moreover, the urban transformation, as LKAB has skilfully named it, and the municipality is subsequently calling it as well, is actually an urban relocation. What is actually happing in Kiruna is an uncontrolled landscape transformation, which needs a series of parallel projects that include restorative, regenerative, remediative and redeveloping projects. Furthermore, all these projects should preferably reflect on each other to create a holistic, sustainable solution for the domino-landscape that Kiruna and its surroundings are today.
Sources: Kvenske stedsnavn; http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=142464839144385 Ala Lopolo on Wikipedia: http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ala_Lompolo Kiruna municipality; http://www.kommun.kiruna.se/Miljo-och-natur/Projekt-Ala-Lombolo/ Swedish water-organisation; http://www.vattenorganisationer.se/tornealvenvro/downloads/10/AnteckningarVattenparlament17Juni2010.pdf Swedish water-authority; http://www.vattenmyndigheterna.se/SiteCollectionDocuments/sv/bottenviken/samrad/samrad-2009/Remissvar/tornedalensvp.pdf Hedlund, Laila. Framtida klimatfördrändringar och gruvdrift I Kiruna – Bedömning av kvalitativa förändringer och afterföljande konsekvensar för Ala Lombolo. Luleå tekniska univeristet. 2005
Inside S v a l b a r d
a necessity of preserving coal mining industry.
annisa solihah sontani
Series of mountains emerged along the west coast and east cost of the archipelago. Presenting seams of sediments. Sincerely revealed how earth process going. Those mountanious landscape creates basin-shaped from the west towards east. In the center, laid precious natural resources that might worth to dig out. Coal, the most abundance mineral in the world that formed during warm and organic-rich tertiary periode, approximately 65 millions years ago. Since American mineral surveyor named John Munroe Longyear found coal in Longyearbyen, where now is known as administrative town, Svalbard has transformed into new place of civilization. Coal mining industries established by Russian and some of it sold to Norwegian company. Svalbard seemingly turned into mining industrial area on a vulnerable area in Arctic. Many foreigner fly in and out as commuter, start to built up new society inside the island. But unlike wildlife living there, those dynamic commuter rarely consider Svalbard as a ‘home’ where they belong. Therefore, the spirit inside Svalbard is all about utilize the island without seeing the consequences. Svalbard coal mining industry gradually contribute promising aspect for the country. The increasing demand of coal let Svalbard coal mining industry to develop. Most of it production were sent to Germany, which somehow lead Svalbard into important coal supplier. This fact placed Norway to 7th rank of the most coal exporter in Europe. The recognition of Norway, particularly Svalbard, from its coal apparently strengthened Norway as the powerful owner over the island. The productivity itself create special attention from the countries around polar arctic, which now been busy regarding to the shipping by searoute. However, government in mainlad already put so much money to maintain Svalbard in terms of geopolitics. The amount of coal resource cointained inside its island is not sufficient to create national revenue. If so, do we still need to keep mining industry only necessarily to show existence over the Europe?
Environment Coal production at Svea, 40 km southern Longyearbyen, will be phased out in as the coal resource starts to runs dry. At the same time, government are initiating new mining in Lunckefjell, near Svea, in order to export coal to market. Planning new coal mining would be strikingly inconsistent with Norway’s high-profile international climate policy positions. Carbon elements contained in coal trigger global warming from its CO2 waste. Fly ash and toxic coming from coal mining process disturbing wildlife and ecosystem surround it. Moreover, coal mining industry always bring big dispute against environmentalist and bussiness man in terms of melting ice around artic polar. That sensitive area suppose to be clean and uncontaminated, but at the same time have many mineral resource that worth to dig out. Fortunately, Norway already established restricted area for preserving wildlife and environment, prohibit mining industry and other activities which may disrupt nature in certain area. The improvement of mining technology also able to manage wastes resulting less harmful waste. Other thing, few amount of coal resource from Svalbard comparing to other vast resources in China and USA coincidentally contribut less environment impact. In short, the level of “greed” by Norway is balanced by its responsibility.
Svalbard as an attractive places for everyone. The location, wilderness, and geologic conditions of Svalbard has offered interesting places for scholars to investigate the island. As Svalbard Treaty point out, some countries signed the treaty are allowed to commenced their research center in Svalbard. Since then, Svalbard has been recognized as research center area. Lately, Norwayâ€™s government has signed up Pyramiden, the abandoned ex-mining site, to UNESCO as a heritage site, that may create domestic income by its tourism. Another interesting thing, Norway has been trusted internationally as a peaceful country. For instance, Global Seed Bank that preserve seeds (including endangered one) from all over the world was entrusted to be build in Svalbard. It was not only necessarily about permafrost ground that will conserve the seeds. But it was more about the safety that Norway, particularly Svalbard, has offerd. Demilitarized status that mentioned in Svalbard Treaty guarantee the security, and will always keeps away war and demolition inside the island. Eventually, those situations lead Svalbard as an internationally important, and eventually investment may boost then bring Norway into prosperous country. Initially, coal mining industry in Svalbard has made people to explore another new opportunity on the island. It seems that tourism, education, wild life preservation, research, and technology in this area is driven by the coal mining industry. Even the other industries are developing rapidly, the coal mining industry will still be the core business in Svalbard. Norway will use Svalbard as a profit centre especially for coal mining and perhaps oil/gas. However, the other industries are still used as a supporting subject in terms of developing process of Svalbard.
as a necessity of preserving coal mining industry
beautiful series of mountain contain mineral resources. create unique landscape in vulnerable circumpolar arctic.
Sir, weâ€™re now so popular in europe.. soon, world! thanks svalbard..
...the mining industry has created society
svalbard already so lavish. its coal production way behind USA, the biggest one.
beautiful series of mountain contain mineral resources. unique in vulnerable circumpolar arctic. the industry developed.create the land werelandscape being more exploited. in the other hand, it contribute some revenue for nation.
we need coal from svalbard!
Letâ€™s have another exploitation
meanwhile, many people opposed coal mining regarding to the waste..
close down mining industry!
in the same time, restricted areas are established as a way to taking care of environment..
I am fly ash
no need to close down mining industry, yet.
opportunity for researher
his habitat ...CO2 from coal mining process trigger global warming
...they can still walk together
Surya Dharma Wikipedia Snsk.no Marte Kopstad Idar Nikolaisen spiritality.net visualphotos.com circleofblue.org monahans.co.uk bettergeneration.co.uk
TEXT Initial Survey The Big Picture Our group is ore group, we made some investigation about the ore in global scope. It is include the production statistic of several kinds of ore, the numbers of ore export/inport in several most important countries, the reason of ore form and the ore distribution in five continents. It is really interesting things that the ore distribute is closed to the geological transformation. So, people could predict and discover different ore located in different type of geological ground. Following the other groups, I noticed that the flow of the ore is an attract aspect. In the global shipping map, there is a younger but more efficient route across the arctic ocean. Shipping from this route may save a lot of money, time and security. This is also a challenge for the northern countries, both in the economic development and the landscape plan. The Perforated Landscapes In this section, our group focused on the Svalbard Island. Svalbard is not only a tourist area, but also a important coal production zone. In the last 100 years, Store Norsk company launched 8 coal mining. Most of located in Longyearbyen. These mining activity influenced the expend of the city, although this is a very tiny city. I fell a strong force of relationship between mining and urban development. It is like a magnet affection that the urban expend was contraled by the mining update. I was also attracted by the Kiruna survey. Iron ore extraction is a key industry of the area, and the town is very dependent on the mining company LKAB. The iron mine was located under the urban area, so the foundation of urban is not safe. In 2004, it was decided that the present centre of the municipality would have to be relocated to counter mining related subsidence. The relocation would be made gradually over the coming decade. The mining is taking place and replace the Kiruna city.
THEME: THE MINING TAKING PLACE IN THE CITY & THE CITY RELOCATING FOR THE MINEING SO, WHAT IS THE NEXT? A Story of the Kiruna City --- The City Grown With The Iron Mining History Ancient remains show that the first people arrived more than 6,000 years ago, after the inland ice cap retreated. This means there were functioning communities in the Kiruna area when the nation’s capital, Stockholm, was still on the sea bed.The Sámi culture and the Finnish-speaking culture have lived side by side here for all recorded history. Settlers, and the very first miners, came at the beginning of the 17th century, during the first mining era. The first “Swedish” arrivals came to the Kiruna area from the southeast, near Masugnsbyn, where the first iron ore mining was opened in 1647. At that time, nobody knew anything about the dormant riches of Kiirunavaara, where the town of Kiruna was to be founded. It was not until the mid-1880s that the first test drilling took place on Kiirunavaara Mountain. A watershed moment for the whole of Sweden was when in the late 19th century discussions took place in Parliament on whether to build the Ofoten Line, also called the Ore Line, from Luleå via Gällivare and Kiruna to Narvik in Norway. Kiruna counts 1900 as its birth year, when the Crown approved the town plan. In that year, most of the newly arrived settlers spent the winter in the new community. After that, the population increased dramatically, and by 1910 Kiruna already had 7,500 inhabitants. Kiruna's population was at its greatest in the mid-1970s, with just over 31,000 inhabitants. After a couple of decades of substantial outward migration, a stable level of around 23,000 has been reached. Mining activity affects the city Since the mining company continues to extract the ore that slants underneath the city, deformations, mainly cracks, will develop and evolve towards the built areas. That the ground cracks and collapses is nothing new. The residential area of Ön (the Island) and the now-drained part of the lake Luossajärvi have already disappeared to become a part of Kiruna’s history. The cracks are caused by the mining method itself and the slant of the ore body. When the
ore is mined and removed, the remaining bedrock collapses into the cavities. This in turn results in settling, which at the surface makes the ground crack.
ground will be damaged first. It is not because the buildings in them selves will be dangerous / unstable.
In 2008 LKAB, the operator of the world’s largest underground mine: Kirunavaara-Luossavaara iron mine decided to extend their operations down to a deeper level at 1,365 meters. The mine is located adjacent to the City of Kiruna with an estimated population of 19,000.
Kiruna Municipality and LKAB are working together creating a Gruvstadspark (Mine City Park) in the first area to be affected by the deformations due to mining. The park is to function as a buffer zone between the city and the mine so that no one will be forced to live immediately adjacent the industrial fencing. The park will become a year-round recreational area. This way the public will have access to the area even after the houses are gone and no one will have to live next to the industrial fence. As the mine area are growing the park will move closer towards the city.The first part of the Mine City Park (in Iggesundsparken) was inaugurated on Sep, 14, 2011.
Around 2013, the first families living in flats at Ullspiran must also find another homes. Somewhere around 2023 the city centre, a couple of schools, the fire station and additional flats and houses will be affected. By the year 2033, the municipality is looking at having to relocate about 1900 people away from the cracking zones. In general no one perceives the move as directly negative. It's never fun to move from your home, but there is a lot of understanding for what is happening. Kiruna is a mining town. It can't survive without the mine," So they have decided to move the city. Relocated the city New city center: The comprehensive plan is being revised and the new plan is expected to be completed by 2012. The municipal council has decided that the new Kiruna city centre should be situated east of today’s city centre. A new preliminary sketch showing possible solutions for the new city center was introduced. Final design of a new city center will be determined by one or more architectural competitions. Rework the lake: Kiruna's known iron ore reserves run some 2,500 metres (8,200 feet) deep, with the latest main level at just 1,045 metres.To be able to extend the mining operations from the current level at 1,045 meters down to the new level at 1,365 meters, approximately 0.8 km2 of the 2.2 km2 large Lake Luossajärvi must be drained. Additionally, a new outlet from Lake Luossajärvi must be constructed to the north of the lake connecting with Pahtajoki creek, replacing the current outlet to the south into Luossajoki creek. A major engineering challenge will be the draining of Lake Luossajärvi, where a 12 m high and 1,800 m long earthfill dam (till) will be constructed across the southern portion of the lake. About four million m3 of water will be pumped out on the south side of the dam facing the mine. Mine city park: The reason why we have to relocate/tear down buildings in the first place is because the electricity lines, water and sewage pipes under
New Roads and Realway: The Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) continues planning on a new highway E10 and road 870. Kiruna Municipality has made clear that the new highway E10 has to be finished by 2015. The railway will be affected by the deformations and has to be relocated. The construction work is in progress and planned to be finished in 2012. Sami community: There are two Sami communities, Gabna and Laevas, in the immediate vicinity of Kiruna. They make use of trails in the terrain outside the town for the migration of their reindeer to summer and winter grazing. Reindeer herding is still a livelihood for many Sami in the area. Kiruna is the main town for the Sami Parliament, an administration for Sami affairs under the Swedish government that was founded in 1993. Kiruna Town is also situated in the middle of an area where a number of Saami reindeer herding communities have grazing lands and vital moving paths. Kiruna Iron's planned exploitation would violate fundamental human rights of the local Saami reindeer herders.
A Story of the Shiyan City --- The City Grown With The Track Factory Shiyan was one of the most normal villages with few hundreds of people before the founding of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of China in 1949. At the beginning of 1950, Chinese army took place in the Korean War. With the bombing of the U.S.military, lots of Chinese military tracks were destroyed. In order to solve this emergency, Chairman Mao commanded to build a new track factory. At the same time, the political environment of China was not safe and more than 70% industrial factories were built in the coastal area. So, they are very easy to destroyed if the missiles came. According to these impacts, the politicians chosen the Shiyan area to build the new track factory because there is surrounding by mountains and they could act as a barrier against foreign attacks. The construction began from 1959 and more than 100 000 workers and engineers moved to Shiyan. After several years constructed, the surprising thing is not only the initial track factory was built, but also the village has expanded became a new city. Today, Shiyan is middle scale city with in China with a population of 3 000 000 and the track factory is a hightech institute with a production of 150 000 heavy tracks every year. After 21st centuryďźŒwith the more and more peaceful political environment and forceful business competition, the Shiyan track institute is no longer confined in the mountains, they had developed several important companys in the flat area of China, such as Wuhan and Guangzhou. Because the most important demand of the development is change to the convenient transportation. The new challenge is coming with the change of the development. In Shiyan City, more and more old industrial buildings were empty and then destroyed. The core industry here is more and more unclear, because the track has gone. The government is finding some other ways to make the economy grow, such as mining and tourism. But all of these are no longer activate the economy as intensive as the tracks.
What is the Next? After studied the two citys development, I think it is could be worth to compare Shiyan City with Kiruna City. Their way of development are similar. One was appeared with track industry and the other is developing with mining. One is extending to the industrial heritage, the other one is submerged by the mining expand. We could get some useful predict from Shiyan. Maybe after several years exploited, the underground of kiruna will be empty and the city will be no longer rely on the mining for economic growth. What is the direction of the city after that? Do we need to relocate the city again after several years? How the mining infrastructure could be used for the future city? Maybe the infrastructure could be used for the modern art which is like the 798 area in Beijing. But is there any artists or visitors want to go such a backland just for art? I believe this is a valuable discussion, we need to talk about the propose of the future city, not only the relocation program. If we have a very clear plan for the after - mining period, we can bring it into effect at once. This can be make the development more sustainable.
The Kiruna Paradox |Kit Ting Karie Yu|
The Kiruna Paradox |Kit Ting Karie Yu|
Moving Kiruna is not about moving the houses. Instead of “refugee relocation”, regeneration of ecosystem and social landscape should be considered. It is an irony that mining operation which began in 1898, created the mining cities Kiruna, Malberget, Savappavaara as well as port cities Navik and Luleå. But it also transformed the landscape, deformed the geological structure and eventually “destroy” the city. The town and mine have developed in tandem, just like two lungs to either side of railroad, sitting upon the largest iron body in the world. However, the situation is getting unbalance, one lung is eating up the other. The state-owned mining company LKAB started underground mining in early 60s, creating a lengthy gorge and reshaping the mountain’s northern slopes into ziggurat-like steps. Since they have dug, the sublevel mining has been lowered six times, the current main level of operations is over 1000m below the historic peak, which has long since vanished. And the new level being constructed is at level 1365. The mining progresses downward while the ore between sublevels is mined; the overlying waste rock caves into void created as the ore is drawn off. Large-scale deformation and fracturing caused while caving progresses upward. As mining moved deeper and closer to town the area had to be vacated, and the city has to be relocated as the land is slowly fracturing.
The traditional reindeer migratory bands, condemned mine properties, deformed land leaves only few sites to consider. Until now, no one can be sure that how deep the iron deposit goes and where else the iron deposits are. The state chosen eastern site will be ensured move in 50years if the mining continues its trajectory. Or even earlier if there are some new findings of iron. The paradox is: because of mining the town was created, but it also “destroying’ the town, how shall we save the town from the deformed landscape? If we continue mining, further deformation will cause. But if mining is stopped, is the town still needed? Naturally there must be serious debate to the move, but seems in Kiruna, there is no doubt the mine came first. LKAB states that 95% of residents favor “the move”. An interview of a tourism clerk confided that “ there is nothing to do in Kiruna, but work, and the mine has the best jobs” Historically, the city population closely relate to the employment of the mining company. Kiruna population keeps decreasing since mid 1970s, though LKAB is aggressive in increasing production of iron ore, better state’s economy does not necessarily mean more attractive living environment. The population, especially the youth, declines steadily and the imbalance in gender, age and education creates various social problems. The mining activities on the other hand gives rise to many environmental problems like aftermined landscape, water pollution, soil contamination and, needless to say, the deformation and eventually relocation of city. Did the dream of ideal city lose in the 21th century? Is Kiruna just a mining town? Is economical development more important than the social, cultural and environmental issues?
The Kiruna Paradox |Kit Ting Karie Yu|
Thanks to the improving technology, physical on-site workers might not be needed eventually; the existence of the city might not be necessary if mining is only thing the citizens concern. Moreover, what will happen when the ore runs out? The new Kiruna, which is built on technically unstable landscape, should be planned in sustainable way. Human beings are like plants, we have our roots and identity to the landscape we belong. Instead of looking for a site to host the 18,000 residents which could possibly moving out, the state should get the involvement of the residents and indigenous people to rebuilding their ideal home and pay efforts in the environmental regeneration of extraction site and its integration to local ecosystem. The subsidence of city is a stepwise decommissioning of urban space. There is a period of 10-15 years for the visible fault to occur. During this period, we can still walk but not build. The planning of the “deforming land” and the perspective for “post-mining era” should be addressed. Is the “mine city park” a good example of creating a soft transition to the condemnation? Human activities leave open wounds to landscape, the scars that are marks left on the landscape tell us something about its dynamism, the history of the land. As one of the largest underground mines in the world, the dramatically deformed landscape, massive infrastructure and after-mined landscape should be regenerated to local ecosystem and developed as to raise public awareness of our scars to the nature.
Moving Kiruna is not about moving the houses, but about regeneration of the ecosystem and social landscape which should be diversified. Recreation, education, natural resources, art and cultures and a wider range of industries should be promoted. The relocation project, instead of “refugee relocation”, could be seen as opportunity to “re-find” the “lost surface”- the lost productive land of herding, harvesting, hunting, living and breathing.
The environmental risks of mining in Finnmark Kari Havnevik AHO 2012
The environmental risks of mining in Finnmark Bidjovagge copper and gold mine was put into rest in 1991 after twenty years of extraction. The mine is located 40 km northeast of Kautokeino, a small village in the northern part of Norway. The mine stretches 2,5 km over Finnmarksvidda, where the Sami population heards their reindeer. In the last couple of years the interest in extracting minerals in Finnmark has increased. Companies worldwide have been exploring the land searching for new opportunities for economic profit. There is a discussion going on whether or not the mine will pass all the acts and legislations and be reopened by the Swedish company Arctic Gold AB. There is a growing recognition within the mining sector that the right to free, prior and informed consent is needed in order to improve the relationship with indigenous people, in this case the Sami ethnic group. Letters of intent have been made, but do they secure the indigenous people of Finnmarksvidda’s interests? The mining companies has offered co-operation and compensation, but still there is quite a bit of opposition to further extraction of mineral resources. But what happens with the nature and environment which constitute the livelihood of the reindeer herders? Why has not any agreements been made that deal with protecting these fragile areas? Bidjovagge copper and gold mine operating in 1974
As one of the leading oil countries in the world Norway does not need the income from exporting raw minerals yet. Norway is one of the most competent nations in the world when it comes to oil drilling technology, but in mining, both when it comes to the extraction of minerals and its further industrial processing, we are amateurs. Luckily we have competent neighbors. Sweden and Finland are far ahead of us in this field, and these countries are therefore also interested in the regulations that can allow them to start operating in Norway. Kiruna in northern Sweden is an example of a well functioning mine, where the mining industry has been large enough to build up a city with highly developed infrastructure as well as a well functioning local community.
Scars in the landscape When extracting minerals, massive waste rock is deposited. These deposits represent true nightmares for the mining industries. A question that keeps bothering the mining entrepreneurs generelt eller I Finnmark – du mister litt focus – du beginner essayet med å snakke om Bidjovagge og Finnmark, men så skriver du generelt om gruveindustri – tror det er lurt å holde fokus
på Finnmark is what to do with deposit areas larger than ten soccer fields. For many Sami people, such large deposits would be considered a serious damage to the natural beauty and threaten the hearding rescources on which they make their livelihood. The environmental damages and effects on the biosphere could also be fatal. Bidjovagge today still rests upon an unfinished closure. An urgent question is to find out who is responsible for cleaning up the environmental damages and heal the wounds of the landscape. The Swedish iron mine in Kiruna is a frightening example of how fatal the lack of future plans for environmentally safe depositing can be. It is a well known fact that the whole city of Kiruna is sinking because the ground has been over-extracted. Lakes have been drained empty and the massive gash in the landscape leaves an incurable wound. The whole city will have to be moved to another location within a 30 year time span. There is a debate in Sweden about who is responsible for this disastrous damage to the environment. Is it LKAB (Luossavaara Kiirunavaara Aktie Bolag), the mining company, or the Swedish government? Future reclamation fund? The Norwegian parliament adopted a audit of the Norwegian Mineral Act in 2009 without the Sami parliamants consent. The purpose of the Minerals Act is to promote and ensure the socially responsible management and use of mineral resources in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. In 2010 the Sami parliament accepted the Act which took effect in 2011. But the Mineral Act has a weakness when it comes to securing the landscape and the environment. It confirms that companies have to be economically solid so that they can set a financial guarantee in order to provide funds for restoring the landscape after extraction of minerals is completed. Furthermore, the Act suggests how the companies should secure values in the financial sector, in insurance or mortgage, even if they are bankrupt.
The Swedish example in Kiruna has shown that in order to implement reclamation of an area, it is necessary to involve the government. Since it is necessary for the mining companies to obtain governmental permission, it is deemed mandatory, says the critic, that the government should not give permissions unless a detailed and well financed plan for cleaning up is included. If we compare mining with the extraction of oil outside the coast of Norway, part of the enormous profits have been put into the Norwegian Oil Fund, where there is today NOK 3.403,300,358,667. Together with the Folketrygdefond it is the largest fund in our country. The oil fund invests in Norway’s own oil economy and pays off state budget debts, if there are any. In addition, and this is a model that many people think should be used also when minerals are extracted in Finnmark, the treasury grants money for infrastructure and improvement of health and education. This is all very well, but in addition – the case of mining on Finnmarksvidda – it would also be important to secure that landscape is not destroyed. Strong local voices demand that a national reclamation fund should be established, which secure the future environment from fatal disasters. Mining and other businesses, which involve a risk of environmental scarring should provide tax money to the fund. If the fund taxes are set very high, however, mining would be less profitable, and therefore less interesting for the companies. There are several parties involved in the discussion over mineral extraction on Finnmarksvidda. There are the ethnic Norwegian inhabitants in Finnmark, the Sami population, the general Norwegians and elected political representatives of the government. Some politicians maintain that since Norway does not need the income of the mining business yet, we can raise the tax rates in order to secure the landscape and postpone the expropriation. Inhabitants in Finnmark have divergent views on the matter – some support mining so that job opportunities can be created locally, while Sami herders are afraid that the vulnerable ecosystem on the tundra would be destroyed resulting in less forage for the reindeer.
The Iron Mine in Kinuna, Sweden compared in scale with BjĂ¸rvika in Oslo
There are many arguments for and against mining in Finnmark, and a strong voice can be heard that speaks for future generations. There has been a heated debate about oil drilling outside Lofoten using such arguments, while the debate about mining in Finnmark has not been similarly strong on national television or in the big newspapers. The reason why these environmental issues are not on the agenda may be because the scarred areas are not in the backyard of politicians in the capital. If a copper and
gold mine was located in BjĂ¸rvika, next to the new Opera, or at another central part of Oslo, there would have been intense political debates about the environmental issues. In case a big mining operation were to happen in Oslo, plans for reclaiming the area and turning it into a performance landscape would most probably have been part of the initial operations. Bidjovagge is located far away from the politicians in Oslo, so little has yet been heard from their side about the serious environmental issues involved.
“There is no future in the future” Linn Riise Handal
“There is no future in the future” There are many ways of seeing and using the landscape. This text elaborates some of the overlapping themes and discusses their importance by showing them also according to time.
In 2011 the Government decided to allocate 100 million NOK – over a four years period – to NGU (Geology for Society since 1858) and MINN (the program Mineral Resources in Northern Norway). Most of the money will go to geophysical measurements, which will increase the possibility of finding gold and other mineral resources. This summer NGU completed the task of taking geochemical samples from the entire northern region. About 2200 moraine samples were collected, by walking the terrain and digging holes every 30-40 km2. The possible findings will before we know it determine the destiny of this northern landscape. Different types of use and practices in the landscape, such as reindeer herding and the fishing industry are at risk. Mineral industry – Can we wait? As mentioned above there seems to be no lack of money related to research purposes related to future mineral industries. The price for the minerals is what determines if mining will be profitable or not. The prices will vary due to the economical market, but still we are risking societies and important landscapes for the mining industry which may provide resources for only some 20 years. The title for this text: “There is no future in the future” is a quote from Svein Helge Orheim from the Barents Institute. With this he described how the current mining industry in Kirkenes is an example showing lack of long term planning. The mineral business operates based on what makes profits for their industry. Their goal is to get as much money as possible out of the ground, not necessarily giving anything back to the region they are located in. Trond Giske, the Norwegian Minister of Trade and Industry, has articulated that it is Norway’s duty to exploit the resources we can. We have to contribute so that the rest of the world can get the standard of living that Norwegians are so used to. As Managing Director of Nussir asa, Øystein Rushfeldt, has stated: “Today’s society has not yet been planned for not mining. That would be to say that people in India
cannot have a car, washing machine and other products that they need”. We are major consumers of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable, and the global consumption trends are facing upwards. In many cases consumption can burden the environment and balanced thought on environment and resource will be an important challenge for our future society. Is it not then questionable that Norway, as the world’s richest country, promotes the mineral industry as a major investment? Reindeer herding – bound to disappear? Most of the landscape in Northern Norway is actually in use, though some decision makers - seeing the area from outside - tend to talk of this as a wilderness area, where mining and other industries could benefit the land and the societies. Although reindeer herding is not as powerful and as profitable as the mining industry, it is part of the Northern landscape and it needs to be respected as such. The reindeer herding has been a present industry for centuries and it is a big part of the region’s identity. What if the pressure from the mining industry is too big? We do not really know how great, or what the consequences might be? Minor changes on this landscape can lead to big consequences, as the reindeer herds are depending on big areas. The Sami herders use the landscape, and they read it in the context of navigating between pastures. The reindeer herding is a complex task, as up to 80 000 animals needs to be moved, without them getting mixed. Power lines, roads and windmills are all effects of the mining industry, which will affect the reindeer herding. As the mining industry operates with the time aspect of only some 20 years we know that in the long term reindeer herding is more reliable than mining. But for how long can the coexistence of different landscape use go on before the reindeer herding breaks down?
Geology – the hidden secrets When facing these decisions regarding a “new” mineral industry it is important to remember the framework for this. It is because of the geology and its long time spans that we now have an ability to use the resources. Decisions which feel safe in the human sense may not be so in the geological - in which time
frame is much, much longer. It is important to preserve the traces from the beginning of our time. By keeping an awareness of how this landscape was formed we maintain knowledge and understanding of our place in time and of our role in the situation. Many geologists express a great sensitivity and respect for landscape. When they experience a landscape they see it in the perspective of deep time, and small traces of this history is given value. Maybe we should all try to possess some of this attitude? The term landscape is formed by humans; often we read it as the ground we walk on. In addition we think of mountains as a symbol for the stable and eternal. Norway’s oldest bedrock was formed up to 2,8 Billion years ago, with gneiss in Kirkenes as the oldest rock. We have left many traces on the landscape surface, but is there something more disturbing as we drill our way down in the terrain? We are emptying the mountains for non-renewable resources, and the toxic rest material is being placed elsewhere. What if the latest generation’s footprint will be a money-based landscape with big holes and scars? As we see, different professionals read and use landscape based on their background. They value different aspects regarding what they want from it. There are different voices which all have their point of view on the mineral industry, but it is obvious who is the loudest. Arguments against the industry are clear and important, but still they seem to be given less value. If we, in the unlikely, were to plan for a long time perspective; would we not see that to invest in mining industry is maybe the most profitable for the time being, but by far the most advantageous way of reading the landscape? One can hope that for the future we will develop a functioning model, where all landscape practices will have an equal chance of winning the fight for the landscape.
Sources: http://www.ngu.no/no/Aktuelt/2011/Jakten-pa-mineralressurser-i-nord-i-gang/ Lecture by Svein Helge Orheim at the Barents Institute http://www.tu.no/industri/2011/11/01/1500-milliarder-ligger-skjult-i-fjellene Lecture by Øystein Rushfeldt at AHO Lecture by Ivar Bjørklund at AHO ‘The Making of a Land – Geology of Norway’
D E S O P M I R UPE JOHNSR HANNE
S U P E R I M P O S E D
F i e l d s o f e x p l o r a t i o n : in the demands for a mineral strategy of the north, northern Norway is portrayed as unchartered territory, where enormous riches await those ready to venture into the underground. Already established rights and extensive land uses are under pressure as we open for a new negotiation of the limits of exploitation. Investigating the spatial narratives of the northernmost areas of Norway, I travel across the Finnmark plateau and Varanger onboard Google Earth and the satellite images show a landscape formed by geological histories and hardly visibly marked by human activity.
Web of reindeer husbandry: pasture areas, administrative districts, fences, herding routes, tent areas and hearding cabins. Following the lines of the terrain and adjusted to national borders and infrastructure
Grid of mineral exploration rights: each area can be max 10km2, a square rectangle, parallell to the UTM map EUREF89. Longest side no longer than 10km and shortest side no shorter than 1 km. There are no limits to the number of exploration areas
The images reveal nothing of the territorial histories of Norway as a nation state or its once heavily guarded border to neighbouring USSR. Neither do they reveal the productive landscapes of indigenous animal husbandry, nor the vast watersheds of the Alta and Tana rivers. Yet, these areas are covered by an intricate web of borderlines and spatial narratives. Over time, the land uses and rights of resources have been c a r e f u l l y n e g o t i a t e d . The lines regulating the reindeer herding industry can be read as a narrative of the natural landscape; the vegetation and pasture conditions in summer and winter; where the herd can cross a river; the outline of lakes and landforms. These naturally formed borderlines have been altered by national border divisions, lines of infrastructure, settlements and other land uses. Continuous pressure from competing land uses has made this vulnerable arctic landscape into a tense, extensively productive and highly regulated territory. In contrast to this slow undulating process of negotiation, with the landscape, the vegetation, traditional lifestyles, new industries and modern infrastructure, n e w b o r d e r l i n e s a r e n o w f o r m i n g in the high north, superimposed on the landscape and related to geological resources below the surface. The grid of exploration rights echoes the borderlines drawn on maps of former colonial empires.
Preparing a mineral strategy conquest of the north
While Norway has explored oil and gas potentials in the north, Finland and Sweden has mapped their mineral resources. As marked prices of metals and rare earth minerals skyrocket, the Norwegian mining industry argues for the need of a mineral strategy along the line of these countries. The Finnish strategy recognises the challenge of competing land uses and calls for a p r i o r i t i s a t i o n of extensive mineral exploitation. Both the Finnish and Swedish strategy calls for s i m p l i f i e d p r o c e s s e s and regulations concerning mining concessions. In Norway, the new mining law of 2009 brought simplified procedures for mineral exploration and by 2010, 23 companies had been granted searching rights in Finnmark alone. In February 2012, the Canadian exploration company Dalradian Resources secured exploration rights of 11.000 km2 in northern Norway. The Norwegian mining industry has called for predictability for i n v e s t o r s , with less insecurity concerning indigenous issues, and ensuring a geological mapping before any areas are earmarked or protected. And to ensure similar conditions for the companies, the industry asks that the responsibility of impact assessments of mining is moved from the municipalities to the directorate of mining. The argument is that the cases are too complex for the municipalities to handle. The geopolitical positioning of Norway has moved from a matter of securing national sovereignty, to the establishment of cooperation in a Barents perspective and securing access to untapped resources. In a global economy, this means developing competences and a political framework to meet a r a c e o f c o m p a n i e s r a t h e r t h a n o f c o u n t r i e s . The government has granted 100 Mill. NOK for mineral mapping in the north and new potentials are uncovered and a whole new (sub-) terrain is revealed as the geochemical maps are published.
Minerals are categorised “of national interests” or “of national significance”, and “the nations’ need for minerals” is legitimising the reservation of exploration rights for large private companies, the opening for renegotiation of already granted rights and the r e m o v a l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d c o n t r o l of the impacts assessments from local political control.
Superimposed spatial narratives From a satellite perspective, it seems that in these large territories we should be able to afford some damages and take our part of the burden of mining. After all, we do want our mobile phones and batteries. The world needs minerals, and so we are silenced in the encounter with the economic and consumerist values presented to us by the same industry that reaps the benefits. There is a long way from exploration rights to operative mining. The mineral concessions map however, carries an understanding of rights, rights that justify private company investment in exploration because they expect future revenues from mining. The satellite images do not show the multiple and overlapping spatial narratives of this landscape, and as lines are drawn on the map, t h e f i e l d for negotiation is altered step by s t e p , undermining our understanding of what are already existing rights and agreements, and a new map of northern Norway is formed. Borders in our head are shifting and so are the limits of exploitation.
S ou rces: Bergrettighetsregisteret, Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning med Bergmesteren for Svalbard. http://www.ngu.no/kart/bergrettigheter, visited 7.3.2012 Boyd, Rognvald, Mineral- og metallressurser in Norge: potensial og strategisk betydning, NGU, Trondheim 2011 Google Earth, Data SIO, NOAA U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO, 2012 Terra Metrics Norsk Bergindustri, Mineralske råstoffer som mulighet – Behovet for en mineralstrategi i Norge. http://www.norskbergindustri.no/omnorsk-bergindustri/_attachment/72731?amp;download=true NæringsRapport Nr. 2-2010, Tromsø 2010, http://nrapp.no/pdf/ nrapp_1002.pdf Reindriftsforvaltningen kart.reindrift.no/reinkart/ visited7.3.2012
FIELDS OF EXPLORATION: STUDYTRIP TO KIRKENES. 7-9 MARCH 2012.
All photographs by Hanne Johnsrud
Kirkenes, 7. March 2012. In for landing
BjĂ¸rnevatn Gruver seen from the air. The city of Nikel in the background
Soria Moria? Nikel seen from BjĂ¸rnevatn
BjĂ¸rnevatn open cast mining
Picnic at BjĂ¸rnevatn
"Visitor groups are like signs of spring for us that work here at the mine" said by the truck driver who was kind enough to make the group photo
Irene, Xin and Karie checking out the power tools
Man made and nature
The sides of the waiste rock dumps settle at an angle of 37 degrees. As the maximum hight is reached, new areas for waste deposits must be found.
Northern Iron Limited - aka Sydvaranger Gruve
The train yard was sold as the mine closed down in 1996. Plans were made to transform the building into a hotel or offices. Today, the building is protected, and the mining company is renting it back from its new owners - to be used as a train yard..
Each cart carries 60-70 tons of Iiron ore. The breaks are checked regularily.
The train connects the mine to the plant at Kirkenes. 8 km railroad. In 1906, the year after Norwegian self rule, King Haakon travelled the distance on board the waggon seen
From Kirkenes to BjĂ¸rnevatn, the empty carts are pushed uphill by the locomotive.
Entering the silo at BjĂ¸rnevatn
Inside the silo at BjĂ¸rnevatn. As the locomotive slowly pulls out of the silo, each cart is filled by iron ore.
Back down to Kirkenes, the locomotive now pulls 16-19 carts of each 60-70 tons of iron ore
Iron ore is pored off the train, travels up the conveyor belt, is shifted over to the next conveyor belt at the intersection and continues up to the mills at the top
The mountain below is punctured by massive silos, tracks and conveyor belts.
Bergen Group KIMEK - Shipyard for the Russian fishing fleet.
Bergen Group KIMEK - Shipyard
Twice a month, a ship comes to Kirkenes to collect iron ore
MULTILAYERED LANDSCAPES ROADTRIP 9-11 MARCH 2012.
45 km west of Kirkenes is Neiden. The hills surrounding the Neiden river was once at the bottom of the sea. As the river worked is way through, the flat sea floor can be seen as horisontal lines in the landscape.
As the river freezes over, new lines of communication opens up along and across its flat surface.
The routes and recreational use of snowscooters is a controversial issue.
Bugøyfjord. Birthplace of the Sámi artist John Savio
Heading for BugĂ¸ynes. VadsĂ¸ can be seen across the Varanger fjord.
The fishing village of BygĂ¸ynes was one of few settlements spared from the burnt soil tactics of the german forces as they left Finnmark at the end of 2WW
The population of BugĂ¸ynes is mainly of finnish descent.and the language is still in daily use here.
Fishing has been the main industry in BugĂ¸ynĂŚs. King crab is now a new source of income
Barents sea straight ahead
Leaving BugĂ¸ynes these two decided to cross the road in front of us.
As the coast, winds remove the snow, but leaves frosen ground instead
Border town Kirkenes
Borisoglebsky/ Boris Gleb. hydroelectric power plant and Russian orthodox chuch across the border.
Visible and invisible. Across the frosen Pikevatn, the border between Russia and Norway. is marked by thin sticks of wood.
Individually painted. Yellow marks the Norwegian border.
End of the journey. Thanks to Arnt Ucherman and Anne Flaatten for the roadtrip of SĂ¸r-Varanger, and for their warmth and hospitality
And thanks to Mathilde who was a great travelling companion