Sugahcane and its
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SUGARCANE BREEDING INSTITUTE
jlNDlAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH)
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:ofwaterlogging in sug-_icaL_and its management
dial 10-30% of sugarcane area is affected by waterlogging which is one of the major constraints affecting crop productivity in the Indo-Gangetic belt and the coastal areas. About 73% of the annual rainfall in India is received during the South West monsoon (June to September) which is the
in the resistant clones 91 WL 552,91 WL 629, 92 WL 1390,92 WL 1029,97 WL 633,99 WL 379 and 98 WL 1357. Waterlogging resulted in 42.63, 45.16, 44.69% reduction in leaf, stem and total dry matter production, respectively.
susceptible standards under natural waterlogged c0nditiot-1 at Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Gmnur for a period of four Years. The crop experienced natural waterlogging during May-July with a water level of 30-60 cm height for three months coinciding with the formative and grand growth phases (90-180 DAP). Control field was maintained with same
aerial roots particularly up to water level were the morphological changes noticed due to waterlogging stress. However, most of the tolerant types maintained better cane length, cane girth, and stalk number even under waterlogged condition. Under waterlogging, sugarcane developed the adventitious roots, which develop as the result of hormonal imbalance induced by the hypoxia and decreased supply of oxygen to the submerged tissues. Some of the adaptive features for waterlogging, rate of aerial root formation, extent of branching, number of nodes with aerial roots and root density were found to be more in resistant clones.
MorpholoOical changes: Reduction in primarycause for floods and overall crop growth, yellowing of leaves, fast To study the effect of waterlogging stress on drying of lower leaves, reduction in leaf sugarcane, a field experiment was ~ ~ f x k ~ c t enumber d and size, reduction in cane height, with resistant and thickness, stalk number and emergence of using 16 sugarcane c~oII~s
set of clones in all the years. Physiologicaland biochemical changes were compared between control and waterlogging at grand growth (180-240 DAP) and maturity phases of the crop (240-360 DAP).
~flecton gemination and tillering: 1 Waterlogging reduced the production of tillers and the rate of elongation of the established tillers and the decrease was more with longer duration of flooding. However the stress during later stage did not affect tiller production, but affected the rate of cane elongation. Waterlogging during tillering increased tiller mortality and reduced stalk population at later stages of the crop. Waterlogging stress caused 13.00, 21.63 and 26.52% reductions in plant height, tiller production and leaf area respectively. However,the reduction was less
Nutrient imbalance: Waterlogging stress induced 28.07% and 29.53% reduction in leaf and stem nitrogen content, respectively. However, in both leaf and stem, reduction in nitrogen was comparatively less in 91 WL 629,91 WL 552,92 WL 1390,98 WL 1357 and 99 WL 379 than in the other clones. Phosphorous and potassium contents of leaf and stem were not affected by waterlogging. Juice quality: Sucrose % juice reached a peak at 11" month under waterlogging, while in control maximum sucrose was recorded at 12" month (Fig. 2). However, clones 93 WL
1297,98 WL 1357,88 WL 2137,92 WL 1029, NCO 310 and 57 NG 136 showed lesser resistance to inversion of sucrose as compared to other clones. Hence inversion of sucrose is a limiting factor for high sucrose accumulation under waterlogging. ' P
Efforts were on for more than a decade t o develop waterlogging tolerant clones at SBI RC, Kannur by using waterlogging resistant parents. Co 99006 is one of the recent varieties developed for waterlogging condition. The clones identified from this study are: 99 WL 629,91 WL 552,92 WL 1029, 98 WL 1357,97 WL 633 and 99 WL 379.
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Fig. 2. Changes in juice quality under waterlogging stress
Impact of waterlogging st yield and yield components Waterlogging caused 22.4O0/0, reduction in number of millable canes, 45.60 9b reduction in single canes weight, 30.00째/o reduction in cane length, 15.90% reduction in internodal length, 17.80% reduction in cane t h i h e s s and 50.1% reduction in cane yield (Fig. 3). The yield and yield components was comparatively better in 91 WL 552, 91 WL 629,92 WL 1029,93 WL 1297,97 WL 633 and 98 WL 1357 showing their resistance to waterlogging stress.
Varieties for waterlogging mistance
Variety Co 62175 is highly adapted to excess moisture stress condition. Some of the recent varieties, which can be grown under waterlogging conditions are Co 8231, Co 8232, Co 8145, CoSi 86071 and CoSi 776, Co 8371, 93A4, 93Al1, 93A 145, 93A21, BO 91, Co 87263, Co 87268, CoTl8201and CoTl 88322.
Fig.3. NMC & Yield of sugarcane clones in response to .waterlogging stress - r_ . ..': . J r p
)i16nig&=nfbkactiCeS planting ~
Crop planted in first week of February gave higher yield than the crop planted in March or April. Autumn planting is more beneficial than spring planting as by the time flooding starts, autumn crop would have attained sufficient vigour and height. It is suggested that setts should be
planted deep and earthing up should be done as the crop grows.
Deep drench system of planting could be adopted for early drought and late waterlogged condition to improve yield of both plant and ratoon crops.
Use of ~ o l ~ b a single g bud settlings or single bud settlings raised in nursery may be planted after water
recedes t o overcome ' t h e germination loss under waterlogged situation. Partha method of planting (planting 3 budded setts in slanting position at 60째 angle with one bud inside the soil) will be helpful under early waterlogged situation. Ring system and pit method of planting should not be practiced under waterlogging situation. Drainage channel of 75 cm depth may be provided for every six to ten rows to drain the excess water at the time of waterlogging.
Pre-monsoonfield practices Before the onset of monsoon rains, the following field practices may be carried out. Cleaning the drainage channels and furrows
I Propping Wet earthing up and Opening the natural drainage outlek
Arrangement should be made to drain out the filed as quickly as possible by clearing the drainage channels, furrows, and natural drainage outlets from the field. Crop which is likely to be harvested late may be given additional dose of nitrogen and potassium (125 kg urea + 60 kg muriate of potash) to rejuvenate the root system, improve crop survival and reduce the pith formation. Split application helps in minimising nitrate leaching, the chances of which are high under waterlogging. Foliar spray of 2.5% urea during waterlogging increasesthe yield of cane.
Harvesting The sucrose content increases suddenly after the receding of water and drops again after a few days. Moreover canes of waterlogged areas start drying at a faster rate after receding of water in comparison to normally grown canes. Therefore, cane should be harvested as early as possible after water recession so that maximum amount of sucrose is obtained.
bsrrsEon Publicmon No : 185 (2010J Script by : Dr. R. Gomathi, Dr. K. Chandran, Dr. P.N. Gururaja Rao Dr. P. Rakkiyappan : Dr. T. Rajula Shanthy Edited by : Dr. N. Vijayan Nair Published by Director, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore - 641 007 0422 - 2472621,2472723 Fax: 2472923 : Abi Print, Coimbatore Printed by