Pineapple Area Under Cultivation In India it is grown in Karnataka, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Kerela, Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Nagaland. It is also cultivated on limited areas in the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu, Goa and Orissa.
Botanical Name :- Ananus comosus Family :- Bromeliaceae Plant Discription : It is a herbaceous perennial,90 to 100 cm in height with spreading leaves which gives the plant a rosette appearance.The palnt bears a single fruit terminally on a peduncle protruding out from the centre of the rosette.
Centre of Origin : Brazil Pollination System: Cross pollinated Chromosome No. : 2n=50 Nutritional Levels : Moisture (%)
Mineral matter (%)
Calories (K Cal)
Vitamin C (mg/100g)
Folic acid-Free (mg/100g)
Folic acid- Total (mg/100g) 0
Pineapple Diseases Black-rot or Soft-rot A delay of some days between harvest and utilization of the ripe fruits leads to the development of black-rot or soft-rot. The fungus makes its entry through wounds caused during picking and packing. Infestation starts at the stalk-end of the fruit, resulting in small, circular, water-soaked spots that are very soft. Gradually, fruit rots and emits foul smell. Control : Dipping of fruits for 5 minutes in Thiabendazole (100 ppm) or Benomyl (3000 ppm) minimise rotting. Avoiding injury to the fruit during harvest and transit prevents disease occurrence.
Heart-rot (Phytophthora parasitica) The disease causes complete rotting of the central portion of the stem. The top leaves turn brown and basal portion of leaves shows sign of rotting with foul odour. Poor physical condition of the soil and inadequate drainage are responsible for spread of the disease. Control : Affected plantations should be sprayed with Chlorthalonil 20g or Zineb 20g/10 litre of water. Good soil drainage and use of healthy planting material at helps in minimising the spread of the disease.
Leaf and Fruit-rot (Cyratostomella paradoxa) Base or butt rot of planting material occurs when they are not dried and packed with little aeration. Fungus also destroys older plants by entering through wounds caused in the collar region while weeding or other operations. In severe conditions the entire plant may turn dark and rot within two or three days Control : The disease can be controlled by dipping planting materials in 0.3% Dithane Z-78 or by spraying on leaves. Copper fungicide should not be used in pineapple as they cause leaf scorching. The diseased plants must be destroyed and suckers for propagation should never be collected from the infested area.
Leaf Spot (Phytophthora sp.) It occurs frequently in moist, warm, climate of eastern parts in India. Initial symptoms are in the form of water soaked lesions on the leaves. The spots later on enlarge in size and gradually dries up. Control : Affected plantations should be sprayed with Chlorthalonil 20g or Zineb 20g/10 litre of water. Good soil drainage and use of healthy planting material at helps in minimising the spread of the disease.
Thielaviopsis rot (Thielaviopsis paradoxa) The symptoms start at the stem and advance through most of the flesh with the only external symptom being slight skin darkening due to water soaking of the skin over rotted portions of the flesh. As the flesh softens, the skin above readily breaks under slight pressure Control : Careful handling of the fruit to minimise mechanical injuries. Prompt cooling and maintenance of optimum temperature and relative humidity throughout postharvest handling operations. Application of fungicides, such as Thiabendazole (TBZ) is recommended.
Pineapple Disorders Multiple Crowns Ordinarily fruit bears a single crown but in some cases fruit bears more than one. Consequently the top of the fruit will be flat and broad and fruit will be unfit for canning. Such fruits taste insipid and are corky. It is supposed to be a heritable character, found mostly in Cayenne group to which the variety Kew belongs.
Fruit and Crown Fasciation Fasciated fruits are deformed to such an extent that they are totally useless. In certain cases, proliferation is so extreme that fruit is highly flattened and twisted with innumerable crowns. Fruits and crowns fasciation is associated with high vigour of plants, which take longer time to flower. High fertility of soil, warm weather and calcium or zinc deficiency may favour fasciation.
Collar of Slips The collar of slips is typified by the presence of a large number of slips arising from stem close to the base of the fruit, or even directly from the fruits itself. The excessive slip growth is at the expense of the fruit, resulting in small, tapered fruits, often with knobs at the base. High nitrogen fertilization and high rainfall along with relatively low temperature are supposed to be congenial for such an abnormality (Ganapathy et al., 1977).ICAR pineaple
Dry Fruit and Bottle Neck The dry fruit and bottle neck fruit types are very similar and may be derived from the same parent. In dry fruit type, fruit is small, flowers are absent and fruitlets do not develop. In bottle neck, lower fruitlets develop normally and upper ones do not develop and give the same appearance as dry fruits. Suckers are freely produced from both the types.
Sun-Scald This results when plant leans or falls over to one side, thus exposing one side of the fruit to direct sunlight. The cells of the exposed surface get damaged. Later shell surface assumes a brownish to black colour and cracks may appear between fruitlets. Affected fruits soon rot and become infested with pests. They must be cut as soon as noticed and safely disposed of where they will not contaminate other fruits. In high-density planting, intensity of sun-scald is very much minimised. Under favourable climates where leaf growth is luxuriant, leaves can be tied around the fruits to protect them from sunscald. The other method is to cover sun-exposed portion of the fruit with dry straw or grass or with any other locally available materials.
Pineapple Harvesting Pineapple plants flower 10-12 months after planting and attain harvesting stage 15-18 months after planting, depending on the variety, time of planting, the type and size of plant material used and the prevailing temperature during fruit development. Under natural conditions, pineapple comes to harvest during May- August. With a slight colour change at the base of developing fruit, it could be harvested for canning purpose. But for table purpose, the fruit could be retained till it develops satisfactory golden yellow colour. Harvesting is done with a sharp knife, severing the fruit-stalk with a clean cut retaining 5-7m of stalk with the fruit in such a way that the fruit is not damaged.
Yield The yield of pineapple fruit varies with the variety, agroclimate, agrotechniques and planting density. The fruit yield with a plant density of 35000-40000 plants/ha was about 40-50 tonnes and that of 43,300-50000 plants/ha was 50-60 tonnes.
Pineapple Intercultural Operations Weed Control Hariyali and nutgrass are the common weeds in pineapple plantations. Weeding is important from the economic point of view. Hand weeding especially in closely spaced crop is cumbersome and uneconomic. Therefore chemical control of weed is advisable. Pineapple Research Station, Vellanikkara, Thrissur (Kerala), recommended application of Diuron at 3 kg /ha or combination of Diuron (1.5 kg/ha) + Bromacil (2.0 kg /ha) as pre-emergence spray. It should be repeated with half of the dose, 5 months after the first application (AICFIP, 1978)ICAR, Pineapple. Irrigation followed by the herbicide spray helps in carrying herbicides to the root zone of the weeds.
Earthing Up Due to its shallow root system pineapple plants are prone to lodging. Lodging of plants during fruit development results in lopsided growth and uneven development of fruits. Hence earthing up is an important operation in pineapple cultivation, as it helps in promoting good anchorage to plants. It involves pushing soil into the trench from the ridge, where trench planting is common.
Mulching Mulching is one of the cultural practices aimed at weed control and soil-moisture conservation. It is essential when pineapple is gown as a rainfed crop and is feasible where flatbed planting is followed. In South India, mulch of leaves or straw is spread on soil between the plants. However, use of black polythene film as mulch is equally beneficial.
Removal of Suckers, Slips and Crowns Suckers start growing with the emergence of inflorescence while slips grow with developing fruits. Only one or two suckers are retained on the plant for ratooning while additional suckers and all slips are removed. This is essential as the growth of these may weaken plant and hinder fruit development. Desuckering can be delayed as much as possible since fruit weight was found to increase with increasing number of suckers per plant. Increased number of slips delayed fruit maturity; therefore they are removed as soon as they attain the size required for planting. Where early harvest is required slips are removed as and when they sprout. Removal of crown is not required as it mars appeal of fruit and also makes handling difficult. However in Kew variety, partial pinching of crown by removing the inner whorls of leaflets along with the growing tips one and half month after fruit set lead to increased fruit size (Prakash et al.,1983)ICAR Pineapple.
Ratoon Crop In India, pineapple is retained for about three crops. The subsequent rotation crops are borne by the suckers given out by the original plant. Only two of these suckers should be retained and all others removed. Slips should also be removed. Plants should be fertilized and earthened up so that they can have good anchorage for ratoon crop.
Pineapple Irrigation Pineapple needs light and frequent irrigation due to its shallow root system. Irrigation is done only during the dry months from January till the break of the monsoon. However, 4-6 irrigations in the summer months at 20-25 days interval helps in increasing the yield.
Pineapple Manuring & Fertilization Pineapple plants require heavy manuring. It can absorb nitrogen in the from of ammonia. Ammonia Sulphate, therefore, is the best fertilizer for it. Application of 20 to 30 tons of cow dung manure during the first six months is recommended. It is recommended to give N and K2 O at 12 g each per plant. If soils are poor in phosphorus, 4 g of P2 O5 / plant can be given. Nitrogen should be applied in 6 split doses at bimonthly intervals. The first dose of Nitrogen is given 2 months after planting. Potash should be given in 2 splits. Entire phosphorus and half the dose of potash can be given at the time of planting and the remaining potash 6 months after planting. Application of fertilizer in rainfed areas has to be done when moisture is available (AICFIP). Sometimes zinc deficiency appears in pineapple which leads to a condition called Crookneck. Spraying of 0.5 per cent zinc sulphate can prevent it. Since pineapples flower erratically, forcing of flowers is a common practice. This is done chemically by use of growth regulators which induces flowering and subsequent fruiting. Following growth regulators are recommended for different months to induce flowering -
NAA 10 ppm (Planofix 1 ml/4.5 litres of water)
Ethrel 10 ppm (2.5 ml/100 litres of water) + 2% urea + 0.04% sodium carbonate
Ethrel 25 ppm (6.5 ml/100 litres of water) + 2% urea + 0.04% sodium carbonate.
The mixture is to be poured into the heart of the plant at 50ml per plant. After the growth regulator treatment plants will take 45-50 days to put forth the inflorescence. If it rains within 24-36 hours after the application of the chemical the treatment should be repeated. Plants with 35-39 active leaves are optimum to force it to flower by treating with growth regulators.
Pineapple Pests Mealy Bug (Pseudococcus brevipes) : The rapid spread of this malady in the field is largely due to the feeding habit of bugs. Symptoms first appear on roots which cease to grow, eventually leading to collapse of tissues. The most predominant symptom is wilting of leaves, commencing from leaf tips. Reddish-yellow colour develops in the wilting areas. Finally the plants rot and develop decaying suckers. Fruits developed are undersized. Ants of several species act as carriers of mealy bugs. Control : Application of Phorate granules @ 1.75 kg/a.i /ha at 100 days after planting controlls mealy bugs (IIHR, Bangalore). This insecticide should not be applied at the time of flowering and fruiting because of its systemic nature. Indirect control of mealy bugs can be achieved by treating soil with either Chlordane (27.5 kg/ha) or Heptachlor (22.5 kg/ha) to check carrier ants.
Nematodes (Meliodogyne sp.) : During low population of nematodes there are no visible symptoms however, at a later plant growth is restricted and finally leaves become chlorotic. Control : Healthy plant material should be used for new plantings. The common method followed to control nematodes is soil fumigation with Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) at 100 kg/ha or EDB 15 at 250 to 350 litres/ ha, 2-3 weeks before planting depending upon the severity of infection. Plants soaked in 1,500 ppm Nemacur solution and treated with 0.2 g/plant every 2 months were found free from nematodes.
Pineapple Post Harvest Technology Grading Grading Standards After harvesting, the fruits are graded according to size, shape, maturity, and freedom from diseases and blemishes. The cut surface is treated with a suitable fungicide to control fungal decay. Size
1500 g and over
100 - 1500 g
800 - 1100 g
Less than 800 g
Approx. 550 g
Packaging For local markets, fruits are packed in bamboo baskets lined with paddy-straw. The first layer of fruits is arranged in such a way that they stand on their stumps. The second layer of fruits is arranged on the crowns of the first layer fruits. Each basket weights 20-25 kg. For distant markets, fruit are wrapped individually with paddy straw and then packed. For export purpose the pineapples are packed into fibreboard or wood containers. The fruits are placed vertically or horizontally in container. The interspace between the fruits should be filled with straw and firm lining all around the container. For long-distance transportation, fruits are held at 7째C for 10-20 days.
Storage When fruits are transported for long distances or to be stored for several days, refrigerated transport is required to slow down ripening process. In tropical areas, partially ripe, healthy and unbruised 0 pineapple could be stored for almost 20 days when refrigerated at 10-13 C with RH 85-90%. Fruits harvested in early stage of ripening are stored at 7-10째C. Exposure of pineapples to temperatures below 7째C results in chilling injury. Controlled atmosphere storage (3-5% O2 and 5-8% CO2) delayed senescence and reduced respiration.
Cool Chain Cool chain is essential during the transport of export quality commodity all the way from the farm to the customer. This helps in maintaining the temperature inside the box at the same low level as in the cold storage.
The various stages of the cool chain are : 1. Coldstore at the farm. 2. Refrigerated truck from farm to the airport 3. Coldstore at the airport. 4. Building up of the pallet in a coldstore at the airport. 5. Loading the aircrafts directly from the coldstore in a short time. 6. Cargo aircraft maintains coldstore temperature in hold. 7. Off loading direct into a coldstore in the receiving country. 8. Refrigerated truck to the customers.
Pineapple Planting Land Preparation The soil is brought to a fine tilth by 2-3 ploughing and harrowing. In hilly and dry regions, planting is done in trenches dug 90cm wide, 15-22cm deep and 90cm apart. In coastal regions trenches 90cm wide, 45cm deep and 90cm apart are dug. The trenches are then filled with a mixture of soil and FYM.
Season of Planting The best season for planting is in the beginning of winter, however, in the early rains or with irrigation facilities pineapple can be planted at any time of the year.
Spacing The following is the spacing required for different plant populations per hectare Plant Population (per ha)
Distance (cm) Plant-to-plant within Row-to-row a row
43,500 (N.E. States)
53,300 (Kerela & Karnataka)
63,758 (West Bengal )
High-density planting, besides increasing the yield, is associated with other advantages like less weed infection, protection to fruits from sunburn, increased production of suckers and slips per unit area and non-lodging of plants. Close planting also saves on the cost of providing shade to fruits, as it provides natural shade through upright orientation of the apical leaves and eventually results in uniformly coloured lustrous fruits.
Planting Systems The planting system varies developing upon the topography of land and rainfall. There are four planting systems in practice, viz. flatbed planting, furrow planting trench planting and contour planting.
Pineapple Propagation Pineapple is very easy to propagate vegetatively. Suckers arising in the axil of the leaves on the main stem form roots and can be used for propagation. Even the crown of leaves above the fruit and parts of the stem itself can be used. Another method of propagation is by slips, which are the suckers, arising immediately below the fruit. Suckers and slips should be preferred for planting as they come to bearing earlier than the crown and produce larger fruits. Before planting, suckers are sorted out into larger, medium and small to avoid competition between plants of different sizes. Too large suckers or slips should not be used for planting. Suckers weighing 400-500g or slips of 350-450g are considered suitable as planting material. Prior to planting curing of slips and suckers for 8-10 days in shade is necessary as fresh suckers planted in moist soil begin to decay. Before planting some of the lower leaves are removed from the sucker to facilitate the formation and entry of roots into the soil. After removing scaly leaves, planting material should be treated with Monocrotophos (0.15%) and Carbendazim (0.1%) solution to protect against mealy bugs and heart rot, respectively.
Pineapple Soil & Climate Soil Pineapple is grown on various types of soils including very poor soils. The flavour and quality of fruit grown on light soils is considered to be superior. However the sandy and loamy soils rich in humus and the laterite soils on the hillslopes in South India are suitable for its cultivation. The plant is particularly sensitive to soil being waterlogged. Therefore care should be taken to ensure proper drainage. It prefers soils with a pH range of 5.0-6.0.
Climate Pineapple grows in warm and humid climate. The optimum temperature is from 15째 to 32째C for normal 0 growth. High temperature over 35 C is unfavourable for the development of fruits, especially if the relative humidity is low. Exposure of the fruits to strong sunshine leads to sun scalding. It can be grown up to an elevation of 1,100 m above the sea level, if these places are free from frost, have a relatively high atmospheric humidity and an average rainfall of 760-1,000 mm.
Pineapple Varieties Smooth Cayenne or Cayenne Smooth Cayenne is extensively cultivated in Hawaii, Philippines, Australia, South Africa, Puerto Rico, Kenya, Mexico, Cuba and Formosa. It is the most popular canning variety. The flesh is firm, closetextured, juicy and with a pale-yellow to yellow colour at maturity. And average acid range lies between 0 0 0.5 and 1.0% and total soluble solids (TSS) between 12 and 16 Brix.
Kew It is a late-maturing variety and is the leading commercial variety in India. It is valued particularly for it's canning quality. Fruit weighs 2-3kg, and is oblong in shape, slightly tapering towards the crown. Eyes are broad and shallow making fruits more suitable for canning. The fruit is yellow when fully ripe and flesh is light yellow, almost fibreless, and very juicy with 0.6-1.2% acid, and its TSS content varies from 12-160 Brix.
Queen This an old cultivar and is grown mainly in Australia, India and South Africa, where it is cultivated for table and processing purpose. Fruit weighs 1-1.5 kg. When fully mature, the fruit is golden-yellow and internal flesh is deep golden-yellow. The flesh, although less juicy than Cayenne, is crispy, with a O pleasant aroma. Acidity ranges between 0.6 and 0.8% while the TSS is 15-16 Brix.
Mauritius It is grown in some parts of Meghalaya and Kerala in India. Fruits are of medium size and are of 2 types, deep yellow and red skinned. Fruits of yellow variety are oblong, fibrous, and medium sweet compared to red type. Mauritius is exclusively grown for table purpose; leaves are yellowish green, spiny throughout the margin, crown also is spiny in both the types. It is a mid-season cultivar, ripens in JulyAugust.
Jaldhup and Lakhat These are two local types, both being named after the places of their maximum production. The varieties are cultivated for table as well as processing purpose. Both fall in Queen group of fruits, being smaller than 'Queen'. Jaldhup has its sweetness well blended with acidity. Fruits of Jaldhup have a characteristic alcoholic flavour of their own and can be easily distinguished from other fruits of the Queen group.
Exotic Varieties USA Eleuthera, Hilo, F-200. South Africa Ceyenne, Natal Queen, V.C. Queen, James Queen, Z.Queen. West Africa G-25, Caynee de Guinea, Bsaronne de Rathschild, Comte de Paris. West Indies Cayenne Gaudeloupe, St. Dominguo Cayeenne, Champaka. Australia Queevstand, Cayenne, Mac Gregor, Alexandra, Common Rough. Taiwan Typhones 1,2,3,4, & 5. Cuba Cayenne de Orienta. Malaysia Sarawak, Nangka, Betek, Masmerah, Selegor Green, Mauritius. Mexico Espanola. Brazil Permambuco, Paulista, Boituva, Amrelo, Perola, Yupi, Randon. Gernmany Snooth Canneye, Red Spanish, Queen, Victoria.