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NCIPM

Technical Bulletin 26

Spatio-temporal Distribution of Host Plants of Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in India S. Vennila, Y.G. Prasad, M. Prabhakar, Rishi Kumar V. Nagrare, M. Amutha, Dharajyothi, Meenu Agarwal, G. Sreedevi B. Venkateswarlu, K.R. Kranthi and O.M. Bambawale

Contribution under NAIP/COMP 4/DSS C 2046 Research into Decision Support System for Insect Pests of Major Rice and Cotton Based Cropping Systems

National Centre for Integrated Pest Management LBS Building, IARI Campus, New Delhi 110 012


Authors S. Vennila1, Y.G. Prasad4, M. Prabhakar4, Rishi Kumar5, V. Nagrare2, M. Amutha3, Dharajyothi3 , Meenu Agarwal1, G. Sreedevi4, B. Venkateswarlu4, K.R. Kranthi2 and O.M. Bambawale1

Cover page design Ms. Neelam Mehta

Cover page photographs Top–Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Bottom–Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Left–Parthenium hysterophorus L. Right–Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Center–Gossypium hirsutum L.

Citation S. Vennila, Y.G. Prasad, M. Prabhakar, Rishi Kumar, V. Nagrare, M. Amutha, Dharajyothi, Meenu Agarwal, G. Sreedevi, B. Venkateswarlu, K.R. Kranthi and O.M. Bambawale 2011, Spatio-temporal Distribution of Host Plants of Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in India, Technical Bulletin No. 26, National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi P 50.

Published by Dr. O.M. Bambawale Director National Centre for Integrated Pest Management LBS Building, Pusa campus, New Delhi 110 012 Email : ipmnet@ncipm.org.in Website : http://www.ncipm.org.in

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: National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi : Central Institute for Cotton Research (Regional Station), Coimbatore

: Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur : Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad

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: Central Institute for Cotton Research (Regional Station), Sirsa

Printed at M/s Royal Offset Printers, A-89/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi 110 028


FOREWORD Invasive pest especially on an economically important crop often leads to serious social economic and environmental hardships to growers and the nation. The invasion and wide spread infestation of the polyphagous mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley emerged as a potential threat to the important commercial crop Cotton since 2005 across North, Centre and South cotton growing zones of India. Immediate and intensive research undertaken to understand the biology, host range and natural control of the species besides evaluation of insecticides against the pest for their efficacy led to formulation of management strategies for different agro-ecologies. The wider and quicker spread of the P. solenopsis across varied cropping systems and differing agro climatic conditions of the country required holistic approach to understand the host range over space and time, respectively. The readily available information so far on the host range of the pest in India has been specific to a geographical location. However, documentation of the host range and its analyses for commonality and exclusiveness based on distribution, seasonality and severity at the national level are expected to provide not only insights into the credentials of P. solenopsis ability to be a pest but more importantly the formulation of general and specific management strategies that could be preventive and most economical. The bulletin on “Spatio-temporal distribution of host plants of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis in India� not only documents the host plants across the country but also makes a comprehensive analysis that leads to the overall and zone specific information on host plant diversity along with their location in the agro ecosystem. Additionally, the seasonality of the host plants supporting the insect development measured in terms of severity has brought out the narrow range of hosts on which monitoring and cultural management options should be done. While spread of the pest on Cotton from North through Central to South Zones could be visualized to be due to the sequentially placed cotton seasons, the large number (194) of host plants especially of weed category (108) across the country is suggestive of weed management as a pivotal option towards an attempt for eradication of the pest. The extreme severity of the pest on the ornamentals and vegetables in urban landscapes/backyards conveys the possibility of the increased travel and trade as one of the reasons for invasion. The large number of offseason hosts documented implies the pest’s adaptability to varied climate and hence demanding attention throughout the season. The elucidated information for the location of host plants on road-side and field borders in all cotton agro ecosystems largely contributing to pest build is a revelation enforcing the essentiality of off-field sanitation also. The work is a projection of the cumulative efforts of many cotton researchers across the country and such a team work deserves special appreciation. I earnestly hope that this bulletin can be a resource book for global researchers.

(N. GOPALAKRISHNAN) Assistant Director General (Commercial Crops) ICAR, New Delhi


CONTENTS 1. Introduction 1.1. Scenario of cotton cultivation in India 1.2. Scenario of cotton mealy bug 1.3. Importance of alternate hosts

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2. Zonal and all India scenario 2.1. Distribution of host plants 2.1.1. Host records 2.1.2. Familial distribution of host plants 2.1.3. Host plant categories 2.2. Seasonality of host plants 2.3. Severity of P. solenopsis on host plants 2.4. Seasonality versus severity

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3. Zone specific and common scenario of host plants 3.1. Host records exclusive and common across cotton growing zones 3.1.1. Familial distribution of zone specific and common host plants 3.2. Seasonality of P. solenopsis among exclusive hosts 3.3. Severity of P. solenopsis among exclusive hosts 3.4. Seasonality versus severity of the exclusive and common hosts of P. solenopsis

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4. Spatial distribution of hosts of P. solenopsis 4.1. Severity and seasonality of exclusive and common hosts in relation to spatial Distribution

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5. Cultural management strategies for P. solenopsis

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6.Conclusions

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7. References

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Annexures Annexure I

: Host plants of P. solenopsis across cotton growing zones

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Annexure II

: Frequency distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis by families

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Annexure III : Distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis exclusive and common among cotton growing zones grouped by families

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Annexure IV : Common hosts across zones with dissimilar seasonality of P. solenopsis

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Annexure V : Common hosts across zones with dissimilar severity of

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P. solenopsis Annexure VI : Common hosts of P. solenopsis across zones with different spatial distribution

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SPATIO-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOST PLANTS OF COTTON MEALYBUG, PHENACOCCUS SOLENOPSIS TINSLEY IN INDIA 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Scenario of cotton cultivation in India Area under the commercial cultivation of cotton in India is 10.1 million hectares. Three designated cotton growing zones viz., North, Central and South grow cotton under varied agro climatic conditions such as seasons and cropping systems. Traditionally designated North (Hirsutum and Arboreum ) zone comprising States of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, Central (Hirsutum, Arboreum, Herbaceum and hybrid) zone with States of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, and South (Hirsutum, Arboreum, Herbaceum, Barbadense and hybrid) zone spread across Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are largely growing Bt cotton hybrids at present. The general growing seasons and cropping systems in North, Central and South zones are April-November, June-December and August-February, and cotton-wheat, cotton+ pigeon pea-fallow and cotton + pulse – maize, respectively. The cotton cultivation at North zone is completely under irrigation. Near to 65% of cotton grown in South and Central zones is rainfed. The productivity levels of cotton zones during 2009-10 were of the order South (661 kg/ha) > Central (471 kg/ha) > North (448 kg/ha). Commercial production of Bt transgenic cotton hybrids started since 2002 at Central and South zones. The North zone largely cultivating only cotton varieties shifted to Bt transgenic hybrids since 2005. Bt transgenic hybrid cultivation across all cotton growing zones brought out drastic reduction in pesticide use against bollworms. However, the need for management of sucking pests viz., jassids, aphids, thrips and whitefly was imminent almost across all the zones of country. The changing cultivation profile of Bt cotton hybrids also provided niche for the development of an exotic mealybug species. 1.2. Scenario of cotton mealy bug The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) with its origin in Central America (Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992) has its spread at the Caribbean and Ecuador (Ben-Dov,1994), Chile (Larrain, 2002), Argentina (Granara de Willink, 2003), Brazil (Culik & Gullan, 2005), Pakistan and India (Hodgson et al., 2008) and Nigeria (Akintola & Ande, 2008), Sri Lanka (Prishanthini and Laxmi, 2009), China (Wang et al. 2009; Wu & Zhang, 2009) and Australia (Admin, 2010). Such a vast and fast distribution of P. solenopsis across the globe largely during the past few years and its economic damage to several crops make it necessary to characterize the ecological factors associated with the pest. In India, reports of mealybugs on cotton were made at Gujarat during the 2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07 crop seasons although species identity as P. solenopsis could be established only during 2008 (Jhala and Bharpoda, 2008a and Jhala et al. 2008). Hodgson et al. (2008) confirmed the presence of P. solenopsis in India and Pakistan based on taxonomic comparisons of specimens gathered across geographical locations. All nine States of the three cotton growing zones having P. solenopsis was noticed during 2008-09 crop season (Dharajyoti et al. 2008; Dhawan et al. 2008 and 2009; Jhala and Bharpoda, 2008 b & c; Suresh and Kavitha, 2008 a&b; Nagrare et al. 2009). Information on its biology,

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host range (Vennila et al. 2010 a & b), and management (Nagrare et al. 2011) are well documented.

1.3. Importance of alternate hosts Geographic range and species abundance as well as severity and timing of attack of an invasive polyphagous herbivore are directly dependent on organism’s ability to feed and reproduce on wide range of host plants besides its adaptability to other biotic and abiotic environmental resistant forces. Arif et al. (2009) recorded 154 plant species from 53 families comprising 20 field and horticultural crops, 45 ornamentals, 64 weeds and 25 bushes and trees as hosts of P. solenopsis in Pakistan. The species P. solenopsis commonly described as cotton mealybug due to its large scale occurrence on cotton attained damaging populations simultaneously across many fields. Sudden and large scale occurrence of the pest among the States of Northern Indian cotton growing zone required preparedness for restriction of its spread to other parts of the country. Since the study of host range over space and time constitutes foundation for understanding the source and time of pest spread, investigation was undertaken to document host plants at different parts of the country. Existence of many alternate hosts in cotton–wheat of Haryana (Saini et al., 2009), cotton + pigeon pea cropping system Maharashtra (Vennila et al., 2010b) have been documented. Although such studies brought in focus the role of host range of P. solenopsis at specific geographical regions, a wider scale of documentation across all cotton growing zones vis a vis analysis for exclusiveness and commonality in distribution, seasonality and severity of hosts is important for formulation of a general and specific management strategies towards the containment of this pest. Current report presents comprehensive analysis on the host plants of P. solenopsis based on studies carried out between 2007 and 2010 across cotton growing zones of India. 2. ZONAL AND ALL INDIA SCENARIO 2.1. Distribution of host plants 2.1.1. Host records Seventy one, 141, 124 and 194 species of plants belonging to 27, 45, 43 and 50 families served as hosts for P. solenopsis at North, Central, and South and across all cotton growing zones, respectively (Annexure I). The diversity of hosts for P. solenopsis was greater at Central (72.6%) followed by South (63.9%) and North (36.6%) zones. Weed hosts constituted 38, 58.9 and 47.5 per cent in respect of North, Central and South zones. Out of the total 194 hosts of P. solenopsis documented across the country, 55.6% were weeds (Fig. 1).

Fig.1. Distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis

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2.1.2. Familial distribution of host plants Highest number of host plants of P. solenopsis in respect of North, Central, South, and all cotton growing zones belonged to Solanaceae (10), Asteraceae (17), Fabaceae (14) and Malvaceae (23) (Table 1). The order of importance of hosts of P. solenopsis from the documented families was Malvaceae>Asteraceae>Fabaceae>Euphorbiaceae> Amaranthaceae>Lamiaceae & Solanaceae, wherein ten or more hosts were recorded. The number of hosts within a family ranged from one to 17 (Annexure II). Table 1. Major families of host plants of P. solenopsis S. Families No. 1. Malvaceae 2. Asteraceae 3. Fabaceae 4. Euphorbiaceae 5. Amaranthaceae 6. Lamiaceae 7. Solanaceae 8. Cucurbitaceae 9. Poaceae 10. Acanthaceae 11. Verbenaceae 12. Others* Total number of families

North 9 6 5 2 4 0 10 7 4 0 1 23 (18) 27

No. of hosts Central South 15 12 17 10 10 14 10 12 8 10 8 5 8 8 3 5 4 1 3 3 4 4 51 (34) 40 (32) 45 43

All India 23 20 17 14 13 10 10 7 7 5 5 63 (39) 50

*: number of hosts (number of families)

2.1.3. Host plant categories Largest number of hosts of P. solenopsis was from weeds followed by ornamentals, trees and vegetables and field crops. Fruit plants and spice crops also served as hosts of P. solenopsis (Table 2). Table 2. Distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis across plant categories S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Host category Weeds Ornamentals Trees Vegetables Field crops Fruit plants Spices Total

North 27 10 10 12 6 5 1 71

Cotton growing zone Central South 83 59 14 17 11 15 12 12 9 11 7 7 5 3 141 124

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All India 108 24 18 18 13 8 5 194


The order of hosts of P. solenopsis across plant categories at North, Central and South zones was similar, with weeds occupying the top position. Field crops, fruit crops and spices in their decreasing order represented lower end of host spectrum (Fig. 2). The spread of host range largely across weeds, ornamentals, trees and vegetables over field crops indicate the priority of monitoring and management of P. solenopsis on these categories of plants in the cotton production system across zones.

Fig. 2. Distribution of hosts of P. solenopsis across plant categories

2.2. Seasonality of host plants Distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis was equal (26) during crop and off seasons at North zone. However at Central and South zones, off season (73 Table 3. Seasonal distribution of hosts of P. solenopsis &52) hosts dominated over crop S. Seasonality Cotton growing zone season hosts (43). Number of No. hosts of crop and off seasons was North Central South greater at South (29) over Central 1. Crop season 26 43 43 (25) and North (19) zones (Table 2. Off season 26 73 52 3). Highest number of off season 3. Crop and off seasons 19 25 29 hosts at Central zone indicated Total 71 141 124 higher possibility of pest carryover than other two zones.

2.3. Severity of P. solenopsis on host plants The trend of P. solenopsis severity among host plants across zones was clearly different although G1 plants were the highest at all zones. More number of Grade 1 hosts at all three zones indicated their possible role in carryover than perpetuation of P. solenopsis. The host plants with extreme severity (G4) were of the order: Central>South>North and a total of 47 (24.2%) hosts had G4 severity among the total host plants documented for the country (Table 4). Table 4. Distribution of severity of P. solenopsis among hosts plants S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Severity Grade I Grade II Grade III Grade IV Total

(G1) (G2) (G3) (G4)

Cotton growing zone Central South 61 57 31 35 12 13 37 19 141 124

North 29 12 13 17 71

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All India 81 42 24 47 194


2.4. Seasonality versus severity G4 hosts during crop and crop + off seasons were more at Central (14) over other two zones. North zone had less off season G4 hosts (2) over other two zones. Among the hosts with extreme severity (G4) of P. solenopsis the off season hosts were less than the crop season or crop +off season hosts across all zones. Considering the preference of P. solenopsis for cotton and the lesser frequency of G4 hosts during offseason, it becomes clear that the wider host range during offseason aids in providing the species with the continuum over space and time. The hosts belonging to different plant categories viz., Table 5. Seasonality versus extreme severity (G4) Carica papaya (fruit), Lycopersicon hosts of P. solenopsis Seasonality Cotton growing zone esculentum (vegetable), Parthenium S. No. hysterophorus (weed) and Hibiscus North Central South rosa - sinensis (ornamental) were common across zones during crop 1. Crop season 7 13 7 and off seasons. The cultivated 2. Off season 2 10 3 species of cotton were the only 3. Crop and off seasons 8 14 9 common host across zones during Total 17 37 19 the crop season (Table 5). The G4 host plants of P. solenopsis was 23.9, 26.2 and 15.3 per cent of the total recorded hosts at North, Central and South zones, respectively.

3. ZONE SPECIFIC AND COMMON SCENARIO OF HOST PLANTS 3.1. Host records exclusive and common across cotton growing zones Number of North, Central and South zone specific (exclusive) host plants was 22, 45 and 24 belonging to 13, 21 and 13 families, respectively. Weed hosts specific to zones were 11, 36 and 13 in respect of North, Central and South zones indicating the dominance of weeds as exclusive hosts at Central zone. While common hosts were minimal between North and Central (3), and North and South (7) zones, and the highest commonality was observed between Central and South (54) zones (Fig. 3). Thirty nine hosts were common across all zones dominated again by weeds (13) followed by vegetables (8) and ornamentals (6). Common hosts put together outnumbering the exclusive hosts across zones (Table 6) indicated the regional similarity in preference of hosts by P. solenopsis. Although weeds dominated the exclusive hosts of all three zones and common hosts of North-Central, CentralSouth and North-Central-South, only one weed host Portulaca grandiflora was common between North-South zones. Field crops, vegetables and trees outnumbered weeds among common hosts of North-South zone.

Fig.3. Exclusive and common hosts of P. solenopsis among cotton growing zones

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Table 6. Distribution of zone specific and common hosts of P. solenopsis Category Weeds Ornamentals Trees Vegetables Field crops Fruit plants Spices Total

North (N) 11 4 3 2 1 1 22

Central (C) 36 3 4 2 45

South (S) 13 6 2 2 1 24

NC 2 1 3

NS 1 2 2 2 7

CS 32 5 6 6 3 2 54

NCS 13 6 5 8 2 4 1 39

Total 108 24 18 18 13 8 5 194

3.1.1. Familial distribution of zone specific and common host plants Malvaceous plants (3) outnumbered as hosts of P. solenopsis over other families at North zone (Fig. 4). However, more number of species from Asteraceae (8), Malvaceae (7), Lamiaceae (5), Apiaceae (3) and Poaceae (3) also served as hosts of P. solenopsis at Central zone (Fig. 5). Plant species representation was greater from Malvaceae (5) followed by Amaranthaceae (3) and Fabaceae (3) among South zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis(Fig. 6).

Fig.4. North zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis across Fig. 5. Central zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis across families families

Fig. 6. South zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis across families

Fig. 7. Common hosts of North and South zones of P. solenopsis across families

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Fig. 8. Common hosts of Central and South zones of P. solenopsis across families

Fig. 9. Common hosts of North, Central and South zones of P. solenopsis across families

The two monocots viz., Cyperus rotundus. and Cynodon dactylon were the only common hosts of P. solenopsis other than cotton between North and Central zones. Jatropha curcas, Dalbergia sissoo, Lagenaria siceraria, Luffa acutangula, Lablab purpureus, Sorghum bicolor and Portulaca grandiflora were common hosts between North and South zones. Among these, two hosts belonged to Cucurbitaceae and Fabaceae, and one each to Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae and Portulacaceae (Fig. 7). Highest number of common hosts between Central and South zones belonged to Euphorbiaceae (9) followed by Fabaceaea (8), and Amaranthaceae and Asteraceae (5). Families viz., Caesalpiniaceae, Malvaceae and Verbanaceae had two common hosts. At least 18 families had single host that were common between Central and South zones (Fig. 8). Among the universal hosts of P. solenopsis across all cotton growing zones, eight, five, four and three hosts belonged to Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, respectively. Two hosts each from Amaranthaceae, Moraceae and Myrtaceae and single host from additional 13 families were common among all zones (Fig. 9) (Annexure III).

3.2. Seasonality of P. solenopsis among exclusive hosts Exclusive hosts of North and Central zones were higher during off season. On the contrary, seasonal hosts were dominant among South zone. The number of exclusive hosts

Fig.10. Seasonality of exclusive hosts of P. solenopsis

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of P. solenopsis present during crop as well as off seasons was six, eight and six in respect of North, Central and South zones. Although hosts of P. solenopsis were different, the number of hosts during the season were equal (16) at Central and South zones (Fig.10). Host plants of Zygophyllaceae (Tribulus terrestris) exclusive to crop season and of Brassicaceae (Brassica sp and Raphanus raphanistrum) exclusive to off season were noted at North zone (Fig.11). Distribution of the hosts of P. solenopsis within the same family had either crop and off seasons (Amaranthaceae and Poaceae) or crop as well as both seasons (Asteraceae and Febaceae), and off and both seasons (Malvaceae). Among Central zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis, seasonality was exclusive during crop season among families of Poaceae (3), Acanthaceae (2), Boraginaceaea (1), Convolvulaceae (1), Fabaceae (1), Portulacaceae (1) and Tiliaceae (1). Five species of plants from Lamiaceae and one each from Asclepiadaceae, Menispermaceae, Oxalidaceae, Papilionaceae, and Phyllanthaceae were off seasonal hosts at Central zone (Fig.12). At South zone, 14 hosts from eight families were exclusive to crop season and a single vegetable host from Basellaceae (Basella alba) was exclusive to off season. Five plant species from Malvaceae, two of Acanthaceae and Lamiaceae, and one each from Asteraceae, Menispermaceae, Phyllanthaceae, Tiliaceae and Verbanaceae were exclusive during crop season among South zone specific hosts (Fig.13).

Fig.11. Seasonality North zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis across families

Fig.12. Seasonality of Central zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis across families

The seasonality of the common hosts indicated the dominance of off season hosts between Central and South and among all three zones (Table 7). Variations of seasonality of same hosts across zones were also noticed. Exactly 50% of hosts of all seasons at North zone were weeds and the proportion of weeds was higher at Central zone. No weed exclusively served as P. solenopsis host during off season or during

Fig.13. Seasonality of South zone specific hosts of P.solenopsis across families

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Table 7. Seasonality of exclusive and common hosts Season

Exclusive hosts (nos.) North Central South Crop season 6(3) 16(13) 16(13) Off season hosts 10(5) 21(17) 2(0) Crop in parenthesis and off seasons 6(3) 8(6) 6(0)

Common hosts (nos.) NC NS CS NCS 2(1) 2 11(6) 7(3) 2 23(12) 12(3) 6(2) 6(2)

Figures are number of weed hosts out of total exclusive and common hosts

both crop and off seasons at South zone. This indicated non necessity of focus on off season weed management at South zone for P. solenopsis management. Cyperus rotundus is the only weed host common between North and Central zones during crop season. The common weeds between Central and South zones were greater over the three zones put together. The only weed host (Portulaca grandiflora: Portulacaceae) between North and South zones had differential seasonality viz., crop as well as crop + off seasons, respectively (Annexure IV). Digera muricata (Amaranthaceae), Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) and Solanum virginianum (Solanaceae) during crop season, and Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Convolvulus arvensis (Convolvulaceae) and Datura metel (Solanaceae) during off season, and Physalis minima (Solanaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) and Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae) during both seasons were the common weed hosts across all three zones (Fig.14).

Fig.14. Seasonality of common hosts of cotton growing zones

3.3. Severity of P. solenopsis among exclusive hosts Data on severity of P. solenopsis indicated that 27, 18.2, 31.8 and 22.7 % of North zone specific host plants had grades of G1, G2, G3 and G4 respectively. The percentage of G1,

Fig. 15. Severity among exclusive hosts of P. solenopsis

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G2, G3 and G4 severity among exclusive hosts in respect of Central and South zones was 46.7, 20, 6.6 and 26.7, and 54.2, 29.2, 8.3 and 8.3, respectively. While host plants with extreme severity (G4) were highest at Central zone, they were lowest at the South zone. In general, similarity of severity among the common hosts was of the order North-Central > Central-South> North-Central-South> North-South (Fig. 15). The North zone specific host plants that had the highest severity were Vigna radiata (Fabaceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae), Helianthus debilis and Helianthus sp. (Asteraceae) and Sida cordifolia (Malvaceae). Plants of Malvaceae and Asteraceae families had shown P. solenopsis extreme severity at North and Central zones, only former family at South zone had G4 (Fig. 16). Host plants with severity G3 and G4 at North zone belonged to Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Solanaceae and Zygophyllaceae. The plant species viz., Vicoa indica (Asteraceae), Abelmoschus ficulneus , Hibiscus sabdariffa and Azanza lampas (Malvaceae), Portulaca quadrifida (Portulacaceae), Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae), Lactuca runcinata, Acmella uliginosa and Pentanema indicum (Asteraceae), Boerhavia diffusa (Nyctaginaceae), Asteracantha longifolia (Acantheceae) and Triumfetta rhomboidea (Tiliaceae) were the exclusive Grade 4 hosts at the Central zone (Fig. 17). At the Central zone, the G3 and G4 severity was noted with members of Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Phyllanthaceae, Protulacaceae, and Tiliaceae. Sida acuta was the only Malvaceous weed host other than Sea Island cotton, Gossypium barbadense that had extreme severity at the South zone (Fig. 18). One host each from Fabaceae and Phyllanthaceae, and two from Malvaceae had G3 and G4 severity, respectively at South zone.

Fig.16. Severity among North zone specific hosts of Fig.17. Severity among Central zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis across families P.solenopsis across families

Among three common hosts between North and Central zones, cotton had Grade 4 severity and the other two hosts viz., Cyperus rotundus and Cynodon dactylon had severity of Grade 1. While the frequency of common hosts across zones with similar severity are depicted in Figure 19, those with dissimilar severity are furnished in Annexure V . Three weed hosts viz., 10


Fig.18. Severity among South zone specific hosts of Fig.19. Severity among common hosts of cotton growing P. solenopsis across families zones

Euphorbia hirta and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae), and Corchorus trilocularis (Tiliaceae) besides Murrya koenigii (Rutaceae) had Grade 4 severity at both Central and South zones. Twenty one, eleven and three of the common hosts had Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 severities of P. solenopsis, respectively at Central and South zones (Fig. 20). Differential severity was highly obvious among the common hosts between Central and South zones implying the ecological influences on the biology of P. solenopsis. No common hosts between North and South zones had extreme severity (Fig.21). The weed host Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) had a P. solenopsis severity of Grade 3 at North zone, but only Grade1 at South zone. Jatropha urcas (Euphorbiaceae), Dalbergia sissoo and Lablab purpureus (Fabaceae), Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae) had a maximum severity of Grade 1 implying their insignificant role in aiding the buildup of P. solenopsis in North and South zones.

Fig.20. Severity among common hosts of Central and South zones across families

Fig. 21. Severity among common hosts of North and South zones across families

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Out of 39 common hosts across all the three cotton zones three hosts of Malvaceae (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum) and one each from Asteraceae (Parthenium hysterophorus), Solanaceae (Lycopersicon esculentum), Caricaceae (Carica papaya) and Aizoaceae (Trianthema portulacastrum) had shown G4 severity of P. solenopsis (Fig. 22). Eleven, two and single host that were common among North, Central and South zones had G1, G2 and G3 severity, respectively. Difference in severity of same hosts across zones was also obvious. Fig. 22. Severity among common hosts of North, Central Eighteen of the hosts from different families and South zones across families had differential severity at least with one of the zones.

3.4. Seasonality versus severity of the exclusive and common hosts of P. solenopsis All scales (G1 to G4) of severity of P. solenopsis during the crop season was noticed among North zone specific host plants. No exclusive hosts in North zone had extreme severity during off season although number of host species in other severity scales (G1 to G3) were equal or higher than crop or crop + off seasons. Crop + off season hosts (6) of P. solenopsis had equal share of G3 and G4 severity (Fig.23). Helianthus debilis (Asteraceae) and Vigna radiata (Fabaceae) during crop season, and Fig. 23. Seasonality versus severity among North zone Helianthus spp.(Asteraceaea), Sida cordifolia specific hosts of P. solenopsis (Malvaceae) and Withania somnifera (Solanaceaea) during both crop and off seasons had G4 severity. P. solenopsis had extreme severity of G4 among exclusive hosts across all seasons at Central zone (Fig.24). Five hosts each during crop and crop+off seasons had extreme severity. While G1 hosts were dominant during off season only two hosts (Portulaca quadrifida (Portulacaceae) and Triumfetta rhomboidea (Tiliaceae)) had G4 severity. It is notable that all of the exclusive hosts except one of ornamentals (Vicoa indica (Asteraceae)) of Central zone during off season were weeds. Fig. 24. Seasonality versus severity among Central zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis

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Among the South zone specific hosts of P. solenopsis, large numbers (16) occurred during the crop season with the dominance of G1 and G2 severity (Fig. 25). Only two of the South exclusive off season hosts (Basella alba (Bacellaceae) and Plumeria acutifolia (Febaceae)) had lowest G1 severity. No South zone specific host plants of P. solenopsis that occurred during both crop and off seasons had G4 severity. Overall, all South specific hosts had transient and carry over role over supporting P. solenopsis perpetuation. Among the two common hosts of P. solenopsis, only G. herbaceum grown at North and Central zones had G4 severity during crop season (Fig. 26). There were no common hosts between North and South zones either during off or crop + off seasons (Fig. 27). Only three and a single host common between North and South zones during crop and off seasons respectively had the lowest severity (G1). Common hosts of Central and South (15) and across all three zones (7) during offseason had G1 severity implying their significance in carryover of P. solenopsis (Fig. 28). A weed host (Euphorbia hirta: Euphorbiaceae) and a spice crop Murrya koenigii (Rutaceae) common between Central and South zones during off and crop+off seasons, respectively had G4 severity. Out of the six common hosts with G4 severity across all three

Fig. 25. Seasonality versus severity among South zone Fig. 26. Sesonality versus Severity among common hosts of P. solenopsis between North and Central zones specific hosts of P. solenopsis

Fig. 27. Sesonality versus Severity among common hosts of P. solenopsis between North and South zones

Fig. 28. Sesonality versus Severity among common hosts of P. solenopsis between Central and South zones

13


zones, cotton crop of G. hirsutum and G. arboreum are the common hosts during crop season (Fig. 29). There was no common host across zones during off season with P. solenopsis G4 severity. One species each from fruit, ornamental, vegetable and weed plant categories viz., Carica papaya (Caricaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvaceae), Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae) and Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) had G4 severity of P. solenopsis during crop as Fig. 29. Sesonality versus Severity among common hosts well as off seasons, thus deserving attention of P. solenopsis among North, Central and South zones towards monitoring and management in farm as well as urban landscapes across the country. Trianthema portulacastrum (Aizoaceae), a weed host with G4 severity of P. solenopsis across all three zones had off season distribution at North and Central zones but occurred during crop and off seasons at South zone (Table 8). Table 8. Seasonality versus severity of G4 hosts exclusive and common across zones Details of hosts G4 hosts of cotton season G4 hosts of off season G4 hosts of both cotton and off seasons

Exclusive hosts North Central South 2 5 (5) 2 0 2 (1) 3 5 (4) -

Common hosts NC NS CS 1 1 (1) 1

NCS 2 4 (1)

(Figures in parenthesis imply the number of weed hosts)

4. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOSTS OF P. SOLENOPSIS Host plants of P. solenopsis were largely located at roadside in South (54) and North (38) zones over other locations. Field located host plants were the highest at Central zone (36) followed by South (34) and North (26) zones. However, among all the host plants of P. solenopsis at North zone, their distribution at fields was the highest (26) followed by roadside (38). The host plants exclusively distributed at border of fields (6), within fields (36), border of fields and roadside (10), within fields and field borders (12), within fields+field borders+roadside (14) and within fields +field borders+roadside+water channels (7) were the highest at Central zone. Host plant distribution at within fields +roadside (19) and roadside (54) was the highest for South zone (Fig. 30). The host plants of P. solenopsis exclusive to roadside+water channels and within fields +roadside+water channels were only at North zone besides the two exclusive hosts viz., Rumex retroflexus (Amaranthaceae) and Brassica sp. (Brassicaceae) located alongside water channels.

14


The exclusive host plants of P. solenopsis were distributed among eight, seven and three diverse locations at Central, North and South zones. Weeds at roadside dominated as hosts of P. solenopsis among Central and South specific hosts, and common hosts of Central and South, and all three zones. Such a situation implied requirement of utmost focus on roadside weed management at Central and South zones in particular and across all three zones, in general (Fig.31). The common hosts of Central and South zones were distributed across 9 out of the 12 locations documented. The common hosts across all three zones were found distributed within fields (13), roadside (10), borders of fields (2) and one each at within fields +field borders and within fields +field borders+roadside. The hosts common at North and South zones were from Cucurbitaceae (Lagenaria siceraria and Luffa acutangula), Fabaceae (Lablab purpureus) and Poaceae (Sorghum bicolor) that were only present within cotton fields (Annexure VI).

Fig. 30. Spatial distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis

Fig. 31. Spatial distribution of exclusive and common weed hosts of P. solenopsis

4.1. Severity and seasonality of exclusive and common hosts in relation to spatial distribution North zone specific hosts with extreme severity were from roadside (Sida cordifolia: Malvaceae), within fields + roadside+water channels (Helianthus spp.:Asteraceae), within fields (Helianthus debilis (Asteracaea) and Vigna radiata (Fabaceaea) and roadside + water channels (Withania somnifera: Solanaceaea). The only host seen across locations of within fields +field borders+roadside+water channels was Acrachne racemosa (Poaceae) and had G2 with its occurrence during crop season. Higher number of North zone specific off season hosts of P. solenopsis had their distribution at water channels, roadside, within fields and within fields+field borders+roadside (Fig. 32). Among the nine roadside located Central zone specific hosts, seven and two hosts were present during off and crop seasons, respectively. Only one roadside weed host Triumfetta rhomboidea (Tiliaceae) had G4 severity during crop season. Portulaca quadrifida (Portulacaceae) and Azanza lampas (Malvaceae) weeds distributed at field borders and roadside had P. solenopsis severity of G4 during crop season. Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) occurring during crop as well as off 15


Fig. 32. Severity and seasonality of P. solenopsis hosts over space at North zone

Fig. 33. Severity and seasonality of P. solenopsis hosts over space at Central zone

seasons with G4 severity were located within cotton fields (Fig. 33). Weed hosts Acmella uliginosa (Asteraceae) and Abelmoschus ficulneus (Malvaceae) located at fields and borders during crop and off seasons too had G4 severity of P. solenopsis. Asteracantha longifolia (Acanthaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa (Nyctaginaceae) present during crop and both seasons, respectively having G4 severity were located at within fields +field borders+roadside. Sida acuta (Malvaceae) other than cotton crop during the crop season located on roadside alone had G4 severity of P. solenopsis among 24 South zone specific hosts. Roadside hosts of P. solenopsis had all severity levels of G1 to G4 across seasons (Fig. 34). Two monocot weeds viz., Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) and Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) located within fields +field Fig. 34. Severity and seasonality of P. solenopsis hosts over borders+roadside had P. solenopsis severity space at South zone of G1 with the former host occurring during crop season and the later with differential seasonality between North and Central zones (Fig. 35). Three common hosts between North and South zones with P. solenopsis severity of G1 were located within fields (Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae); Lablab purpureus (Fabaceae) & Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae)). Among these only L. purpureus had similar seasonality. Additional host Luffa acutangula (Cucurbitaceae) had differential severity but similar seasonality was located within fields at both the zones (Fig. 36). Higher similarity among common hosts of Central and South zones for seasonality and severity of P. solenopsis analysed in terms of spatial distribution indicated eight each of G1 hosts were located on roadside and within fields. While common hosts of Central and South zones with G4 severity were located at field borders+roadside (Murrya koenigii : Rutaceaea), fields+borders+roadside (Corchorus trilocularis:Tiliaceae) and within fields+field borders+roadside+water channels (Euphorbia hirta and Euphorbia heterophylla : Euphorbiaceae), 13 of the offseason hosts were located on roadside. Four of crop season 16


common hosts were located within fields viz., Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae), Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), Lactuca sativa (Asteraceae) and Senna tora (Caesalpiniaceae) (Fig. 37). The common hosts of P. solenopsis across all three zones were found across five locations viz., within fields, field borders, within fields+field borders, within fields +field borders+roadside and roadside. While G1 hosts of P. solenopsis were restricted to roadside and within fields, G4 hosts were additionally found within fields +field borders+roadside across zones. Distribution of large number of hosts within fields during crop as well as off seasons, and along roadside during off season forms the basis for successful spread of P. solenopsis across fields in the same locality/region, and over wider area across many regions (Fig. 38).

Fig. 35. Severity and seasonality of common hosts of Fig.36. Severity and seasonality of common hosts of P. solenopsis over space between North and Central zones P. solenopsis over space between North and South zones

Fig. 37. Severity and seasonality of common hosts of P. solenopsis over space between Central and South zones

Fig.38. Severity and seasonality of common hosts of P. solenopsis over space among North, Central and South zones

5. CULTURAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR P. SOLENOPSIS Since P. solenopsis is a pest of exotic origin, its prevalence and spread can be limited with a through temporal and spatial understanding of the factors responsible for its perpetuation and carryover in different agroecosystems. While the features of polyphagy and high reproductive potential associated with P. solenopsis provide innate capacity to be a pest of economic significance. The vast range of alternate host plants available seasonally or yearlong offer sustenance to the species. It becomes a pest on cotton grown contiguously in larger areas during the sequentially placed cotton seasons of the Indian continent.

17


The comprehensive analysis on the alternate host plants in each of the cotton growing zones and India as a whole, in addition to investigation of exclusive and common hosts for individual and between cotton growing zones, respectively brought out not only the similarities of P. solenopsis host plant interactions but also the need to follow region specific cultural management strategies. The highlights of the management strategies evolved hereunder have been based on the seasonality, severity and spatial distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis. This would serve as a reminder for exercising what, when and where to monitor for its host plants for early detection and their cultural management. Cultural management for P. solenopsis in the current context implies need for monitoring and field sanitation by removal of alternate hosts of P. solenopsis and their proper disposal. Disposal of P. solenopsis infested hosts should be through burying or burning that would result in complete destruction of pest stages. While burial practice can be practiced for host plants of herb categories with severity one and two, for hosts with extreme severity burning is advocated. In case of trees and perennial plants, removal of P. solenopsis infested portion and burning are to be followed.

Recommendations for the management of P. solenopsis 1. Large number of incidental hosts that have low population of P. solenopsis found within fields, field borders and roadside during offseason should be removed and disposed by burial or burning. 2. Management of P. solenopsis on weed hosts on roadside and field borders should be a priority in all zones to prevent spatial spread and limit severity on cotton crop. 3. Ornamentals and vegetables in urban landscapes and home backyards should be monitored closely. 4. The extent of offseason management determines the magnitude of incidence and severity of P. solenopsis. 5. Cotton season cultural practices should focus on field sanitations and proper weed management. Table 9 outlines the cultural management strategies to be followed for effectively managing P. solenopsis in different cotton growing zones of India. Table 9. List of alternate host plants to be monitored for P. solenopsis cultural management Region All cotton growing zones

Host plants Papaya Carica papaya

Season Throughout the year

Shoe flower Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Tomato Lycopercicon esculentum Congress grass Parthenium hysterophorus

Location Orchards and kitchen gardens Backyards and roadside Cultivated fields Fields, field borders and roadside

18


Region

North and Central zones

Central and South zones

North zone

Central

Host plants Indian Mallow, Kanghi Abutilon indicum Potato Solanum tuberosum Brinjal Solanum melongena Giant pigweed Trianthema portulacastrum Burdock datura Xanthium strumarium

Season

Cotton season

Location Within fields, field borders, roadside and irrigation channels Cultivated fields

Off season

Within fields and roadside

Cotton season

Within fields, field borders and roadside

Bhindi Abelmoschus esculentus Curry leaf Murrya koenigii

Off season

Cultivated fields

Throughout the year

Backyards and roadside

Oleander Nerium oleander Common spurge Euphorbia hirta Lantana Lantana camara Coat buttons Tridax procumbens Custard apple Annona squamosa Whiskered commelina Commelina benghalensis Country mallow khareti Sida cordifolia Ashwagandha Withania somnifera Gule dupehri Portulaca grandiflora Moong, Moss rose Vigna radiata Beach sunflower Helianthus debilis Guar Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Wild Jute Corchorus trilocularis Red hogweed Boerhavia diffusa Hazardani Phyllanthus niruri

Roadside Off season

Within fields, field borders, roadside and irrigation channels Field borders, roadside and irrigation channels Within fields, field borders and roadside Roadside

Roadside Throughout the year

Roadside and irrigation channels

Cotton season

Within fields and roadside Cultivated fields

Throughout the year

Within fields, field borderszone and roadside

Within fields

19


Region

South zone

Host plants Ambadi Hibiscus sabdariffa Marsh Para Cress Acmella uliginosa Ran bhendi Abelmoschus ficulneus Jangli-bhendi Azanza lampas Wild purslane Portulaca quadrifida Pathari Lactuca runcinata Chilly Capsicum annum False Amaranth Digera muricata Water spiny ball Asteracantha longifolia Burr Bush Triumfetta rhomboidea Ran shevanti Vicoa indica Sonkadi Pentanema indicum Pala aku, Wild poinsettia Euphorbia geniculata Mountain knot grass Aerva lanata Jangali amla Phyllanthus amarus Gliricidia Gliricidia sepium Chilaka paraka, Common wire weed, Sida acuta Pulicheru, Black honey shrub Phyllanthus reticulatus Wild Jute Corchorus trilocularis Wild poinsettia Euphorbia geniculata Purslane Portulaca oleracea

Season

Location

Within fields and field borders

Cotton season

Border and roadside

Within fields

Within fields and field borders Within fields, field borders and roadside Roadside Off season

Throughout the year

Within fields and field borders

Within fields, field borders, roadside and water channels Within fields and roadside Within fields, field borders and roadside Within fields and roadside

Cotton season

Roadside

Within fields, field borders and roadside Within fields and roadside Field borders, roadside and water channels

20


CONCLUSIONS The vast diversity of host plants of P. solenopsis suggests the possibility of its yearlong presence in different agroecosystems. Although the vast host range of P. solenopsis poses risk in terms of quicker and large scale spread, equal opportunities exists to exploit them for management of the pest when their exact role is identified. Since the mode of dispersal is also wide and varied, pest status needs continuous monitoring. Abbas et al. (2010 a) reported 173 plant species across 54 families from 26 countries representing different ecological zones. Current records from India would alter the host dimension across the globe. Host range analysis clearly indicated the larger monoculture of cotton vis a vis P. solenopsis for malvaceous hosts as one reason for the increased incidence and severity on the crop. Host plants viz., H. rosa-sinensis, Withania somnifera, portulaca grandiflora, Abelmoschus esculentus and Xanthium strumarium have been among the top ten hosts infested by P. solenopsis in Pakistan (Abbas et al. 2010b) and all of them had extreme (G4) severity in India, indicating similarities of host range and developmental attributes of the pest within Asian continent. Compilation and comparison of the exclusive and common hosts of P. solenopsis across continents through a global mealybug network would prove useful for understanding the ecological and evolutionary aspects of the pest over time and space that can prevent invasion into other countries in addition to doing a pest risk analysis. Effective control of P. solenopsis by Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Encyrtidae), on cotton in India has been observed (Nagrare et al. 2011). P.solenopsis parasitizing by A. bambawalei observed among alternate hosts (Rishi Kumar et al. 2009) is also expected to sustain the biological balance over time and is a research gap at present. Current analysis of the significant life history aspects of seasonality, severity and spatial distribution of P. solenopsis vis a vis host plants brought out clearly the carry over hosts common and specific across cotton growing zones. The diversity of hosts largely weeds offer scope for a feasible cultural method of management. Management of alternate hosts having moderate to high severity located along roadside, within fields and field borders would effectively suppress the pest. Continued practice of such recommendations has the potential to eradicate the pest from India, if practised simultaneously over cotton growing regions. The general and specific recommendations of the current study distilled out at individual zonal and all India level would serve as an “user’s guide� for cultural management of P. solenopsis.

21


22


23


24


25


26


REFERENCES Abbas G, Arif MJ, Ashfaq M, Aslam M and Saeed S. 2010a. The impact of some environmental factors on the fecundity of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): A serious pest of cotton and other crops. Pakistan Journal Agriculture Sciences 47(4), 321325. Available online: pakjas.com.pk/upload/55841.doc Abbas G, Arif MJ, Ashfaq M, Aslam M and Saeed S. 2010b. Host plants, distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 12: 421-425. Admin 2010. Exotic mealybug species-a major pest in cotton. Published February 12, 2010 http:/ /thebeatsheet.com.au/mealybugs/exotic mealybug spacies a major new pest in cotton/ Accessed on 25th May 2010. Akintola AJ and Ande AT. 2008. First Record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Nigeria. Agricultural Journal (Medwell Journals, Pakistan) 3(1): 1-3. Arif MI, Rafiq M and Ghaffar A. 2009. Host plants of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis): A new menace to cotton agroecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 11: 163-167. Ben-Dov Y. 1994. A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world, p.686. Intercept Limited, Andover, UK. Culik,M P and Gullan PJ. 2005. Anew pest of tomato and other records of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Espirito Santo, Brazil. Zootaxa 964: 1-8. Dharajyoti B, Surulivelu T and Gopalkrishnan N. 2008. Status of mealybug on cotton in various parts of India. In: Proceedings of the National Consultation on Mealybug Management, pp. 8-10, Central Institute for Cotton Research, 28-29 January 2008, Nagpur, India. Dhawan AK, Saini S, Singh K and Bharathi M. 2008. Toxicity of some new insecticides against Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae] on cotton. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana) 21(1): 103-105. Dhawan AK, Singh K, Aneja A, Saini S. 2009. Distribution of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in cotton with relation to weather factors in South-Western districts of Punjab, Journal of Entomological Research 33 (1):1. Granara de Willink MC. 2003. New records and host plants of Phenacoccus for Argentina (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). (In Spanish; Summary in English). Revista de la Sociedad Entomol贸gica Argentina 62(3/4): 80-82. Hodgson CJ, Abbas G, Arif MJ, Saeed S and Karar H. 2008. Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), an invasive mealybug damaging cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. Zootaxa 1913: 1-35. Jhala RC and Bharpoda TM. 2008a. Occurrence in Gujarat and suggestions for action plan to combat the menace of mealybugs on cotton, p. 1-8. In: Proceedings of the workshop on mealybugs organised by Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India held on 5th January, 2008 at National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, India, Jhala RC and Bharpoda TM. 2008b. Bt cotton cultivation, associated insect pests & diseases problems and survey and surveillance programme in Gujarat. In: Proceedings of the meeting

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to finalize the technical programme for implementation of Bt cotton resistance program. p.116. In: National information system for pest management (Bt cotton) held on 02-03 June, 2008 at National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, India,. Jhala RC and Bharpoda TM. 2008c. Occurrence in Gujarat and suggestions for action plan to combat the menace of mealybugs on cotton, p. 6-7. In: Proceedings of the National Consultation on mealybug management held on 28-29 January 2008 at Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur, India. Jhala RC, Bharpoda TM and Patel MG. 2008. Mealybug species recorded first time on cotton and its alternate host plants in Gujarat, India. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 28(3): 403-408. Larrain SP. 2002. Insect and mite pest incidence on sweet pepinos Solanum muricatum (Ait.) cultivated in the IV Region, Chile. Agricultura-Technica 62(1):15-26. Nagrare VS, Kranthi S, Biradar VK, Zade NN, Sangode V, Kakde G, Shukla RM, Shivare D, Khadi BM and Kranthi KR. 2009. Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India. Bulletin of Entomological Research 99: 537-541. Nagrare VS, Kranthi S, Rishi K, Dharajyoti B, Amutha M, Deshmukh AJ, Bisane KD and Kranthi KR. 2011. “Compendium of cotton mealybugs”. CICR Publication 2011/1, Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur, pp.42. Prishanthini M and Laxmi VM. 2009. The Phenococcus solenopsis. Department of Zoology, Eastern University, Sri Lanka. Available online: http://www.dailynews.lk/2009/07/01/fea30.asp. Rishi Kumar, Kranthi KR, Monga D and Jat SL. 2009. Natural parasitization of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton by Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Journal of Biological Control 23(4): 457-460. Saini R.K, Palaram Sharma SS and Rohilla HR. 2009. Mealybug, Phenococcus solenopsis Tinsley and its survival in cotton ecosystem in Haryana In: Proc.Nation. Symp. On Bt-cotton: Opportunities and Prospectus, Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur, November 17-19, pp 150. Suresh S and Kavitha PC. 2008. Seasonal incidence of economically important coccid pests in Tamil Nadu, p. 285-291. In: Branco M, Franco JC and Hodgson CJ, (eds). Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held on 24-27 September 2007 at Oeiras, Portugal, ISA Press. Vennila S, Deshmukh AJ Pinjarkar D, Agarwal M, Ramamurthy VV, .Joshi S, Kranthi KR and.Bambawale OM. 2010a. Biology of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis on cotton in Central India. Journal of insect science 10:119. available online: insectscience.org/10.119. Vennila, S, Ramamurthy VV, Deshmukh A, Pinjarkar DB, Agarwal M, Pagar PC, Prasad YG, Prabhakar M, Kranthi KR and Bambawale OM. 2010b. “A Treatise on Mealybugs of Central Indian Cotton Production System”. Technical Bulletin No. 24, NCIPM, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, pp.50. Wang YP, Wu SA and Zhang RZ. 2009. Pest risk analysis of a new invasive pest Phenacoccus solenopsis, to China. (in Chinese; Summary in English). Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 46(1):101-106. Williams DJ and Granara de Willink MC. 1992. Mealybugs of Central and South America, p. 635. CAB International. Wu SA and Zhang RZ. 2009. A new invasive pest, Phenacoccus so1enopsis threatening seriously to cotton production. (in Chinese; Summary in English). Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 46(1): 159-162.

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29

Aerva sativa Alternanthera paronychioides A. St. Hil. Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. Alternanthera triandra Lam. Reshimkata Amaranthus viridis L. Green Amaranth, pigweed Celosia argentea L. Silver Cockscomb Celosia cristata L. Cockscomb Digera arvensis False amaranth/ Jonna chenchala kura Digera muricata (L.) Tandla, False Amaranth

9. 10.

17.

14. 15. 16.

12. 13.

11.

Aerva lanata (L.) Juss

Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera Linn.

7.

False water willow Water spiny ball Crossandra, Firecracker Flower Chebura/Panicled/ peristrophe Creeping Rungia Itsit, Sanrai, Desert Horse Purslane, Giant pigweed Puthkanda, Crocus stuff, Devil’s horsewhip Mountain Knot Grass, Chhaya, kapurmadhuri Safed bui Smooth Chaff Flower, Reshimkata. Joyweed

English/ Vernacular name

8.

Aizoaceae

5. 6.

4.

Andrographis echioides L. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Crossandra infundibuliformis L. Peristrophe bicalyculata Retz. Rungia repens Nees. Trianthema portulacastrum L.

1. 2. 3.

Acanthaceae

Botanical name

S. Family No.

Weed

Weed Ornamental Weed

Weed Weed

Weed

Weed Weed

Weed

Weed

Weed Weed

Weed

II

I

III

IV

IV

II

III II

II

III

III

III

II IV

I

II II II

II

II

II

IV

III

IV

I

Severity (Maximum grade) North Central South Weed I Weed IV Ornamental I I

Plant category

S

S OS, S

S

OS

North

Location of hosts

S

S

OS,S S

OS

OS, S

S

OS, S

S OS

F,B,R F, R

S

S OS, S S

S

OS

OS, S

F,B

R

F,B

F, R

F F,B

F,B, R,W R

F,B,R

OS, S B,R,W F,B,R

OS, S F,B,R

S

F,B

F, R R R

F,B

F,B, R,W R

F, R

F,B,R

F, R

R

Central South North Central South S R S F,B,R OS OS, S F F

Seasonality

Annexure I : Host plants of P. solenopsis across cotton growing zones


30

Gomphrena globosa L.

Rumex retroflexus L. Mangifera indica L. Annona squamosa L.

Anacardiaceae Annonaceae

Apiaceae

18.

19. 20. 21.

22.

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. Acmella uliginosa (SW.) Cass. Baccharoides anthelmintica (L.) Moench Bidens pilosa L. Chrysanthemum indicum L.

28.

29.

34.

32. 33.

31.

Gaillardia pulchella Fouger

Calotropis procera R. Br.

26. 27.

Asteraceae

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sperg. Apocynaceae Nerium oleander L. Asclepiadaceae Calotropis gigantea R. Br.

25.

30.

Daucus carota L. Foeniculum vulgare Miller

23. 24.

Centella asiatica L.

Botanical name

S. Family No.

Beggar Tick, Chrysanthemum, Shewanti. Blanket Flower, Firewheel, Indian blanket flower

Iron weed

Marsh Para Cress

Oleander Crown Flower, Calotropis Rubber bush, apple of Sodom Indian Sarsaparilla

Globe Amaranth, Bachelors button Jangali palak Mango Sugar Apple, Custard apple Indian Pennywort, Coinwort, Asiatic coinwort, Carrot, Gajar Fennel, Sweet fennel Ajwain

English/ Vernacular name

I

I

Ornamental

Weed Ornamental III

Weed

Weed

Weed

Weed

Ornamental Weed

Spice

Vegetable Spice

Weed

Weed Fruit plant Fruit plant

I

I II

I

IV

I

I

III I

I

II I

II

I III

II

I

III I

II

I III

Severity (Maximum grade) North Central South Ornamental I

Plant category

OS, S

S

OS

North

Location of hosts

S

OS S

OS

OS, S

OS

OS

OS, S OS

S

OS OS

OS, S

OS OS

S

OS

OS, S OS

OS, S

OS OS

B

R

W

F

F,R F

F,B,R

F,B

R

R

R R

F

F F, R

F,B,R

R R

F

R

R R

F,B,R

R R

Central South North Central South OS, S R

Seasonality


31

Basellaceae

Bombacaceae

Boraginaceae

50.

51.

52.

49.

48.

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

39. 40. 41.

37. 38.

36.

Helianthus annuus L.

35.

English/ Vernacular name

Sunflower, Surajmukhi Helianthus debilis L. Beach Sunflower, Cucumber leaf Sunflower Helianthus spp.. Jangali surajmukhi Lactuca runcinata L. Pathari / Cabbage lettuce Lactuca sativa L. Lettuce Lagascea mollis Cav. Silk leaf Parthenium hysterophorus L. Carrot Grass, Congress grass, Vishapoondu Pentanema indicum (L.) Y. Ling Sonkadi Sonchus arvensis L. Field Sow-Thistle, Sonchus oleraceus L. Pachar/ Sow thistle Tagetes erecta L. Marigold, Genda Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Dandelion Tridax procumbens L. Tridax Daisy, Coat Buttons Vicoa indica (L.) DC. Ran shevanti/ Sonkadi Xanthium strumarium L. Common Cocklebur, broad bur, burdock datura Basella alba L. Malabar spinach, Creeping spinach, Kodi pasalai Salmalia malabarica Silk cotton (DC.) Schott & Endl. Trichodesma indicum R. Br. Indian borage

Botanical name

S. Family No.

IV

IV

Weed

Tree

Vegetable

Weed

Ornamental IV

I

IV

IV

IV I II II IV III

IV

I

IV

IV

I

I

II

II II III

I

I II IV

S

S

OS, S

OS, S

S

S

S

OS

OS OS S S OS OS

OS, S

S

S

OS, S

OS

S

OS,S OS,S OS

S

F,B

F,B F,R F,R F,B R F,B,R

F,B,R

F

F

F,R

F,R,W F,B,R

F

S S OS, S F,B,R

F,R,W

F

R

F,R

R

R F,R F,B,R

F,R

F R F,B,R

Severity Seasonality Location of hosts (Maximum grade) North Central South North Central South North Central South II II S S F F

Weed Weed Weed Ornamental III Weed Weed

Weed Weed Weed

Weed Weed

Ornamental

Field crop

Plant category


32

67.

66.

65.

64.

60. 61. 62. 63.

59.

58.

57.

56.

53. 54. 55.

English/ Vernacular name

Wild mustard Wild radish Butterfly plant, Pink butterfly plant Cassia fistula L. Amaltas, Golden shower plant, Indian Laburnum Senna tora L. Coffee weed/ sickle pod Stinking Cassia, Chinese senna, sickle senna Capparidaceae Cleome viscosa L. Yellow spider flower, Cleome, Tickweed, Nai kadugu, Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Papaya, Melon plant, Pawpaw, Chenopodiaceae Beta vulgaris L. Beetroot, Sugarbeet Chenopodium albam L. Pigweed, Bathua Spinacea oleracea L. Spinach, Palak Commelinaceae Commelina benghalensis L. Whiskered Commelina Convolvulaceae Argyreia hookeri C.B.Clarke Hooker's Wood rose, Hooker's Morning Glory ,Gayri Convolvulus arvensis L. Field Bind weed, Hiranpug, Hiran khuri Ipomoea indica L. Bush Morning Glory, Morning Glory Plant Cucurbitaceae Citrullus lanatus Watermelon (Thumb) Mansf.

Botanical name

Brassica sp. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Caesalpiniaceae Bauhinia purpurea L.

Brassicaceae

S. Family No.

Vegetable

Weed

Weed

Weed

Vegetable Weed Vegetable Weed

Fruit plant

Weed

Weed

Tree

Weed Weed Tree

Plant category

I

I

IV

I

II

II

III

I

II II II III

IV

II

I

I

II

II

III

III

II

IV

III

I

I

Severity (Maximum grade) North Central South I II I I

OS

OS

OS, S

OS

North OS OS

Location of hosts

OS

OS

OS

S

S S OS,S OS

OS, S

OS

S

OS

R

OS

OS

OS

OS

S

F

F, R

OS, S F

OS, S

S

OS

R

R

F,R

F

F,B,R

F

W

F

W

F,B,R,W F,B,R,W

B

F F,R F,B R

F

F,R

F,B,R,W R

R

Central South North Central South W F OS OS R R

Seasonality


33

Lagenaria siceraria L.

Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. Luffa acutangula L.

Momordica charantia L. Cyperus rotundus L.

Cyperaceae

Euphorbiaceae

70.

71. 72.

73. 74.

75.

84. 85.

83.

81. 82.

78. 79. 80.

76. 77.

Citrullus vulgaris Sch. Cucumis melo L.

68. 69.

Round melon Muskmelon, Sugar melon Bottle Gourd, Bitter calbash gourd, Kaippan chura Sponge Gourd, Beera/Ridge gourd/ Ribbed gourd Bitter guard Nut grass, Common Nut Sedge, coco grass Muripindi/Indian copper leaf Indian Copperleaf Croton

English/ Vernacular name

Acalypha lanceolata L. Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A.Juss Croton petra Croton Croton sparciflorum Morong Croton Euphorbia geniculata L. Pala aku/ Wild poinsettia Euphorbia granulata Forssk Hazardani Euphorbia heterophylla L. Wild Poinsettia, Wild spurge Spurge, Mothi doodhi Euphorbia hirta L. Asthma Weed, Common spurge Euphorbia pulcherrima L. Poinsettia Jatropha curcas L. Jatropha, Barbados nut

Acalypha indica

Botanical name

S. Family No.

III

I I

I I

I

I

IV

IV

II IV

I

IV

I I

I

I I

IV

IV

I II III

I I

II

I

I II

I

Severity (Maximum grade) North Central South I I

Ornamental Tree I

Weed

Weed Weed

Ornamental Ornamental Weed

Ornamental Ornamental

Weed

Vegetable Weed

Vegetable Vegetable

Vegetable

Vegetable Vegetable

Plant category

OS

OS

S S

OS S

S

North S OS

Location of hosts

OS

OS

OS, S

OS OS

OS

OS

OS S

OS

OS OS

OS

OS

OS, S OS S

OS OS, S

S

OS

OS S

OS

R

R

F F,B,R

F F

F

F,B,R R

R

F

F F

F

F F

F,B,R,W F,B,R,W

F,B,R,W F,B,R,W

R F F F,B,R,W F,R

F,B,R

B

F F,B,R

F

F

Central South North Central South F F

Seasonality


34

Phyllanthus amarus L.

Phyllanthus niruri L.

Ricinus communis L. Acacia spp. Butea monosperma Roxb. Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill.

86.

87.

88. 89. 90. 91.

Clitoria ternatea L. Crotalaria verrucosa L. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Desmodium dichotomum L. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunthex. Walp. Lablab purpureus Isweet

Leucaena leucocephala L.

Plumeria acutifolia L.

Prosopis juliflora L.

Rhynchosia minima DC

93. 94. 95.

97. 98.

100.

101.

102.

103.

99.

96.

Cicer aritianum L.

92.

Fabaceae

Botanical name

S. Family No.

Lablab Bean, Hyacinth bean Wild tamarind, White Babool, The temple tree , Gorurchampa Algaroba, Junglee kikar Burn-Mouth Vine, rhynchosia

Indian rosewood/ Shisham Chikta Gliricidia

Niruri /Otheite, Jangali amla, Jondhali Hazardani/ Stonebreaker Castor bean Acacia Flame of forest Arhar/ Pigeon Pea/ Red gram Chickpea/ Bengal gram Butterfly Pea Blue rattle weed Guar

English/ Vernacular name

Weed

Tree

Ornamental

Tree

Field crop

Weed Tree

Tree

Weed Field crop Vegetable

Field crop

Field crop Tree Tree Field crop

Weed

Weed

Plant category

I

I

IV

III

I

II

I

I

IV I II

I

I I

I

IV

I

II

I

II

I

III

I

II I II

I

I I

I

Severity (Maximum grade) North Central South II IV

S

OS

S

OS, S

North

Location of hosts

OS

S

OS

S

OS OS S

OS

OS S

OS

OS, S

OS

S

OS

OS

S

OS, S

OS

OS OS S

OS

OS S

OS

F

R, W

F

R

R

R

R

R

F,R R F

F

R F

F

F

R

R

R

R

F

F,R

R

F,R R F

F

R F

F

Central South North Central South S OS, S F,B F,B,R

Seasonality


35

119. 120.

118.

113. 114. 115. 116. Lythraceae 117. Malvaceae

110. 111. 112.

108. 109.

107.

105. 106. Lamiaceae

Tephrosia purpurea L.

104.

English/ Vernacular name

Vempali/Wild indigo/ Purple tephrosia Vigna radiata L. Moong Anisomeles heyneana Benth Western Hill Catmint, Chandhara, Gopali Hyptis sauveolens Ma bheera/ Sirna tulasi/ American mint Leucas ciliata L. Tufted Leucas Leucas urticaefolia Br. Dronpushpi/ White dead nettle Mentha piperita L. Peppermint Ocimum basilicum L. Basil, Ran Tulsi Ocimum canum sims Pitchi tulasi/ Kukka tulasi/ Hoary basil Ocimum sanctum L. Tulsi/ Indian Bassil Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Holy basil, Tulsi Salvia officinalis L. Salvia Lawsonia inermis L. Henna, Mehendi Abelmoschus esculentus L. Okra, Bhindi, Ladies Finger, Abelmoschus ficulneus White Wild Musk (L.) Wight & Arn Ex.Wight Mallow, Native rosella Jangli bhindi, Ran bhendi Abelmoschus manihot L. Yellow Hibiscus Abutilon hirtum (Lam) Indian Mallow, Sweet var. heterotrichum Country Mallow, (Hochst. Ex. Mattei ) Abutilon, Indian abutilon, Petari

Botanical name

S. Family No.

Weed Weed

Weed

Weed Weed Weed Weed Vegetable

Spice Weed Weed

Weed Weed

Weed

Field crop Weed

weed

Plant category

I IV

IV

II II

IV

II I I I IV

I I

I I

I

II

I II

I

I I II

I

Severity (Maximum grade) North Central South I

OS OS

S

North

Location of hosts

OS OS

OS, S

OS OS OS OS OS

OS, S OS

OS OS

OS

OS

OS OS

OS

OS, S OS S

S

R F

F

R R

F,B

F,R R R R F

F R

R F,B

B,R

R

R F

R

F R R

F

Central South North Central South S R

Seasonality


36

Abutilon indicum (L) Sweet

Abutilon theophrasti Sweet Alcea rosea L. Althaea sp. Azanza lampas (Cav.) Alef. Gossypium arboreum L. Gossypium barbadense L. Gossypium herbaceum L.

Gossypium hirsutum L. Hibiscus cannabinus

Hibiscus micranthus

Hibiscus panduraeformis Burm Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Malvastrum coramandelinum Garcke Sida acuta L.

Sida cordifolia L.

Thespesia lampas L.

Urena sinuata L.

121. Malvaceae

122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128.

129. 130.

131.

132.

134. 135.

137.

138.

139.

136.

133.

Botanical name

S. Family No. Indian Mallow, Kanghi Country Mallow Velvetleaf, China jute Hollyhock, Gulkhaira Hollyhock Jangli-bhendi Deshi cotton Egyptian cotton Upland Cotton, Mexican Cotton, American Cotton Gongura/Mesta/ Kenaf Nitya malli/Tiny flower hibiscus Jangli Bhendi/ Wild Lady's Finger China Rose, Chinese hibiscus Roselle, Ambadi False Mallow, Broom weed Chilaka paraka/ /Common wire weed Country Mallow, Khareti Ban Kapas, Common Mallow Burr mallow/ Nalla benda/ Pedda benda

English/ Vernacular name

Weed

Weed

Weed

Weed

Vegetable Weed

IV I

IV IV

IV

II

IV

IV

IV IV

IV IV

II

IV

III III

I

IV

III

IV

II

IV I

IV IV

OS,S

OS,S

S

S

S

OS OS

OS

OS,S OS,S

OS,S

OS

S

S

S S

OS

S

S

OS

OS,S

S

S S

S S

R

R

F

F

F

R R

R

F F,B

R

R

F

F

B,R F

F,B

R

R

F,B

R

R

F F

F F

Severity Seasonality Location of hosts (Maximum grade) North Central South North Central South North Central South III IV IV OS,S OS,S OS,S B, R F,B,R,W F,B,R

Ornamental IV

Weed

Ornamental

Field crop Vegetable

Weed Ornamental Ornamental Weed Field crop Field crop Field crop

Weed

Plant category


37

156. Pedaliaceae

155. Papilionaceae

154. Papaveraceae

152. 153. Oxalidaceae

151.

147. Myrtaceae 148. 149. 150. Nyctaginaceae

146. Moringaceae

145.

143. Moraceae 144.

142.

English/ Vernacular name

Neem Broom Creeper, ink berry Cochlospermum Butter cup tree/ halicacabum Chedu putnalu/ Konda buruga Ficus indica (L.) Mill. Burgad Ficus religiosa L. Peepal, bodhi plant, holy plant, scared fig Morus alba L. White Mulberry, Silkworm Mulberry, Russian Mulberry Moringa oleifera L. Drumstick plant, Senjana Eucalyptus spp. Eucalypts Melaleuca leucadendron L. Bottle brush Psidium guajava L. Guava, Amrood Boerhavia diffusa Chois. Red hogweed, Wineflower Boerhavia repens Chois. Punarnava/ Spreading hog weed Bougainvillea glabra L. Bougainvillea Oxalis corniculata L. Creeping Wood Sorrel, Creeping Oxalis Argemone mexicana L. Mexican prickly poppy, Satyanashi Psoralea corylifolia L. Babchi Seeds, Bavachi Sesamum indicum L. Sesame

Botanical name

140. Meliaceae Azadirachta indica A. Juss. 141. Menispermaceae Cocculus hirsutus L.

S. Family No.

I I I

I

III II

Field crop

Weed

Weed

Ornamental I Weed

Weed

Tree Tree Fruit plant Weed

Tree

Tree

Tree Tree

Weed

I

I

I

I I

III

I I IV

II

I

I

I

I

I

II I

II

I

I

II

Severity (Maximum grade) North Central South Tree I I I Ornamental I

Plant category

OS, S

OS OS, S OS

OS

OS,S OS

North OS

Location of hosts

S

OS

OS

OS OS

OS

OS OS OS, S

S

OS

OS

S

OS

OS

OS OS

S

OS

OS

S

R

R R F

R

R R

F

B,R

B,R

R F

F,R

R F F,B,R

R

R

R

F

B,R

R

R F

R

R

R

R

Central South North Central South OS OS R R R OS R

Seasonality


38

Botanical name

163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179.

161. 162.

160.

Punicaceae Rhamnaceae Rosaceae Rutaceae Sapindaceae Sapotaceae Solanaceae

Portulacaceae

159. Poaceae

Gulf Leaf-Flower Black honey shrub/ Pulicheru/ Nela purugudu Makhra grass

English/ Vernacular name

Acrachne racemosa (B.Heyne ex.Roemer & Schult) Cynodon dactylon Pers. Doob grass, Bermuda grass Dinebra retroflexa L. Viper grass Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Madhama, Indian Crowfoot Grass, Indian goosegrass Eragrostis cilianensis L. Stink Grass, Candy grass Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Sorghum jwor Urochloa panicoides L. Garden grass Portulaca grandiflora Hook Gule dupehri Portulaca oleracea L. Purslane Portulaca quadrifida L. Wild purslane Punica granatum L. Pomegranate, Anar Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. Ber Rosa indica L. Ornamental Murrya koenigii Spreng Curry leaf Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Balloon vine Achras zapota L. Sapota Capsicum annum L. Chilly Datura fasturosa L. Dhatura Datura metel L. devil's trumpet, metel Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Tomato Physalis minima L. Ground Cherry, Sun berry

157. Phyllanthaceae Phyllanthus fraternus L. 158. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir

S. Family No.

Weed Field crop Weed Weed Weed Weed Fruit plant Fruit plant Ornamental Spice Weed Fruit plant Spice Weed Weed Vegetable Weed

Weed Weed

Weed

Weed

Weed Weed

Plant category

II III II IV I

II II I

III

I

II

I

II

I I I IV I I II II IV I

II IV I

I IV

I

I IV I I I IV II I IV

I

I

I

I

Severity (Maximum grade) North Central South III III

S OS, S OS OS, S OS, S

OS, S OS, S OS

S

S

OS

OS

S

North

Location of hosts

OS OS, S OS, S

S S OS OS OS OS, S OS OS, S S

S

S

S

S

F

B F R

F R, W OS B OS, S F OS, S F,B,R

OS OS OS OS, S OS, S OS, S S

OS, S F, R S

OS

F,B,R

F,B,R

F,B,R,W

B F B,R

B,R,W B,R B B F B,R B,R F F

B,R,W

B,R

F,R

F,B,R

B F B,R

B B F B,R R F F

R B,R,W

F

Central South North Central South OS B S R

Seasonality


39

186. 187.

III I

Fruit plant Weed

II III

Ornamental II Tree Weed

Weed Weed

Weed Weed

Weed

IV II

III I

IV IV

IV II

IV III I

I

IV

II

IV II

OS S

S

OS, S

OS, S S

OS OS

OS ,S OS, S

OS, S S

S S

R, W

F R

F F,B,R

OS R, W OS, S S

OS

S

S

S S

B,R,W R

R R

F,B,R R

F R

B,R,W R R

R

F,B,R

R

F R

Severity Seasonality Location of hosts (Maximum grade) North Central South North Central South North Central South IV IV III OS, S S S F F F II II II S OS OS F,B,R B,R B,R

Ornamental IV

Vegetable Weed

Vegetable Weed

Plant category

Severity (Maximum grade) : G 1: About 1-10 mealybugs scattered over the plant G 2: One branch infested heavily with mealybugs, G 3: Two or more branches infested heavily with

193. Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L. 194. Zygophyllaceae Tribulus terrestris L.

Brinjal, Egg plant Black nightshade, Black-berry night shade, Poisonberry Potato Thorny Nightshade, Yellow Berried, Thai eggplant Askand, aksun Ashwagandha Nalta jute/Janumu/ Parinta kura Wild Jute, African jute Burr Bush, Chinese Burr Sky flower, Pigeon Berry Pivali Mendi/ Golden duranta Lantana Teak, Sagun Quadrangular Chaste tree/Vavili/Nalla vavili Grape Bhakari, Puncture Vine, Caltrop, Yellow Vine, Goathead, Gokharu

English/ Vernacular name

Location of hosts: F: Within field; B: Field border; R: Roadside; W: Water channel

Seasonality: S = Cotton season. OS= Off-season

###

##

mealybugs, up to 50% plant affected and G 4: Complete plant affected with mealybugs

#

Corchorus trilocularis L. Triumfetta rhomboidea L.

185. Tiliaceae

Lantana camara L. Tectona grandis L. F. Vitex negundo L.

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Corchorus olitorius L.

184.

190. 191. 192.

Solanum tuberosum L. Solanum virginianum L.

182. 183.

Duranta erecta L. Duranta repens L.

Solanum melongena L. Solanum nigrum L.

180. 181.

188. Verbenaceae 189.

Botanical name

S. Family No.


Annexure II: Frequency distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis by families No. of families 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Family Name Acanthaceae Aizoaceae Amaranthaceae Anacardiaceae Annonaceae Apiaceae Apocynaceae Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae Basellaceae Bombacaceae Boraginaceae Brassicaceae Caesalpiniaceae Capparidaceae Caricaceae Chenopodiaceae Commelinaceae Convolvulaceae Cucurbitaceae Cyperaceae Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae Lamiaceae Lythraceae Malvaceae Meliaceae Menispermaceae Moraceae Moringaceae Myrtaceae Nyctaginaceae Oxalidaceae Papaveraceae Papilionaceae Pedaliaceae Phyllanthaceae Poaceae Portulacaceae Punicaceae Rhamnaceae Rosaceae Rutaceae

North 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 7 1 2 5 0 1 9 1 0 3 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 1 1 1 0

Central 3 1 8 1 1 4 1 3 17 0 0 1 0 3 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 10 10 8 1 15 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 1

40

South 3 1 10 1 1 1 1 2 10 1 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 2 5 0 12 14 5 1 12 1 1 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

All India 5 1 13 1 1 4 1 3 20 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 3 7 1 14 17 10 1 23 1 2 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 7 3 1 1 1 1


No. of families 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

Family Name Sapindaceae Sapotaceae Solanaceae Tiliaceae Verbenaceae Vitaceae Zygophyllaceae Total number of hosts

North 0 0 10 0 1 1 1 71

Central 1 1 8 2 4 0 0 141

41

South 1 1 8 2 4 0 0 124

All India 1 1 10 3 5 1 1 194


Annexure III. Distribution of host plants of P. solenopsis exclusive and common among cotton growing zones grouped by families S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

Family Acanthaceae Aizoaceae Amaranthaceae Anacardiaceae Annonaceae Apiaceae Apocynaceae Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae Basellaceae Bombacaceae Boraginaceae Brassicaceae Caesalpiniaceae Capparidaceae Caricaceae Chenopodiaceae Commelinaceae Convolvulaceae Cucurbitaceae Cyperaceae Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae Lamiaceae Lythraceae Malvaceae Meliaceae Menispermaceae Moraceae Moringaceae Myrtaceae Nyctaginaceae Oxalidaceae Papaveraceae Papilionaceae Pedaliaceae Phyllanthaceae Poaceae Portulacaceae Punicaceae Rhamnaceae Rosaceae

North (N)

2

Central (C) 2 1

South (S) NC 2

NS

3

5 1 1 1 1 1 5

3

2

1 8

CS 1

1 1 1

NCS 1 2

1 4

1 2 2 1

1 1

2

1 1 1

1 2

2

1 3

1 1 2

1 1 5

2 3 2

3

7

5

1

1

1 2

1

9 8 3

1

2

1 5 1

1

2 1

1

2 1

2 1 1 1 1 2

1 3 1

1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1

42

Total 5 1 13 1 1 4 1 3 20 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 3 7 1 14 17 10 1 23 1 2 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 7 3 1 1 1


S.No. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

Family Rutaceae Sapindaceae Sapotaceae Solanaceae Tiliaceae Verbenaceae Vitaceae Zygophyllaceae Total

North (N)

Central (C)

South (S) NC

NS

CS 1 1 1

2

1 1 22

NCS

8 1 1

1 1

45

24

43

3

7

1 2

1

54

39

Total 1 1 1 10 3 5 1 1 194


44

Cynodon dactylon Pers. Lagenaria siceraria L. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Portulaca grandiflora Hook Crossandra infundibuliformis Linn. Tectona grandis L. F. Cleome viscosa L. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Sonchus arvensis L. Euphorbia geniculata L. Acalypha indica L. Duranta erecta L. Euphorbia heterophylla L. Corchorus trilocularis L. Malvastrum coramandelinum Garcke Aerva lanata (L.) Juss Phyllanthus amarus L. Trianthema portulacastrum L. Bougainvillea glabra L. Melaleuca leucadendron L. Punica granatum L. Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. Solanum tuberosum L. Chrysanthemum indicum L. Solanum melongena L. Momordica charantia L. Calotropis procera R. Br.

Poaceae Cucurbitaceae Poaceae Portulacaceae Acanthaceae Verbenaceae Capparidaceae Sapindaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Verbenaceae Euphorbiaceae Tiliaceae Malvaceae Amaranthaceae Euphorbiaceae Aizoaceae Nyctaginaceae Myrtaceae Punicaceae Rhamnaceae Solanaceae Asteraceae Solanaceae Cucurbitaceae Asclepiadaceae

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

NC1 NS1 NS2 NS3 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS5 CS6 CS7 CS8 CS9 CS10 CS11 CS12 CS13 CS14 NCS1 NCS2 NCS3 NCS4 NCS5 NCS6 NCS7 NCS8 NCS9 NCS10

Botanical name

S.No. Code no. Family

Doob grass, Bermuda grass Bottle Gourd, Bitter calbash gourd, Kaippan chura Sorghum, Jowar Gule dupehri Crossandra, Firecracker Flower Teak, Sagun Yellow spider flower, Cleome, Tickweed, Nai kadugu, Balloon vine Dandelion Field Sow-Thistle, Pala aku/Wild poinsettia Muripindi/Indian copper leaf Sky flower, Pigeon Berry Wild Poinsettia, Wild spurge Spurge, Mothi doodhi Wild Jute, African jute False Mallow, Broom weed Mountain Knot Grass, Chhaya, kapurmadhuri Niruri /Otheite, Jangali amla, Jondhali Itsit, Sanrai, Desert Horse Purslane, Giant pigweed Bougainvillea Bottle brush Pomegranate, Anar Ber Potato Chrysanthemum, Shewanti. Brinjal, Egg plant Bitter guard Rubber bush, apple of Sodom

English/ Vernacular name

Annexure IV: Common hosts across zones with dissimilar seasonality of P. solenopsis

OS OS, S OS, S OS, S OS, S OS, S OS, S OS, S S S

North OS S S S

OS OS OS OS OS OS OS OS OS ,S OS, S OS, S OS,S S S OS OS OS OS OS S S S OS OS

Central S

OS OS OS, S OS, S OS, S OS, S OS, S OS,S S S S OS OS S OS OS, S OS, S OS, S OS OS OS OS S S S OS OS

South

P. solenopsis seasonality


45

Solanum nigrum L. Lantana camara L. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Tagetes erecta L.

Solanaceae Verbenaceae Amaranthaceae Asteraceae

29. 30. 31. 32.

NCS11 NCS12 NCS13 NCS14

Botanical name

S.No. Code no. Family Black nightshade, Black-berry night shade, Poisonberry Lantana Puthkanda, Crocus stuff, Devil’s horsewhip Marigold, Genda

English/ Vernacular name

P. solenopsis seasonality North Central South S OS OS S OS OS S OS, S OS, S S S OS,S


46

Code no.

NS1 NS2 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS5 CS6 CS7 CS8

CS9 CS10 CS11 CS12 CS13 CS14

NCS1 NCS2 NCS3 NCS4 NCS5 NCS6 NCS7 NCS8 NCS9 NCS10 NCS11

S.No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Cucurbitaceae Convolvulaceae Myrtaceae Solanaceae Punicaceae Rhamnaceae Verbenaceae Solanaceae Amaranthaceae Moraceae Solanaceae

Amaranthaceae Fabaceae Asteraceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Malvaceae

Luffa acutangula Portulaca grandiflora Hook Leucaena leucocephala L. Portulaca oleracea L. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Tectona grandis L. F. Cleome viscosa L. Phyllanthus amarus L. Duranta erecta L. Alternanthera paronychioides A.St.Hil. Aerva lanata (L.) Juss Clitoria ternatea L. Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Acalypha indica Euphorbia geniculata Malvastrum coramandelinum Garcke Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Mansf. Convolvulus arvensis L. Melaleuca leucadendron L. Solanum virginianum L. Punica granatum L. Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. Lantana camara L. Capsicum annum L. Digera muricata (L.) Ficus religiosa L. Solanum tuberosum L.

Botanical name

Watermelon Field Bind weed, Hiranpug, Hiran khuri Bottle brush Thorny Nightshade, Yellow Berried, Thai eggplant Pomegranate, Anar Ber Lantana Chilly Tandla, False Amaranth Peepal, bodhi plant, holy plant, scared fig Potato

Mountain Knot Grass, Chhaya, kapurmadhuri Butterfly Pea Dandelion Muripindi/Indian copper leaf Pala aku/Wild poinsettia False Mallow, Broom weed

Beera/Ridge gourd/ Ribbed gourd/ Gule dupehri Wild tamarind, White Babool Purslane Balloon vine Teak, Sagun Yellow spider flower, Cleome, Tickweed, Nai kadugu, Niruri /Otheite, Jangali amla, Jondhali Sky flower, Pigeon Berry Smooth Chaff Flower, Reshimkata.

English/ Vernacular name

Annexure V: Common hosts across zones with dissimilar severity of P. solenopsis

Cucurbitaceae Portulacaceae Fabaceae Portulacaceae Sapindaceae Verbenaceae Capparidaceae Euphorbiaceae Verbenaceae Amaranthaceae

Family

I I I I II II II II II II III

II III I II I I IV IV IV I IV

III IV IV IV IV IV

II III II II I I IV II I I IV

IV II II II III III

P. solenopsis severity North Central South I II III I I II I IV II I II III II III II IV III I III II


47

Code no.

NCS12 NCS13 NCS14 NCS15 NCS16 NCS17 NCS18

S.No.

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Asteraceae Malvaceae Asteraceae Malvaceae Solanaceae Fabaceae Asteraceae

Family

English/ Vernacular name

Chrysanthemum indicum L. Chrysanthemum, Shewanti Abutilon indicum (L) Sweet Indian Mallow, Country Mallow Tagetes erecta L. Marigold, Genda Abelmoschus esculentus L. Okra, Bhindi, Ladies Finger, Solanum melongena L. Brinjal, Egg plant Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. Guar Xanthium strumarium L. Common Cocklebur, broad bur, burdock datura

Botanical name

P. solenopsis severity North Central South III II II III IV IV III II II IV IV II IV IV III IV II II IV IV II


48

Code no.

NS1 NS2 NS3 CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS5 CS6

CS7 CS8 NCS1 NCS2 NCS3 NCS4 NCS5 NCS6 NCS7 NCS8 NCS9 NCS10 NCS11

S.No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Euphorbiaceae Asteraceae Malvaceae Amaranthaceae Asteraceae Rhamnaceae Aizoaceae Solanaceae Solanaceae Asteraceae Rosaceae Verbenaceae Asteraceae

Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae Portulacaceae Euphorbiaceae Sapindaceae Capparidaceae Euphorbiaceae Amaranthaceae Caesalpiniaceae

Family

Euphorbia geniculata L. Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Abutilon indicum (L) Sweet Achyranthes aspera Linn. Tagetes erecta L. Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. Trianthema portulacastrum L. Physalis minima L. Solanum nigrum L. Xanthium strumarium L. Rosa indica L. Lantana camara L. Chrysanthemum indicum L.

Jatropha curcas L. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Portulaca grandiflora Hook Acalypha indica L. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Cleome viscosa L. Phyllanthus amarus L. Aerva lanata (L.) Juss Senna tora L.

Botanical name

Jatropha, Barbados nut Indian rosewood, Shisham Gule dupehri Muripindi/Indian copper leaf Balloon vine Yellow spider flower, Cleome, Tickweed, Nai kadugu, Niruri /Otheite, Jangali amla, Jondhali Mountain Knot Grass, Chhaya, kapurmadhuri Coffee weed/ sickle pod Stinking Cassia, Chinese senna, sickle senna Pala aku/Wild poinsettia Dandelion Indian Mallow, Country Mallow Puthkanda, Crocus stuff, Devil’s horsewhip Marigold, Genda Ber Itsit, Sanrai, Desert Horse Purslane, Giant pigweed Ground Cherry, Sun berry Black nightshade, Black-berry night shade, Poisonberry Common Cocklebur, broad bur, burdock datura, Ornamental Lantana Chrysanthemum, Shewanti.

English/ Vernacular name

B, R B,R,W F F F,B,R F,B,R F,B,R F,R,W R R, W

F,B,R,W R F,B,R,W F,B,R F,B B F, R B, R B, R F,B,R F B, R, W F

F, R F, R F,B,R F,B,R R B F, R B, R B, R R F B, R, W F

Location of P. solenopsis hosts North Central South R F R, W R F, R R B R B, R R F, R F,B,R F,B F,B,R F,B,R F, R F,B,R,W R

Annexure VI: Common hosts of P. solenopsis across zones with different spatial distribution


Acknowledgement We sincerely acknowledge the vision of the Consortium Advisory Committee and financial assistance in recommending and publishing the work, respectively under NAIP (NAIP/DSS/C2046).

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