Page 1


COHERE

1

Architectural Design Studio RVCA | BArch15B


CREDIBILITY

Cohere Volume 1 2018 RV College of Architecture This book is a documentation and research published as a part of Architctural Design Studio of 2018 in RV College of Architecture, Bangalore Research and Publication under the guidance of Diya Banerjee Govind Rao Raji Sunderkrishnan Swetha Gowri All information unless cited are primarily documented by 7-B, B.Arch Batch of 2015 of RV College of Architecture. Gratitude towards the seniors and the post graduate students for their previous studies which were referred to during the research and publication. Efforts are made to authentically source all the photographs and data referred to. Composition Keerthana Vivin, Ketan Naidu, Kirthan Shekar, Krishna Vamsi, Madhuri Sharma, N Srishti Prabakar, Namitha Gurumurthy, Neha Harish, Niriksha R Kadur, Paarth Agrawal, Pravani Pagadala,Ravi Kiran, Sachin Gola, Sumanth,Sadhvi Chandrakesari Layout and Cover Kirthan Shekar, Neha Harish Brief and Introduction Swetha Gowri Print Kapricorn Prints, Sangam Circle, JP Nagar, Bangalore Cohere , vol 1, RVCA B.Arch15B, 2018


Contents Syllabus

7

Introduction - Climate Responsive Architecture

9

Core Content

11

Transects and Classification

12

C OA S TA L GEOGRAPHY

DEMOGRAPHY

ISSUES

SETTLEMENT PATTERNS

Climate

16

Hydrology Topography

4 3

Geology Vegetation Wildlife Religion / Caste Occupation Agriculture Migration Education Tradition- Culture ECOLOGI C A L Forest Encroachment Frequent Fires Landfill Crisis Mangrove Depletion Marine Food Web Biomagnification Coral Depletion S O C I O - C U LT U R A L Impact of Modern Practices Communal Tension Netravati River Diversion Project Reason for Settlement Cluster Patterrns Principles of Organisation Architectural Elements

5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9


Core Content

Ideas are motive driven. Motive is well established with intention. Intention is planned out to serve the prevalent circumstances. Approaches in education are often driven by end motives that serve the idealistic brain and mind operations. We often forego the layer of “human� in order to achieve all pre-planned aspirations. The understanding that architectural motive is, in the present day, mono-driven and uni-controlled brings alarming attention to the actual applicability to all things educational and experimental. The dire need of this changing world emerges from the thorough understanding of the present human activities and its outreaching impacts on the future. We are no more looking at a static progression of today’s direct effects but a dynamic implication of our actions on our multidimensional futures. This forms the impetus for awareness through research which then provides a strong foundation to all intended motive. Architecture, at the end of the day, must serve man but not at the cost of serving nature. Through this volume of Part I of the book, the intention for exploration is through of eyes of the changing world, its needs and demands with an underlay of climatic responsive techniques largely connecting man back nature. This wellequipped mind set must be what drives architecture - a collective correlation between intention and its sub rooting with comprehensive understanding.


Coastal Plains Geography

Demography

Pg 26

Landform Karnataka

of

coastal

Issues

Pg 26

Communities Occupation

and

Settlement Patterns

Pg 26

Impact of Practices

Modern

Pg 26

Geographic Influence on Settlement Patterns

Pg 26

Pg 26

Pg 26

Pg 26

The vegetation type most observed in the coastal.

Agriculture

Communal Tension

Pg 26

Pg 26

The range of communities forming different edges

Migration and Influence

Netravati River Diversion Project

Clustering observed

Pg 26

Pg 26

Pg 26

The geology of the coastal mostly consists of laterite

Pg 26

Pg 26

Pg 26

Patterns

Traditional Art

Elements of Architecture

Pg 26

Pg 26


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Top graph corresponding to maximum tempertaure, minimum temperature and average temperature of the different regions in coastal karnataka Middle graph corresponding to the average annual rainfall in coastal karnataka data collected from “Climate Data For Cities Worldwide - Climate-Data.Org�. En.ClimateData.Org, 2018,/en.climate-data.org/.

16

Bottom left aghanashini estuary Bottom center the paddy fields in gokarna


Climate in this very day’s context is the most alarming component of debate. The effects and repercussions that it carries within itself are the key elements to focus upon with question of architecture relating to its climate. The focus then shifts to the responsibilities that one must execute with relating architecture to not just the immediate micro climate but also to the everchanging macro climate.

Coastal Plains

Climate

With talks about global warming becoming the forefront of discussions, architecture that is synonymous to climate change becomes the impetus for responsible adaptation. Living as a culture has to change with the changing dynamics of mother Nature, without which the next topic of debate will be peril. The climatic conditions of the coastal plains of Karnataka is heavily masked by its identifying characteristics of heat and humidity.The Tropical monsoon climate covers the entire coastal belt and adjoining areas. The climate in this region is hot with excessive rainfall during the monsoon season i.e., June to September. The southern half of the State experiences hot, seasonally dry tropical savana climate while most of the northern half experiences hot, semiarid, tropical steppe type of climate. The climate of the State varies with the seasons. The winter season from January to February is followed by summer season from March to May. The period from October to December forms the post-monsoon season. The period from October to March, covering the post-monsoon and winter seasons, is generally pleasant over the entire State except during a few spells of rain associated with north-east monsoon which affects the south-eastern parts of the State during October to December. The months April and May are hot, very dry and generally uncomfortable. Weather tends to be oppressive during June due to high humidity and temperature. The next three months (July, August and September) are somewhat comfortable due to reduced day temperature although the humiciities continue to be very high. The local variations along the coast line is evident as one comes down from the Gulf to the peninsular tip. Karnataka as a region is influenced by the hot summers and mild winters with maximum temperatures in the range of 30-34 degrees and minimum temperatures of 20-22 degrees. The humidity aspect of the region is strongly felt during the summers and the monsoons when percentages reach upto 90-95, owing to an annual precipitation of around 400mm.

Karnataka

17


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Top map of the principal aquifers in the region Right1 hydrology map of the coastal Bottom Right 2 key map with labels. 18


The people of the coastal plains of Karnataka quite sumptuous rely on the abundant sources of water reserves that the area is bestowed with. The rivers that originate in the mountains of the Western Ghats, take prominence as they reach the coast prior to joining the sea. The five major rivers of Uttara Kannada, namely, Bedthi (Bedti / Gangavalli), Aganashini (Tadri), Varda, Sharavathi and Kali form the major sources of drainage system while flowing from West through the district into the Arabian Sea.

Coastal Plains

Hydrology

The presence of huge water reserves feed the groundwater and aquifers augmenting the water table level. This resource is tapped into by the locals with their use of wells and borewells. The heavy rainfall also is carefully collected with their systems of tanks in the area.

Karnataka

19


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Top Left koti teertha, gokarna, karnataka Top Right underground well, brahmin residence, gokarna, karnataka Right aghanashini river

20


Karnataka

21

Coastal Plains


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Above The aghanashini estuary landform. Bottom Right Key map Right Topography map showing the terrain of the coastal region.

22


The coastal plains of Karnataka, also called the Karavalli coast, is a vast stretch of 320km along the western edge of the Indian peninsula giving life to a number of natural features that sing character to the region. The high degree of variation in the differing altitudes gives rise to the small plateaus and the huge expanses of the plains. Steep cliffs and undulated landscape that flow down from the Western ghats gives the Karnataka coast its differentiating quality, when compared to the relatively low lying and mostly evenedout coasts above and below it.

Coastal Plains

Topography

Encompassing the Uttar Kannada and Dakshin Kannada districs of Karnataka, elevation of the Karavalli coast is less than 300 msl and is torrentially exposed to the south Westerlies, that bring heavy rain to the region during the monsoon months of JulyOctober.

Karnataka

22


24


Coastal Plains Left The landform of the karwar estuary Top Karwar landfrom Bottom gokarna beach landform.

Karnataka

25


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Top Vegetation type at Gokarna, Karnataka Right Land cover of coastal Karnataka Bottom Right Key map

26


Due to the vast variation is topography, influenced by a high degree of rainfall and higher levels of heat, a vast populace of vegetation thrives in accordance to this variation. The broader category is named as semi evergreen and evergreen forests, which only pays little heed to the diverse flora and fauna that exists within the region. Semi evergreen often merges with the evergreen and the moist deciduous type of vegetation, and it is almost an extension of the evergreen forests of the Western ghats. With a rainfall of 4000-5000mm supporting the vegetation, it sustains many different species of the semievergreen type, namely - Cinnamomum malabaricum, Holigarna arnottiana, Dalbergia latifolia, Ficus spp., Pterocarpus marsupium, Aglaia roxbhurgiana; Moist deciduous - Terminalia paniculata, Terminalia tomentosa, Xylia xylocarpa Careya arborea, Spondias spp., Tectona grandis, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Dillenia pentagyna, Strychnos nuxvomica, Bambusa arundinaceae;

Coastal Plains

Vegetation

Dry deciduous - Acacia catechu, Sepium insigne, Anoegissus spp.,Bauhinia racemosa, Bombax ceiba. The natural vegetation also supports the cultivation of food and cash crops with large expanses of land converted into plantation fields. The Plantations include Tectona grandis, Areca catechu, Cocos nucifera, Casuarina equisetifolia, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus spp. All the various species then form the collective vast vegetation that thrives in the coastal plain of Karnataka. MANGROVES : These are usually woody,evergreen, salt tolerant plants of soft and swampy mud of tropical sub-tropical coastal zones preferring river mouths, lagoons and creeks. They are found in stagnant swampy coastal waters. They have special adaptations like physiological and structural mechanisms to combat excessive salt in the medium, special aerial root systems for support in unstable slushy substratum and for gaseous exchange as they are anchored in anoxic water-logged conditions. They play a veryimportant role in ecosystem functioning and are of great economic importance for fisheries. They contribute to the stabilization of the shoreline and prevention of shore erosion. They act as barrier against storms so as to lessen damage to coastal land and residents

Karnataka

15


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

28

Top Left Acrostichum aureum Top center Rhizophora Mucronata Top Right Porteresia coarctata Left Rhizophora apiculata Middle Type of vegetation in Gokarna, Karnataka Middle Bottom Sonneratia alba flower Bottom Right agallocha aerial roots


Coastal Plains moist decidious forest evergreen forest evergreen scrub

Top paddy fields in Gokarna, Karnataka Middle coconut plantations in Gokarna, Karnataka

evergreen thickets

Right vegetation map of coastal karnataka

evergreen savana plantation

Karnataka

29


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Left map of the locations of corals along the coastal region Middle map of pelagic birds of the coastal Right map of the sea turtle types

30


v

For any ecosystem to thrive, the key importance must be placed on diversity. Nature functions primarily on dependancy and this interdependent nature of an ecosystem is what helps sustain its character.

Coastal Plains

Wildlife

All along the coast, the variation in the flora and fauna is reminiscent of the local conditions that vary vastly along the coast - from north to south. The landforms support a specific type of vegetation in response to the high heat and humidity, which in turn support a specific species layer that forms the base of existence. These then support a second layer of species that are heavily dependent on base layer. Subsequently, the third layer then has the opportunity for a better chance of survival as they are now dependent on the permutation and combinations of the previous two layers, and so it goes on. A large degree of variation in the wildlife is also brought about by the in and out migrations of the animals and birds - locally and globally that either feed to or take away from the biodiversity. The concentration has been placed on the thriving populations of the birds as well as the deteriorating populations of specific genus species of animals such as the Olive Ridley turtles and the corals. The bird population is augmented by the migratory patterns that lead up to cycles of various bird communities populating the same local region at different times of the year. This cycle also hugely alters throughout the year due to the variation in the prey population - in this case being the vast multitude of the available fish. A layer of danger has also foreshadowed populations of turtles and the corals due to a shift from artisanal fishing techniques to damaging technologies such as trawling, motorised fishing boats, etc. that prove harmful to the sea bed as well as pollute the coastal water edge. Therefore, prominence is placed on the knowledge of their existential patterns in order to have a better understanding of their presence in order to be sensitive to the smallest fragments that contribute to the region’s diversity.

Right map of the marine life of the coastal

Karnataka

31


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi

Top Left Ocyceros griseus (Malabar grey hornbill)

Malpe

Top Center Pseudibis papillosa (Red-naped ibis)

Manipal

Middle left Macaca silenus (lion tailed macaque)

Karkala

Bottom left Herpestes fuscus indian brown mongoose

Top right Pavo cristatus ( peacock,peafowl) Center olive ridley turtle Bottom Right Dermochelys coriacea (leatherback turtle)

Mangalore

32


Coastal Plains Top Left Dendrophyllia ( Genus :Stony Cup Coral Top Center Plesiastrea versipora ) Top right Great barracuda (onakaandi) Right Center Donax scortum,( bivalves) Center Goldspot mullet, Liza parsia (common name :Madle) Bottom left Loligo duvauceli (cephalopods ) Bottom Center Carpilius convexus ( crabs) Bottom Right Seaweed (Dictyota dichotoma)

Karnataka

3 3


Geography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

34


The constant inundation provided by the sea, ocean and the riverine systems has helped shape one of the most ancient metamorphic rocks in India, being rich in iron and manganese. The soils of the district are basically divided into two distinct zones based on topography; the coastal alluvial soil and the upghat lateritic and granitic soils. Mixed lateritic soils are found in taluks of Supa, Haliyal and Mundgod, which contains certain patches of black soil as well.The lateritic soils are highly leached, reddish brown in colour, shallow to medium in depth and loamy in texture.The rocks types of the district could be classified into (i) high grade schists of Sargur Group, (ii) migmatites, granites and gneisses of Peninsular Gneissic Complex and (iii) metal volcano-sedimentary sequence of Bababudan Group. Extensive lateritisation during the Tertiary Quaternary period has given rise to 15-20 m thick cappings of laterite on all the Iithounits in the district. Coastal sands and “Teri� sands are seen in the coastal plains as parallel sand flats consisting of coarse sands mainly of quartz with limonite coating. These soils are found in the taluks of Karwar, Kumta, Honnavar, Bhatkal, Sirsi and Siddapur aiding the diverse population of vegetation and making way for the growing of cash and food crops for the purpose of agriculture.

Karnataka

Coastal Plains

Geology

35


Demography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Left : Percentage wise population

1.

Top left: Halakki Vokkaliga Tribeswoman Top Right Milagres Church, Mangalore

2.

3.

Right Bottom: Savira Kambada Basadi, A famous Jain monument in Karkala. 4. 1. Census Survey of India-2011 2. Murthy, Keertana 3. Prasad, Rakshith. https:// commons.wikimedia.org/w/index. php?curid=12663140. Accessed on 7.10.18 5pm 4. K , Sumitha. https://cdn.karnataka. com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/1000pillar-temple-moodabidri.jpg Accessed on 7.10.18 5pm 5. Kamath, SU A Concise History of Karnataka, 2006 6. Sastri , K.A. Nilakanta A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1999

36


Coastal Karnataka sees a strong presence of Hinduism as a general majority, except in a few regions around Bhatkal, where there is a strong Islamic influence. Christianity and Islam are other prominent religions.

Coastal Plains

Religion- Caste Islam arrived in Karnataka and Kerala in the 7th century with Arab merchants trading in spices, and these Muslims (Mappila) are predominantly found in the regions bordering Kerala. Often, the language spoken by these communities are the vernacular influenced by Dakhni Urdu. 4. Christianity arrived in Karnataka between 1500-1600 CE with the Portuguese and thus having the strongest influence along the coast, compared to other parts of Karnataka. Mangalore has the largest population of Roman Catholics in Karnataka and are said to have their roots with the Goan Catholic community who immigrated from Goa in the 17th and 18th centuries 4.. There are also some Protestants found in along the coast, as a result of British missionaries’ work during the British empire in India. However, the British conversion was voluntary and not compulsory as Portuguese was in most cases, due to which the Protestants are less in number as compared to the Catholics Karnataka, has a long association with Jainism, a religion that enjoyed the patronage of major historic kingdoms in the state such as the Western Ganga, Kadamba and Chalukya dynasties and the Hoysala Empire. Jain influence on literature and philosophy is particularly evident. Today, Jainism is not widely practised across the coast, but has a significant presence in Karkala and Moodbidri, which houses historical Jain architecture of significance. 5. Hinduism, with it’s various local variations is seen predominantly across the coast. Udupi, Dharmasthala and Gokarna have been important religious centres for centuries. Devadiga, Mogaveera, Billavas, Ganigas, Bunts, Kota Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins, Sthanika Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins, Chitpavan Brahmins, Daivadnyas are some of the prominent castes across Coastal Karnataka. Caste and family occupations are closely interlinked, as in most parts of Karnataka. The settlement cluster patterns show strong patterns of caste based divisions and hierarchy, and usually interdependent. Several Konkani Brahmins on Goa migrated southwards and settled in Uttara Kannada to escape forced conversations by the Portuguese.

5.

Left 1: Population of various religious communities expressed as percentages of total population of the region. Hinduism

Islam

Christianity

Karnataka

37


Demography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore 1. Dey, Sandip, https:// upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/ thumb/9/93/Mara_Salt_Pans. JPG/1200px-Marak_Salt_ Pans.JPG Retrieved on 08.10.18, 8AM 2. http://newmangaloreport. gov.in:8080/images/wtwe.jpg. Retrieved on 08.10.1, 8AM 3. S Murthy, Keertana, RVCA 4. S Kurup, Ramesh, https://www.thehindu. com/migration_catalog/ article11568223. ece/alternates/ FREE_300/14MPCTBALADASAN-GOLDSMITH, Retrieved on 08.10.18 5. Kamath, SU A Concise History of Karnataka, 2006

38


Agriculture and Fishing form the most important occupations along the entire coast. Bivalve Collection and Salt making are also significant sources of economy. The Moghavira community have various fishing traditional techniques, some of them very specific to their sub-castes.5. Tourism has been a major economy booster as well, associated with religion related businesses, hospitality, transportation, etc. Production of hosiery and coir yarns along with sericulture are also practised widely.

Coastal Plains

Occupation

The Daivadnya Brahmins of Karwar have been traditionally associated with goldsmithing, which is on the decline today, due to the rise of growing gold jewellery brands. 5. INS Kadamba is an Indian Navy base located near Karwar, popularly called ‘Project Seabird’. Mangalore’s economy comprises industrial, commercial, agricultural processing and port-related activities. Left : Salt Pans in Udupi

1.

Top New Mangalore Port

Several banks (some of them nationalised today) have their origins in the former Dakshina Kannada district such as the Syndicate bank, Canara bank, Karnataka Bank, Vijaya Bank and Corporation Bank.

2.

Bottom Left: Markets for Tourists in Gokarna

3.

Bottom Right: Daivadnya Goldsmith from Karwar

4.

Karnataka

39


Demography

6


Coastal Plains Left : Fishermen in Kumta, Uttara Kannada Top Left: Fisherwomen cleaning fish at Tadadi. Top Right: Tadadi Port, Uttara Kannada (Photography by S. Murthy, Keertana and Sharma, Madhuri) Karnataka

41


Demography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore 1. Dey, Sandip, https://upload. wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/thumb/9/93/ Mara_Salt_Pans.JPG/1200pxMarak_Salt_Pans.JPG Retrieved on 08.10.18, 8AM 2. http://newmangaloreport. gov.in:8080/images/wtwe.jpg. Retrieved on 08.10.1, 8AM 3. S Murthy, Keertana, RVCA 4. S Kurup, Ramesh, https:// www.thehindu.com/migration_ catalog/article11568223. e c e / a l t e r n a t e s / F R E E _ 3 0 0 / 1 4 M P C TBALADASAN-GOLDSMITH, Retrieved on 08.10.18 5. Kamath, SU A Concise History of Karnataka, 2006

42

Top : Statistics comparing Uttara Kannada, Udupi and Dakshina Kannada with other districts of Karnataka


Agriculture forms the major occupation of the Coastal Plains. Abundant rainfall and good soil conditions has favoured the sustainence of Agriculture for centuries. On comparing various argricultural factors with other districts in the state, Uttara Kannada, Udupi and Dakshina Kannada, the 3 coastal districts usually perform well.

Coastal Plains

Agriculture

The coastal cuisine relies on sea food and rice- based dishes for most of the year. A few local vegetables are grown such as Mangalorecucumbers, Ladies Fingers, Snake gourd, Bitter Gourd, etc are eaten in the non-monsoon seasons. During the Monsoon season, various green vegetables like Spinach, Basle Soppu, Dantu, Kemp Dantu, etc are consumed locally. Commercial crops like Cashew, Pepper, Areca nut, Coconut are cultivated.

Left : Local ‘Kagga’ rice growing in brackish waters.1. Bottom clockwise: Cashew 2, .Black Pepper 3. , Areca Nut 4.,Bhatkal Mangoes 5.,Groundnuts 6.

Karnataka

43


Demography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore 1. NP, Ullekh -http://www. openthemagazine.com/article/india/aplace-called-bhatkal Retrieved 7.10.18, 9pm 2. https://buda-honnavar.blogspot. com/2010/08/tribes-of-uttara-kannada. html5. Retrieved 7.10.18, 10pm 3. Mayaram, Shail; M. S. S., Pandian; Skaria , Ajay (2005). Muslims, Dalits, and the Fabrications of History. Ravi Dayal Publisher. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-81-7824115-9. 4. T.A. West, Barbara- Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Infobase Publishers, 2010 5. Uday, Savitha, https://buda-honnavar. blogspot.com/2010/08/tribes-of-uttarakannada.html Retrieved 08.10.18 6. Khalid, Omar (2006). Muslims in the Deccan: A Historical Survey. New Delhi: Global Media Publications. 7. Green, Nile (2011). Bombay Islam: the religious economy of the West Indian Ocean, 1840–1915. Cambridge University Press 8. https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/ india/india-outline-map.jpg Retrieved 10.10.18

44

Top Left : Maqdoom Colony, near Bhatkal’s Jama Masjid, has several traditional houses with Arabesque patterns, some of them over a century old 1. Bottom left: Trade and Migration links between the Indian Western Coast and the Middle-East


It is generally agreed among scholars that Middle Eastern merchants frequented the Malabar Coast, which was the link between the West and ports of East Asia, even before Islam had been established in Arabia. The western coast of India was the chief centre of Middle Eastern trading activities right from at least 4th century AD and by about 7th century AD, and several West Asian merchants had taken permanent residence in some port cites of Malabar Coast. 3.

Coastal Plains

Migration

Nawayats are migrants predominantly from Iran, who married into another trading community of India, the Jains who had been converted to Islam more than 1,000 years ago. These groups are based mainly in the Bhatkal, Tonse, Malpe, Kandlur. The Nawayaths belong to the Sunni Shafi’i school of Islamic jurisprudence, unlike most Indian Muslims who generally adhere to the Sunni Hanafi school. 4. They trace their ancestry back to the Arab and Persian traders who arrived on the Western coast of South India during the medieval era.They are known to be one of the Zoroastrians who migrated from Iran, while others argue that they were merchants that came from the Hadramowth region in Yemen, following the Sunni Shafi Madhab. They have several traditions similar to that of the Parsees of India. There is a large Nawayath diaspora community of economic migrants working in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. 6. The Assadis are Arabs who were immigrants from Karbala, Iraq. They claim that they are a part of the Banu Asad tribe. They are found in Bhatkal, Tokur, Shirva, Bolar, Udupi, Mangalore. Although they come from a prominent Shiite tribe, they are Sunni. They claim that their ancenstors arrived in India during the reign of Tipu Sultan. This fact may be true because Tipu Sultan also claimed ancestry from Arabia and perhaps favored their migration.7. The Land Reforms Act of India (1962) which intended to abolish the fuedal Zamindari system forced many of the Brahmins, Bunts and Naadavars to lose large tracts of land causing many to migrate to Bombay and the Middle East for work. Halakki Vokkaligas stayed like the Nilgiri Thodas near the foothills of the Western Ghats and depended on the Kumbri system of agriculture. When the British government banned Kumbri agriculture, they gradually migrated to riverbanks, seashores, flatlands and started working for landlords. Many of them, even today, work on Geni basis. Some own pieces of land after ‘tiller is the owner’ legislation was passed. After hunting was declared illegal, they are dependant upon agriculture for their livelihood.They have a middle position between forest and the city. Their symbolic hunt once a year and their prayer-appeal to Byate Beera suggests their strong ancient connection with the forest and their cheerful harvesting festival suggests that they gradually turned to agriculture. 5.

Karnataka

45


Demography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

1. Census Survey of India-2011 2. www. alvascollege.com/ Retrieved 10.10.18 3. www.nitk.ac.in/ Retrieved 10.10.18 4. www. manipal. edu/mu/about-us. html Retrieved on 10.10.18

• • •

46

Literacy Rates by Percentage of Total Population of selected Districts


Education is held with a lot of importance along the Western Coast. The average Literacy rates across all the districts is compartively higher than other parts of Karnataka and India with an average of 86% across the districts of Uttara Kannada, Dakshin Kannada and Udupi which is 12% higher than the average literacy of India 1..

Coastal Plains

Education

Mangalore city has become one of the important educational hubs in India. This has been attributed to the strong foundation of primary education laid by forefathers of undivided South Canara district. Mangalore and Moodbidri also attracts a lot of students at the pre-university level for quality education, directed towards competitive examinations.2. Quality professional education offered by two districts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi has attracted students from all over the country, especially in the fields of Medical Sciences and Engneering.

Left Top: Alwa’s College, Moodbidri, Dakshin Kannada 2. Left Middle Manipal University, Manipal, Udupi, one of Karnataka’s earliest established private instituion. 3.

Karnataka

47


Demography

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore 1. MB, Chandrasekara, www. mangaloreuniversity.ac.in/sites/ default/files/_MG_2168%20copy. jpg Retrieved 10.10.18 2. Vaarshan, Varun, www.. bp.blogspot.com/-nol-cZaeesU/ UtqW1GbzhyI/AAAAAAAAASw/ XcAmxaTpjNo/s1600/13.jpg Retrieved 10.10.18 3. www.procaffenation.com/ wp-content/uploads/2017/11/ Bhoota-kola-story.jpg Retrieved 10.10.18 4. www.holidify.com/images/ compressed/attractions/ attr_1112.jpg Retrieved 10.10.18 5. Mubashir, www.fotogallery. in/news/2015/sep15/bhatkal_ eid_gaah_24_01.JPG Retrieved 10.10.18 6. Bush Anton, Martha. The Drama Review: TDR, Vol. 23, No. 2, Performance Theory: Southeast Asia Issue, MIT Press. 7. Bhat, D N Shankara, The Secret Code of South Kanara Devil Dancers Linguistics Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Apr., 1968), pp. 1518 Published by: The Trustees of Indiana University

48

Top Left: Bootaradhane, a spirit ritual, Mangalore 1. Top Right: Yakshagana, Udupi

2.

Bottom Left: Hulikunitha or Pulivesha/Pilvesha Kunitha, Dakshin


The culture and traditions of the coastal region are very distinct compared to other parts of Karnataka. V arious aspects of dance, music and drama are ritualistic and are performed only during certain times of the year, on certain religious periods or festivals. A strong belief in the spiritual nature of the environment has influenced their rituals and festivities.

Coastal Plains

Tradition-Culture

As spirits have benevolent and malevolent aspects and are believed to possess power over human health, fertility and fortune and over the land and cattle, they must be ritually propitiated.Each spirit has its own form, mythic history, special powers and propitiatory requirements. Therefore the worship of each spirit differs somewhat from that of all others. Every spirit has devotees (most of whom are also devotees of other spirits as well) who worship and make offerings to it daily at domestic shrines. Public worship occurs monthly in ceremonies in which the spirit’s priest is possessed by the spirit. Devotees across the country flock in great numbers to places of religious interest like Shree Manjunathesware temple at Dharmastala, Shree Kukke Subramanya temple, Kateel Durga Parameshwari temple, Puttur Mahalingesware temple, Shree Krishna Mutt, Udupi, Bahubali statue at Karkal, Anegudde Shree Vinayaka temple, Mahabalesware temple at Gokarna, Murdeshwara temple at Bhatkal, Marikamba temple at Sirsi, Siddhi Vinayaka temple at Idugungi, Syed Madani Dargah at Ullal, St.Aloysious Church at Mangalore, Attur Chruch Karkal, Jain Basadi at Moodabidri, and others.

Left Top: Shiva temple during Mahashivratri, Murudeshwar 4. Karnataka

4 9


Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

50


Coastal Plains Left : KambalaTraditional cattleracing practised during the Harvest festival 1. Right Top: Bhootakola- a spirit ritual, Mangalore 2. Right Middle: The annual processional chariot, Sri Krishna Temple, Udupi. Right Bottom: Suggi Dance by Halakki Vokkaliga community 3.

1. www.fotogallery. in/news/2015/ sep15/bhatkal_eid_ gaah_24_01.JPG Retrieved 10.10.18 2. Rayabhari,www. upload.wikimedia. org/wikipedia/ en/thumb/7/7d/ Decorated_ chariot%2C_ Udupi%2C_India. jpg/1280px-Decorated_ chariot%2C_ Udupi%2C_India.jpg 3. www.dineshmaneer. com/suggi-dancersof-halakki-tribes/ Retrieved 10.10.18

Karnataka

51


Issues

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Left Gokarna, a city of contrast1 Top Women of Hallaki Vokkalinga community2 Top Right Trawling Bottom Right Traditional fishing methods

1 nomadandabag.blogspot.com/2014/05/

Shodhganga, ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE VOKKALIGA

2

52


Coastal Karnataka is abound with diverse communities that are distinct in both occupation and culture. The aforementioned environmental issues have a significant impact on these communities since most of them are are heavily dependent on their environment and surroundings. Besides this, the occupation and traditions of many communities are threatened today. Changing times has lead to evolving lifestyles that is not always for the better and can leave few unscathed.

Coastal Plains

Socio-Cultural

Impact of Modern Practices on Local Communities Modern practices have had a severe impact on local communities in the coastal region. The Hallakki Vokkalinga community are an agricultural community that migrated to coast from regions such as Hubli and Dharwad several centuries ago. They are known for their colourful garb, tanned skin, heavy neck ornamentation and their unique blouse. Their traditional practices are threatened today because of upcoming generations no longer wanting to continue in their way living and instead moving to cities insearch of other work.2 The Mogaveera community of fishermen are also native the coast of Karnataka and their traditional methods of fishing are threatened due to competition from fishermen with mechanised boats. Practices such as trawling that reels in far more catch than by traditional fishing has made several fishermen leave their practice in search of better livelihoods.

Communal Tension The cities of Bhatkal and Honnavar have seen several instances of communal strife in the name of religion. Bhatkal in particular has a large Muslim population and has been afflicted by numerous clashes between the Hindu and Muslim communites in the city. The allegiance of pollitical parties with either of the communities has lead to riots, protests and violence. Bhatkal has also been linked to terrorism activities. The communal discord and violence in the area has been a deterent to Hindu tourists. Gokarna is known for its high Brahmin popultation and is a temple town that sees a heavy influx of pilgrims during Shivaratri. In recent years it has been popularised as a tourism hotspot and is seen as a less populous alternative to Goa. Interestingly, the beaches are not the only attraction to the tourists. Many of the tourists ae foreigners who often visit the temple and even reside in Gokarna for several months. There has been friction between the Brahmin communities and the foreigners. Sometimes temple access to foreigners has been banned. Also, there have been incidents of the locals assaulting the foreign tourists.

Karnataka

53


Issues

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

http://www.indiawaterportal. org/articles/why-fishermenfear-netravati-river-diversion

1

54


The Netravati river diversion project is an attempt to divert the West flowing Netraviti river towards the east in order to meet water needs of cities in non-coastal dryer regions. The mega project, which is estimated to cost more than Rs.8,000 crore, has faced several challenges from the day of conception till the date of issuing tenders and laying of the foundation stone. On completion, the project would divert more than 24 tmcft of water from Netravati to the above districts. According to experts, the project, if implemented, would be environmentally disastrous. The catchment area of Netravati, which is a part of the Western Ghats, is recognised as one of the 25 hotspots for biodiversity conservation in the world. Apart from being the lifeline of the district, the Netravati has several tributaries that keep alive the hydro-system of the Western Ghats by feeding excess water into the streams, small rivers and rivulets.

Coastal Plains

The Netravati river diversion project

The Netravati River Diversion Project envisages the formation of a series of canals at mid-elevation of the Western Ghats starting from Gadikal Gudda near Naravi, passing through Shirlal, Elaniru, Didipe and Charmady, and crossing NH-48 and the Southern Railway line near Shiradi Ghats and across the ridgeline of Yettinahole. A second garland canal is proposed south of Shiradi from Surlabi Betta through Koikaslu Betta in Kumaradhara catchment. Yet another canal is also proposed for the catchment of Bhadra that joins the garland canal from the Netravati catchment near Samse.1 Above Student protest against Netravati River project. Left showing plan for river diversion. Below Construction at Yettinahole.

Above all, the project which also proposes to form 38 reservoirs across 38 streams in the Western Ghats would submerge about 77 sq. km of grassland and surroundings in the Kumaradhara catchment area and necessitate the rebuilding of damaged access roads and canals.Besides the large ecological damage and infrastructural requirements, the diversion would also cause in influx of salt water from the sea and thus change ther nature if the river w Left Student protest against Netravati River

project.

Middle Map showing plan for river diversion. Bottom Construction at Yettinahole. ater making it insreasingly brackish. This would affect marine life and inturn the livelihoods of the fishermen.

Karnataka

55


56


Coastal Plains Left Bhuta Kola ritual being performed. Top Yakshagana Right A Bhuta Kola performer

The State of Traditional Dance Forms The coast has many traditional dance forms such as Yakshagana, Bhuta Kola etc. The debate today is how these dance forms should be preserved. The government ois making several efforts to preserve Yakshagana, but many argue that has now become a very flashy, commercial ordeal which was not in line with the way it was originally practiced. But on the other hand, without such interference, the dance practice may be lost and forgotten.

Karnataka

57


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore Left the satellite imagery of the Kali estuary and the settlement

1

Top The Estuary of the River Kali on the banks of which Karwar is located 2 Right The physiographic map of the coast and its influence of it on the location of the towns 4 1 Google Earth. Google Inc., 2018. 2 “View From First Floor Balcony - Picture Of Ocean Deck Beach Homestay, Karwar - Tripadvisor”. Tripadvisor.Ca, 2018, https://www. tripadvisor.ca/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g66447 3-d6577238-i115495018-Ocean_Deck_Beach_ Homestay-Karwar_Uttar_Kannada_District_Karnataka.html. Accessed 6 Oct 2018. 4 Shekar, Kirthan. Api.Mapbox.Com, 2018, https://api.mapbox.com/styles/v1/ kirthanshekar/cjluli9up1mbx2sleptczrq6s/ st96972,14.06192,8.4,0,0/1280x1280?access_token=pk.eyJ1Ijoia2lydGhhbnNoZWthciIsImEiOiJjajhmd3Y4ejgwNW95MnFvMXdrZG00cXAxIn0.OseDzKZcJs2CwQkUKudHlg. Accessed 6 Oct 2018.

58


Land, water and air being the basic primordials for the existence of life on any piece of land, play the similar role of establishing the pretext for the settlemet along the coasts of Karnataka. The role that the three basic elements play bacomes the datum atop of which the needs, necessities and wants of the peopl of the region are established. Water is said to be the driving force behind many prehistoric and historic settlememts along the spans of time. The basis for pausing, settling comes from this very notion of water being the provider for various necessities of life. Water also becomes the primary place-making and identity driver. It takes the form of what it touches, rolling sediments along the path it courses on and dispersing the obstacles it faces along its path. Throughout history, settlements grew along water basins, where the most advantageous locations for alluvial fertile land could be tapped into for agriculture. The floodplains fo the coasts of Karnataka provide just this, adding to the estuarine qualities of the region, supporting vast flora and fauna and being the wheels behind the r eason for settlement. The second factor that also allows for dense magnitudes of settlement is the topography of the land. Shaped and curated by the powerful waters of the ocean and sea, the land has assumed the forms of plain, plateaus, bays and estuaries forming multitudes of concentrations of reasons to influence the decision for settlement. The mountaneous cliff ranges, the reefs, bays and flat coastal land have a variation in the form and densities of settlement. The proportions of sea to inland water reserves largely influence the settlement type. With activies and occupations of the poeple paying more importance to the ocean, the daily lives of he people is sustained by the inland potable water reserves. High magnitudes of rainfall and annual precipitation helps in keeping up the underground water reserves and water tables, but this abundancy calls for its resourceful management as opposed to exploitation of this resource. The impetus of climate change offers the steering of the decision for settlement towards inland riverbasins making the estuarine and oceanic coasts the place of occupation. The rising sea levels have set forces of alarm all along the ranges of the coast and there is continual migration from the fringes towards the inland, now concentrated on the foothills of the Western Ghats.

Coastal Plains

Reason for Settlement

River systems Water being the primary driving force behind all biotic and abiotic activities of the region, the river systems in association with the salty ocean becomes the datum on top which the coastal life depends on. On the top fringe of the coastal plains, the Kali river basin near Karwar forms the largest plain where agriculture is in abundance with its ever growing urban fabric. The other river systems along the coast include - Gangavali and the Aghanashini-Gokarna; Sharavati river basin- Honnavar; Vekatapur -Bhatkal; Chakra, Souparnika, Panchagangavali-Kundapur; Suvarna - Udupi, Manipal; Gurupura and Netravati -Mangalore. All the river basin systems have huge potentals for agriculture and a larger potential for flooding due to heavy rains making the settlement and architecture go hand in hand due to these r easons.

Karnataka

59


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

“Travel Photography | Filipdennis�. Filipdennis. Wordpress.Com, 2018, https://filipdennis.wordpress. com/category/travelphotography/. Accessed 7 Oct 2018.

1

2 Google Earth. Google Inc., 2018.

60


The coastal plains of Karnataka, also called the Karavalli coast, is a vast stretch of 320km along the western edge of the Indian peninsula giving life to a number of natural features that sing character to the region. The high degree of variation in the differing altitudes gives rise to the small plateaus and the huge expanses of the plains. Steep cliffs and undulated landscape that flow down from the Western ghats gives the Karnataka coast its differentiating quality, when compared to the relatively low lying and mostly evened-out coasts above and below it. The topography in specific relation to the case of Gokarna portrays a special characteristic with large expanses of mountain ranges that divide the coast up into smaller bays and beaches along ocean edge and also acts as a physical set barrieer between the tourist driven beaches and the religious activities that drives the inner city network of Gokarna, that is a part of the pilgrimage pentagon of Uttar Kannada.

Coastal Plains

Topography

Cultural significance

Left The Sharavati Estuary and the visual physiographic layers

1

Top The satellite image of the Estuarine belt of Sharavati and the Honnavar town 2 Bottom The fishing port of Honnavar town

1

Gokarna lies along the mid range of the pentagonal route for pilgrimage in Karnataka. The Shaivite community largely influences the economic and cultural motivations of the place. The culture is widely derived from the religious Brahmin sects that have settled in the region and give rise to its rich historical cultural heritage that is pr esent to this day. The beautiful city of Gokarna was initially visited for its religious significance. Shrouded in interesting legends, the enthralling temples of the city are held in high reverence by devotees from all parts of the country. Slowly but gradually, Gokarna has now carved a niche for itself as a charming holiday destination. Owing to its pristine beaches, abundant greenery, swaying palm and coconut trees, laid back lifestyle and str ong cultural values, the city is visited by a number of people.

Migration Bhatkal is home to the largest and oldest migrations of the coast of Karnataka. Nawayats are migrants predominantly from Iran, who married into another trading community of India, the Jains who had been converted to Islam more than 1,000 years ago. With this a new caste system emerged. This new community of migrants largely influence the presetn day activities of the economic and social strata of Bhatkal, while also feeding to some of the largest cultural and econimic controversies of the region.

Karnataka

61


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar

Kundapura Udupi

Right TopThe maps of Panchagangavali, Souparnika and the Chakra river and the location of Kundapur.

Manipal

Right The zoning different communities in the Kundapur peninsula.

Mangalore

Gokarna Urban Study.. Postgraduate. RV College of Architecture. 2015

1

Shekar, Kirthan. Api.Mapbox. Com, 2018, https://api.mapbox. com/styles/v1/kirthanshekar/cjluli9up1mbx2sleptczrq6s/static/74.96972,14.06192,8.4,0,0/1280x1280?vMXdrZG00cXAxIn0. OseDzKZcJs2CwQkUKudHlg. Accessed 6 Oct 2018.

2

“Gangoli Port�. Flickr, 2018, https:// www.flickr.com/photos/23367953@ N06/34140845552. Accessed 6 Oct 2018.

62

Above The trade port of Tadadi on the Aghanashini estuary.

Malpe

Karkala

3

Left The settlement pattern of the Gokarna peninsula in the Aghanashini and Gangavai esturanie region. 1

Bottom The fishing port of Gangoli.


Coastal Plains

Zoning of Economic Classes The topography of the region allows for a vast variation in the settlement patterns according to the social and economic stratifiation of people. The plains and the higher elevations along the farther edge of the coast is majorly occupied by the wealthier classes of social strata whereas the coasts and the lower elevations are home to the lower sections of social strata. This also corresponds to the choice of occupation which inturn depend on the communities that the people belong to and their proximities to their resource bags. The development of the fishing communities along the coast is predominantly location driven, concentrating on the lasrgest mouths of Tadadi, Gangoli, Bhatkal, Honnavar, Karwar, Malpe, Mangalore where the fish reserves are abundant.

Karnataka

63


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura

Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

“Udupi Urban Study”. RV College Of Architecture, 2013.

1

“Mangalore Urban Study”. RV College Of Architecture, 2012.

2

64


Coastal Plains Left The comparision od the growth desnsity and the Land Use map of the Udupi and Manipal region 1 Top The growth of the Mangalore town on the Arabian Coast.2

Karnataka

65


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar

Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

Left Top The “Kundapura Urban Study�. RV College Of Architecture, 2014.

Left The ridge

Google Earth. Google Inc., 2018.

Above Thye sa

1

2

2466

Left bottom


Multiple layers of influences orient the way people settle down. From small, unintentional decisions to large, planned courses of action, a wide range of reasons determine the settlement ranges and pattern. The three primary reasons that mould these decisions are the prime necessities of survival - food, air and shelter. In the case of coastal Karnataka, the climate is a huge influencer for all three, with the land, air and water shaping the people’s decisions.

Coastal Plains

Cluster Patterns

Due to the high predominancy of local factors, general patterns in case of settlement is observed all along the coast marking the stark characteristics with which one can differentiate a coastal settlement from that of any other climatic zone. These are largely the open spaces left in and around a single house to aide ventilation, the social influences that determine the way in which these settlements work with each community choosing to form an entire fabric of settlement and to even the details of the space behind the house that leads up to the agricultural lands.

Dependency on occupation further demands necessities of proximity to the available resources. This is once again dependent on the geographical conditions that allow for circumstances of the resources to thrive. Present settlement patterns in the Kundapura region present a case along the ridge where the geographic conditions intermix with a layer of social stratification to produce a settlement with the upper sections of society occupying the higher altitudes and the lower sections occupying the lowlands. Similar layers influence the cluster patterns to bring about settlements that have slight to large modifications due to the added influence of the local climatic conditions.

region prone to low degree of floods due to its elevation

1

e with denser settlement for its protection from the flood

1

Thw section showing the location and settilement pattern on the ridge

atellite image of the Kundapur ridge in the estuarine plain

1

2

Karnataka

67


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

“Mangalore Urban Study”. RV College Of Architecture, 2012.

1

Shekar, Kirthan. Api.Mapbox.Com, 2018, https://api.mapbox.com/styles/v1/kirthanshekar/cjmyg1kxt6kkn2sl7xbqz5yhb/ static/74.86545,12.87333,12.2,0,0/1280x1280?access_token=pk.eyJ1Ijoia2lydGhhbnNoZWthciIsImEiOiJjajhmd3Y4ejgwNW95MnFvMXdrZG00cXAxIn0. OseDzKZcJs2CwQkUKudHlg. Accessed 7 Oct 2018.

2

68

Top The figureground of different urban settlement patterns influenced by the water edge. (from the left) Bengre, Bunder, Bolur Road and Kudroli Road 1 Right The physiographic map of the coast and the different water edges

2


Karnataka

Coastal Plains

A typical settlement has multiple components to itself, ranging from small scale settlements to the infrastructural components. The coasts serve largely to it residential component with settlements that are independent in their work ethics but dependent on other settlements to satisfy their basic needs. This arises due to the basic upon which these settlements work - occupation. Every community is equipped with providing for the larger society through their occupation and this is what drives communal settlement, with various hierarchies operating amongst itself based on the communities functioning module. Such socially driven settlements are evident in the case of Malpe, Manipal and Udupi where the religious sects of the towns choose to be separated out from those who are involved in the latest wave of commercial education that is leaving a huge footprint on the shift in patterns of occupation.

69


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura

Udupi Malpe Manipal Karkala Mangalore

1

Google Earth. Google Inc., 2018.

“Udupi Urban Study”. RV College Of Architecture, 2013.

2

3 “Helicopter Tourism Launched In Udupi”. The Hindu, 2018, https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kar nataka/ helicopter-tourism-launched-in-udupi/ article8242369.ece. Accessed 7 Oct 2018. 4 “Kemmannu.Com | First-Ever Exhibition Of Drone Photographs Starts In Udupi”. Kemmannu.Com, 2018, http://www.kemmannu.com/index.php?action=highlights&type=16200. Accessed 7 Oct 2018.

“First-Ever Exhibition Of Drone Photographs Starts In Udupi”. Udayavani - 2018, https://www.udayavani.com/english/news/ udupi-kundapur/201199/first-ever%C2%A0exhibition-drone-photographs-starts-udupi. Accessed 7 Oct 2018.

5

70


Coastal Plains Top Left The satellite imagery of the Malpe, Udupi and Manipal belt

1

Left Figureground patterns in the various layouts. ( from the left ) Malpe-organic layout, Udupi-curvilinear layout and Manipal-orthogonal layout 2 Above The aerial drone captures of (from the left) Malpe fishing harbour 3, Udupi Sri Krishna Temple University 5

4

and Manipal

Karnataka

71


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal

Karkala Mangalore

“Karwar Urban Study�. RV College Of Architecture, 2014.

1

2

Google Earth. Google Inc., 2018.

72


People of the coasts depend heavily on their occupational needs that define their additions to the collective societies they live in. This determinate character of their lifestyles force a specific organisation of the built and its relation to the unbuilt. The internal layouts are driven by the flow of daily activities of the people, with tasks that have to be performed demanding a specific type of space.

Coastal Plains

Principles of Organisation

Many communities that have passed down traditions have an added component of their religious views that make for place making principles.This is then modified according to the climatic necessities of the place, with specific numbers and orientations adhering to the absolute local contexuality of the built. The adaptations to cope with the climate then make for interesting spaces in and out of the building, like the large overhangs providing a pause point which later developed into designated spaces like the Jagali Katte, and many more.

The fishermen form the largest portions of the population which makes them large influencers of space organisation and principles derived directly from their reactions to dealing with land, air and specially water. The fishermen community Gabit in Alvewara serve for their larger necessities of outdoor fish cleaning activities by having a small footprint of the built with the designated activities being performed on the outdoors. Other influences for space distribution and organisation includes migratory influences such as those of the Jain architectural influences in Karkala.

Left Top Satellite imagery of Alvewada cluster Left The Bhat residential complex

2

1

Left bottom The Gabit fishing community cluster in Alvewada Above The Bhat community cluster in Karwar

1

1

Below Typical section through a residential complex in Karwar

1

Karnataka

73


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal

Karkala Mangalore

Achutha, Sahithi. “Bajegoli | The K’s Of Karnataka: Karkala, Kudremukha, Kalasa Trail By Sahithi Achutha (@Eat_Jaunt_Love) | Trell”. Trell, 2018,

1

2 Acharya, Sanoor. “Wah! Karkala”. Wahkarkala.Blogspot.Com, 2018, http://wahkarkala.blogspot.com/2017/. Accessed 8 Oct 2018.

74

Top Typical layous of Karkala houses Left Typologies of houses found in Karkala Bottom Typical facade showing Jain influence

1


Coastal Plains Top Guthu house of a Bunt in Pilikula Left Bhootakola in a Guthu mane

3

1

Right Cultural influence and symbology in Guthu mane Bottom Drawings of a typical Guthu mane

2

3

Karnataka

75


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal

Karkala Mangalore

Top Typical wall sections of houses of (from the right) Brahmin, farmer and fisherman

1

Right The nature of resedential setup of (from the top) fisherman , farmer and Brahmin 2

“Gokarna Urban Study�. RV College Of Architecture, 2014.

1

Thenewsminute.Com, 2018, https://www. thenewsminute.com/article/six-months-after-promise-total-development-karnataka-village-still-waiting-roads-65031. Accessed 8 Oct 2018.

2

76


Coastal Plains

Architectural Elements Architecture serving to the three basic needs of the people of the area has a strong sense of expression through the craft that revolves around its inception. A lot of the materials, techniques, practices used by the locals to bring this up are heavily dependent on their understanding of their climate and context. A vivid language that recurs all along the coast also resonates here, with its application on any given region, sloping roofs, large overhanging eaves to ward off the rain, the buffers – corridors and verandahs surrounding the main inner spaces etc. being a few. The context and climate play significant roles in shaping specificity to the architecture in the area around. The high, continual rains paired with higher temperatures all-round the year sensitise the responses towards them. Climate dictates the orientation, external and internal site planning, boundary conditions, the materials used and even the details that constitute the entirety of the architecture of the area. The vernacular buildings portray a clear understanding of this, feeling the need to react directly to the climate of the area, and the urgency it poses to the future of the climate of the larger context. The next major factor that determines and organises architecture is the need for an interdependent community that operates in regulated terms. Community living along the coast is pronounced by providing each community with a specific occupational task that drives their living habits, economy and much more. Hence, it is only natural that settlement patterns, proximities, built language all directly depend on their functioning as a community. The different activities that are performed by an individual owing to their loyalties to their community’s purpose gives shape to the internal organisation and layout to many of the houses. Whereas on the other hand, the way they function on a larger scale, with inter communal interactions and their dependencies on each other as communities dictates their settlement proximities. Ever present as a dominating force is monetary standards. And in this specific case as well, it clearly demarcates zones and regions among and outside of the communities along the coasts to place them based on their economies. Individual economies and economic standards determine the social hierarchy with their dwelling spaces responding directly to this; whereas economies of larger societies and underlying communities shape the resources that will then be available at hand to bring to life the desires of the people. Acting along the physiography of coast, all factors lead to the siting of specific communities of higher economic grade of living on a higher ground and the slightly lesser economic sections of the society occupying the lower grounds. Another huge determining factor for communities and their settlements are their occupations that keep up the specific economies.

Karnataka

77


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal

Karkala Mangalore

“Gokarna Urban Study”. RV College Of Architecture, 2015.

1

Brown Color Coconut Fiber Mat Texture - Jooinn”. Jooinn, 2018, https://jooinn. com/brown-color-coconut-fi ber-mat-texture.html. Accessed 8 Oct 2018.

2“

“Laterite Stone Background”. 123RF, 2018, https://www.123rf.com/photo_9002589_laterite-stone-background. html. Accessed 8 Oct 2018.

3

“Coconut Wood Grain | Wooden Thing”. Rexdixon.Com, 2018, https://www.rexdixon.com/topic/coconut-wood-grain. Accessed 8 Oct 2018.

4

78

Left Top Coconut coir weave mat Left coconut wood texture

2

4

Left bottom Laterite rock texture

3

Above Kotitheertha street in Gokarna Top Right porous nature of a coconut weave pattern Right Coconut leaf weave

1

1

Bottom Right Traditional timber window used in the region

1


Coastal Plains

Climate, community and economy also drive the choice of material to achieve the desired result for a place of dwelling. Responsible responses with respect to choice of material is based off of the before mentioned factors. Material acts as a king pin for the establishment of a specific nature of architecture and this comes directly from the choice of materials. Although diverse material availability is plenty along the coast, their usage in the construction industry is often limited. The right materials needed for the various components of the building actually comes from experimentation along many years to arrive at a particular material that is best suited for the job. Closely, climate is an overshadowing factor in the choice of materials as they are the physical manifestations of reactionary desires of the people.

Karnataka

79


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna

Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal

Karkala Mangalore

80


Coastal Plains

Gokarna Town

Karnataka

81


40


Karnataka 41

Coastal Plains


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna

Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal

Karkala Mangalore

84


Coastal Plains

Bankikodla

Karnataka

85


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna

Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal

Karkala Mangalore

86


Karnataka

87

Coastal Plains


Settlement Patterns

Karwar Honnavar Gokarna

Bhatkal Murudeshwar Kundapura Udupi Malpe Manipal

Karkala Mangalore

Left Location of Dubbanshashi Top Satellite imagery of Dubbanshashi village

1

Right Top Plan of a house in Dubbanshashi Top Far Right (from left to right)the back door, the kitchen and the storage Right the store and the residence with the well forming a composition Next page the elevation of the store and the residence

88


Coastal Plains

Dubbanshashi A large community completely dedicated to the act of fishing for a livelihood, the neighbourhood of Dubbanshashi sits right next to Dubbanshashi beach. Deriving a lot of socio cultural activities and influences being directly dictated by their profession of artisanal fishing, the day to day activities have a large impact on their architecture as well. As they are an artisanal fishing community, the large family numbers, segregated into smaller clustered houses, that are also as units close to each other, form the built language around the area, with attention to minor details of auxiliary spaces for activities such as drying of the caught batch of fish, segregating spaces, etc. taken care of.

3

2 1

4

1. Store 2. Well 3. Katte 4. Residence

Karnataka

89


48


Karnataka 49

Coastal Plains


Core Content

Translations are a key component to achieving end impacts. But the right applied techniques of producing the results are what forms the key component to achieving lesser impact. This volume of Part II of the book comprises of earthed techniques, material understanding, and climatic responsive methodologies that guide and influence architectural embodiment. Contextual approaches to creating a built fabric that simultaneously is conscious of its footprint is the ultimate tackle of the approach. The gesture of involving a humanistic approach aids in incorporating the intention from the earlier stages of the process. This finds expression in the formulation of the programme that is heavily specific to the regions, the sites and the people.The end goal was to achieve a programmatic application to the built component that is not too far away from establishing direct relations to the people through specific site conditions and necessities.


Context

1 Google Earth. Google Inc., 2018. 2 Mapbox Studio. Mapbox Inc., 2018.


Coastal Plains

Gangavali

Gokarna Road Railway St.

Bhavikodla

Madangeri

Hiregutti

Gokarna

Kudle

Tadadi Aghanashini

Town Village Mirjan

Kagal

SITE

Fishing port Ferry port

Aigalkurve

Railway Station National Highway NH-66 Hubbangeri

Konkan Railway Primary Land Route

Holangaddhe

Secondary Land Route Ferry Route Far Left Satellite Imagery of the Aghanashini Estuarine Belt 1 Left The Accessibility Map of the Aghanashini and Gokarna Kumta

Peninsula

2 Karnataka


Context

1 2 4

3 9

5

6

1

Mapbox Studio. Mapbox Inc., 2018.

7

8


The Estuarine landform formed by Aghanashini River forms different conditions of lands forming mainly the Gokarna Peninsula, Aigalkurve Islands, Morba Islands and Aghanashini Peninsula. Unlike the flat coastal plains of the Canara Coast and Malabar Coast, the Konkan coast has a mixture of a mountainous terrain which merges into the sea forming cliffs and other rocky landforms and gradual plains with the beaches.

>100 100 80 60 40 20 10

R. Gangavali

0

Bhavikodla Nagarbail

Gokarna Tadadi

50%

Morba Islands

Aghanashini Estuary

40%

Aghanashini Peninsula

30% 12% 10%

Kagal SITE

4%

Aigalkurve

R. Aghanashini Ar abi an Sea

0

Kumta

Far Left Morphlogical Characteristics of the terrain NW

N

NE

Left (From Top) Elevation Map, Slope Map and Aspect Map of the region Top Terrain and the settlements in the region

E

W

SW

1

S

SE

Karnataka

Coastal Plains

Physiography


Context Temperature (Degree celcius)

Rainfall (mm)

Humidity (%)


Climate Climate along the coast, as well as site show the heavy presence of rains throughout the year supported by high percentage of sunny days. The rocky outcrop in and around the Gokarna peninsula forms small rain solar regions, while most of the landforms are exposed to high levels of sunlight and rain

The micro-climatic conditions of the site remains fairly similar, following the same patterns. Only mildly affected by the untimely cyclones that are quite rare along the Malabar coast..

Sun hours (Hrs)

Wind speed (km/h)

Karnataka

Coastal Plains

Rainy days (number)


Context

Top left Avicennia marina (grey mangrove) Top Middle mangrove)

Avicennia

officinalis

(Indian

Top RightExcoecarcia agallocha (blinding tree) Middle left Kandelia candel (cherukandal) Middle Proteresia coarctata (wild rice) Middle right Rhizophora apiculata (garjan) Bottom left Rhizophora mucronata (loop-root mangrove) Bottom Center Sonneratia alba (mangrove apple) Bottom right Sonneratia caseolaris (crabapple mangrove

“Conservation And Management Of Mangroves In Uttara Kannada, Central Western Ghats�. Wgbis.Ces.Iisc.Ernet.In, 2018, wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/biodiversity/ pubs/ETR/ETR50/chapter3_2.htm.

4


The context consists of the estuary which is rich in its biodiversity interms of the varied marine life and Gokarna which is not only rich interms of the culture aspect but also rich interms of the diverse flora and fauna found in the region. This context is surrounded by the western ghats which add to the diversity in flora and fauna. The land cover map gives an idea of the extent of forest cover, land cover, grass , agricultural lands in the region.

Coastal Plains

Biodiversity Aghanashini River in central Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka originates in the Western Ghats and flows westward towards the Arabian Sea, major part of its course through forested gorges and valleys. Having no dams and no notable industrial establishments or major townships along its banks the river may be considered one of the most pristine ones along the west coast. The River meets the sea in the Aghanashini village of Kumta taluk. The tidal portion, or estuary, towards the river mouth is a flat expanse of water dotted with small islands and narrow creeks. This portion, designated as the Aghanashini estuary, is a highly productive and biologically rich waterscape of coastal Karnataka. Mangrove vegetation is found associated with the estuaries and creeks of the Division. Obviously, before any kind of agricultural interventions by humans, over 3000 years ago, mangrove vegetation, expectedly, would have been intactin all suitable habitats. This traditional system of estuarine cultivation with mangrove planting was a sustainable system. A realization on the importance of mangrove vegetation dawned during the late 1980’s, and the Government, some institutes like the Indian Institute of Science and NGO’s like Snehakunja, Kasarkod, entered the arena for spreading awareness on mangroves and attempting planting in sample plots, especially in Aghanashini estuary. But it was through systematic programmes of mangrove planting by the Forest Department, beginning in late 1990’s, that estuaries started turning greener with mangroves.

Forest Grass

Land Cover

Agriculture

Wet Land

Sand

Karnataka

5


Context

“Conservation And Management Of Mangroves In Uttara Kannada, Central Western Ghats”. Wgbis.Ces.Iisc.Ernet.In, 2018, wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/biodiversity/ pubs/ETR/ETR50/chapter3_2.htm.

6

1980

2000

2003

2010


Medium Salinity

Low Salinity

Extisting mangrove

Biodiversity The Aghanashini or Tadri river, 121 km long, originates at Manjuguni near Sirsi in Uttara Kannada Western Ghats. It meets the tide at Uppinpatna in Kumta taluk. Elements of mangrove vegetation begin here and increase in numbers and diversity for the next 24 km of the river’s course. From the village of Mirjan, the river forms a vast expanse of backwaters or estuary that runs parallel to the coast. This estuary is 13 km long and 2 to 6 km broad. The expansive and shallow nature of the estuary and the presence of several mudflats make it ideal habitat for mangroves. The river mouth at Tadri is narrow and situated between 2 hills of Gokarna and Kagal villages.

Coastal Plains

High Salinity

Mangroves, broadly can be classified into high salinity (>15 ppt) tolerant, medium salinity (5-15 ppt) tolerant and low salinity (<5 ppt) tolerant.

Potential mangrove

Rhizophora mucronata

Sonneratia alba

Avicennia officinalis

water

vegetation

open fields

Top Left. map showing the potential areas for mangroves growth Top Right Remote sensing imageries showing area under vegetation, water and open fields in the Aghanashini estuarine belt (including one km buffer zone) Bottom Remote sensing data analysis for 1989, 2000, 2003 and 2010 for major landscape/waterscape elements for Aghanashini estuary, including 1 km buffer zone

Karnataka

7


Context

Gokarna Peninsula

Arabian Sea

Aghanashini Estuary

Fimbristylis pubisquama Schoenoplectus grossu Casuarina

Paddy Coconut, Areca nut Lion tailed macaque mangoose

Earth.google.com. (2018). Google Earth. [online] Available at: https://earth.google.com/web/@14. 52361973,74.38392015,2.82087672a,40728.0 959043d,35y,8.92805104h,0t,0r/data=ClAaThJ GCiUweDNiYmU4MjkyYWIwN2ZiOWY6MHg0M 2MwZDk2ZjQzN2M1Nzg4GbBk2HJ4Ci1AIaDYrCjl1JAKgtBZ2hhbmFzaGluaRgCIAEoAg.

1

8

Top section indicating the landform type with the type of flora/fauna found in that region respectively Left1 google earth map showing the part where the section is cut.


Aghanashini Peninsula

Coastal Plains

Biodiversity

Aghanashini Estuary

Karnataka

9


Context

Top Left 1 Cerataulina (Phytoplankton) top left Seaweed (Dictyota dichotoma) top right 1Halisarca (sponges) top right Acromitus( jellyfish ) left center Phalacrocorax fuscicollis (Indian shag) center Dendrocygna javanica (Indian whistling duck) left Eudocimus albus (American white ibis) Bottom left Plesiastrea versipora Bottom left 1 Leptastrea (family : favidae) Bottom right 1 Favia favus (family: favidae) Bottom right Symphyllia( family: Mussidae)

12


The diversity in the marine life found in this region is because of the presence of the esturay where the aghanashini river meets the arabian sea. There is a constant inflow of the diverse marine life. Seasonally, different types of fish use this easturay as a breeeding ground. The river water carries large quantity of organic materials from the forests in the catchment area of the Western Ghats and deposits the same in the estuary. The debris becomes important base for food chains operating in the estuaryThe rich mangrove vegetation of the estuary plays significant role in nutrient supply for the diverse faunal community and provide shelter for birds and act as nurseries for many species of fishes and prawnsThe rich bird community (over 120 species) associated with the estuary contributes to the nutrient cycling through their potash and nitrogen rich castings

Coastal Plains

Biodiversity

The constant churning and circulation of waters due to flow of fresh water from one side and the tidal influx from the Arabian Sea oxygenates the water and circulates the nutrients. One of the most notable economic and subsistence output of the Aghanashini estuary is the bivalves (Phylum: Mollusca). The meat of these invertebrates is used as a protein rich food by thousands people along the coastal areas of Karnataka and Goa.

Top Goldspot mullet, Liza parsia (common :Madle) top right Spotted Scats ( name : Hulka

name

Total annual production: Estimated at 22,006 tons, valued at Rs.57.8 million per annum. Most of the of bivalves harvested belong to Paphia malabarica, although six other edible species are also gathered in lesser quantities. Bulk of the bivalve harvest is from mudflats bordering the village by name Aghanashini, close to the mouth of the river (bearing the same name). Collectively these bivalve harvesting areas measure about 229 ha. It is significant to note that so much of food production is without any investment or supply of feeds by humans.

right ray fish Bottom seer fish Bottom right mackerel

Karnataka

13


Site

10


Karnataka

Coastal Plains

Biodiversity

11


Program


Mangrove depletion

Revival Activists Coral depletion analysts

AGENDAE

and sub-sects All fish consumers its user allows for a cohesive Mogaveeras dialogue between the dweller and the built.

This specific idea to bring about larger interaction within the built fabric as well as with the natural surroundings provides base to the overview of Agricultural communities Research organisations the program. As a reactionary approach, it deals directly with the natural Bunts and social issues of the region, in order for a person to be able to form a connect with the built immediately. a larger encompassing goal for Local With communities Sustainable tourism organisations the area, the programme allows Long for various factions that respond to the term tourists Eco-tourism promoters Shortin term tourists localised necessities, but also keeping mind their diverse orientations and hence a desperate need for integration as the agenda, in order to prevent Students, Kudubi,into Halakki and Youth the regression of an individual program becoming introverted and communities Tourists independent. The overlapping ofother the native various components of the programme Artisan / performer allows for a dialogue amongst themselves and this then engages directly with Fishingcohesive companiesintegration on site. Nature activists the user groups to also allow for their

Research data and statistics has to reach out to the public in usable form

Deterioration of Agriculture Self sustenance and the establishment of “Coastal Grown”

AGRICULTURE TOURISM

Large influx of tourism Communinty based sustainable tourism Pilgrimage and Leisure

WILDLIFE

Protection and Conservation through awareness Conservation of culture

FISHERY

Promotion and preservation of artisanal fishing techniques

KNOWLEDGE BANK RESEARCH

Fishing communities Agriculturists

Architecture specifically and non-specially reacting to the direct needs of

Non-Artisanal fishing

RESEARCH

Program Overview

Deterioration of flora and about fauna awareness by incorporating the public edge Usage of research component to bring NGOs

TOURISM

AGRICULTURE

PUBLIC FRONT

Tourists

KNOWLEDGE BANK

USER MODEL AGENDAS USER MODEL RESEARCH

TO ESTABLISH THE LINK BETWEEN THE ISSUES, THE USER GROUP AND THE TARGET GROUP Research data and statistics has to reach out to the public in usable form TO ESTABLISH THE LINK BETWEEN THE ISSUES, THE USER Self sustenance and the establishment of “Coastal Grown” GROUP AND THE TARGET GROUP

AGRICULTURE TOURISM WILDLIFE FISHERY

KNOWLEDGE BANK

ISSUES

USER GROUPS

TARGET GROUPS

ISSUES and Global warming

USER GROUPS Research groups

TARGET GROUPS Mogaveeras Farmers Mogaveeras Farmers

Non-Artisanal fishing

NGOs Activists Research groups Coastal Address NGOs systems Activists Revival Activists Coastal Address systems Coral depletion analysts Revival Activists Coral depletion analysts All fish consumers

Non-Artisanal fishing Deterioration of Agriculture

All fish consumers Research organisations

Deterioration of Agriculture Large influx of tourism Pilgrimage and Leisure Large influx of tourism Pilgrimage and Leisure Conservation of culture

Research organisations Sustainable tourism organisations Eco-tourism promoters Sustainable tourism organisations Eco-tourism promoters Youth Tourists ArtisanYouth / performer Tourists Nature activists Artisan / performer NGOs Nature activists NGOs

Communinty based sustainable tourism change Climate

Protection and Conservation Climate through awareness change

and Global warming

Promotion and preservation of artisanal fishing techniques

Mangrove depletion Usage of research component to bring about awareness by incorporating the public edge

Mangrove depletion

Conservation of culture Deterioration of flora and fauna Deterioration of flora and fauna

RESEARCH

TOURISM

AGRICULTURE

PUBLIC FRONT

Fishing communities Agriculturists Fishing communities Agriculturists Mogaveeras and sub-sects Mogaveeras and sub-sects Agricultural communities Bunts Agricultural communities Local communities Bunts Long term tourists Short tourists Local term communities Long term tourists Students, Halakki and ShortKudubi, term tourists other native communities Students, Kudubi, Halakki and other native communities Fishing companies Tourists Fishing companies Tourists

KNOWLEDGE BANK

Karnataka

Coastal Plains

Activists Coastal Address systems


Program

Evolutionary Biology

● ● ● ●

Botany

Marine + Coastal Biology

Farmers

Zoology

Survey Interviews On-site Learning Documentation Labs

Humanitarian Research Sociology

Media and Publications Meteorology

Fishermen

History

Marine Sciences COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

Human & Social Sciences Linguistics Socio-cultural Studies

Ecological Research

● ● ● ● ●

Marine + Coastal Geology

Public Awareness System

Chemical Laboratory Biological laboratory Aquarium + Terrestrial research Areas Specimen Conservation facilities Documentation and Digitisation Lab

GeoTourism

Folk Literature

Eco-Tourism

Sustainable Tourism Seasonal Benefits Causes and Effects

Tourism

Data Analysis

Rural Tourism

Tourism Research

Economics and Administration ● Data Analysis Facilities

Anthropology


Research in modern times is often warded off as a department of education that has a higher signified status attached to its name. Any field of research is often regarded as an educational counterpart to its field of knowledge. Many a times the research that has been carried out with a motive goes straight into archivals and is not fruitful in its applicative component. Ity fails at a basic level where it becomes unreachable and hence, regressive. All researches are carried out in order to give test results and to draw conclusions from. These results are often intended to be applied by the law makers or other organisational bodies for their comprehensive effect on the societies. However, individual motives with regard to monetary terms and benefactorial intentions, prove this to be in vain. With a site as sensitive as this, the prime intent for developing the programme along the lines of research was to ensure that the research, as applicative measures goes out to the public. In order to achieve this, the issues of the coast becomes the basis for developing of the programme. The end motive to integrating the research component into the mixed use was to make sure that the way in which research is carried out as well as the way research reaches the public is given new definition. Also, the second component of this intent was to not only ensure that data was reaching the masses in usable form, but also data that can prove to be helpful for the masses reaches them. Therefore, an understanding of the issues became the prime counterpart to laying a base for the types of research organisations that were going to be part of the programme.

Aspect

Subjects of Research

Research Methodologies

Spatial Type

Relation to Public Edge

Meteorology (only data anaysis for the other subjects)

Climate Dynamics

Office for Data Analysis, Storage for Equipments

Public Address System

Marine Biology includes Botany, Zoology, Genetics and Evolutionary Biology

Biochemical Study

Chemical Laboratory

Ecological Conservation Awareness- Media and publications

Anatomical and Morphological Studies

Biological Laboratory

Connection to the Marine Tourism

Tissue culture + Conditional Growth Ex-situ Conservation

Culturing Labaratory

Ecological Research Natural Marine Sciences (includes Ecological Research exclusively Marine Ecology - Biology and Geology)

Aquarium + Terrestrial Culturing Areas Specimen Conservation

Marine Geology

Marine and Geological Mapping Multidisciplinary Geosciences- pollution and hydrology

Documentation and Digitisation Laboratory Chemical Laboratory Specimen Conservation

Humanitarian Research Human Sciences & Social Sciences Socio-Cultural Studies (includes anthropology, sociology, history) (occupation Linguistics and Communities) Folk Literature

Survey

Documentation Offices

Documentation

Culural awareness and Relation to Tourism Community Based Participatory research

Interviews

Folk Medicine

Phenomenology

Fishermen

Traditional fishing Techniques Traditional Fishing Seasons and seasonal targets

Survey and Interviews Interview

Interaction between Enthusiasts and Local Fishemen through Community Based Participatory research

On-site learning Farming

Traditional farming Techniques

Surveys andf Interviews

Traditional farming seasons and seasonal crops

On-site learning

Interaction between Enthusiasts and Local Fishemen through Community Based Participatory research

Documentaion Tourism Research Sustainable Tourism

Causes and Data Analytics

Survey and interview

Eco-Tourism- Marine

Effects

Data Analysis

Offices for Data analysis nad interpretation

Awareness to toursits Cultural Enthusiasts

Geo-Tourism

Economics and Administration

Education to Guides

Tour Guides

Community (Rural) Tourism Cultural Tourism

Local Benifits and active involvement and seasons

Local Commuities Eco-sensitive people

Karnataka

Coastal Plains

Research


Program


Karnataka

Coastal Plains


Program

2


Agriculture and fishery are the major occupations of the people in this region. A lot of NGOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s are working towards bringing more benefits to these people through the government. But one of the most glaring problem they face is the action of the middlemen. These middlemen are buying the goods from these people at low prices and selling them for higher prices and making profits.In terms of the fishery, these middlemen are involved here as well as part of using mechanical boats to fish, they are able to go deeper into the sea and fish more when compared to the traditional fishing methods that used by the locals. Their produce then is reduced.

Coastal Plains

Community edge and vocational training

As part of our program we decided to dedicate a research center for this department as well as offices that maintain data regarding the amount of produce that is procured from the sea and wrt agriculture the extent of land used for a certain crop. A knowledge bank was included as well to be the mitigater between the locals and the research department. It was also necessary that we bring about awareness in the locals regarding certain traditional methods that are employed in fishing and agriculture that are harming the environment. So, vocational training classrooms and workshop area are dedicated to help educate the locals about the importance of sustainable fishing and farming methods. Since these regions have a high influx of tourists throughout the year, it was necessary that awareness about the importance of eco-tourism had to be conveyed to the locals as well as the tourists. This aspect was highlighted as part of the program to help spread awareness about the same through the workshops and classes held on site.

Karnataka

3


50


Karnataka 51

Coastal Plains


Profile for kirthanshekar

Cohere  

This book is a colation of information on the Coastal Karnataka with respect to its Demography, Geography, Socio-cultural Issues, Settlement...

Cohere  

This book is a colation of information on the Coastal Karnataka with respect to its Demography, Geography, Socio-cultural Issues, Settlement...

Advertisement