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“Before you start breaking the rules, you should know what they are”




Research into the early 20th Century art and design movement. 03

Post modernism

An exploration of a post modern style of thinking. 05

Street Graphics

My response to the first studio brief of the first year- ‘what does the street mean to you’ 07

Cabinet of Curiosity

My own personal Cabinet of curiosity which follows the theme of secrets. 09

Earth Artifact

A contemporary re design of the 1977 ‘Golden Record’. 11


My own Graphic Design manifesto. 13 Typography My own typeface inspired by modernist designer El Lissitzky.



mo d

m Modernism was a cultural movement which occured for almost one hundred years from around 1860 until 1970. This was a time when lots of changed were occuring in the world. Much of the art created during this time was inspired by the Industrial Revolution. Modernism doesn’t just refer to art and design created during this period but also architecture, music and literature. In art and design, the term ‘Modernism’ doesn’t capture a particular style but a number of ideas from artists and designers from this period. The many movements within modernism have different influences which is re-

flected in their contrasting styles. Modernist art and design was created in response to politics, culture, science, history and most importantly social issues at the time and also the industrial revolution. Furthermore, modernists believed that it was essential that each era of art and design built up on what had been created in the previous one. It becomes clear that the formation of hierachies was a key aspect of modernism. As different movements formed there became clear leaders of each of these- such as Pablo Picasso with the cubism movement and it became very much ‘theirs’.

Modernism reflects a wide range of styles throughout the different movements within the period however key traits are maintained throughout the period. There was a big focus on functionalism with a utilitarian approach. The industrial revolution was a significant influence on Modern art as it was a pivotal period in history. However, it did have a negative impact on Graphic designers as type setters and type punchers were no longer require due to their jobs being carried out by machines. The industrialisation also meant that the way of producing documents had evolved from using incunabula to using a letterpress

Post modernism is the period following modernim but also a response to the movement.Many designers dislike the term but will accept that their work displays post modern themes. In his book ‘No more Rules’ Rick Poyner states that post modernism cannot be understood without referring to modernism. I agree with this statement as I think that post modernism is a way of thinking rather than an artistic style which can be easily defined. Post modernism can be perceived as thinking of modernism in a post modern way. Designer John Lewis stated that

‘Before you start breaking the rules, you should know what they are’ I think that this backs up Poyners quote as it is emphasising that Post modernism formed because of modernism. The typical post modern style of design does juxtapose the rules of modernism as it is often illegible and ignores the use of the grid completely. Post modernism also highlights a period of often extreme experimentation by designers which was almost like a refreshing period of freedom following Modernism with its rigid traits. Artists and designers during this period ex-

primented with lots of different media and showed that anything can be used to express exactly what they want. Post modernist designers moved away from a utopian way of designing to favour a more ambigious style of design. Another trait of post modernism is the use of irony within design. Compared with Modernism, postmodern design seems to have a deeper message which is not instantly clear from a glance. Decisions were a lot more strategically planned to have a concept behind them or so they represented something which wasn’t immediately obvious to the eye.


The first studio brief we were given was the Street Graphics project. We were asked to look in to the graphic language of the street and particularly focus on what does the street mean to me? Rather than being too literal with the term ‘Street Graphic’ we were asked to apply a more personal and cultural interpretation to our ideas. I started off my research by looking at the work of Los Angeles bases artist Mark Bradford who uses flyers, posters and found objects to create his work. He creates heavily layered abstract collages and peels back the layers to create a layered decollage effect. Anoth-

er artist who I decided to research was Mark Webber who created typographical lino prints of chosen cities. His work caught my attention due to the huge amount of detail in each individual piece and in my opinion the concept is unique and aesthetically very interesting. It became apparent that a common theme within my research is layered images. This is something, that I decided to focus on when deciding on a concept- how the street is a build up of layers both physically and metaphorically. After my research I decided to do some experimentation of building up an image

of layers and adding some typography to add an extra dimension. I focused my project around how there is a typical and stereotypical image that goes with every city but behind that there is actually a lot of layers made up of more realistic representations, memories and peoples person associations with a city. The postcard designs which I developed as my final pieces contrast the typical perfect photograph postcard you would receive. Instead they show a city much harder to represent through a flat image and my designs show a build up of different elements.


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me to look heme of seyaly. I rethe expous secrets News of the acking, The dal and the ad. But also uch as the

Reasoning behind my cabinet The first section of my cabinet represents Frozen time and how only people involved in a secret know what happened. I have highlighted this by featuring a clock, which once smashed( representing the impact of the exposure of secrets) remains at the same time. The second section within my cabinet represents secrets that we don’t know about yet. The bottom compartment of my cabinet represents how secrets are hidden or even are attempted to be hidden with lots of people involved. I decided to show the cracks in loyatly through not completely covering the front of this section so in some parts the cabinet is revealed. Furthermore, I decided to decorate my cabinet using origami butterflies. These represent the complex nature of secrets, how they are easily unfolded and hard to contain. The average life span of a butterfly is extremely short which is usually the case with most secrets.

Cabinet of Curiosity

ng this perimy Grando show me der her bed ation book, documents, hotographs. document my interest cal Secrets on amongst s which my signed prior at the Minisost seventy ed eighteen.

“ we are attemp to survive our ti so we may live yours“


pting ime into

The brief of the Earth Artifact project was to submit visual proposals for a contemporary re make of the ‘Golden Record’,enitiled ‘Earth Artifact’. I started by looking into the content of the aims of the original Golden Record. My resaearch focused on how I would convey something to extra terrestrial life and create something that would have a good chance of being understood. I came up with two main concepts. The first concept was ‘The world through sound waves’. The research for this idea required me investigate how we can communicate and represent places or data through a series of sound waves. I looked at creating association between an image and a sound wave and I also created a map of the world made up of sound waves. The main downsides of this concept was how difficult it would be to give a realistic representation of the world as it is on such as huge scale and also the chance of extra terrestrial life understanding the data.

Another concept that I developed was the ‘World in 60 seconds’ idea. I created an informative flag book divided into three parts which could be viewed in 60 seconds therefore giving a brief insight into the earth in such a short period of time. The top section of the flag book was designated to world maps. On a series of maps I showed world time zones, population, war zones and volcanoes. I decided to print these onto acetate to create a build up effect to represent the layers of the world and the relationships between them. The second section of the flag book contrasts the positive and negative elements of the earth so when flicking from left to right positives can be seen but when flicking right to left the negatives become clear. Topics include love, culture, and nature, which contrast terrorism, war, poverty and natural disaster. The third and final part of the book shows in my opinion a selection of four of the most pivotal scientific theories or discoveries. I printed these onto acetate to represent that science is linked in a lot of ways and always evolving.



In the second term of first year we started the Typography project in workshops with Tracy and John. At first we were given a selection of artwork from artists and designers from the modernism period. The first part of the process was to create some initial sketches of letterforms which were inspired by other artists work.

My first typographical response was to Charles Demuths work. I concentrated on maintaining the triangular and geometric shaping which initially I found quite hard to incorporate into more curved letters such as C and O. I decided to re visit the Charles Demuth piece further on in the typography project and created a significantly different response. I focused more on thin lines and made the designs more complicated. These are some of my sketches.

Another artist that I looked at was Wolfgang Weingart who is a German Graphic Designer and typographer. I drew some initial sketches which incorporated a contrasting mix of curved bold lines and thin geometric lines in response to his style of working.

The final artist that I looked at was El Lissitzky. When creating a response to his work I concentrated on the dominant use of geometric shaping throughout his work and focused on the build up of parallel lines to create my type. Out of all the initial sketches that I created I saw most potential in these designs and decided to develop them further. I used a grid to draw out the whole alphabet before drawing up and refining the angles and alignment of the font further using Adobe Illustrator. I am extremely happy with how my typeface turned out, as I really like the geometric forms and build up of lines. I found the project very interesting as I learnt a basic idea of how a typeface is built up and developed.

DONT STARE AT BLANK PAGES FOLLOW YOUR PASSION, DO WHAT YOU LOVE AND LEARN FROM THEM .................................................................................. ....................


BE INSPIRED by everything and everyone ...................................................

be yourself

RESPOND*REFLECT*ADAPT --------------------------------------------------------



of your comfort PUSH THE BOUNDARIES outside zone is a good place to be


KEEP EXPERIMENTING WHO KNOWS WHAT YOU WILL CREATE ****************************************




be different

CREATE .................................. TIMELESS DESIGN



consider the audience, be relevent, and focus


KEEP IT SIMPLE ................................................... BE CONFDENT IN YOUR IDEAS AND DONT OVERCOMPLICATE

lead the way

The manifesto project was started as one of our three first year modules. We started the project by looking at three existing manifestos and analysing them. The three manifestos that I chose were; An incomplete manifesto for growth by Bruce Mau and the two versions of the First Things First Manifesto originally written by Ken Garland in 1964 and a later adapted in 2000 by a group of graphic designers as I thought it would be interesting to compare two versions of the same manifesto. I looked at how the figurative language and techniques portrayed the message the Graphic Designers wanted to create. I then looked at Claus Oldenburgs ‘I am for an Art’ manifesto and re worked my own version entitled ‘ I am for Design’. I found this task interesting to complete as it gave me an insight into a structure that my own manifesto could take. I liked the repetition technique used in this manifesto as it definetely made the point clear. After this I carried out some visual research and looked at how my manifesto would be displayed. I then started to write my own manifesto which would include what inspires and motivates me when I am completing graphic design work. I wanted to keep my manifesto simple and short which maintains your attention throughout rather than a long piece of text. I decided to use black typography for the majority of my manifesto as this would allow me to highlight particuarly important elements that I wanted to stand out by using a selection of vibrant colours for these phrases. I chose a combination of sans serif, serif and script typefaces in my manifesto to make it look interesting and varied. I also maintained a white background throughout the manifesto as I wanted it to be clear and easy to read.


New Visual Language