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-Prototype Concept-

Inlet Facade Fragment

Test 1- unsuccessful. The device

Having an environmental strategy that is dependant on

needed to be angled at 45Ëš

natural ventilation within a site that is subject to two distinct prevailing winds requires a design that addresses

this

issue.

My

design

proposes

that

the

inlets and outlets are able to adapt themselves to the changing outside conditions to ensure a better internal environment. The prototype will be a fragment of the façade which incorporates a series of these devices. The devices, which need to go from being insubstantial in size to pieces that are able to interrupt the passage of air, will be inspired by the early unit studies into pop-up architecture. The prototype will be of a

1:2 fragment of the facade.

This will be a layered construction comprised of the following; Intermediate

pieces

needed

to

An intricate wooden framework (basswood) based on an

cause an initial springing open of

Islamic pattern. Taking cues from Jean Nouvel’s Abu Dhabi

the device.

Louvre, it aims to mediate the amount of light entering the theatre and thus reduce glare and solar gain. A

layer

of

coloured

perspex

in

a

corresponding

but

different Islamic pattern. The colour should help light to enter but filtered, further reducing the solar gain. An outer layer of fine netting, which allows the prevailing wind to pass unhindered, but is impervious to mosquitos. Electronic opening and closing apertures.

b The chord which closes the device

a

b

needs to run through all the leaves but have a large opening to avoid any friction.

b

a. Prototype Concept illustration Opening chord anchored to each leaf

b. Early device tests

125.

to ensure their equal separation


-Pop Up Book-

Developing the twisting mechanism The twisting mechanism was further developed so that one movement (the opening of the page) is translated into a small structure twisting to open. a. Clasp b. Book closed c. Book mid open d. Book mid open e. Open structures f. Plan view of an opening structure and the chords required to achieve this g. Elevation view of the opening mechanism

a

b e c

d

f

g

4

1. Necessary to remove angle so the structure does not collide with the page. 2. Chords ensure the correct separation of the

2

leaves. One set pulls them open, the other pulls them closed. 3. Distance required so the opening of the page translates into enough force to open the 1

structures 4. This pulls upwards when the page is closed, providing the forces necessary to close the structures again.

127. 3


-prototype Development-

Electromagnet Aperture

b

c

a

d

e

f

Chords space fans out equally

Top layer of faรงade made of basswood, manufactured using CNC technology

Starched waterproof fabric Top fan piece fixed in place Bottom fan piece has magnets at each end

+

Dividers- fixed to the core different

-

g

+

a Exploded isometric view of the facade layers. b Close up of one of the apertures, open and closed.

-

The standard closed position is maintained by a magnets, on the bottom fan piece, attracted to the

a

solenoid.

electricity

When

the

changes

switch the

is

polarity

flicked, of

-

the

solenoids. This causes the magnets to be repelled

+

from their original position and simultaneously

c Exploded view of an aperture, detailing their construction.

d Plan view of the apeartures in the open position, plugging the holes in the facade pattern. This design requires only 3 different sized apertures.

+

e Alternate aperture layouts considered. However,

-

following the isometric pattern too closely would make the apertures too numerous and small to be feasible.

Electric current through piano wire supports

attracted to the opposite one.

f Elevation of open and closed apertures Below: proposed location of apertures.

3mm light gathering Perspex Electromagnet

Central pivot Oppositely charged electromagnet

129.

3.2mm acrylic ball- to aid turning motion


3

2

7

1

3

2

-Prototype Production-

Wood and Perspex Using a naturally occurring material like basswood incurs certain limitations. For example, it is unlikely that the wood would come available in the expanses required to span the gap between

CNC

the bamboo bolts. Therefore, I have used the prototype to tackle the issue of joining the different pieces of wood. I have tried to adapt traditional wood joints and wooden puzzles in

6

such a way as to add to the decorative effect and texture of the façade surface. 1. Bees wax finish to certain areas- to add to the different textures of the façade and add a degree of protection for areas that may incur more wear. 2. ‘[’ shaped pieces hook over the two separate pieces of wood. 3. Wedges fill the gap needed for the ’[’ shaped pieces of wood to pass through the structure. The wedges can be pushed in further if time or

5

the excessive humidity warp the wood, ensuring that the structure remains secure. 4. Light gathering sheet, allows the passage

Photograph-

of light but not the full extent of the solar

orthographic

radiation

view of perspex.

6. Traditional Indonesian wood carving 7. Basswood, available on the island of Java

131.

4

Laser cutting

5. Etched finish further refracts the light

4

5


Ball bearing

-Prototype Production-

Pressure switch

Electronic Mechanisms

2

The first aperture prototype revealed that, in order for the fans to remain perpendicular, the elements that make up the aperture axial needed to be fixed very close together. This meant, despite having ball bearings to aid the turning motion, the fans were too stiff for the

Switch

Motor

solenoid to operate, even before the addition of the

1

fabric.

Closed circuit Research into solenoids revealed the strength of the magnetism could be increased by increasing the number of coils and size of the iron core, however, this would make them too big to be feasibly attached to each of the small apertures. The decision was taken, therefore, to adapt the prototype to work with an electronic motor. The size of the motor means that the design would have to be adapted so all the apertures work from a single mechanism in each panel. The motors need to turn 180Ëš and then stop - if they kept turning the delicate apertures could be damaged. To make this happen I have used pressure switches. When both switches are open, the circuit is complete (green

Moving fans

on the diagram). When the device hits a pressure switch the circuit breaks, stopping the motor, until the switch is hit again, when the device turns in the opposite direction (closes) until it hits the opposing pressure switch. The device oscillates between position

1 & 2.

Switches ganged together

a. First aperture prototype skeleton

a

b. Skeleton with solenoid fitted,

c

unable to turn

d

c. Electronic test to create a circuit with pressure switches, capable of oscilating back and forth 180Ëš

b

d. Diagram detailing the electronic circuit

-

133.

Solenoid

Battery

+

Pressure switches linked. When in the open position, the circuit is closed.


1

2

3 4

-Prototype Production-

Fabric Tests Material

test

to

create

waterproof

fan

like

structures capable of springing closed into the original position. 1. 1.Fabric option 1. Chosen as it was white and would therefore contrast with the rest of the faรงade.

However,

the

material

was

too

thick

to unfold and neatly fold back. It would also require teflon treatment to make it waterproof. 2. Material

2.

waterproof,

Thinner it

and

springs

already

back

into

naturally the

folded

position. 3. The original adhesive hem (the fans are too small to sew) reacted badly with the starching/ ironing, by deforming and fraying. Cutting to the pattern was subsequently left until last.

6 4. Ironing/ Starching warps the fabric and in doing so distorts the drawn pattern. The starching and ironing must be done first, pattern applied and then the folds only lightly ironed in. 5. Fold lines 6. Starch gives the material structural qualities 7. Fabric attached to the first iteration of the aperture.

5

135.

7


-Prototype Production-

1st Iteration

Adapting the laser cut pieces designed to work with the solenoid mechanism to one that works with the motor system required certain adaptations. There were also things that didn’t work as anticipated.

a

a The device works in principle, opening and closing the fans. However, the device is not turning the full 180˚. This seems to be as the adapted pieces (card pulleys, string, thin plastic guides) have too much ‘give’, bending and stretching so all the turning motion of the motor is not being translated into the device. Therefore, the next iteration will be accurately laser cut to the new specifications and the string will be replaced with nylon coated steel threads, which will not stretch or suffer from friction.

b Bracing wire added. The pulling motion of the motor to the bottom of the device caused the aperture to bend in that direction rather than open.

c Extra support required at the base of the structure. The thin acrylic base tended to snap when the motor pulled the mechanism open. This problem should be helped with the bracing but I also intend to make this portion of the device out of much thicker material.

d

d Guide added, to stop the strings colliding with the pressure switch device as it turns. This too will need to be of a thicker material to eliminate bending, and will need orchestrating to work with lots of turning device as oppose to just 2.

g

f

e

e Pressure switch f Card pulleys, improvised. These will need replacing with laser cut ones to ensure a more accurate turning motion. I will experiment with different size pulleys (currently the thinking is that by turning 180˚ the aperture will mirror this amount, however, it seems with the fabric attached that there may need to be more force exerted on the aperture device to make it open fully.

g Another element was required to gather the fan pieces up to close the device.

a

c e

b

d

a. 1st iteration of the aperture, closed position b. Detail view of adaptations to the axial c. Device, as open as the current system can make it d. Pressure switch device e. Proposed system of how the apertures may work with only one pressure switch device.

137.

e c

b


-Prototype Development 2-

Pressure Switches & Pulleys

a

c

b

4

e

d

a.Mechanism layer of the faรงade, apertures in closed position b.Mechanism layer of the faรงade, apertures in open position c. View of the faรงade layers together, apertures open d.Axles for the apertures e.View of the necessary infrastructure to support the mechanisms.

2 1.Waterproof fabric 2.Nylon coated steel cable 3.All controlled from a single motor & pressure

5

switch circuit 4.Copper wire added to help gather fans upon closing 5.3mm perspex- less fragile than the previous

3

iteration.

1

139.


Facade Prototype The aperture devices incorporated into the faรงade system

a. View of the faรงade from within the theatres b. Aperture detail c. Plan view of the faรงade layers and clamping detail

b

a

141.

c


-Building Delivery-


-Local & Financial ContextThe Citarum, most polluted river in the world, is the only water source for 15 million Indonesians, the main supply of power

BAPPENAS

for the capitol, Jakarta, and the focus of Java’s agricultural and textile industry.1 Within this context, Ciwalengke, the small village my project is set is where the problems of the river are most acute, with regard to its proximity to the polluting textile industry, lack

Cita-Citarum

Cita-Citarum

of infrastructure providing clean water and the subsequent

Client

Other Projects

endemic health problems. As such, what is otherwise a relatively remote and unheard of place has been, since the publication of an article in the AFP, the ‘poster boy’ for the problems faced by the many other villages along the river. A successful project providing clean water here could prove to be a testing bed for many other sites and a clear symbol for the CitaCitarum (client) campaign to clean the river.

CDM Co-ordinator

Cost control consultant

Cita-Citarum Small Team

The funding was supplied collaboratively, mostly from the resources

of

the

Cita-Cituram

project,

other

government

programmes and a small proportion from philanthropic projects. These bodies are detailed overleaf.

Local Residents

Architect

The Cita-Citarum as a client is in the position of being the leading authority on the current problems facing the Citarum and on the possible solutions. As such there would be a small team installed within this operation to collaborate with the architects. There are more than 80 other interventions Citacitarum is involved with along the river and sharing information upon what has and hasn’t proved successful could safeguard the project against many of the failures other projects to provide clean water to rural areas have suffered.2 As a client with

Fire Consultant

Structural Engineer

Environmental Engineer

M&E Consultant

Masonry Consultant

Acoustic Engineer

Access Consultant

many other projects, the team there would require regular meeting with regard not only to design but budget, where there is a dedicated cost control consultant present. The profit from the theatre will mainly go back into the running of the water treatment plant, whose costs should be relatively low as electricity will be provided from the waste in the river and there is a natural ventilation strategy in place. 1. Agence France-Presse 2012 2.

Fauzan 2011

Information flow between the client, their sponsors and the 145.

main design team.

Planning Consultant


1

-Procurement-

5

Providing for all the kampung’s water needs should save money on medical expenses in the village - the dyes in the water, that is currently unfiltered, being blamed for the endemic skin problems and more serious long term problems associated with the dissolved heavy metals.

Potential Funding and Benefits Asian Development Bank

$500 million

Amid the global financial turmoil, the Asian Development Bank announced in December it is providing a $500 million loan to the Indonesian government to clean up the legendary Citarum

2

Anaphalis javanica

Building cultivates endangered species.

River.

2

Javanese Edelweiss

Cita-Citarum. Client

144 litres per day

1

Over the past several years, Government agencies and non-government organizations

Has a pool of $3.5 billion

(NGOs) participated in a series of dialogues leading to the preparation of the ‘Citarum Roadmap’. This is a strategic plan of priority programs to improve water resources management and restore the environment in the river basin. Close to 80 interventions have been identified

3

with an estimated cost of approximately $3.5 billion, from various financial schemes; government budget, private sector, also communities contribution sequenced over a next 15-year time frame.

3

4

Arthur Guinness Fund Supported by Guinness and the British Council, this

fund

provides

money

for

entrepreneurs

or the environment in Indonesia.2

4

Volvic Has the ‘1L for 10L Partnership’ with World Vision; for every 1 litre of water sold in the UK, 10 litres will be given to LEDC’s with water needs.

5

Citarum Watershed Management and Biodiversity Conservation

Funding Paths

“The objective... is to achieve clean, healthy and

productive

conserving

catchments

globally

and

and

rivers,

locally

while

significant

biological diversity and bringing about sustainable benefits to all people of the Citarum River Basin through collaborative efforts between government and the community” 1. Bocco 2013 2. British Council

147.

Outcomes

The project has the potential to prevent 25,9653kg of waste entering the river and travelling downstream per year.1

creating innovative projects that benefit society

“ Cipta Karya estimates average water consumption for Indonesians is 144 litres per person per day” ‘Managing Village Water’- Achmad Uzair Fauzan

Building caters for the entire kampung


Possible Issues- pertaining to the UK National Planning Policy

-Planning ConstraintsAs there is no overarching development plan for the site in Indonesia, I have here assumed the

Potential claims for planning premission

Potential issues in obtaining planning Whilst there is ample unoccupied space on the north side of the river for

British regulations, which are more rigorous and as such should satisfy any requirements BAPPENAS1

The self-sufficient nature of the project and benefits to the

site offices, material delivery points and construction works, getting there

may have.

local residents (detailed on previous page) are a strong claim

would require the construction of a temporary bridge over the river. This

for the project. It clearly satisfies 2 of the 3 dimensions

is an element that could be prefabricated as much as possible.

not

of what the government considers ‘Sustainable development’

placing it on the site will cause disruption to the ‘jalan Raya Desa

designated as retaining historical significance,

to be composed of, namely the social and environmental roles.2

Sukamaju’ road that runs through the village.

Being there

a

separate

should

be

building relatively

in

an

few

area

However,

restrictions

to planning. However, there may be an issue

It

concerning the size of the project within the

recreational space, wildlife cultivation sites as well as the

rural areas developments should “respect the character of the countryside”.8 If this is found not to be the case, the gardens which are

scale of the village. As such it is recommended

industrial process of cleaning water. Such developments are

already present in the scheme could be designed to play a more strategic

that a planning consultant is appointed. They

promoted by local development plans.

role in integrating the building within its rural context.

is

a

‘mixed

use’ development, containing within it

3

In

will be responsible for liaising not only with

Transport- Plans can be refused on the grounds of the proposal creating

the BAPPENAS planning department but also the

The programme of providing water and a traditional theatre

local residents, upon whom the success of the

satisfies

and

unsustainable transport situations.9 As a building that draws people on a

project

cultural wellbeing for all, and deliver[ing] sufficient community and cultural facilities and services to meet local needs.”4

regular basis for the purposes of obtaining water and draws a large number

ultimately

depends

upon.

They

will

provide BAPPENAS with pre-application information to iron out any potential problems early on in

the

aim

of

“improve[ing]

health,

social

of people at once for the theatre performances, there will be a strategy developed to allow adequate parking on the south side of the river as to not disrupt the main road through the village. Priority will be given to

the scheme.

pedestrian and cyclist movements.

The creation of employment

The mixed use nature of the proposal is

a claim on this front. 1. The Indonesian ‘National Development Planning Agency’ 2.

Dept. for communities and local government 2012 p2

Local plans are encouraged to “promote the retention and development of local services and community facilities in

Flooding risks. As the building is held high above the water level on

villages”

columns, the flood risk to the building is low and does not raise any of the

5

planning concerns connected to flooding outlined in the National Planning

3. Ibid p6 4. Ibid 5. Ibid p9 6. Ibid , p15 7. Nas 2007 p42 8. Dept. for communities and local government 2012 p9 9. Ibid p10 10. Ibid p24

The design should “respond to local character and history, and

Policy framework. However, in the construction phase flooding risk may be

reflect the identity of local surroundings and materials”6,

increased for the surrounding buildings. Therefore care should be taken

an aim in keeping with the BAPPENAS current trend towards

to ensure that the column bases are constructed and dams removed before

As such, the

the commencement of the ‘wet season’. It is likely that the scheme will be

preserving vernacular traditions in Indonesia.

7

incorporation of vernacular features, in order to create

subject to an ‘exemption test’.10

a naturally ventilated structure, should also help on the planning front.

Noise and disruption during the construction phase to the adjacent mosque may be an issue. Steps could be taken to choreograph the construction to

Set within the existing village, the project should not

avoid prayer times. After completion, the waste-to-energy plant and other

encroach on anything that could be defined as a ‘green belt’.

disruptive services have been located underground to maintain the tranquil environment.

149.


-Roles within the Theatre-

Architect

Consultants

Contractors & suppliers

Client

The architects harbour a strong social and ecological

The Water Theatre is a complex project requiring

focus.

Water

detailed knowledge and understanding outside the

The client commissioned this project as part

Theatre have experience in making buildings with the

Architect’s sphere of expertise. As well as the

of their larger government appointed brief to

smallest possible energy demands within the tropics,

general consultants such as structural engineers and

reverse

situation

due to the ecological focus of the project and the

quantity surveyors whose roles within the project

developing within the Citarum river basin over

specific challenges associated with building in a

are detailed below, there is necessity to engage the

the next 15 years. They have a responsibility

tropical environment.

services of more specialised consultants, including;

the

current

unsustainable

The

dedicated

team

working

on

the

to “check the competence and resources”1 of all

the

river

again

appointed

directly

by

the

client,

on

the

responsibilities of the architect are;

between

the

client

and

other

lead

designer.

The

waterproof fabric for the aperture devices.

involved. This would make the relationships more

Advise the client on the most suitable contract for

transparent should there be and later issues

the project.

of the community, and the working of the water theatre depends largely on them, for example choosing

to

dispose

of

their

waste

here

in

Health and Safety Executive 2007b

exchange for clean water. As such, it is vital

2. Chappell and Willis 2010, p164

to engage the community in the production of

3. Ibid p165

the building, especially in the early stages,

4. Lupton 2001, p5

to make sure they understand the project and to ensure it would suit their needs. Other projects in rural Indonesia have failed on exactly this point, for example, in an attempt to bring power to rural Java one initiative installed more than 60 windmills in 1995. By 1999, just ten of these remained, a report concluding that “Generally, the farmers were happy with the wind generated

11. Lupton 2001

water pumps, as long as they were working...

12.Health and Safety Executive 2007a

They were however not able to maintain or repair the systems.”

151.

will

also

provide

structures

advice

(bridge

concerning

and

dams)

the

required

during the construction process.

Develop the design brief.

the project, and do not have permission to issue instructions within their own field without first addressing the architects.7

Co-ordinate and integrate the work of specialists

Oversees the financial aspects of the project. Their

into the overall design.

responsibilities include;

safety risks during the design process.

5

the

relevant

The provision of initial cost advice early on in the

phase

begins.

Within

at which points details should be supplied by the various consultants.13 The contractor also has a

engineer that has had experience working on large

responsibility for health and safety on site.

scale projects in seismic regions. will

be

a

series

of

prefabricated

trial

M&E Engineers

assemblages to ensure the elements work together

Advise on the building services and how best to

as intended and this will be used to inform the

integrate these into the proposal. They can provide

programme schedule, ensuring its timing works in

information on climatic conditions and energy use,

sync with the Indonesian wet and dry seasons as

11

and even hire sub-contractors to assist with this.

project.

construction

The water theatre would benefit from a structural

There

Quantity Surveyor 4

that materials are ordered in ample time before

this programme dates will be supplied specifying

report to the architects,6 as the lead consultant of

Address, and where possible, ‘design out’ health and

The inception of the project began with the needs

They

temporary Despite being appointed by the client, all consultants

Create planning and construction drawings that are

Community

used to effectively prepare, for example, ensuring

way to achieve an enduring mosquito net façade and

parties

opposite.

13. Chappell and Willis 2010, p263

whether

quantity

consultants, establishing a direct contractual

and

Some of these appointed consultants are detailed

10. Ibid p6

identify

architects,

a detailed programme of the project. This can be

consultant

in accordance with current building regulations.

9. Ibid

and

the

water theatre’s structural integrity.

this information forms part of the contract.3

8. Lupton, 2001 p5

surveyor and structural engineer, the contractors,

for example to ascertain its ground

capacity

from

Fabric consultants- who will advise upon the best

lead

of the services they are required to provide and

7.Ibid

conditions, bearing

instruction

as

their appointment they are informed of the extent

6. Chappell and Willis 2010, p165

Under

10

after the clarification of the brief, the other

relating to liabilities or fees.2 At the time of

5. Health and Safety Executive 2007c

activity, they should also advise on local site

water theatre project are responsible for outlining

link

1.

proposed structure and likely occurrence of seismic

contains hazardous substances which may affect the

both

the

large scale projects within a tropical environment.

precise interlocking lava rocks

client

achieve

project and have experience working on similarly

cables and bamboo frames. Given the highly unusual

oversee the project from concept until completion

The

to

reference to the foundations, lava columns, steel

appointed the architect and, as soon as possible

appoint.

best

also share the social and ecological values of the

Masonry

they

how

Advises on all aspects of design with particular

should

The client appointed the architects, who are to

who

on

The contractor, who constructs the building,

directly

those

consultant-

Structural Engineer

necessary.

However, given the ambitious energy strategy the Monitor quality control during the construction phase

The production of a more detailed cost analysis, the

-essential here due to the highly engineered façade.

‘Bills of Quantities’

This task has been made easier by the decision to

the project.

8

during the tender stage of

building has proposed, the project is to have a dedicated

Environmental Engineer

who will be a

consultant from early on in the project.

architects

must

communicate

with

the

CDM Co-ordinator

building coss to determine the feasibility of the

The

other

supporting consultants such as engineers and planning

If necessary, they will oversee the value engineering

consultants, but in particular there should be a flow

of the project.

of information between the architects and the client Cita-Citarum (owing to the specialist knowledge the

As such a quantity surveyor with a good knowledge of

client has concerning both programme and site) and

the Indonesian market would be desirable, given the

between architect and the local residents.

large extent of materials sourced within Java.

.

the

two

very

different

and

specialised

structural systems (the lava rock columns and bamboo

are likely to employ sub-contractors who specialise Perform an analysis of similar projects and local proposed budget.9

The

to

frames) operating within the scheme the contractors

prefabricate as many of the components as possible. Post practical completion services.

Due

CDM

co-ordinator

in these areas. There is highly specialised knowledge will

assist

the

client,

advising them on their duties and facilitating good communication between them and the other parties involved with the Water Theatre. They also have responsibilities preparing

and

regarding

updating

a

health report

and

safety,

throughout

the

project. These duties all require a high level of co-ordination with the other parties involved.12

required in the area of bespoke façade production, lava rock masonry and mosquito resistant fabrics.


-Procurement-

Building Contracts

Design & Build

The legal framework or procurement formalises the

This

complex relationships, mentioned on the previous

places

page, into a network of bilateral contracts where

design

individuals projects

are

engaged

favour

in

different

Different

several.1 types

of

contract

is

an the

the

construction

to

highly

and

administering

complicated bespoke features of the water

the

theatre and choreographed nature of the

the

contract2;

treatment center, details should be fully

arrangement

undesirable

resolved and tested before responsibility

control over the quality of the design and

repercussions. Furthermore, the financial situation

is handed to the contractors. This makes

is therefore an appropriate choice for

of the Citarum project has been well publicised,

such a contract, and related ones such

the project. However, as time is a more

with critics claiming that “Saving the Citarum will

as ‘design and construct’, unsuitable for

pressing factor than cost, the project

take more than money” and that, despite the vast

the water theater.

could take advantage of the ‘Accelerated

each other. Frequently in the UK ‘cost’ has been determining this

factor

has

in

often

deciding

resulted

a

in

detailing

in

Due

construction.

the

contractors

controlling the

being

construction, tends

or to

the

costs

contracts

and

responsible

for

‘works’.6

This

entail

a

better

sums of money involved the project may still fail

Traditional

because “there is no transparency, the project will

the monumental task of constructing the

end up being a haven of corruption on a local,

lava columns whist the intricate bamboo

and

international

There

level.”3

are

should be a

completed within the Indonesian dry season.

client which the most appropriate form the contract would be, the following is a summary of the varying contracts and their appropriateness for the project. Since the procurement within this project does not have

any

exceptional

circumstances,

a

standard

form provided by the RIBA would be advisable.4 This avoids

the

additional

legal

costs

and

potential

misunderstandings of bespoke contracts, for example when it comes to insurance. Again, I have based this on traditional British procurement methods and assumed a similar critical framework in Indonesia.

153.

Method’,

starting

work

on

details are still being finalised.

Management Below: traditional contractual relationships,

The client or contractor assumes central management the

design

arrangement

responsibility and

over

both

construction.

This

implies

more

8

adapted from ‘Which Contract’

coordination

and with this “greater operational speed and

As it is the architect’s responsibility to advise the

9. Ibid p37

who

continue the

water treatment infrastructure, should be ideally

10. Ibid, p38

architect,

members of the design team responsible

favour time, cost or quality when balanced against

the construction, namely the dams, foundations and

8. Clamp et al. 2007, p31.

the

and

designing,

be the issue of time to contend with, as parts of

7. Chappell and Willis 2010, p170

with

design

for

more significant determining factor. There will also

6. Ibid p33

construction,

separate

during

successful functioning Water Theatre,

5. Clamp et al. 2007, p31

the

5

is often the lead consultant, and other

suggests that quality, and subsequently ensuring a

4. Lupton 2001, p216

contracts

the

and

also considerations concerning public image. This

3. Prijosusilo 2008

for

These

design

national

2. Ibid p25

responsibility

which

the

however

Clamp et al. 2007, p15

approach,

hands of the contractor,7 who will often

depending on the client’s objectives - whether they

the

1.

integrated

Traditional

efficiency.”9

However,

given

the

Client

overriding need for control over quality,

Predicted radar chart for the Water Theatre

ideally by the architects as team leader, and the fact that the management role in this contract demands “a degree of highly

Subcontractors

Architect

specialised expertise and experience in setting up and managing operations which most architect are unlikely to possess”,10 it

is

recommended

that

a

traditional

Quantity Surveyor

Contractor

Consultants

contract would best suit the project.

Domestic subClerk of Works

contractors

Suppliers


-Risk Assessment- Construction -Risk Assessment- Maintenance & Use Hazard

Persons at Risk

Risk Control Hazard

Site Malaria

All on-site participants

Offer the option of malaria resistance tablets to all persons who will work on site. No work to be done at night- when the mosquitos are active. All team members to be briefed on the early symptom warning signs of malaria.

Persons at Risk

Risk Control

Maintenance Falling members

when

replacing

structural Maintenance staff

Due to the height of the structure (necessary to bridge the river and still allow passage of small boats) there are considerable health and safety risks associated with falling from heights. Therefore great care has been taken to ensure all maintenance can be completed from the inside of the structures. The facade elements are simply

Earthquakes

All on-site participants

Site to be equipped with newly developed early warning system, which will sound an alarm 30 seconds before the quake occurs.

clamped into place, able to be quickly unscrewed and removed as necessary.

All staff to be instructed on the emergency procedure, including securing tools, getting off scaffolding and if possible proceeding to the prepared safety area. Drowning

All on-site participants

Climbing harnesses to be used throughout to ensure anyone falling does not fully fall into the water. Safety boat present at all times. Staff instructed on relevant safety procedures and how to use supplied equipment including ample throw lines. When particularly precarious work is undertaken ensure buoyancy aids are worn.

Water borne diseasesAll on-site participants (especially those associated with the high levels of a pollution associated with the Citarum)

All participants instructed to wash hands and face at the clean water provided in the temporary buildings upon contact with the water. Protective clothing to be worn during dam construction.

Construction Injury from bamboo scaffolding

All on-site participants

All poles treated with preservative methods and checked regularly for signs of damage or insect infestation. Any scaffolding intended for use for longer than 1 month should be provided with a waterproof canopy. All persons to be instructed on carrying poles in twos. Helmets to be worn in designated construction areas.

Injury from falling objects

Excavation risks

All on-site participants

Hard hats to be worn by staff.

Spectators

Spectators to be kept at a safe distance- as much of the work as possible to be completed on the north (less occupied) bank.

All on-site participants

Though the lack of infrastructure in the area means it is unlikely a water or gas pipe would be hit, a survey should be carried out to ensure this. A fence should be erected around excavated areas. Hard hats to be worn by all involved in the excavation. Excavation equipment to be used only by adequately trained persons. Materials stored at least 1.5m away from the edge of the excavation. Excavation area should be amply supported. There should be multiple ladder exits should the dam be breached or the excavation supports fail.

Equipment Failure

All on-site participants

All equipment to be checked before use and any that is suspect to be removed from the site. Regular checks and maintenance.

Use Falling from platforms

All visitors, especially children

Falling from walkways. As a public building that is likely to have children attending, balustrading has been used throughout up to a height of 1100mm, to comply with Building Regulations Part K whereby there are no horizontal rails and no gaps more than 100mm diameter, that a child could potentially use to climb with.


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Dwianto, W., ed, 2005. Towards ecology and economy harmonization of tropical forest resources. Bali: Research and Development Unit for Biomaterials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Available from: http://repository.ipb. ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/36571/Towards%20Ecology%20and%20Economy%20Harmonization%20of%20tropical%20Forest%20Resources.pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Pyper, J. and ClimateWire, 2011. Does burning garbage to produce electricity make sense? New York: Scientific American. Available from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=does-burning-garbage-to-produceenergy-make-sense [Accessed 17 March 2013].

EnDev. Indonesia. Eschborn, Germany: Energising Development. Available from: http://endev.info/content/Indonesia [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Roadmap Coordination and Management Unit and Program Coordination and Management Unit, 2011. Basin status map Citarum 2011. Bandung, Indonesia: Cita- Citarum. Available from: http://www.citarum.org/upload/knowledge/document/ Citarum_Basin_Status_Map_2011.pdf [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Fauzan, A.U., 2011. Managing village water. Inside Indonesia, 106. Available from: http://www.insideindonesia.org/feature-editions/managing-village-water [Accessed 17 March 2013]. Fit for Travel. Indonesia malaria map. Glasgow: Health Protection Scotland. Available from: http://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/destinations/asia-(east)/indonesia/indonesia-malaria-map.aspx [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Salehimad, 2010. Safety and controversies of the water. Water Purification Systems, Methods, All New. Available from: http://water-purification2.blogspot.co.uk/2010/05/safety-and-controversies-of-water.html [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Frederick, W.H. and Worden, R.L., eds, 1993. Climate. Charlotte, NC: Country Studies US. Available from: http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/29.htm [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Salmon, C., 1999. Architectural design for tropical regions. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Gorra, D, 2011. The Forest of Wisdom, bamboo plantation. Bali Forest of Wisdom. Available from: http://baliwiseforest.blogspot.co.uk/2011/03/forest-of-wisdom-bamboo-plantation.html [Accessed 20 April 2013].

SBM. Construction. SBM. Available from: http://sbmjawcrushers.com/construction/7333.html [Accessed 20 April 2013].

Guardian, the, 2008. Pollution in the Citarum river, Indonesia. The Guardian, 5 December 2008. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/gallery/2008/dec/05/water-pollution-citarum-river [Accessed 16 April 2013].

Schlapfer, A., 1999. Renewable energy in rural Indonesia. Perth, Australia: Murdoch University. Available from: http://www.istp.murdoch.edu.au/ISTP/casestudies/Case_Studies_Asia/indre/renewen.html [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Hancock, P., 2000. The lived experience of female factory workers in rural West Java. Labour and Management In Development, 1 (1), 2-18. Available from: http://www.nla.gov.au/openpublish/index.php/lmd/article/viewFile/1128/1393 [Accessed 16 April 2013].

Serna, J., 2013. Quake tested warning system. Los Angeles Times, 14 March 2013. Available from: http://articles.latimes.com/2013/mar/14/local/la-me-quake-early-warnings-20130314 [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Health and Safety Executive, 2007a. CDM co-ordinators: roles and responsibilities. Health and Safety Executive. Available from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/cdm/coordinators.htm [Accessed 19 April 2013]. Health and Safety Executive, 2007b. Clients: roles and responsibilities. Health and Safety Executive. Available from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/cdm/clients.htm [Accessed 19 April 2013]. Health and Safety Executive, 2007c. Designers: roles and responsibilities. Health and Safety Executive. Available from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/cdm/designers.htm [Accessed 19 April 2013]. Health and Safety Executive, 2007d. General CDM 2007. Health and Safety Executive. Available from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/cdm/faq/general.htm [Accessed 20 April 2013]. HM Government, 2010a. Approved document K: protection from falling, collision and impact. London: HM Government. Available from: http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/br/BR_PDF_AD_K_2010.pdf [Accessed 17 March 2013]. HM Government, 2010b. Approved document M: access to and use of buildings. London: HM Government. Available from: http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/br/BR_PDF_AD_M_2010.pdf [Accessed 17 March 2013]. HM Revenue & Customs, 2011. Industrial and agricultural processes relief. London: HM Revenue & Customs. Available from: http://customs.hmrc.gov.uk/channelsPortalWebApp/channelsPortalWebApp.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=pageVAT_ ShowContent&id=HMCE_CL_000507&propertyType=document [Accessed 17 March 2013]. Hobart, A., 1987. Dancing shadows of Bali. London: KPI. Huey, G.D., 2012. Why wood warps. Blue Ash, OH: F+W Media. Available from: http://www.popularwoodworking.com/article/why-wood-warps [Accessed 21 April 2013]. Janssen, J.J.A., 2000. Designing and building with bamboo. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan.

Shipdetective.com, 2013. Indonesia seismic activity. Venice, FL: Shipdetective.com. Available from: http://www.shipdetective.com/advice/safety/eq_indonesia.htm [Accessed 17 March 2013]. Sidharta, A., 2006. 25 tropical houses in Indonesia. Singapore: Periplus Editions. Soekmono, 1976. Chandi Borobudur. Paris: The Unesco Press. State Minister for the Chairperson of The National Development Planning Agency, 2010. State ministry of National Development Planning/BAPPENAS. Kementerian Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia. Available from: http://www. indonesia.go.id/en/ministries/ministers/state-minister-for-chairperson-of-the-national-development-planning-agency/1646-profile/277-kementerian-perencanaan-pembangunan-nasional.html [Acccessed 16 April 2013]. Sun Sentinel, 2009. Tips of the day: how to mosquito-proof your home. Sun Sentinel, 11 May 2009. Available from: http://www.sun-sentinel.com/features/sfl-mosquito-proof-your-home-051109-pg,0,4994759.photogallery [Accessed 17 March 2013]. Sutton-Hibbert, J., 2010. In Sukamaju village, Ciwalengke, in Bandung district, Western Java province, Indonesia, Wednesday 27th October 2010. The residents of Ciwalengke have little access to clean water, as the water supplies of their viallge [sic] are contaminated by chemicals released into the waters by the nearby textile factories. Many residents complain of skin rashes and ailments due to the water. Glasgow: Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert. Available from: http://jeremysuttonhibbert.photoshelter.com/image/I0000FpkyqAGkXPA [Accessed 13 March 2013].

Thamrin,

S. Developing Indonesian BAU baseline. Doha, Qatar: Ministry of National Development Planning/National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS).

Thomas, R., 2006a. Engineering thermal comfort. In: Thomas, R., ed. Environmental design. 3rd ed. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Taylor and Francis, 110-144. Thomas, R., 2006b. Materials and construction. In: Thomas, R., ed. Environmental design. 3rd ed. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Taylor and Francis, 67-80.


-Bibliography ContinuedUS Environmental Protection Agency, 2006. Ultraviolet disinfection guidance manual for the final long term 2 enhanced surface water treatment rule. Washington, D.C.: US Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.epa.gov//safewater/disinfection/lt2/pdfs/guide_lt2_uvguidance.pdf [Accessed 17 March 2013]. Watts, B., 2006. Comfort, health and environmental physics. In: Thomas, R., ed. Environmental design. 3rd ed. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Taylor and Francis, 7-28.

b. Amended from Bos, P.R. and Niermeyer, J.F., 1935. Java, not to scale. Ocean City, MD: Orbat.com. Available from: http://www.orbat.com/site/ww2/drleo/016_netherlands/maps/java.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. c. Sutton-Hibbert, J., 2010. In Sukamaju village, Ciwalengke, in Bandung district, Western Java province, Indonesia, Wednesday 27th October 2010. The residents of Ciwalengke have little access to clean water, as the water supplies of their viallge [sic] are contaminated by chemicals released into the waters by the nearby textile factories. Many residents complain of skin rashes and ailments due to the water. Photograph. Glasgow: Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert. Available from: http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000FpkyqAGkXPA/s/600/600/20101027-Indonesia-5462.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. d. Sutton-Hibbert, J., 2010. Chemicals discolour the river water, released into the river by nearby textile factories. In Desa Padamulya village, in Majalaya sub-district, Western Java province, Indonesia, Wednesday 27th October 2010. Many residents of the area complain of the release of chemicals by textile factories into the river from which they obtain water. Photograph. Glasgow: Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert. Available from: http:// cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000eE28kUXt4W4/s/600/600/20101027-Indonesia-5498.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013].

Wern, B., 2012. Garden Q&A: night blooming cereus prefers little water. Jacksonville.com, 14 July 2012. Available from: http://jacksonville.com/entertainment/home-and-garden/2012-07-14/story/garden-qa-night-bloomingcereus-prefers-little-water [Accessed 16 April 2013].

Majalaya Textile District

West, L., 2013. Why is chlorine added to tap water? New York: About.com. Available from: http://environment.about.com/od/earthtalkcolumns/a/chlorine.htm [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Both images from personal collection.

World Climate. London/Gatwick airpo, United Kingdom. World Climate. Available from: http://www.worldclimate.com/cgi-bin/data.pl?ref=N51W000+2100+03776W [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Site Plan

World Vision UK, 2012. Volvic 1L for 10L partnership. Milton Keynes: World Vision UK. Available from: http://www.worldvision.org.uk/news/press/press-releases/volvic-1l-for-10l-partnership/ [Accessed 16 April 2013].

Image from personal collection. Climate of West Java

-Image Credits-

Contents

a. Amended from Nevis Public School. Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Diagram. Nevis, MN: Nevis Public School. Available from: http://www.nevis.k12.mn.us/science/ITCZ.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. b. World Weather Online, 2013. Jakarta weather, Indonesia weather averages. Scottsdale, AZ: World Weather Online. Available from: http://www.worldweatheronline.com/Jakarta-weather-averages/Jakarta-Raya/ID.aspx [Accessed 6 April 2013]. c. Gaisma.com. Jakarta, Indonesia – sun path diagram. Diagram. Vuorentausta, Finland: Gaisma.com. Available from: http://www.gaisma.com/en/sunpath/jakarta.png [Accessed 6 April 2013]. d. Amended from Roadmap Coordination and Management Unit and Program Coordination and Management Unit, 2011. Basin status map Citarum 2011. Bandung, Indonesia: Cita- Citarum. Available from: http://www.citarum.org/ upload/knowledge/document/Citarum_Basin_Status_Map_2011.pdf [Accessed 17 March 2013]. e. New York Post, 2010. Indonesians wade through flood in Bandung, West Java. Heavy rain triggered floods in parts of Java Friday, washing into thousands of homes and forcing residents to flee. Photograph. New York Post. Available from: http://www.nypost.com/rw/nypost/2010/02/19/news/photos_galleries/day_in_photos/croppes/APTOPIX%20Indonesia%20Flood133514--500x380.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013].

All images from personal collection.

Further Site Conditions

Unit 22 Brief and Focus All images from personal collection.

a. Personal collection. b. Kraemer, S., 2010. Mosquito-net façade defines tropical RRCasa on Brazil’s coast. Provo, UT: HomeDesignFind.com. Available from: http://www.homedesignfind.com/architecture/mosquito-net-facade-defines-rr-casadesigned-for-tropical-brazil/ [Accessed 17 March 2013].

Introduction

Additional picture:

Image from personal collection.

• Anxiety Clinic & Health Care. Limoncillo the lemon grass. Photograph. Makassar, Indonesia: Anxiety Clinic & Health Care. Available from: http://www.uncanxietyclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Limoncillo-theLemon-Grass.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013].

Title Page Image from personal collection.

Bappenas 1. Zulkifli, Z.Z., 2012. Sambutan. Logo. Sadu, Indonesia: Pemerintah Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur. Available from: http://www.tanjabtimkab.go.id/v2/images/stories/logo-garuda_acehdesain.jpg [Accessed 15 April 2013]. 2. N/A 3. From top to bottom: Ose, J., 2007. Children stand in front of a pile of Afromosia, highly valued tropical hardwood, logged by SAFBOIS, that is waiting to be transported by Lomami River, tributary of Congo Rover, near the Village of Yafunga. Photograph. Paris: AFP. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/200704/r138253_471791.jpg [Accessed 15 April 2013]. Home Decoration, 2011. Structural bamboo house design. Photograph. Home Decoration. Available from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-iIBfR4o2yps/ToFDvpqTXUI/AAAAAAAAAE8/eeL7M5BxBVY/s400/Structural-bamboo-house-design.jpg [Accessed 15 April 2013]. 4. N/A 5. Amended from Project of Capacity Development for Climate Change Strategies in Indonesia, 2011. Jica. Logo. Available from: http://www.greenclimateproject.org/images/logo-jica.gif [Accessed 15 April 2013]. 6. From top to bottom: Manik, K., 2013. Pagaruyung Palace. Photograph. Boulder, CO: Pixoto. Available from: http://lh6.ggpht.com/eOfVaZCRqOSrB5V_0iB0ivFYNN3BMozCwxzvcRlkDm1LQiYI3l-t171euiko-yaKteexSqtHl-pzFmhLGWeOLcM=s285-c [Accessed 15 April 2013]. Kartapranata, G., 2010. Modern Minangkabau Indonesdian architecture, Matraman, Jakarta. Photograph. San Francisco: Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0a/Modern_Minangkabau_ Indonesian_Architecture%2C_Matraman%2C_Jakarta.JPG [Accessed 15 April 2013]. 7.

From top to bottom:

Mackin, L., 2012. Sumatran surili/mitered leaf monkey. Photograph. Los Angeles: Networked Organisms. Available from: http://lh5.ggpht.com/Y35vmFAirp6PLoT3nWw3MIG5l7vCqHsfGkTvcmQmfLG6JHX_8AJSlNAVKa9azo9y9QziBO_GydPb51nX_ hEk=s1200 [Accessed 15 April 2013]. Blair, D. Javan hawk-eagle showing black crest. Photograph. Bowral, Australia: Auscape International. Available from: http://cdn2.arkive.org/media/FD/FD8E0504-3E30-4A3D-B812-EEEFB8987EEE/Presentation.Large/Javan-hawkeagle-showing-black-crest.jpg [Accessed 15 April 2013]. 8.

Cita-Citarum, 2009. Logo Cita-Citarum. Logo. Jakarta, Indonesia: Citarum. Available from: http://www.citarum.org/download/Citarum_Logo_300dpi.png [Accessed 15 April 2013].

Additional picture: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2013. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup. Logo. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup. Available from: http://www.menlh.go.id/wp-content/themes/Green_klh/_images/logo_klh_official_rgb_ trans.png [Accessed 15 April 2013].

Choreographing the Water All images from personal collection. Water Treatment Diagram Image from personal collection. Wayang Kulit a. Nadera, I.B.M., 2009. Wayang Kulit performance. Painting. Toronto: Gustavo Thomas Theatre. Available from: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_UriVZi63N7E/SwtV_yYeGGI/AAAAAAAAEkY/3Pc0F8s8P1Y/s1600/Ida+Bagus+Made+nadera+W ayang+Kulit+Performance.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. b. Clockwise from top-left: Karandaev, E., 2013. Lime juice bottle, ripe limes and mint. Photograph. Copenhagen: Colourbox.com. Available from: http://www.colourbox.com/preview/3648937-407917-lime-juice-bottle-ripe-limes-and-mint.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. Agro Asia, 2012. Indonesia urges Japan to revise robusta standard. Photograph. Jakarta, Indonesia: Agro Asia News. Available from: http://www.agroasianews.com/sites/default/files/barista560.jpeg?1330431061 [Accessed 6 April 2013]. Lafayettedentist, 2012. Want to fight gum disease? There’s a tea for that. Photograph. Louisiana: Lafayette Dentist. Available from: http://www.lafayettedentist.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/green-tea-in-glass-cup. jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. Hey Brian?, 2012. Betel nut for sale at the weekend market, Thimphu, Bhutan – September 29, 2012. Photograph. Santa Monica, CA: Hey Brian? Available from: http://www.heybrian.com/lib/images/travels/bhutan/thimphu_betel_ nut.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. Ben, 2009. Royal rice cake house 3. Photograph. Vancouver, Canada: Chow Times. Available from: http://chowtimes.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/Royal-Rice-Cake-House-3-600x400.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. ImageSource Premium. Indonesian fruit, vegetables and nuts. Photograph. Las Vegas, NV: visualphotos.com. Available from: http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/2x4746413/indonesian_fruit_vegetables_and_nuts_IS098U41U.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. Lauw, H., 2012. Playing ceki. Photograph. Singapore: Hendra Lauw. Available from: http://www.hendralauw.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/2003-IDMaenCeki-0033-blog.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. c.

Amended from Picoodle. Untitled. Photograph. Las Cruces, NM: Funky Llama. Available from: http://img34.picoodle.com/i327/23888144429m_53a31f0.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013].

Additional image from personal collection.

The Citarum River Basin

Incense Gardens

All images amended from:

Plan from personal collection.

Cita-Citarum, 2012. 22 hotspots in the Citarum river basin. Bandung, Indonesia: Cita-Citarum. Available from: http://www.citarum.org/upload/knowledge/document/22_Hotspots_in_The_Citarum_River_Basin_20120621.pdf [Accessed 6 April 2013].

Other images, from left to right:

Ciwalengke Village

Great British Chefs, 2013. Passion fruit recipes. Photograph. London: Great British Chefs. Available from: http://www.greatbritishchefs.com/getmedia/aa814232-6955-4d67-abae-3ee6d5329c77/Passionfruit-Website-Featured/? width=640&height=410&ext=.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

a.

Start. Start loving bamboo. Photograph. Ludlow, Shropshire: Start. Available from: http://www.startuk.org/media/187097/bamboo%20lead.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

Amended from Abdillah, F., 2011. Sungai @Desa Sukamaju. Photograph. Mountain View, CA: Panoramio. Available from: http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/47351388.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013].


-Image Credits ContinuedAnxiety Clinic & Health Care. Limoncillo the lemon grass. Photograph. Makassar, Indonesia: Anxiety Clinic & Health Care. Available from: http://www.uncanxietyclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Limoncillo-the-Lemon-Grass.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. ESGREEN. Edelweiss. Photograph. Bellevue, WA: ESGREEN. Available from: http://esgreen.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Leontopodium_alpinum_detail-480x360.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013]. Chaikin, A., 2011. Here Arvin is inside with the flashlight aimed at the back of the flower. Photograph. Bellingham, WA: Ann Chaikin. Available from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-1b_IdNzQ8i0/Tmhf2jcJxDI/AAAAAAAAEM0/NGKihDdvyfs/s320/ AMC_110907_H250488.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

c. Finlayson, R., 2011. The ‘Tuned Mass Damper’ near the top of the 101-story [sic] ‘Tapei 101’ skyscraper. Photograph. Mountain View, CA: Ross Finlayson. Available from: http://photos.rossfinlayson.com/var/resizes/Trips/ Taiwan-2011-11/DSC_0922.jpg?m=1321698926 [Accessed 21 April 2013]. All other images from personal collection. Overall Structural Strategy Image from personal collection. Environmental Strategy

MrClean1982, 2007. Passion flower in day glo. Photograph. Sunnyvale, CA: Yahoo. Available from: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/128/419476917_7668f7469a_m.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013].

Image from personal collection.

Nguyen, N., 2008. Passion fruit flower. Photograph. Sunnyvale, CA: Yahoo. Available from: http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3225/2483366534_4f167dddd6_z.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013].

Material Palette

Ultraviolet Experiements

Map from personal collection.

All images from personal collection.

Other images, clockwise from top-left:

Indonesian Vernacular

Badgley, C., 2010. Mosquito net. Photograph. Amherst, MA: Pipe(line) Dreams. Available from: http://www.pipelinedreams.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/mosquito-net-300x200.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

a. Amended from Barch, J., 2012. Sumba House – Nusa Tenggara Timur. Photograph. Jakarta, Indonesia: Julie Sartoni. Available from: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-HlV1nVZ4CcE/T14RXMVM_SI/AAAAAAAAAOA/RGUOcNIQScY/s400/sumba+house.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. b. Amended from Leo, 2012. The main pagoda. Photograph. Three Fatasses on a Plane. Available from: http://threetaekwondodos.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/img_20120701_7483.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. c. Amended from ph, 2009. Travel in Indonesia: fascinating Tana Toraja culture of Central Sulawesi. Photograph. Grand Terrace, CA: Top Travel Leads. Available from: http://toptravelleads.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/sul26z. jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. d. Amended from Renata, M., 2007. Omo Sebua, South Nias, Indonesia. Photograph. San Francisco: Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Omo_Sebua%2C_South_Nias%2C_Indonesia.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. e. Amended from May, J., 2010. Handmade houses & other buildings: the world of vernacular architecture. London: Thames & Hudson. f. Personal collection. g. From top to bottom

Dandapani, 2012. Borobudur temple, Central Java, Indonesia. Photograph. New York: Vedic Odyssey. Available from: http://vedicodyssey.com/spiritualadventures/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/borobudur-temple-java-main-dome.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Warren, A. Komodo dragon. Photograph. London: Ardea wildlife pets environment. Available from: http://cdn1.arkive.org/media/3F/3FCCEE6B-4A8E-41ED-B3F7-B1670B2957D5/Presentation.Large/Komodo-dragon.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

Walnut Hollow Country, 2013. Reversible basswood country round bases. Photograph. Drums, PA: Walnut Hollow Country. Available from: http://www.walnuthollowcountry.com/assets/2/14/DimRegular/Reversible-Basswood-Country-RoundTaxidermy-Base-Group1.png [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Seaman, R., 2007. I encountered this long-nosed whip snake up a tree at night ten meters or less form the tree frog I found at Alas Purwo national park. I found the snake the first night I was at this location and the frog on the second night, so chances are that there was no encounter between the two of them. In spite of appearances, it was probably resting when I appeared on the scene. Photograph. South Boundbrook, NJ: The Flying Kiwi. Available from: http://richard-seaman.com/Travel/Indonesia/Herps/AlasPurwoSnakeWideAngle.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

Start. Start loving bamboo. Photograph. Ludlow, Shropshire: Start. Available from: http://www.startuk.org/media/187097/bamboo%20lead.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. Personal collection. Saint Paul Minnesota. Landmark tree program. Photograph. Saint Paul Minnesota. Available from: http://www.stpaul.gov/images/pages/N4430//Basswood_MoundPark.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. V&A, 2012. Grinling Gibbons. Photograph. London: V&A. Available from: http://www.vam.ac.uk/users/sites/default/files/w.181-1928-_carving_1000px.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

Fenn, A., 2011. Green glass. Photograph. Gandhinagar, India: Ripples on Reality. Available from: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-IHRU0HjmpUs/TZmQa28mroI/AAAAAAAAACE/ojGdU9tC2m8/s400/green_glass.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

TamilNadu Agricultural University, 2013. Flood. Photograph. Coimbatore, India: TNAU. Available from: http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_majorareas_disastermgt_flood_clip_image001.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

Home Decoration, 2011. Structural bamboo house design. Photograph. Home Decoration. Available from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-iIBfR4o2yps/ToFDvpqTXUI/AAAAAAAAAE8/eeL7M5BxBVY/s400/Structural-bamboo-house-design.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Architectural Precedent

Acoustic Strategy

a. Happold, B., 2010. Model showing the roof’s intricate composition. Photograph. London: Building Design. Available from: http://www.bdonline.co.uk/Pictures/web/d/m/d/Nouvel_roof_layers_ready.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. b. Amended from TDIC, 2013. Blue sky thinking: the lattice-style roof of the museum will let natural light pour in. Photograph. London: Associated Newspapers. Available from: http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/01/08/article2258928-16CEC34E000005DC-696_634x481.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. c. ARTEFACTORYLAB. Atliers Jean Nouvel. Photograph. Paris: ARTEFACTORYLAB. Available from: http://www.artefactorylab.com/drupal/sites/default/files/24616/AJN%20Louvre%20AbuDhabi%20coupole%20rendu01.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. d. Aziz-m, 2012. Louvre Abu Dhabi by Jean Nouvel. Photograph. Sunnyvale, CA: Yahoo. Available from: http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7066/6934226187_ba4557c3b9_m.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. e. Miller, R., 2007. Adnouvel2. Photograph. Rueben Miller. Available from: http://reubenmiller.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2007/04/26/adnouvel2.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. f. Safeguard. Condensation on window. Photograph. Horsham, West Sussex: Safeguard Europe. Available from: http://www.safeguardeurope.com/images/condensation-window.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. g. Personal collection. h. V&A, 2012. Grinling Gibbons. Photograph. London: V&A. Available from: http://www.vam.ac.uk/users/sites/default/files/w.181-1928-_carving_1000px.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

Images 1-4 from personal collection.

Early References

Additional image: Schust, R., 2013. Sonic Studio. Photograph. São Paulo: SUBdv. Available from: http://www.subdv.com/architecture/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/SUBdV-2-950x1166.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. Disabled Access All images from personal collection. Means of Escape

a. Bennylin, 2010. Borobudur Indonesia 2010 Bennylin 61. Photograph. San Francisco: Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Borobudur_Indonesia_2010_Bennylin_61.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. b. Anon, 1921. Bridge constructed of bamboo, Central Java, ca. 1921. Photograph. University of Washington Libraries. Available from: http://content.lib.washington.edu/cgi-bin/getimage.exe?CISOROOT=/ic&CISOPTR=148&DMSCALE=100 .00000&DMWIDTH=802&DMHEIGHT=580.61458333333&DMX=0&DMY=0&DMTEXT=&REC=1&DMTHUMB=0&DMROTATE=0 [Accessed 21 April 2013]. c. Kotomicreations, 2008. Paper theatre. Photograph. Sunnyvale, CA: Yahoo. Available from: http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3200/2972320505_c5dd53bb8d_z.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013]. d. Midgelow-Marsden, A., 2012. Work/holiday? Mairangi Bay, New Zealand: Alysn’s Burnt Offerings. Available from: http://alysnsburntofferings.blogspot.co.uk/2012/03/workholiday.html [Accessed 20 April 2013]. e. Nomad, 2013. Water wheel in Indian field. Photograph. Drums, PA: Superstock. Available from: http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/4187/PreviewComp/SuperStock_4187-3903.jpg [Accessed 20 April 2013].

a. Personal collection. b. Ibid. c. Ibid. d. Ibid. e. Todd, J., 2013. Lava rock oven. Photograph. Katy, TX: www.johntoddjr.com. Available from: http://www.johntoddjr.com/53%20Catemaco/images/03%20lavaoven.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. f. Foo, K., 2011. Black lava rock on a modern fire pit. Photograph. Toronto: Paloform. Available from: http://paloform.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/modern-firepit-topping-lava-rock.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. g. Lai, J., 2010. Pumice. Photograph. Vancouver: John’s Dictionary of Difficult Words. Available from: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_mGSuHcdw0UY/TM_00BNB38I/AAAAAAAAB20/sC1wXqAv8vY/s320/moom-natural-pumice-stone-large.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Additional image from personal collection.

Additional image:

Preliminary Studies

1.

All images from personal collection.

M&E/Sanitation Systems

Design Development

All images from personal collection.

All images from personal collection.

Construction Sequence

1:50 Façade Model

All images from personal collection.

All images from personal collection.

Long Section

[fold-out pathways page]

Image from personal collection.

Image from personal collection.

Short Section

Structure

Image from personal collection.

a. Personal collection b. Ibid.

Plan Upper Floors

Firequip, 2008. Conventional hard rubber wire reinforced suction hose. Photograph. Drums, PA: Firequip. Available from: http://www.firequip.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/Firequip_TankFlex.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].


-Image Credits ContinuedImage from personal collection. Plan Lower Floors Image from personal collection. Structural Strategy - Columns and Cables

Cooling Strategy All images from personal collection. Controlling Solar Gain 1.

From top to bottom:

All images from personal collection.

Street-Porter, T., 2012. Specially commissioned marble jail for master suite. Photograph. United States: Style Court. Available from: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-JU0knAiDKio/UOHYYdpFVtI/AAAAAAAAgjg/Diy3M9ku-qg/s400/jaliShangriLa_p047. jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Structural Strategy – Bamboo Frames [1]

Edmunds, D. Wooden shadow puppets. Photograph. Chicago: Fine Art America. Available from: http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/wooden-shadow-puppets-dana-edmunds.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

1. Amended from Vo Trong Nghia, 2011. Details. Drawing. HouseVariety. Available from: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-TlIXzlU1-JU/TntxXTXYJrI/AAAAAAABCz8/UMsKNlCZPUQ/s640/wNw+Bar+By+VO+TRONG+NGHIA%252C+LTD-details.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. 2. Personal collection. 3. Personal collection.

2. Mintorogo, D.S. Surabaya’s solar radiation preferences to design: building façade, solar hot water heater, and photovoltaic. Surabaya, Indonesia: Petra Christian University. Available from: http://fportfolio.petra.ac.id/ user_files/90-002/s%20Solar%20Radiation%20Prefrences%20to%20Design.pdf [Accessed 21 April 2013]. 3. Personal collection.

Structural Strategy – Bamboo Frames [2] 1. Personal collection. 2. Bell, N. “Vascular bundles” on a cross-cut bamboo cane. The wood is stronger where the bundles are more dense near the outer skin of the culm. Photograph. North Plains, OR: Bamboo Garden. Available from: http://www. bamboogarden.com/Cane-storage4.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. 3. Personal collection.

Prototype Concept All images from personal collection. Pop Up Book All images from personal collection.

Detail - Foundations

Prototype Development

a. Personal collection. b. The Climbing Rack, 2004. Edelrid Eddy belay device. Markham, ON: dbmOutdoors. Available from: http://dbmoutdoors.netfirms.com/theclimbingrack/nfoscomm/catalog/images/edelrideddybelaydevice.jpe [Accessed 21 April 2013]. c. Personal collection. d. Ibid. e. Ibid.

All images from personal collection.

Structural Strategy – Bricks All images from personal collection. Detail – Façade Construction Images a-f from personal collection. Additional images:

Prototype Production – Wood and Perspex 1. Personal collection. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. From top to bottom: Personal collection. Donsimon, 2010. Balinese wood carving. Photograph. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Depositphotos. Available from: http://static4.depositphotos.com/1011587/280/i/450/dep_2801258-Balinese-wood-carving.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

CollingeAntiques.com, 2011. Vintage dress-maker’s dummy. Llandudno Junction, Wales: Collinge Antiques. Available from: http://www.collingeantiques.com/stock/vintage-dress-makers-dummy/ [Accessed 21 April 2013].

7. Personal collection. 8. Ibid.

Detail – Floor Construction

Prototype Production – Electronic Mechanisms

All images from personal collection.

All images from personal collection.

Detail – Skylight

Prototype Production – Fabric Tests

All images from personal collection.

All images from personal collection.

Detail – Umbrella Support

Prototype Production – 1st Iteration

All images from personal collection.

All images from personal collection.

Energy

Prototype Development 2

Image from personal collection.

All images from personal collection.

Materials and Longevity

Prototype 2nd Iteration

Plan from personal collection.

All images from personal collection.

Other images, clockwise from top-left:

Procurement

Personal collection.

1. 2013]. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sutton-Hibbert, J., 2010. Chemicals discolour the river water, released into the river by nearby textile factories. In Desa Padamulya village, in Majalaya sub-district, Western Java province, Indonesia, Wednesday 27th October 2010. Many residents of the area complain of the release of chemicals by textile factories into the river from which they obtain water. Photograph. Glasgow: Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert. Available from: http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/ I0000eE28kUXt4W4/s/600/600/20101027-Indonesia-5498.jpg [Accessed 6 April 2013].

Amended from Asian Development. Asian Development Bank. Logo. Provo, UT: India Transport Portal. Available from: http://indiatransportportal.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/asian-development-bank-150x150.jpg [Accessed 21 April Cita-Citarum, 2009. Logo Cita-Citarum. Logo. Jakarta, Indonesia: Citarum. Available from: http://www.citarum.org/download/Citarum_Logo_300dpi.png [Accessed 15 April 2013]. Amended from Guinness, 2013. The Arthur Guinness Fund. Logo. Dublin: Guinness & Co. Available from: http://www.guinness.com/en-id/img/arthurs-day/agf-home-header.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. Volvic. Volvic. Logo. Puy-de-Dôme, France: Volvic. Available from: http://www.volvic-tourisme.com/images/sites/LOGO_VOLVIC.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. A, 2010. Edelweis never die. Photograph. Psychology in My Blog. Available from: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_kLTymfaIsmU/TMu_E3ju5RI/AAAAAAAAACw/S4awJrvFvM8/s320/Untitled-1G+copy.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Chalet & Bamboo Co, 2011. Bamboo soaking into running water. Photograph. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Chalet & Bamboo. Available from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zexy-j12_Ko/TgW_JbO6ROI/AAAAAAAAAD0/Jzkx6Zw_jqs/s320/Soaking-Bamboo-Water. jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Additional images:

Personal collection.

Roadmap Coordination and Management Unit and Program Coordination and Management Unit, 2011. Basin status map Citarum 2011. Bandung, Indonesia: Cita- Citarum. Available from: http://www.citarum.org/upload/knowledge/document/Citarum_ Basin_Status_Map_2011.pdf [Accessed 21 March 2013].

Vizerskaya, O., 2011. Old damaged bamboo texture. Photograph. Seattle, WA: iStockphoto. Available from: http://i.istockimg.com/file_thumbview_approve/15992997/2/stock-photo-15992997-old-damaged-bamboo-texture.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013]. Amended from IBM. Shaping our future. Photograph. Armonk, NY: IBM. Available from: http://www-07.ibm.com/innovation/au/shapingourfuture/images/video04.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Sutton-Hibbert, J., 2010. In Sukamaju village, Ciwalengke, in Bandung district, Western Java province, Indonesia, Wednesday 27th October 2010. The residents of Ciwalengke have little access to clean water, as the water supplies of their viallge [sic] are contaminated by chemicals released into the waters by the nearby textile factories. Many residents complain of skin rashes and ailments due to the water. Photograph. Glasgow: Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert. Available from: http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000FpkyqAGkXPA/s/600/600/20101027-Indonesia-5462.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

Amended from brookebecker, 2011. Fresh bamboo stalk texture. Photograph. St Louis, MO: GL Stock Images. Available from: http://cloud.graphicleftovers.com/26387/710007/fresh-bamboo-stalk-texture.jpg [Accessed 21 April 2013].

All other images from personal collection.


DR Final Part