Sauna - the way of Finnish life

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SAUNA the way of Finnish life

SAUNA the way of Finnish life

Text: Carita Harju Graphic design and layout: Hanna Söderström Photos: Hanna Söderström (list of other photographers on page 124) Publisher: Kirjakaari Oy Translation: Apropos Lingua Oy Printing: Otava Book Printing Ltd, Keuruu 2016 ISBN: 978-952-7187-22-7 Copyright © Kirjakaari Oy, author and photographers.



Contents: 4 Natural well-being, pleasure and health from the sauna 7 Sauna in Finland 9 Löyly 10 The Finnish sauna experience

13 Spring

14 16 18 21 23 25 27 31 33 35 36 38 41 43

The ABC of the sauna Sauna etiquette Sauna’s health benefits Finnish sauna environments Home sauna Children and the sauna Cottage sauna Tips for lighting a fire Stuffed potatoes and eggs Public saunas Urban saunas attract people Urban saunas Sauna as a wellness space Löylyttäret – bubbling joy in the sauna

47 Summer

49 51 53 56 58 61 62 65 67 69 70 72

Sauna whisk Midsummer sauna Smoke sauna Do-it-yourself treatment: a touch of chocolate The sauna – a break from everyday life Women’s sauna shift Do-it-yourself treatment: herb & lemon face mask Men’s sauna shift Salt cured salmon sandwiches The team’s sauna night Body maintenance in the sauna Finnish football sisters enjoy the sauna

77 Autumn 78 79 80 83 85 87 89 93

Earth sauna Yurt sauna Sauna therapists Bridal sauna brings friends together Tips for a modern Finnish bridal sauna experience Soft blueberry & raspberry smoothie Peat therapy in the sauna Salt therapy in the sauna

95 Winter

96 Christmas sauna 98 Ice sauna 101 Cooling off 103 Finns living abroad 104 Tent sauna in Switzerland 107 Sauna diplomacy in Washington 111 Peacekeeper sauna 113 Spinach-potato omelette 115 Sauna business in Finland 116 Sauna trip to Finland 122 Authors

Natural well-being, pleasure and health from the sauna For us Finns, sauna is a way of life. We prepare for the sauna well in advance and make sure that we have enough time for it. In the sauna, the most natural thing is just to be present. Everyone can enjoy the Finnish sauna experience their own way. After the sauna, you feel as if you have been born again. You feel better and also make the world a better place for yourself and for others. This experience could be called “Finnish sauna therapy�. Hurry, exhaustion and stress have become parts of many people’s everyday lives. We are expected to be constantly alert and always going somewhere and doing something. At the same time, we are also supposed to be rational, productive and creative. The constant hurry and metadata in the brain burden our senses. Is it no wonder then that, at the end of the day, we find it more and more difficult to relax and to fall asleep?


The sauna gives the whole body a much-needed sense of pleasure. It is easy to lose track of time in the sauna and to forget the pressing realities of everyday life for a moment. No passwords, emails or addictive social media applications are needed in the sauna. Everyone who opens the sauna door is treated equally, so you can just kick back and enjoy the heat. At its purest, the Finnish sauna experience provides a chance to be present with all your senses. You can hear the sounds of nature, see the colours and the beauty of the world around you, feel the gentle caress of the heat, and savour the different scents and flavours. You can make your sauna visit even more relaxing by lying down on the sauna bench. When you close your eyes, you can feel your active thinking fade away into the background. The sauna acts as a foundation for creative thinking, and after the sauna, you feel clean, beautiful and reborn on the inside.


It would be wonderful if everyone in the world could experience the authentic Finnish sauna in a way that best suits them. That is why this book presents a variety of Finnish lifestyles related to the sauna. Come and make the world a better place with us by bathing in the sauna. Do yourself some good and visit the sauna today!


Ideally, the authentic Finnish sauna experience combines all the traditional elements related to the sauna: wood, water, living fire and people and their stories. The temperature in the Finnish sauna is controlled by casting water (“löyly”) on the hot sauna stove. The amount of water you use can be a little or a lot – just stick to your own preferences and enjoy the hissing of the stove.



Sauna in Finland There is definitely room for variety in Finland’s more than three million saunas: the saunas range from home saunas to cottage saunas, and from hotel saunas to the amazing sauna experiences found in various tourist resorts. You can find saunas in the archipelago, national parks, golf clubs, different events, schools and even in prisons. Public saunas are now really increasing in popularity, and no wonder. The sauna is an important place in many towns and cities, where the swimming hall sauna may be the only social place open to all besides cafÊs and restaurants.

#Facts “Laeyly” is one of the oldest printed uses of the word “löyly”. It was written down by Mikael Agricola, the founder of literary Finnish, in his translation of the New Testament as early as 1548.



Löyly “Löyly”, the water thrown on the sauna stove, is what defines the Finnish sauna and sets it apart from other sauna cultures around the world. Löyly creates moisture in the sauna and affects its temperature. Everyone can stay in the sauna for just as long as they want to.

The Finnish sauna experience The sauna room with the stove provides the premise for the sauna, but the actual sauna experience is created by the scents, the feeling of warmth and cleanliness on the skin, the feel of the wooden benches and the spiritual presence of the sauna-goer. The thing that sauna-goers appreciate the most about the sauna is its purifying, relaxing and health-promoting effect – a comprehensive sense of well-being. The soundscape is also an important part of the sauna experience: the flickering of the flame in the stove’s firebox and the sound of water hissing on the hot stones. The scenery viewed through the sauna windows and the pleasant and dim mood lighting are also just as important. The feel of clean cotton and linen towels and other sauna textiles on the skin is also part of the sauna experience.




There are 5.4 million people and more than 3 million saunas in Finland. This means that there would be enough room for every Finnish person to sit on a sauna bench at the same time.

#Facts Authenticity, multi-sensuality, being present, relaxation, cleanliness and well-being are the core values that Finns look for when visiting the sauna. Visiting a Finnish sauna is a comprehensive experience that starts before actually entering the sauna, continues throughout the sauna visit, and lasts for a long time after the sauna.




The ABC of the sauna 1 Make sure you have enough time for your sauna visit:

2 3

4 5 6




hurrying is not part of the sauna experience.

Enter the sauna with a curious and open mind. Sit in the sauna either naked, wrapped in a towel or even in a bathing suit. Sit on the top bench, on the sauna towel. Breathe evenly and relax. Listen to your body and trust your feelings. Sweating, slightly increased heart rate and redness of the skin is normal. Drink water to compensate for sweating. If the sauna feels too hot, lie down, move to the lower benches, or take a break and cool off. Once you have become used to the starting temperature of the sauna, throw some water on the stove, feeling for the right temperature. Take some time to cool off outside. Sit in the fresh air for a moment, go for a swim or roll around in the snow.

10 Slap yourself lightly on the legs and the middle body with

the sauna whisk.

11 Visit the sauna as many times as you feel like. 12 When you are finished, rinse the sweat off your skin and

wash yourself in the shower room.

13 Continue to relax after the sauna, either alone or with friends. 14


# Facts

The sauna is very popular among Finns: more than 90% visit the sauna at least once a week.

Sauna etiquette Going to the sauna can raise a lot of questions. Foreigners in particular may be confused or even worried about some things. Nudity is a particular cause for concern and confusion. In Finland, however, the goal is to make the sauna experience as pleasant as possible for everyone, and people know how to be discreet also when it comes to nudity. It is perfectly acceptable to go to the sauna wrapped in a towel, for example. There are no strict rules that apply to every sauna – each sauna has its own set of house rules. In public saunas, men and women usually have their own sauna shifts. Exceptions can be made for members of the same family, who can go to the sauna together. Creating a feeling of approval around the sauna experience helps children (and why not adults, too) view their own bodies more positively. The sauna also teaches that nudity is nothing to be ashamed of.



Sauna’s health benefits Visiting the sauna is one of the keys to a healthy life. Medicine has also acknowledged the beneficial health effects of the sauna, and they have been studied for decades. Research evidence shows that the sauna has a beneficial effect on various bodily disorders, such as skin, joint and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms behind sauna’s health benefits are still somewhat unclear, so there are no completely accurate explanations for them yet. The greatest benefits of the sauna are most likely related to the complete relaxation that it provides. The sauna is good for almost everyone, with the exception of a few risk groups. The most important thing is to listen to your own body.




The sauna is a great example of the body’s positive stress: you often feel relaxed and rested after the sauna.



Finnish sauna environments Having so many different people in the world is a great wealth. Every single person is an exquisite, precious individual. We all look for our own ways to relax, feel well and take a break from everyday life. For an increasing number of people, the best way to relax is by taking a bath in the sauna. You can find saunas in many different places, and there is a huge selection of different sauna types which to choose from. Everyone is sure to find their own way to enjoy the sauna that suits them best.


Sauna benches are made from wood. The wood used in the benches is usually spruce, pine, alder or aspen.



Home sauna The Finnish people get used to the heat of the sauna already from an early age. The tradition is passed on from one generation to another, and children learn how to behave in the sauna at home. The sauna is a private home spa for us Finns where we can pamper ourselves all year round, whenever we want to. Apartment saunas allow families and people who live alone to visit the sauna every day if they want to. Apartment saunas can be found in Finland in almost all houses built after the 1970s, even in studio apartments. Flats and row house apartments usually have a small, compact sauna with an electric sauna stove. Detached houses have almost always their own saunas, and the most recent trend is to have a wood-burning outdoor sauna in addition to an indoor electric sauna. Apartment buildings often have so-called community saunas for all residents where everyone can book their own sauna shift.



Children and the sauna Even small children can visit the sauna safely with their parents. Keep in mind, however, that children are much less tolerant to heat than adults. That is why children should sit on the lower benches and bathe in the sauna for shorter periods of time. Children also enjoy water games in the sauna. Small babies should not go to the sauna because of their poor tolerance to heat. Older children should also be permitted to leave the sauna as soon as they feel like it. Sauna customs are learned little by little at home, and the sauna can be a source of joy for the whole family.




There are more than half a million summer villas and cottages in Finland. People do not live in them all year round, and in many towns, summer residents may cause the population to double.

Cottage sauna In the spring, when the nature is waking up, the Finns start to yearn for their summer cottages and long to sit on the benches of their wood-heated saunas. Cottage life is part of the Finnish lifestyle at its best. The sauna is almost always a part of the Finnish cottage experience. People take more time to heat the sauna at their cottage than they do at home. They get the firewood from the shed and chop it up, fetch the water for washing from the lake, and only after that do they start the patient heating of the wood-burning sauna. For many, the world’s best sauna is the one at their summer cottage. The cottage may also be home to several favourite saunas: people may build more than one sauna and turn their cottage into their own sauna world.


The sauna is good for peripheral blood circulation. Sauna-goers – especially the older ones – do not feel as cold in cool air as those who avoid going to the sauna.



There is something therapeutic about watching the flame flicker in the firebox of a wood-burning sauna stove already when heating the sauna. The scents of birch and tar are intoxicating. Summer cottages do not always have electricity, and the atmosphere is completely different when visiting the sauna in the autumn, for example, when compared to bright summer nights: people go to the sauna by candlelight, and the inviting glow of lanterns can be seen outside. At the cottage, a sauna visit can easily last for several hours. People may go for a swim in the lake or go outside on the pier or on the sauna terrace every once in a while to cool off. What could be more fantastically Finnish? Long sauna sessions often also involve delicious food.


Making the firewood for the sauna starts in the spring by felling trees. In the summer, the firewood is dried in the sun under a shelter, and in the autumn, it is moved to a well-ventilated storage room. The chopped wood is ready for burning in early winter.



Tips for lighting a fire • Use only dry firewood that is the right length, about 10–15 cm shorter than the depth of the firebox. • Keep a couple of days’ worth of firewood in a warm place indoors, but not in a room where people live. • The firewood dries completely only in the heat of the firebox: remember to leave the damper slightly ajar. • The art of lighting a fire is the art of burning gases. Combustion gas is the gas that comes from the firewood when it is heated. • Fill the firebox first with smaller pieces of wood, and use bigger pieces only after burning them. • Pile small, dry sticks and some birch bark or paper on top of the firewood. • Always light the firewood from the top. This way everything that gasifies also flashes and burns. • Do not stuff the firebox full of wood. Leave some room for the gases to burn. • Enjoy the warmth and light of the fire.



Stuffed potatoes and eggs 12 servings 4 boiled potatoes 6 boiled eggs Stuffing 25 g thin (cold-smoked) roast beef slices 1 can (125 g) horseradish-flavoured cream cheese 2 tbsp mayonnaise For garnish thin (cold-smoked) roast beef slices chives Slice the unpeeled potatoes. Peel and halve the eggs. Chop the cold-smoked roast beef slices into fine crumbs. Mix with cheese and mayonnaise to make a paste. Squeeze the mixture on top of the potato slices and halved eggs. Garnish with roast beef slices and chives.


There have been public saunas in Finland since the 19th century. Public sauna is a sauna that anyone can use for a fee. Public saunas are related to industrialization and urbanization: the working population that moved to the cities from the countryside needed a place to wash themselves, since there were no bathing facilities in the apartments back then.



Public saunas There are differences in the quality and price levels of public saunas. Tourists can find saunas also in swimming halls, hotels, spas and other tourist destinations. Finns may even visit a swimming hall just for the sauna if they do not happen to have one at home.

Urban saunas attract people Public saunas and other community spaces are becoming more and more common in cities. Going to a public sauna provides an opportunity to relax together and discuss the burning issues of the day. Public saunas are, above all, an urban sauna experience and a way to take a break from everyday life. For foreigners, public saunas are a great way to learn more about the Finnish people and the Finnish sauna culture. The sauna experiences offered by public saunas may vary a lot, and each has its own, unique atmosphere. The Löyly public sauna, located on the seaside in Helsinki, is at the heart of Finland’s new sauna trend. Architecturally, Löyly is a modern wooden building with a terrace extending over the sea. Bathing in the sauna, cooling off and dining can all be done right next to the seaside. The Allas Sea Pool spa in Katajanokka, next to the Helsinki Market Square, has several pools and saunas. The Forum Sauna in Turku is a more traditional Finnish public sauna that also offers sauna and pampering treatments.



Urban saunas There is a sauna in every hotel and swimming hall in Finland. In many towns and cities, swimming hall saunas are the only “public� saunas available. Swimming halls became more common in the 1960s, when the government wanted to improve the Finnish people’s swimming skills by giving them swimming lessons. There are now about 220 swimming halls and more than 50 spas in Finland. A sauna can be found in every hotel, without exception. The saunas in Finnish hotels offer sauna experiences both for individual customers and groups. Everyone can use the public sauna shifts, and some of the sauna services are available on request. There is also a wide range of sauna experience services available in Finland. In tourist resorts, visiting the sauna is often a guided event, and the sauna facilities have been designed for groups of different sizes. Some examples of memorable sauna experiences include visiting an authentic smoke sauna or riding a sauna ferry in the Finnish archipelago.




Finland’s first swimming hall, the YrjÜnkatu swimming hall, was built in 1928. The building is historically valuable, and it original appearance has been preserved for decades.


Sauna Yoga is good for the back and the neck and shoulder area. It also offers a much-needed break for the body burdened by excessive sitting.



Sauna as a wellness space The sauna is a real wellness space that is good for more than just enjoying the heat. Sauna Yoga is an experience that combines mild heat, the silence of the sauna and the relaxing and strengthening effect of simple yoga-based exercises. Sauna Yoga and Sauna Pilates are Finnish innovations that can be done both at home as well as in public saunas. The exercises are performed on the benches of the sauna, in a temperature of about 50 °C. The heat makes the body more elastic, boosting the effectiveness of the gentle movements that are based on yoga and Pilates. Because of the heat, stiff joints, muscles and the spine stretch better. The exercise is not only good for the body, but also for the mind. It helps you to relax and concentrate on the moment.


Going frequently to the sauna does not dry out the skin; on the contrary, it improves the skin barrier so that a sauna-goer’s skin does not dry out as easily.



Löylyttäret – bubbling joy in the sauna Löylyttäret is a sauna group made up of members of the Finnish Sauna Society, of four mothers and their daughters. They meet during the society’s women’s shift a couple of times a week and think that the sauna is an excellent place to talk and catch up. They talk about everyday things in the sauna, from holidays to flu epidemics, exchange the latest family news, and joke in good humour. When they want to take a break from the sauna, they go for a swim in the sea, be it summer or winter. After the sauna and a swim, the happy and relaxed group moves to the Vaskiniemi café’s hearth room. Salmon soup and Karelian pasties really hit the spot after the sauna. In the summer, the sauna visit often ends with the group sitting on the porch of the Vaskiniemi café well into the night.



#FACTS The Finnish Sauna Society is a non-profit organization founded in 1937. Its mission is to maintain and develop the Finnish sauna and to cherish the Finnish sauna culture. The society is actively involved in current discussions related to the sauna, and it promotes Finnish sauna research by awarding grants, among other things. The society has a sauna house in Lauttasaari. Members can use it for bathing, but it is also used for introducing the Finnish sauna culture to guests.


The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon where the sun does not set below the horizon during the entire summer day. This phenomenon can be witnessed only north of the Arctic Circle. The night of the midnight sun is the opposite of the polar night, during which the sun does not rise above the horizon at all. Both phenomena are caused by the Earth’s slightly tilted axis. The longest day of the year, the summer solstice, is on the 21st or 22nd of June.




# Facts

The second Saturday of June is the Day of the Finnish Sauna. Saturday sauna is an old Finnish tradition, although any day can be a sauna day these days.



Sauna whisk The scent of birch adds its own touch to the sensory pleasures of the sauna. Many Finns think that a sauna whisk (“vihta” or “vasta” in Finnish) really tops off the sauna experience. The sauna whisk is a bundle of leaves and twigs made from fresh birch branches. Slapping yourself with the whisk increases the circulation and metabolism of the skin. Birch leaves are also known to cleanse and treat the skin. When the skin has warmed up a little, you can start slapping it with the sauna whisk. You can also ask a friend to help you. In the sauna, the whisk should be kept in a bucket of water, because otherwise it will dry out and no longer smell or feel good on the skin. You can also use other trees besides birch to make a whisk, such as alder, rowan, willow, juniper, spruce or pine.


In the old days, the Midsummer sauna was a place for casting spells. They were cast particularly by young girls who were about to reach a marriageable age and wanted to find a fiancĂŠ, and by unmarried old maids who still entertained a glimmer of hope. The spells were intended to make the caster as attractive and suitable for marriage as possible. The casters would dowse themselves in water, bathe, and beat themselves with whisks made of flowers or sprigs to achieve the intended results.



Midsummer sauna The Finnish nature is at its most beautiful in the Midsummer, and the sauna is an integral part of Midsummer celebrations. The Finns love Midsummer, and the best place to spend it is at a cottage near the water. In addition to the family, sauna guests are also welcome to take part in the Midsummer celebrations. One Midsummer tradition is adorning doorways with birch branches. A sauna whisk made of birch is also an essential part of the Midsummer sauna. Leaving your hurries behind, the bright nights and being close to nature make the Midsummer sauna even more enjoyable. Sitting in the sauna feels even better when there is nothing to disturb your time together. Lighting a Midsummer bonfire is also a Midsummer tradition.


The Finns have been using saunas already for about 10,000 years. During the entire time that Finland has been inhabited, since the end of the Ice Age, there have also been saunas. Finland can be safely called a sauna country, even though the sauna is not a purely Finnish invention.



Smoke sauna Smoke saunas are part of the Finnish heritage. Smoke saunas do not have a chimney: the smoke spreads all over the sauna room and then exits through the vent. Once the stones in the sauna stove are hot enough and the fire has gone out, water is thrown on the stones. This releases most of the soot and fine particles on the surface of the stones into the air so that they can be aired out. After that, the sauna is ready for the bathers to use. The stove in a smoke sauna gives off a very soft, pleasant heat. That is why many Finns think that the best sauna experience can be had in a smoke sauna. You can visit a smoke sauna in various tourist destinations all over Finland, for example.


Kelo is a dead standing tree that has dropped its bark. They are old pine trees, grey on the surface and reddish on the inside, that stop growing in the north when they are about 300–400 years old. The process that turns a tree into a snag takes a few decades, and the tree may still stand for hundreds of years after that. Kelo-wood are popular material for saunas and sauna benches found for example in tourist resorts in Lapland.



Do-it-yourself treatment: a touch of chocolate organic cocoa coconut butter brown sugar Measure equal volumes of all ingredients, mix them together and give your body a relaxing peeling treatment. You can also do the treatment on washed warm skin in the sauna. Let the sugar melt and rub it on your skin. Rinse the peeling mixture off with warm water.



The sauna – a break from everyday life Visiting the sauna makes every day a joy. The sauna is an excellent place to pamper yourself, enjoy your private time together with your loved one, or spend a joyful holiday with your family or friends. The Finnish sauna is also an excellent way to end companies’ recreational days and meetings. The sauna can make even the most difficult negotiations run smoothly. The sauna offers a cleansing, refreshing and relaxing experience all at once. The sauna gives ideas wings. It is a real Finnish gem.




Always remember proper hydration in the sauna. The best way to do that is by drinking water.

# Facts

A sauna visit may increase your blood pressure temporarily, but after the sauna, it drops even lower than it was before.



Women’s sauna shift Visiting the sauna is an excellent way to take a break from your everyday life. It is a chance to rest, calm down and recover. Our everyday lives are often so hectic that we do not have as much time for our friends as we would like. That is why it is all the nicer to spend some quality time together with good friends on a mini-holiday that includes shopping, good food and wine – and when in Finland, naturally a visit to the sauna. Once the city tour is over, everyone goes to the sauna together. Just put your bathrobe on, take some wellness products with you, and head over to the sauna department to enjoy the heat before the evening’s entertainment. The juiciest stories can usually be heard in the sauna, and everyone can laugh together at all the fun incidents of the day.

Do-it-yourself treatment: herb & lemon face mask 3 tbsp natural yoghurt 1 tbsp lemon juice 1 tbsp honey 2 tbsp seasonal herbs (finely chopped leaves or flowers) 1–2 tbsp oatmeal Mix the ingredients into the yoghurt carefully. Add enough oatmeal to make a soft paste.




According to a Finnish study, visiting the sauna reduces the risk of heart attack by as much as 63%, extending the life of sauna-goers by several years.


Men’s sauna shift During the men’s sauna shift, the men just sit and enjoy the heat. Thanks to its unhurried and relaxing nature, the sauna is an excellent place for the male mind and body to relax. In the sauna, everyone is equal and titles mean nothing. As the warmth spreads through the limbs, men can just let go and relax: just enjoy life. The Finns know to get to the heart of the matter in the sauna even in unfamiliar company. The stories told in the sauna are hilarious, and more serious topics are also discussed from time to time. The nature of the sauna discussions depend always on the sauna-goers, but one popular topic of discussion is how good the sauna and the stove are – especially if the sauna is yours. In the sauna, the senses become more acute, and even the slightest hiss from the stones frees the mind from unnecessary worries. Life feels like worth living again. You lose your sense of time, and the movement of the clock’s hands means nothing. The more time you spend in the sauna, the closer you get to yourself and your own humanity. After the sauna, you are ready to step into the stream of life once again and face your everyday routines.




Salt cured salmon sandwiches 6 servings 12 slices of archipelago bread (“saaristolaisleipä”) Stuffing 200 g salt cured salmon 1 boiled egg 1 apple ½ red onion 150 g crême fraiche 2 tbsp chopped fresh dill pinch of salt and freshly ground black pepper Mince the salmon and the peeled boiled egg. Peel the apple and grate it. Peel and chop the onion. Mix the ingredients together. Cut the bread into small triangles and fill generously with the salmon mixture.


Sweating is the most effective way for the body to get rid of excess heat. On the average, people sweat about half a litre of fluid during the sauna.



The team’s sauna night Top athletes work enormously hard to succeed in different team sports. For a team that is looking to fulfil its dream, success usually means winning the championship. In Finland, champions get not only medals, but also a trophy, which athletes usually call “Poika”, “The Boy”. Whether the sport is ice hockey, football, basketball or volleyball, it is always a great honour for the captain of the champion team to lift “The Boy” high in the air. The whole team takes part in the championship celebrations, as do the support staff, the volunteers and the fans. They have achieved their dream, and the hard work has finally paid off. The championship celebrations last for several days, and the sauna is an essential part of the championship rituals.

Body maintenance in the sauna After a tough exercise, the sauna is a great place for body maintenance, which is just as important as the workout itself. The sauna is an ideal place for muscle stretching, relaxation and recovery. In the hot sauna, the body tries to get rid of excess heat by sweating, which increases the skin’s surface circulation. You can also boost the recovery process by taking a dip in the lake. According to studies, visiting the sauna and cooling off are excellent ways to reduce muscle soreness after a workout. It removes impurities from the tissues, which means that the sauna helps you achieve better results!




Sauna Yoga removes impurities from the body very effectively. During the 45-minute exercise, up to a litre of fluid exits the body.

Finnish football sisters enjoy the sauna Pauliina and Katrina really love the sauna and different sauna products. These football girls are the first young Finnish athletes to play professionally in the German football team FC Bayern München. Playing at the international top level and in Finland’s national junior football team requires systematic and hard work also during their free time, “on through the nightless night”.




Your heart rate increases in the sauna. It may reach up to 120–150 beats per minute. Your blood circulation accelerates and your heart pumps blood more efficiently, so visiting the sauna is comparable to light physical exercise.

In the summer, the sisters like to spend time at their summer cottage in Finland whenever they get the chance, practising on their own, close to the nature. Training is fun and easy in the beautiful countryside, with the bustle of the big city far behind them. At their summer cottage, they are always greeted by the pure nature, the lakeside sauna and the nearby water. Finally, it is time to visit the sauna and go for a swim. For these footballers, the relaxation starts as soon as they open the door to the sauna. Getting to the sauna fast and easily also helps the muscles recover. For the girls, a traditional, original Finnish sauna is the best! The warmth of the sauna, its scents and a dip in the lake are the little important things that help an athlete to relax. It also helps you to forget your hurries, studies, the strain caused by exercise and other everyday issues. After the sauna, you always feel great – as if you have been born again. No wonder that Pauliina and Katriina dream of being able to visit the sauna after their practices also in Munich. Bathing in the sauna is just the best!




In the sauna, you are cleansed both physically and mentally. Sweating removes impurities from the body and cleanses the skin.





Finland is one of the world’s most forested countries, and the majority of Finland’s surface area, more than 70%, is covered by forest. There are almost one million forest owners in Finland, which means that one out of every five Finnish citizens owns forest. According to Finland’s everyman’s rights, everyone can move about in the nature freely and pick berries and mushrooms.

Earth sauna The earth sauna from more than 10,000 years ago may be regarded as the first Finnish sauna. The earth sauna was very simple: a large pit was dug in the ground, and a fireplace was built in the middle. Young tree trunks were bent on top to cover the sauna. The next version of the sauna was a building with a proper floor, wooden front wall and a door. The stove was placed near the doorway, and the benches were made from tree trunks. The roof was built from logs, branches and peat. Thanks to its modern versions, the earth sauna continues to live on even today. Half of the sauna can be built underground, making it blend in beautifully with the Finnish nature and the surrounding landscape: the forest, trees, rocks, moss and even lingonberry twigs.



Yurt sauna The yurt is the traditional dwelling of the nomads in Central Asia. The Finnish yurt sauna is entirely handmade. It has been designed to retain the traditional shapes and structures of the yurt, but also to withstand the Nordic climate. Visiting a yurt sauna is a unique, gentle and oxygen-rich experience. The yurt can be moved in the middle of a forest, where the sauna-goers are treated with authentic natural products, thus making use of the healing power of nature. A yurt or a tent sauna is a wonderful experience. Both can be set up easily as part of the nature, also as a temporary solution.

Sauna therapists Sauna therapists are trained in Finland. In sauna therapy, the bathers are given natural treatments during their sauna visit. Sauna therapists are trained experts that are extremely familiar with the Finnish sauna tradition and various treatments. They advise sauna-goers how to enjoy different herbs, forms of bathing and ways to use the sauna whisk, for example. Most importantly, sauna therapists instruct people how to bathe in the sauna safely. There is plenty of demand for guided sauna sessions, sauna treatments and sauna information, and it is not just the tourists and foreign visitors that are interested in the sauna therapists’ services: Finns also want to learn new tips and ways to enhance the traditional sauna experience.




The occupation of the sauna attendant is an old one, dating back to medieval times. The sauna attendant was responsible for acquiring the necessary bathing supplies: pails, sauna whisks and even sauna hats. It was also the sauna attendant’s task to bathe the customers, which meant washing and cutting their hair and shaving their beard. A substantial part of the sauna attendants’ income came from the cupping therapy that they gave to customers. The sauna attendant blew a horn to indicate that the sauna was hot and ready for bathing. These days, only trained professionals have the necessary expertise to perform cupping or massage treatments.


If the future bride at a bachelorette party moves away from her seat of honour in the sauna, the other bathers compete for her place. According to an old belief, the first person to take the bride’s seat will celebrate her wedding next.



Bridal sauna brings friends together The tradition of visiting the sauna when preparing for one’s wedding is hundreds of years old. The future brides and grooms were bathed in the sauna. Different spells and incantations were cast in the sauna to make their future married life as happy as possible. The purpose of the bridal sauna was to drive away evil spirits and to prepare the bride for her new life. The bridal sauna is still a magical and memorable experience. The bridal sauna, or the more modern bachelorette sauna, can be tailored according to the bride’s personality. Old traditions are mixed with a modern sauna

experience, which includes different pampering treatments, such as Sauna Yoga. When creating the atmosphere and decorating the sauna, let the season inspire you. In the summer, the sauna can be decorated with wildflowers and birch branches, and pine or spruce twigs and candles may be used in the winter. The values of the Finnish sauna culture also apply to the bridal sauna: authenticity, multisensuality, being present, cleanliness and well-being before and after the sauna. In many cases, the bridal sauna is a place where old friends come together after a long time to share good memories.



Tips for a modern Finnish bridal sauna experience: • Make sure you have enough time for the bridal sauna. • Banish evil spirits from the sauna by laughing, singing and casting spells. • Make sure that there is enough fresh water and salty snacks in the sauna. • Decorate the bride’s place of honour in the sauna with herbs, flowers and juniper twigs. • Reserve high-quality sauna textiles and towels for the bride to use for cooling off during and after the sauna. • Prepare a cool herbal foot bath for the bride. • Slap the bride with different sauna whisks. Using a whisk made from juniper is similar to a microneedling treatment and gets the blood flowing. • Help the bride to purify herself from her old life with flour and salt, like in the old days. You can also do different honey peeling treatments, make a clay or peat face mask, or bring different handmade soaps with you to add a festive touch to the bathing experience. • Remember the core values of the Finnish sauna experience: authenticity, multisensuality, being present and cleanliness.



Soft blueberry & raspberry smoothie 2 servings 2 dl blueberries 2 dl raspberries 2 tbso oat brans 2 dl natural yoghurt honey

Put all the ingredients into a blender and mix into a silky smooth drink. If the smoothie is too thick, you can add some water or juice into the mix. Add some honey to taste. The berries can be frozen or fresh. Frozen berries make for a cool delicacy!

# Facts

For Finns, the sauna is a place where we can be silent together.



Peat therapy in the sauna Heat promotes the health benefits of peat, which is why saunas and baths are considered ideal places for peat therapy. In a peat sauna, peat is applied on the skin, where it is left to sit for a while. Thanks to its cream-like texture, therapeutic peat is ideal for the sauna, like honey and chocolate. Remember to cover the benches well and to drink plenty of water during the treatment. At the moment, scientists believe that the positive effects of peat are caused by its humic acids. The more humic acids there are, the better the therapeutic peat is. Despite its colour, peat is very clean, and it destroys viruses, fungi and bacteria.

As early as 30 years ago, people travelling in marshy areas told that they had tried using peat in the sauna and had noticed its relaxing effect. The cosmetic effects of the peat sauna can be felt immediately: the skin becomes softer and brighter. Visiting a peat sauna several times in a row also has a slimming effect, even though you may not necessarily lose weight. Peat has traditionally been used as a treatment for up to a hundred different conditions, from rheumatic pain to gynaecological and urological problems. According to a Finnish study, peat treatments can help with a variety of problems, such as different pains, insomnia, urinary and menopausal problems and a low libido. Peat treatments would also seem to have a mood-lifting effect.

#FACTS Peat is a pure natural product, and peat baths are an old form of therapy. Peat spas were first established near swamps in Germany, Austria and many other countries in Central Europe. Napoleon’s soldiers, for example, visited them to treat their injuries. Peat treatments are less common these days, because peat is harder to come by. In Central Europe, spas collect the peat from their own swamps and put it back after the treatment. People became interested in peat treatments in Finland after the publication of the licentiate thesis of Riitta Korhonen, Licentiate of Philosophy, in the 1990s.





Salt therapy in the sauna Salt has been used in various treatments and therapies since ancient times. The Greeks and the Romans bathed in warm salt water, and the therapy was used particularly for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Himalayan crystal salt is considered to be the purest form of salt. In the old days, people used salt therapy to treat skin conditions, because salt releases negative ions when heated. They make the air fresh, clean and bacteria-free. Salty air prevents inflammation and bacteria growth, cleanses the skin and soothes the respiratory system.




# Facts

Winter is one of the four seasons in Finland. The polar night is the opposite of the night of the midnight sun. During polar nights, the sun does not rise above the horizon at all. The snow stays on the ground, making the landscape beautiful if the temperature is below zero.

Christmas sauna The Christmas sauna provides a break from everyday work and cleanses the body and mind before the start of midwinter celebrations. The holiday season traditionally starts with a visit to the sauna, and in the countryside, people started heating the sauna early in the morning. The Christmas sauna has always been a part of urban Christmas as well, and many public saunas open their doors early during Christmas. The Christmas sauna is definitely one of the most traditional Finnish sauna rituals. The sauna is washed properly for Christmas, and fresh bench covers, candles and lanterns are brought to the sauna to create the right atmosphere. The Christmas sauna creates a sense of intimacy and togetherness in the family, and it is an important Christmas ritual.




In the old days, it was forbidden to make a noise or speak loudly in the Christmas sauna. You should also never forget about the sauna elf. The last ladle of water cast on the stove was for the sauna elf.

Ice sauna A snow sauna is built from snow and ice. Only the sauna benches are made of wood. The moist steam from the sauna heater keeps the temperature high, even with the snowy walls radiating cold. The stove in the ice sauna is always ready: it is used for 10–15 minutes at a time, after which it is left to cool off. The ice sauna is a fantastic, unique experience, and the moisture inside makes the skin glow for several days.




The Northern Lights are a nocturnal light phenomenon seen only in the Earth’s northern and southern polar regions. (In the north, they are also called the aurora borealis, or the northern lights) Northern lights become more common as you move closer to the poles – in Finland, they can be seen most often in Lapland during the winter. The northern lights are created when the charged particles in the solar wind collide with the Earth’s atmosphere.

# Facts Ice swimming is swimming in a hole made in the ice. The water below the ice is almost zero degrees Celsius. Ice swimming is considered an old natural healing method and self-care therapy.



Cooling Off Cooling off is an integral part of the sauna experience. Finland is the land of a thousand lakes, and our waters are among the cleanest in the world. You can cool off by taking a swim in the lake in the summer, or by sitting in the cold air in the winter. The bravest roll around in the snow or take a dip in a hole in the ice. Once your body has cooled off, you can go back to the sauna.



Finns living abroad The sauna is a part of Finnish life also for the many Finns living abroad, and many of them want to take the authentic Finnish sauna with them to their new home country.

Tent sauna in Switzerland There is a real sauna world in the Swiss Alps, built by a Finnish-Swiss couple. The couple set up a tent sauna with a wood-burning stove in their home yard years ago. They heat the sauna almost every week, both in the summer and in the winter. They also have a bath barrel right next to the sauna, which they heat from time to time. The master of a farmhouse in the neighbouring village delivers the firewood for the couple, and the amount of firewood they use for the sauna is a constant source of amusement for him. They are not ready to give up their sauna, though – it allows them to spend time together in peace without any scheduled programme.





# Facts

Foreigners feel that the Finnish sauna stands out from other saunas because of its flexibility and the fact that the saunagoers can affect the temperature of the sauna themselves.

Sauna diplomacy in Washington When the Finnish embassy in Washington was opened in November 1994, it was clear that the building would also have a sauna. All embassy diplomats can arrange events at the sauna. The sauna is located on the basement floor of the building, and it looks just like a log cabin. Outside the “cottage�, there is a lounge decorated with Finnish design, serving Finnish food during the sauna evenings.

The Diplomatic Finnish Sauna Society of D.C. invites a few dozen reporters and congressmen to visit the embassy sauna about once a month. The Sauna Society’s evenings start with a short reception, where the guests can get to know to each other. A welcome speech is also always held for the guests, which is about some current theme important for Finland: this is the famous Finnish sauna diplomacy. According to the Sauna Society’s principles, guests can spend as much time at the sauna as they want to. This is seen as part of the Finnish sauna tradition, where hurrying and rushing others is not looked well upon. The Diplomatic Finnish Sauna Society of D.C. is so popular that visitors have to wait in line to get in.




Almost every Finnish Embassy has a sauna, even though their use varies according to local customs and the size of the sauna facilities.


The word “sauna� is perhaps the only Finnish word that has spread throughout the world as it is without being translated.



Peacekeeper sauna The sauna is a part of the Finnish culture even when we are far away from home. The Finnish peacekeepers always have a sauna with them, regardless of operation or country. If they cannot build a sauna, they may use a container or a tent sauna instead. The Finnish crisis management forces in the United Nations’ (UN) peacekeeping operation in Lebanon (UNIFIL) have as much as five saunas in their camp. The peacekeepers say that the sauna is always the highlight of the evening. You can wash away the exertion and stress of the day in the sauna, both physically and mentally. A peacekeeper that has served in Lebanon, Afghanistan and Kosovo has noticed how the locals, who are sceptical at, always find the joy and benefits of the sauna. The difference in temperature between the sauna and the climate in Afghanistan is not always that big, but after the sauna, the 50-degree climate feels cool for a while on the damp skin. The sauna is human capital, and people enjoy its benefits also on the operation in Lebanon.



Spinach-potato omelette 12 servings 1 bag (80 g) baby spinach 3 boiled potatoes 8 eggs 50 g grated Parmesan cheese 2 dl cream 1 dl milk pinch of salt pinch of freshly ground white pepper Wash and dry the spinach. Peel and slice the potatoes. Break the eggs and stir in the grated Parmesan cheese, cream, milk and spices. Wet the baking paper and line the cake mould (diameter 20 cm) with the paper. Cut off any excess paper. Pour half of the spinach into the mould. Add the potato slices on top and the remaining spinach on top of the potatoes. Pour the egg mixture on top. Cook the omelette in a 175-degree oven for about 30 minutes or until the mixture is firm. Brown the surface quickly in the oven under the hot heating elements. Cut into portions.


Finland is also known as the land of a thousand lakes. More than 10% of Finland’s total area is covered by water, and there are more than 180,000 lakes in Finland.



Sauna business in Finland Finland is without a doubt the number one country when it comes to sauna expertise. On the international level, the sauna is seen as a more Finnish product than anything else. That is why it is obvious that there has always been an active sauna business in Finland. Finland is the country of sauna innovations, and the Finnish people are creative sauna innovators. The sauna is very important for the Finnish industry, tourism and employment. There are hundreds of sauna-related companies in Finland, and the sauna sector employs thousands of people. The business and companies related to the sauna are multisectoral, ranging from companies that make bath products to manufacturers of saunas and sauna stoves and providers of sauna experience services. New entrepreneurs are constantly cropping up on the market, for example sauna designers, maintenance companies and various wellness service providers.

Sauna trip to Finland The Finnish nature is full of silence, forests, lakes and islands. There is plenty of clean air and water in Finland. The sauna experience can be very different depending on the season, even if the sauna is the same. You can experience the sauna in the middle of the nature or in an urban environment. People travel to Finland from all over the world at least partially because of the sauna. Travellers can often find a sauna regardless of their form of accommodation: hotels, cottages or even private villas almost always have a sauna.



# Facts

86% of international visitors want to experience the Finnish sauna on their trip to Finland.

Visitors can also bathe in public saunas, spas and swimming halls. Renting a sauna is possible almost anywhere. Fantastic saunas can be found both on rooftops in city centres as well as far from people and crowds, like on private islands, for example. Finland even has an island called “Saunasaari”, which means “Sauna Island”. Sauna ferries and saunas located at beaches and piers make clean water a part of the sauna experience. Towable mobile saunas allow you to take the sauna, the source of your well-being, with you everywhere you go.



#facts Central Finland is the Sauna Region of the World. It is home to numerous sauna services, industrial sauna products and fun sauna-related events. You can try out the world’s largest smoke sauna, have a taste of the Sauna Region’s official sauna beer, or enjoy the local sauna sausage, among other things.



Tourists and visitors are so interested in saunas that there is plenty of demand for guided sauna experience services. Authentic Finnish sauna experiences can be easily identified from the certificate specifically designed for them. The certificates are granted by the association Sauna from Finland Ry. The certificate tells that the service in question provides an authentic, high-quality Finnish sauna experience. Only sauna service companies that fulfil the quality criteria of an authentic Finnish sauna experience set by Sauna from Finland can apply for the certificate. Authentic Finnish sauna experiences can be found everywhere in Finland, like the SaunaTour at the Ruka ski resort, or at the Varjola Guesthouse or the Holiday Centre Revontuli in Central Finland. Sauna experiences with a certificate of quality can also be found in Lapland, at the Metsäkyly Forest Retreat in Rovaniemi and at the Mielenvalkea Sauna Centre in Levi. The Sokos Hotels chain has also been awarded many sauna certificates in different cities.




Sauna from Finland Ry is a multisectoral network of sauna companies, and its aim is to create the best Finnish sauna experience in the world. The members of the network each contribute to this goal with their own products, services and expertise. Sauna from Finland grants Authentic Finnish Sauna Experience certificates of quality. The growing network has already nearly 200 member companies.


My sauna moment Just the idea of going to the sauna makes me happy. My sauna moment starts when the night begins to grow darker and I start heating up our outdoor sauna, either using firewood or electricity. As I wait for the sauna to warm up, I spread the linen towels on the benches, fill the water pails, and light the lantern to get in the right mood. The sauna’s atmosphere is very important to me. When I go to the sauna, I wash myself first, and then I lie down on the bench. I throw some water on the stove and feel how the gentle heat caresses my entire body. I close my eyes and feel the beads of sweat run down my skin. I put my feet up and stretch my muscles. This is real sauna therapy, “me time”. My sauna moment often includes a body and facial treatment. I also go outside to cool off once in a while. After washing myself, I go to the sauna one more time. I sit on the lower bench and dry myself off. Finally, I put on my bathrobe and sit still for a long time. The sauna does it every time – relaxes the mind and the body. After the sauna, I am ready to crawl under the covers and lay my head on the pillow, waiting for the sleep to come. Carita Harju, Executive Director, Sauna from Finland.



My sauna moment The sauna has been an essential part of my life ever since I was a small child. One of my earliest memories is when my sister and I both got our own sauna pails and ladles. Mine were green and my sister’s were red. We giggled to ourselves on the middle bench, enjoying the gentle heat and throwing water on the hissing stove from our pails. The sauna is still a very social place for me. It is a great place to catch up with friends, and it is easy to talk about the big joys and sorrows in life in the brisk heat of the sauna. Sometimes we have so much to discuss that the sauna session with its breaks and all may take up to four hours. Visiting the sauna is almost always a part of our get-togethers with friends and hobby groups. Now I am waiting for my two nephews to come over and go to the sauna with me. Maybe I will buy them their own sauna pails for Christmas! Hanna SÜderstrÜm, graphic designer and photographer.



Thank you I would like to thank all the people and friends around the world who made this book possible. I especially want to thank the talented Hanna who decided to go on this sauna trip with me with an open mind. Thank you Pekka and Piija for your sparring, photography help and laughs, also when I did not feel like laughing. Thanks to everyone at home for everything! I would like to warmly thank all the members and various experts of the Sauna from Finland network. We are stronger together, and the power of cooperation can be seen also on the pages of this book.

In cooperation with:


Aino Klinikat Oy, Suomaa

Isokenkäisten klubi

Allas Sea Pool

Jokipiin Pellava Oy

Arctic SnowHotel & Glass Igloos



Keko-Sauna Oy

Buster Boats

Kuovi Oy

Oy Boisto Ab

Kuusamon Seita

Cariitti Oy


Finnish Embassy WashingtonDC

Lapuan Kankurit Oy

Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Lohjan Liikuntakeskus Oy

Fiskars Oyj



Mainostoimisto Pelismo Oy

Forum Sauna

Mallaskosken Panimo

Harvia Oy,

Mellis Oy

Hawkhill Nature

Metsäkyly/Prosanta Oy

Helo Oy



Napapiirin Tonttula Oy

Holiday Centre Revontuli

Narvi Oy

Hollolan Hirvi

Nikkarien Oy/Saunapuoti


Panimo Hiisi

Hukka Design Oy

Paratiisisaari/Äijälän Rusti

Huliswood Oy

Personal Design Hat Oy/Leeni saunahattu

Hulluporo Oy

Huone1 Oy

Pisa Design Oy

Hyvinvointi Kaarnikka

Pohjolan Pirtti

Iki-Kiuas Oy

Polarwell Kuumalähde Oy

129 Pyhäpiilo/ Ruka911 Oy

Tulisydän Oy

Ravintola Rukan Kuksa

Uimahalli- ja kylpylätekninen yhdistys UKTY ry

RentoSauna/Tammer-Tukku Oy

Varjolan Tila Oy

Ruka Safaris

Veto-Kiuas/ Muko Oy

Rukan Salonki

Visit Central Finland - Sauna Region of the World

Saas Instruments Oy,

Sauna in Silence/GP Gospel Production Ky

Visit Finland


Yli-Kaitela Lomamökit


Yrjönkadun swimming hall

Saunavaunut Saunayoga International Oy

Further inquiries about products and services:

Savotta Oy

Savutuvan Apaja Oy SOK Media, Yhteishyvä Ruoka Sokos Hotel Ilves

The City of Keuruu

Sauna from Finland Ry is a multisectoral network of sauna companies, and its aim is to create the best Finnish sauna experience in the world. The members of the network each contribute to this goal with their own products, services and expertise. Sauna from Finland grants Authentic Finnish Sauna Experience certificates of quality.

The Finnish-Irish battalion and the Finnish crisis management

force in Lebanon UNIFIL

Sokos Hotels Spa Hotel Päiväkumpu Sparraustehdas Sun Sauna Oy

kriisinhallinta/libanon-unifilThe Finnish Sauna Society (Suomen saunaseura ry) TOL Brands

Photos and experts: Page

5 7 8 9 10 18 19 22 23 24 31 32 34 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 49 51 52 54 56 61 65 66 71 74


Photo: Hanne Manelius Photo: Eetu Ahanen Photo: Narvi Oy Photo 1: Pekka Kaipiainen, Kuovi Oy Photo 2: Kivikari Freyberg Expert: Heikki Tukiainen Text: Tarja Rannisto, Suomi Mediaplanet Oy Photo 2: Hukka Design Oy Photo: Harri Tarvainen Expert: Meri Linna Photo: Cariitti Oy Photo 1: U.-M. Lähteenmäki Photo 2: Sokos Hotel Ilves Photo 2: Tomi Tuuliranta Expert: Heikki Hyytiäinen Photo: Jouni Laaksomies SOK, Yhteishyvä Ruoka. Photo: Laura Riihelä. Recipe: Katri Schröder Photo: Pekka Keränen Photo 1: Eetu Ahanen Photo 2: Sokos Hotel Ilves Photo 3: Harri Tarvainen Photo: Kuvatoimisto Kuvio Oy Photo 1: Mainostoimisto BrandX Oy, Virkistysuimala Neidonkeidas Photo 2: Sokos Hotel Ilves Photo 3: Arctic Film Crew, Hullu Poro Oy Photo: City of Helsinki Sports Department Photo: Spa Hotel Päiväkumpu Photo 1: Charlotta Boucht, Saunayoga International Oy Photo 2: Spa Hotel Päiväkumpu Expert: Tiina Vainio Photo: Elina Manninen / Keksi Photo : Elina Manninen / Keksi Expert/text: Leena-Kaisa Simola, Katarina Styrman Photo:Elina Manninen / Keksi Photo 2 and 3: Tiina Salminen, Savutuvan Apaja Oy Photo: Hanne Manelius Photo: Jarmo Ahonen /Huliswood Oy Photo: Jarmo Ahonen /Huliswood Oy Recipe: Mervi Hongisto, Forum Sauna Photo 2: Oy Boistö Ab Photo 1: Harri Tarvainen SOK, Yhteishyvä Ruoka. Photo: Laura Riihelä. Recipe: Katri Schröder Photo: Charlotta Boucht Expert: Anne Talaslahti

77 79 82 84 85 88–89 92 93 94 96

Photo 2: Harri Tarvainen Photo: Harri Tarvainen Photo 1: Harri Tarvainen Photo 2: Petri Blomqvist Photo 3 and expert: Anu Rosenberg Photo: Harri Tarvainen Photo: Harri Tarvainen Text: Piija Äijänen Photo: Juha Laitalainen Expert: Leena Larva Photo: Shutterstock Photo 1: Helo Photo: Johannes Wilenius, Hollolan Hirvi Photo 1 and 2: Teemu Moisio Photo 3: Shutterstock 97 Photo: Harri Tarvainen 98 Photo: Harri Tarvainen 99 Photo: Marko Junttila, Arctic SnowHotel & Glass Igloos 100 Photo: Harri Tarvainen 101 Photo: Satu Mali, Hawkhill Nature 102–105 Photo: Juho Risku, Peter Soller Expert: Pälvi Pulli 106 Photo 1: Restaurant Rukan Kuksa 107 Expert: Sanna Kangasharju Photo: Finnish Embassy Washington DC 108 Photo: Finnish Embassy Washington DC 110 Expert and photos: Petra Linden 114 Photo: The city of Keuruun 115 Photo 1: Helo Oy Photo 2: Harvia Oy Photo 3: Saas Instruments Oy Photo 4: Sun Sauna Oy 116 Photo: Harri Tarvainen 119 Photo 1: Jukka Mustonen, Holiday Centre Revontuli Photo 2: Antti Kurola, Metsäkyly Photo 3: Toiminimi Pro Ilmakuvaus Lahti, Yli-Kaitala Lomamökit 120 Photo: Tomi Tuuliranta, Houseboat Finland (Oy Bellamer Ltd.) 122 Photo 1: Hanne Manelius Photo 2: Harri Tarvainen, Saunatour Photo 3: Petri Blomqvist Photo 4: Paavo Hamunen, Hawkhill Nature Photo 5: Marjo Määttä, Rukan Salonki 123 Photo: Harri Tarvainen 124 Photo: Hanne Ylitalo 126 Photo: Harri Tarvainen


Recommended literature and sources: Heli Koppelo & Milka Alanen: Naisten saunakirja (The Women’s Sauna Book). Ajatuskirjat 2006. Mervi Hongisto & Merja Pihlajamäki: Saunan salaisuus (The secret of the Sauna). 2005. Matias Aho & Mervi Hongisto: Historiikki rakkaudesta saunaan. Forum Sauna 80 vuotta. 2007. Liisa Neittaanmäki: Saunan terveysvaikutustutkimus (Study of the health effects of the sauna). University of Jyväskylä 2011. Virpi Tissari, Olli Möttönen & Sami Repo: Kelo puun lumoa. Minerva Kustannus Oy 2008. Tuomo Särkikoski: Kiukaan kutsu ja löylyn lumo. Suomen Saunaseura ja Gummerus 2012.

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Tiina Vainio: Saunajooga rauhoitu ja rentoudu. WSOY 2012. (6.10.2016)

Tiina Vainio: Saunapilates. Hyvinvointia selälle. WSOY 2015. (6.10.2016)

Keijo Taskinen: Sauna. The Essence of Finland. Kirjakaari 2011. saunomisen_hyodyt_ja_haitat (6.10.2016)

Martti Vuorenjuuri: Sauna kautta aikojen. Otava 1967. (6.10.2016)

Arto Manninen & Vesa Veikkola: Saunavuosi muisti- ja vieraskirja. Gummerus 2008. Yleisessa+saunassa+murheet+unohtuvat (6.10.2016)

Arto Paasilinna & Terho Ovaska: Businessman’s Guide to the Finnish Sauna. Tietosanoma 1989. (6.10.2016)

Sauna-lehti. Suomen saunaseuran jäsenlehti 2/2016. (6.10.2016)

Aino-Kaarina Mäkisalo: Saunan Henki. Kirjapaja 2016. (6.10.2016)

The Official Travel Guide of Finland: