CONTENT DESIGN APPROACH Development of Perception Design Focus Case Study 1.0 Case Study 2.0 Technique: Development Technique: Prototypes Technique Proposal Algorithmic Sketches Learning Objectives + Outcomes
2 4 10 28 38 50 52 56 58
DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTION As I mentioned before, this is my first time to touch digital architecture and parametric tool, to be honest, it is quite hard for me. However, digital design is the mainstream of todayâ€™s architecture and I believe it is very important to get familiar with that. It is not about to follow the trend, but to have a deeper understanding of the spirit of computation age. Actually, I am really fascinated with the thinking behind parametric design, the relationship between each dependency. Although it is very complicated and quite hard to determine, I always failed in determining that. But, it always gives me some unexpected surprises which make me amazed. All these experiences in parametric design make me realized that if you are unsatisfied with something, what you should do is not ignore it. Know the rules well so you can break the rules.
I would like the Western Gateway to be a symbol, a new identifier for the present and future. Therefore, digital technologies would be the innovative method to provide the best outcome, but also, it sets up a discourse of what future architecture should be. Rule is bound be CHANGED. Although I believe it would take a life-long time to explore, but this project would be my starting point.
Zaha Hadid Architects, Civil Courts, Madrid, 2007
Patterns can be found everywhere, from tiny to enormous, visible to invisible, 2 dimensions to 3 dimensions. It is not only for surface decorations, but also for experience. The flexibility and abstraction of pattern would be innovative to the Western Gateway Project.
Zaha Hadid Architects, Randers Art Museum Competition, London 2009
Interiority Project â€“ Masterclass Zaha Hadid, Vienna 2009
[...]The human body was perhaps the first surface that received designed patterns. [...] With such a widespread practice one should not expect a well-defined, unitary function. As practices evolve they acquire new functions and loose their prior functions, or new functions are superimposed upon older functions. Patterns might serve purposes of decorative enhancement, feature accentuation, camouflaging, totemic identification, semiotic differentiation, or any combination of those.” Patrik Schumacher (2009) AD Architectural Design – Patterns of Architecture, Vol 79, No 6
WHY I am very fascinated with what Patrik Schumacher talked about patterns, its infinite possibilities and cannot be divided into unitary function. According to Schumacher, there are two central tasks of architectural design: 1. Organization of architecture is more about spatialization of the social order via objective distances, as well as physical connections. 2. Articulation is about the subjective comprehension of the spatial order. Me and my group agree his points and believe patterns would be an innovative combination of organization and articulation. Patterning could be the intermediate point between objective and subjective, by creating 3D correlated patterning that define the physical spatial distances and also evoke people’s subjective interpretation and experience towards the space/relationship, I like the word “relationship” more.
And this can be efficiently aid by Parametricism, it has a strong emphasis on conspicuous differentiation of surface, to create some amazing patterns, and make correlation to the underlying spatial structure. Objective and subjective became well connected to each other’s. Civic Courts by Zaha Hadid is a good example for Parametricism. Additionally, we all think it would be an amazing attempt to the Wyndham Gateway Project. As Wyndham would like the gateway to become a new identifier to the municipality, what we think about the definition of “new identifier“ is about how the gateway could evoke people’s special emotion and experience on “in & out”. The gateway should act like an intermediate space between Wyndham City and outside which bring by parametric patterning. This set up a new discourse about physical and virtual, objective and subjective, which really become a new identifier of Wyndham City.
Space is meaningless. [...] We have relationships - but not space.â€?
- Buckminster Fuller
â€œArchitecture as articulation, not art; dynamic knowlege, not code. Articulation are made, sustained, transformed, and destroyed in a continuum of concrete practices, one of which is architecture. - Buckminster Fuller
GROUPâ€™S SHARED IDEAS
PERCEPTION Architecture as a perception of human experience
EXPERIENCE Individual participation experience
CONNECTION Connect the natural environment to architecture
WYNDHAM GATEWAY PROJECT
TAICHUNG METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE
Toyo Ito, an Japanese architect awarded 2013 the Pritzker Architecture Prize, perceived technology is the great hidden force that places “order“ or patterns on the environment. All architecture should be a technological order and design evolution is a kind of order-generating stages and adaption. We totally agree his thinking about order and patterns.
TOYO ITO 2009
We believe patterns are an interpretation of order; it is not only about surface decoration, but also how to place the orders on the environment. Patterning is a tool to shape people’s mental and physical routine. Just like his Taichung Metropolitan Opera House, the geometric order is being pulled apart, through repeating to create such 3 dimension emotional cave shape.
FLUID CONTINUOUS SPACE
It would be interesting to incorporate fluidity by patterning in the Western Gateway Project to emphasize the experience of “in & out“.
TOYO ITO 2009
TAICHUNG METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE MATRIX SELECTION CRITERIA Provide an experience of “in & out” by designed order of patterns, for example, curvilinear to emphasize the movement and dynamic.
Min = 20
Min = 100
It would be more powerful to use fluidity and continuous curvilinear in patterning to emphasize the experience of “in & out“ and dynamic movement, compared with the angular and linear form. By adjusting the timer in Kangaroo, longer time setting can obtain a smooth curved structure.
List Length = 50
List Length = 30
List Length = 10
The shorten columns would be more suitable to use in patterning of Gateway and by adjusting the length of different columns could create a much more dynamic experience.
List Length = -10
List Length = -30
Scale = 0.1
Scale = 1.5
Scale = 0.5
Scale = 1.9
Scale = 0.9
The widening of the diameter of columns allow more sunlight to pass through and thus better connection with the environment. The narrowing of the diameter of columns increase the sense of indoor. Therefore, by adjusting the diameter from small to large can create a sense of â€œin & outâ€?.
Although it has some problems in adjusting the list length of different columns, but it already clearly shows the 3 dimensional curvilinear potential in creating a dynamic relationship in Gateway Project. It would be quite innovative to use it on curve form and
further develop it by bending, twisting or folding. However, it has limitation to the further development of the organization of columns and it does not look nice at the side view, so we need to do more exploration in the pattern and form study.
VEIN? O2?CO2? During the exploration, we realized that the form of cause study 1 looks similar to human blood vessels system. We started to search for the connection between air, gateway project and perceived experience by study of human transportation systems. And we finally come across our main concept that link through the all parts of gateway project Breathe in & Breathe out.
BREATHE IN BREATHE OUT The Wyndham Gateway acts as an intermediate space between Wyndham City and the outside. People pass through the gateway are just like air breathing in and out, a kind of phenomenon which occurred in every living organisms. Therefore, it is very important for the gateway to evoke an experience of “Breathe in, Breath out” to the visitors. Dynamism is emphasized and 3 criteria - force, density and flow are proposed to the idea of form and patterns in order to realize the breathing in and out experience in the gateway.
GATEWAY AS AN INTERMEDIATE SPACE 18
DYNAMISM 3 CRITERIA FORCE
BREATHING STUDY SYSTEMS
Starting from the research of gas transportation system inside human body, we divided the whole investigation into 3 criteria and created the patterns according the phenomenon of the breathing system. The patterns produced could be used for the surface decorations, but it still need further develop. The next step is to do the form exploration.
DIRECTION OF AIR
AIR FLOW IN AIR SAC
The result of human breathing system research is quite successful. We are mostly interested in the patterns of blood vessels and air flow in air sac, as they are more efficient in communicating the idea of dynamism and potential in further development. We would like to go further in next breathing exploration.
FURTHER DEVELOPMENT MUSCLE CONTRACTION & RELAXATION TO CONTROL BREATHING
After the first exploration in breathing, we tried to go deeper. The action of breathing in and out, is controlled by the rhythm of contraction and relaxation of muscle. Form exploration in muscle system is carried out, as the patterns generated by the rhythm of contraction and relaxation would be more powerful in creating a space with â€œbreathe in, breathe outâ€? experience.
CONTRACTION & RELAXATION OF MUSCLE CELLS
The result of muscle exploration is not really successful, as the patterns generated are 2 dimensional and it is hard to develop into 3 dimensional forms. Further exploration is needed, more case studies are needed.
MOVEMENT OF MUSCLE CELLS
TOYO ITO 2006
MEISO NO MORI MUNICIPAL FUNERAL HALL
Most of Ito’s works have no single guiding principle; they are mostly based on the construction of algorithmic challenges that relinquish control from the grid. He emphasized a “psychological order“ through the building as a result of architectonic articulation. The undulating roof/column reflects Ito’s
idea of “personal architectural syntax” and the rejection of formal repetition. Ito always searches for an intermediate space with ambiguity of inside versus outside, as well as the thin boundary between physical object and spiritual. We all agree that it is a successful example of re-
alization his concept. The beautifully undulating roof intermediate with the surrounding mountain perfectly. Moreover, the continuous fluid roof is an amazing example of ambiguity and intermediation between dynamism and calmness, fulfilling his intention of “ambiguity” and “psychological order”
Architecture in electronic age is figuration of vortex of information from the primitive age. The human body has been linked with nature as a member in which water and air circulate. people today are equipped with an electronic body in which information circulates, and are thus linked to the world through network of information by means of this other body. [...] - Toyo Ito
This is the first step of our recreation of project. We followed the thinking of Ito to set up a 10 X 10 point grid and use ‘point’ component, set multiple point, for each 10 points in row. Therefore, there are totally 10 ‘point’ components.
After setting up the 10 ‘point’ components, all points are on the X plane. We need to move the Z plane of each point, to make a curved surface which defined by 10 X 10 points. ‘Decompose’ followed by ‘Point XYZ’ and sliders to control the data of each point in Z plane, created the surface by ‘SurfacebyPoint’.
After that we need to make a triangular grid on the surface. We need to ‘divide’ and ‘explode’ the surface into points. By using ‘Polyline’ to connect each point, and generate the rectangular grid.
At the stage of divide the surface into points and explode it, used ‘List Item‘ to separate the points at the edge and on the surface, connect each point that is the same number in a row by ‘Line’, generate diagonal lines.
The diagonal lines and rectangular grid are overlapped together; we need to remove the overlapped lines by using â€˜removeDuplicateLinesâ€™to generate the triangular grid. The grid is defined by the 10 X 10 points.
Adjust Z Plane
Create Points On Surface
Connect Points by Lines
Remove Duplicate Lines
We took this methodology to develop our form by adjusting the data of points in Z plane following a set of rule, for example, the rhythm of muscle contraction. It tackles our problems in form generation. Also, surface patterns need to be place on the form surface and should be correlated, not just triangular grid.
RHYTHM OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION & RELAXATION
CASE EVOLUTION STUDY
The surface is too linear, failed in developing sense of transition of contraction and relaxation in both entry and exit. Along the entry or exit way, transition of ups and downs should be emphasized to create a sense of “breathe in, breathe out”, better not in a constant height level.
The overall curved surface is too constant in entry and exit way, failed to evoke transition of experience.
Failed in creating space with “breathe in, breathe out” experience, no transition of level height in exit and entry way, the level difference between ups and downs of curved surface can be increased.
Better than the previous, however, level height should be further adjusted; the curve on the side view is quite messy and too irregular. Breathe In
In search for a technique to satisfy our argument - Dynamism to create a space that evoke â€œbreathe in, breathe outâ€? experience. We explored different types of muscles rhythm of contraction and relaxation. The structure is self-supporting and suspended over the site.
We evaluated each option; depend on the front view, side view and the level difference. We proposed the entry to Wyndham should have higher level height and the exit with lower level. Also, the interior should have smooth transition of ups and downs to emphasize
the sense of breathing, but not in constant height level along the way. After 5 evolutions, continuous adjusting the elevations and level height, option 5 is the relatively satisfied in fulfilling all criteria.
CASE EVOLUTION STUDY
BREATHING STUDY After the development of form, we tried to put the patterns that we explored in breathing onto the curved surface. But the result of evolution 2 is distracting from our argument, as it cannot show the sense of dynamism and movement as well as â€˜breathingâ€™. The stiff form of geometry gives a feeling of stability instead of mobility.
Instead of stiff polygon, we tried strips of geometry to emphasize the movement. The effect is nice especially different density of patterns is placed on the surface, create a visual dynamism. However, it is difficult to consider the joint between each geometrical component in the strip, especially the size of each component is different. The fabrication would be difficult.
CASE EVOLUTION STUDY
MUSCLE The muscular-like strip work perfectly on the form, the level difference create the void which let the sunlight pass through, it also act as an ambiguity between close and open. Moreover, it satisfied our argument about use of dynamism to provide a â€˜breath in, breath outâ€™ experience. Medium density of strip would be the best to communicate our concept.
The development correlates the pattern of rhythm of breathing / muscle contraction (pattern of form) with the muscle (pattern of surface). The entry way of the gateway to Wyndham city would have higher height level and higher density of strip
- contraction of muscle to attract people comes in. The exit way with lower height level and less dense strips to emphasize the relaxation of muscle, people travel through this gateway would have an experience of ‘breathe in, breathe out’.
We fabricated one strip of the form to investigate its buildability and materiality. We orginally thought of using transparent plastic to do the model but because of its difficulty in standing and cutting and we firstly tried cardboard. After we constructed one strip, we found that it is very hard for the strip to
stand and maintain its curvature. We tried to adjust its fold line from 10 to 8 and then to 5. It is still quite difficult for it to stand the shape in digital model. We are going to study some cause studies as stated in proposal.
On the other hand, we developed some patterns on the strip to investigate whether the connection of the pattern can help the strip from standing. We picked one pattern that developed in the breathing study and constructed it by wood stick. The result was quite satisfactory. However, the curvature is very difficult to be accurate and we are not planning to use wood in the project. We are much more interested in transparent and translucent plastic profile, but it needs further reea
The Wyndham Gateway should be a new discourse of architecture, also a new identifier for the municipality, provide a special arrival experience for motorists. Therefore, the gateway should be iconic and perceptual. Patterning is the innovative combination of organization of physical spatial order and articulation of subjective comprehension of spatial order. It would be the best to interpretate our concept - ‘Breathe in, breathe out’, the action of people entering the Wyndham city through the gateway is ‘breathe in’, and people who leaving is ‘breathe out’. The gateway functions as an intermediate space between Wyndham city and the outside. What we want to emphasize is that - the gateway is not only an object but a living form, through the expression of dynamism to provide people a ‘breathe in, breathe out’ experience. The gateway should be alive and dynamic instead of steady and stiff. We are using muscular-like strips to imitate the contraction and relaxation of muscle which control
breathing, adjust the density and level height of curved muscular strips, create a transitional space between in and out, physical and subjective. The ‘muscle’ contracts to attract people, provides people a ‘breathing in and out’ experience, especially for the motorists travelling at high speed. We are setting up a new discourse that architecture should be ‘alive’, dynamic instead of stiff. It should communicate with human as well as evoke their participation experience and perception. It is innovative, iconic, and emotional and connects to the site. It will become a new identifier for Wyndham city. We are now investigating the materials used in the development. We proposed plastic with different transparency, to create a wave of visual dynamism. We have studied some case studies such as Shadow (Fig.1) by Gianluca Milesi Architecture and Change of State (Fig.2) by Nadaaa. Joints and build ability are identifying to investigate which systems work the best.
Fig.1 Shadow Fig.2 Change of State Fig. 3 Joint of Shadow
These algorithmic sketches are developed by connecting the 10 X 10 points by lines. By using the Point XYZ to make the adjustments in the Z plane, determine the ups and downs. It is inspired by the rhythm of contraction and relaxation of muscle. The undulating continuous curvilinear space provides a transitional experience of â€˜breathe in and outâ€™.
These algorithmic sketches are developed based on the previous sketch. I modified the components of triangular grid. I divided the surface and then used Isotrim to extract the surface, followed by Graft, Dispatch, Surface CP, and then a numerous other components such as Rotate, Weave. To create such muscular-like strip to emphasize the idea of dynamism and breathe in and out experience.
Learning CASE Objectives & STUDY Outcomes There are numerous objectives of studio Air, including developing an ability to generate a wide variety of design possiblities for an assigned situation and three dimensional media skills, for example, algorithmic and parametric design skills. We need to use grasshopper widely is a kind of these training. Moreover, other than computational skills, there is also a need for us to develop critical thinking and the ability to make a case for proposals, as well as conceptual, technical and design analysis of architectural spatial order
However, when I finished the muscular-like stripped structure and went to fabricate it. I faced the joints and support problems. As I decided the structure is self-supporting, and it failed in physical model. Therefore, I am searching other methods to support it, for example, I studied the Shadow by Gianluca Milesi Architecture, and the reinforced plastic profile is supported by iron rods.
For my experience in studio, at the beginning, I knew nothing about grasshopper and parametric design. 8 weeks had pass, I could make a quite complicated parametric model by my own and start to have basic concepts about the relationship between each components, especially mesh, point and surface. They are the basic components of grasshopper that almost appear in every data flow in grasshopper.
This is my first time to really get involved in computational design process. It broadens my vision towards architecture. As in Hong Kong, what I only do is hand drawing and sketching. I still think they are important, but it is always good to learn something you donâ€™t know in order to open your eyes. The theoretical research open a new door for me, a new angle towards architecture that architecture is no longer restricted as a real solid but also can be conceptual and virtual.
Computation is very efficient in generating unexpected variables as if I only change one dependency in a link of relationship, the result generated would be very different, such as the muscular-like stripped structure (fig.1) I created. I am responsible for the form regeneration of case study 2, all form explorations (technique evolution 1&4) as well as adding the stripped pattern on it, plus the patterns study of case study 1 and muscle. The stripped pattern is placed onto its surface by adding the components.
Although personally I like the traditional design process more than computational design process. However, I believe computational design is a spirit of new era and I have the responsibility to get familiar with it. Architects are someone that can capture the spirit of the age. It is not about you like it or not, if you are unsatisfied with something, what you can do is not acting like none of your business. You have to know it well so you can break it. And I am convinced that what make architecture, know the rules, then break it.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES OUTCOMES
Bibliography Kaneko Gemma 2010, “An Argument Against Timelessness”, [Online], no. Mercer Street, pp. 3 April 2013. Available from: http://www.nyu.edu/cas/ewp/ kanekoar gument11.pdf. 1
Tiffany Rafael 2008, “Seeing Oneself Seeing “The Weather Project”: Notes on Olafur Eliass on’s Institutionalized Critique”, Anamesa, [Online], no. The Perception Issue, pp. 3 April 2013. Available from:http://www.nyu.edu/pubs/ anamesa/archive/fall_2008_perception/seeing_oneself_seeing_the_weather_ project.pdf. 2
db erica 2010, 17 December 2010-last update, Ryue Nishizawa:Teshima Art Museum [Homepage of designboom], [Online]. Available: http://www.designboom.com/architecture/ryue-nishizawa-teshima-art-museum/ [2013, 04/03]. 3
Trachtman Paul 2004, “James Turrell’s Light Fantastic”, Smithsonian, [Online], , pp. 2 April 2013. Available from: http://www.paultrachtman.net/pdfs/ turrell.pdf. 4
Yehuda E. Kalay 2004, “Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design”, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, [Online], , pp. 03 April 2013-5-22. Available from: http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au.ezp. lib.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3815742-dt-content-rid-11838999_2/ courses/ABPL30048_2013_SM1/ABPL30048_2013_SM1_ImportedContent_20130121032620/Pages%201-25%20from%20Kalay%20-%20Architectures%20New%20Media%20%282004%29%20COMMENTED%20-%20SR.pdf. 5
Dunn Nick 2012, “Algorithmic architecture” in Digital Fabrication in Architecture, 1st edn, Laurence King Publishing Limited, Britain, pp. 60-65. 6
Zaha Hadid Architects 2012, 04 October 2012-last update, Autumn Review: Arum Installation and Exhibition by Zaha Hadid Architects at Venice Architecture Biennale. Available: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/ [2013, 04/04]. 7
Dunn Nick 2012, “Morphogenesis architecture” in Digital Fabrication in Architecture, 1st edn, Laurence King Publishing Limited, Britain, pp. 66-73. 9 Popp Trey 2009, February-last update, An Architect Walks Into the Lab. Available: http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0109/feature1_6.html [2013, 04/04]. 8
Dunn Nick 2012, “Parametric and generative design” in Digital Fabrication in Architecture, 1st edn, Laurence King Publishing Limited, Britain, pp. 54-59. 10
Woodbury Robert 2010, “How do designers use parameters” in Elements of Parametric Design, 1st edn, Routledge, , pp. 23-48. 11
Lauren 2011, 13 December 2010-last update, akihisa hirata architecture office: bloomberg pavilion [Homepage of designboom], [Online]. Available: http://www.designboom.com/architecture/akihisa-hirata-architecture-office12