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The Bernard and Anne Spitzer School of Architecture

Talaha Rashid | B.Arch


Table of Contents Year 1 | Semester 1 Point/ Line

1 - 12

Year 1 | Semester 2 Individual/ Society

13 - 24

Year 2 | Semester 1 Visible/ Invisible

25 - 34

Year 2 | Semester 2 Research

35 - 42


Year 1|Semester 1 Point/Line

Building Photography: Ezra Stoller/ESTO


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Project 1 | Line

The first project for the first semester consisted of a series of drawings that had to be completed using only lines. The first set that was composed, was created of, by only straight line drawings that used a matrix to be completed (shown at right). These pieces gave a basic introduction to the process of design and line theory used in the profession of architecture. These drawings were made of precisely 500 lines using three rules from the provided matrix. After these drawings were completed, the use of the matrix became more flexible, and a different set of drawings was composed.

DRAWING UTENSILS

MEDIA

TOOL

RULE

PENCIL

WATERCOLOR PAPER

ROLLING PARALLEL RULER

ALTERNATIVE RULE

LEAD HOLDER

VELLUM

MAYLINE

ROTATING

TECHNICAL PEN

MYLAR

STRAIGHT EDGE

CHANCE

SHARPIE

TRACING PAPER

T-SQUARE

TRACING EDGES

CONTE CRAYON

RICE PAPER

TRIANGLE 30-60-90

CORNERS

CHALK

DRAWING PAPER (60 LBS.)

TRIANGLE 45-45-90

DUPLICATE

CHARCOAL

LINEN

FRENCH CURVE

OFFSET

GRAPHITE

SCREEN

ADJUSTIBLE TRIANGLE

ARRAY

RULING PEN + INDIA INK

GRAPH PAPER

ALTERNATIVE TOOL

PARALLEL

PERSPECTIVE GRID PAPER

DRAWING APP

ASSEMBLE

STRING DIPPED IN INK/GRAPHITE SMARTPHONE

DIVIDE

TABLET

CONTORT

ALTERNATIVE MEDIA

ACCELLERATE

STYLUS X-ACTO BLADE ALTERNATIVE UTENSIL

DRAWING MATRIX

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2016 | Professor Collins

TRIM ALONG DOTTED LINE


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Project 1 | Line

The next part of project one focused on the Twin Parks Northeast Housing in the Bronx; a building designed by Richard Meier. By taking a few of the drawings he created for his buildings design, and reinterpreting them in a few different ways, the site was able to be deconstructed, and a new set of drawings was made. Along with learning about how lines make up a drawing, they intoduced the idea of how, the site and its surrounding regions all work in unity to create a new sense of understanding. The final result of this exploration included a site plan of the surrounding region (which is shown above), a perspective of his sculpture in the center of the site (bottom right), and a line notation interpretation of his design (top right).

Building Photography: Ezra Stoller/ESTO

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2016 | Professor Collins


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Project 1 | Line

Fernando Aparicio

The next part of this project involved creating a set of line drawings and then using a section of a peers work (at right) to create an axonometric view of their work. The design process used to create the pieces involved a few steps. It began by first making a plan view, and a section cut of the drawing. These drawings were reinterpretations of the work, that helped gain a better understanding of the peers work. From there, these drawings were used to help with the construction of the final axonometric view of the image. This three-dimensional piece was created to be an interpretation that imitated the original drawing.

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2016 | Professor Collins


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Project 2 | Point

The drawing at the right, shows a plan view and section cut drawing of Richard Serras ellipse sculpture located at Dia Beacon. It includes information about the wall thicknesses, the “torque� of the sculpture, and the correct measurements of the structure itself. The section cut is six feet high. This was done in order to create a new section plan of the sculpture above the original; something that also involved the art of deconstruction. Different references were provided for use, to help with completion of this drawing. This included a class drawing that was created as a test (shown above) with measurements taken by everyone after the trip to Dia Beacon, and one with personal measurements. These drawings were the main resources used as a reference for help with the creation of this drawings.

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2016 | Professor Collins


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Project 3 | Plane

Max Ernst (1891-1976) The master’s bedroom, it’s worth spending a night there (1920)

For project three, Max Ernst’s painting, “The master’s bedroom, it’s worth spending a night there”, had to be reinterpreted as a three-dimensional model. A section cuts, a plan, and an axonometric view had to be created to accompany this model. These drawings were all correlated, and were made as different viewpoints the model can be viewed from. This model synthesized the idea of how the viewing of an object can change its meaning. When looking at this model, there is only one viewpoint where the walls of the painting can be represented. The other views, create the invisible parts of the painting; the ones that the painting does not show.

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2016 | Professor Collins


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Year 1|Semester 2 Individual/Society


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Project 1 | Memory Box

The focus for the second semester, was the idea of the individual and their society. The first project was the introduction to this idea. The first step in this process was to focus on ones own memory. This was related to the aspect of the individual. To do this, a memory box of a physical experience that took place had to be created. It had to relate to the memory, and the place where it occurred. The memory box had to be created in such a way that the viewer can also envision the experience and the events that took place. The final work for this project included a physical model, a plan, a sections, and elevations of the memory box.

Talaha Rashid | Spring 2017 | Professor Lewis-Allen


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Project 2 | Body/ Sense

Project two, focused on the aspect of how the human senses affect the way people interact with their environment. The objective of this project was to create a wearable that will alter one of the senses. The site of focus was Columbus Circle, located in New York City. The wearable that was created was made to interact with this specific site. It was made to alter the sense of sight. In order to come up with the final idea, a set of drawings had to be created first. These included everything from panoramas, a nolli map, and a map of movement. These, in return helped devise of a concept for the wearable. The final wearable, was something that contained a rotating dial, with different colored screens to alter what the wearer saw.

Talaha Rashid | Spring 2017 | Professor Lewis-Allen


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Project 2 | Body/ Sense

Talaha Rashid | Spring 2017 | Professor Lewis-Allen


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Project 3 | Environment

Project three had a focus mainly on the environment. The objective of this project was to; after conducting extensive research, gain more knowledge of the site, and create a shelter located in the region of Sana’a, Yemen. This shelter was to be a connection between the individual and the society, and had to protect visitors from the environment, during any time of the year. Everything from the materials, to the climate, had to be taken into consideration. The final shelter that was created, conformed to the mountain it was placed on. It would have been made out of mud bricks; which are great thermal insulators, and would have a fog catcher on top, to create water from air. These things were taken into consideration due to the humid climate and lack of rain in the region. Along with the model that was created, plans, sections, and elevations of the structure were also created.

Talaha Rashid | Spring 2017 | Professor Lewis-Allen


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Project 3 | Environment

Talaha Rashid | Spring 2017 | Professor Lewis-Allen


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Year 2|Semester 1 Visible/Invisible


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Project 1 | Brick by Brick

This semester had a focus on the invisible and visible aspects that make up a city. These aspects work in unison, to create highly nuanced environments of inderpendent networks. Project 1 had a focus on the city block. The block is one of the most important aspects that is used to build a city. It houses everything from people, businesses, and public facilities. Everything from the buildings, to the entire block had to be concieved of and created using this theory. The focus of this block, was to be something that is connected in some way. It had to be thought of as something that could house all the aspects of a city. The block that was created, includes structures that have connections of different heights. These are mirrored and reflected four times throughout the block. The negative space created by these structures also makes a connection. This is the public area of the block. It connects two buildings on each side, together, and connects each section to each other. This creates space that can be used as two different types of public space; one that can be used for a certain building, and one that can be used for the block as a whole. This process, gave the introduction to the idea of a city.

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2017 | Professor Dotan


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Project 2a | The Visible and Invisible City

The first part of project two focused mainly on the invisible aspects of the city. It was research based, and focused on East Harlem. In this case, there was a focus on blockages in the city. These blockages were both physical and mental. While they did not solely focus on the invisible, they did affect the city in a negative way, and made traveling through the city hard. The focus of this project was to look at a blockage in the region, and evaluate its affects on the city. The blockage that was evaluated, was a bike lane, that was disrupted by a manufacturing district placed right after, and a parkway to the west. This created an area in the site, that was ignored by the commmunity. There is also a lack of commercial spaces, and parks in the region, and the only way to travel along the waterside, was blocked. The objective was to look at these aspects of the surrounding region of the site and think of a public program that can be created to positively change these blocked aspects of the site.

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2017 | Professor Dotan


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Project 2a | The Visible and Invisible City

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2017 | Professor Dotan


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Project 2b | The Convergent City

The second part of this project focused on the intervention that was devised of. It was a public site (which was an extension of the bike lane), with parks at the entrances of a tunnel leading under the Harlem River Drive. Under this parkway, was a set of commercial spaces, in a teardrop shape, on both sides of the bike lane. The purpose of this intervention, was to solve the problems that arose from the blockages. The lack of commercial spaces and parks are also a sort of blockage, since they prevent the community from interaction, and was also solved by this intervention. The manufacturing district, created a segregation to both sides of the bike lane. By connecting the lane to the city, part of this blockage was removed from the region, and the lane that is presently there will begin being used.

Talaha Rashid | Fall 2017 | Professor Dotan


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Year 2|Semester 2 Research

Building Photography: Motaleb Architekten


36


Project 1 | Projection The objective of this semester was to understand precendent, through the use of documentation, redrawing, and renterpretation, of architectural work. These buildings serve as examples for design methodology. Project 1 focused on one of Le Corbusiers projects; the Mill Owners Building, located in Ahmedabad, India. While analyzing and documenting this work, his five points of architecture were understood, specifically for this site. Le Corbusiers use of free fascade, pilotis, and open floor plan, all give definition to this work. For this project, recreating Le Corbusiers plans and drawings was necessary. By doing so, his use of proportions, and design elements were easily deconstructed. He uses walls of different heights, a ramp that leads to the main floor, and most notably, brises-soleil to prevent the sunlight to penetrate the fascade, as opposed to traditional windows. Understanding all these elements, made it easier for this building to be better analyzed.

Mill Owners Association Building Le Corbusier, 1954 Plan Views 1/8 Scale

Ground Level

First Level

Second Level

Mezzanine

Talaha Rashid | Spring 2018 | Professor Kim


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Project 2a | Documentation The second project focused heavily on the documentation aspect of this semester. The site of focus, was the Royal Saltworks at Arc- et-Senans, designed by Claude-Nicolas Ledoux in 1773. The objective of this project was to completely document and analyze the site and all of its features. This project was broken down into two parts. The first part consisted of conducting research, and analyzing the architecture of the site. The history of the region, the history of salt, the inspirations of the architect, and architecture parlante, were some of the things that were analyzed. By looking at all the aspects of the site, a final, overall analysis was created. The saltworks, was a semicircular plan, that was created to show the power of the government, and easily put workers under surveillance. This led into the next part of the project where one aspect of the site was focused on, and a specific analysis for that aspect was created.

Inspiration of Architect Claude Nicholas Ledoux

Previous Work of Claude Nicolas Ledoux

French Revolution 1789-1799

One of the many inspirations of Claude Nicholas Ledoux was the architectural style in the Enlightenment Period called Rational Architecture (also known as architecture in the Age of Reason). Rational Architecture is when an architect

After building the Royal Saltworks, France had Claude Nicolas Ledoux design forty-seven gates, sixteen of which were toll houses for Paris to tax its citizens with. Most of the taxes were collected from the poor and rather than being used

creating a structure with designs from earlier traditions, architects in this period created everything for a purpose. A prime example of a Rational Architect who was a huge inspiration for Claude Nicholas Ledoux is Étienne-Louis Boullée:

for themselves. Built from 1785 till 1788 Claude Nicolas Ledoux used his classic design of pure geometric shapes with no extra ornamentation on all the toll gates. With the outbreak of the French Revolution, citizens immediately revolted against the taxes of the toll gates. This resulted in all but four of the toll gates being burnt down; and Claude Nicolas Ledoux being jailed and losing his own wealth in 1791.

Built in 1771 as a house for King Louis XV’s mistress Madame du Barry, Château de Louveciennes is a beautiful example of Claude Nicholas Ledoux using Architecture Parlante. For instance, because of the house’s the dining room for guests to enjoy themselves. Architecture Parlante is further seen by the columns outside of the house which show the intimacy of a mistress’s house by blocking further vision of any passersby.

Boullée was known for designs without unnecessary ornamentation; and that had pure geometric shapes such as spheres, squares, and cylinders. He was also famous for producing work which mainly focused around the idea of Architecture Parlante, which is when architecture explains its own function or purpose.

Portrait of Claude Nicolas Ledoux by Martin Drolling, 1790 Though Ledoux was a great French Neoclassical architect, he was known to create symbols of the Ancien Regime, as opposed to utopian ones. This was due to the huge amount of funds he received from the French Monarchy for his greatest projects. Despite these ideas towards him, Ledoux, in a sense was still an utopian architect.

All but 4 toll gates were burnt down

Cenotaph for Sir Isaac Newton (1784)

Architecture considered under the relation of art and legislation 1804

The Royal Saltworks, Saline De Chaux (1773-1778)

After the French Revolution Claude Nicolas Ledoux began to write a book of all than the buildings they represented because of how Claude Nicolas Ledoux kept

River inspector lives at the Loue River source

Woodsmen House These are some of the many designs that were created with Architecture Parlante in mind. These structures are purposely planned in certain areas

Based from the pure geometric shapes on the columns of the Director’s House, we can see how much of an inspiration Boullée was to Claude Nicholas Ledoux in his design of The Royal Saltworks. This geometry continues on through the rest of the plan. Looking Further into Claude Nicholas Ledoux’s book of the of a role Architecture Parlante was to Claude Nicholas Ledoux’s designs.

Gardener’s house is dug partially into the ground

Saltworks of Salins-les-bains

Salins-les-bains to Arc-et-Senans

This 500-meter long building was called the “Graduation” building and was located near the site of Arc-et-Senans. In this building, brine, was “graduated” to increase the percentage of salt it contained. This in return, made the

In the 18th century, salt was an essential and valuable commodity for everyday life. It was taxed and was a means to help run the economy. Because of the high demand for salt, there were originally 3 saltworks located in the Salins-les-Bains region. During this time, the region of Franche-Comté was divided in 2 municipalities. Each saltworks had its own proprietorship and administration. In the beginning of the 17th century, these saltworks were united under a single administration. In 1674, they became a royal enterprise.

mines, this building used natural evaporation methods to increase the concentration. Six pumps brought the brine to the top of the building, and over bundles of thrones. Along with this, natural wind was also used for the evaporation process. This process was done many times and can increase the salt percentage by 5 percent; from 30 to 140 mg per liter. From there, the salt water was sent to another building to be heated and crystalized. This process is similar to the heating process that took place at Salins-les-bains. salt formation. This process was used instead of the typical salt marshes that were used. This was due to the lack of resources in the region. Towards the end of the 18th century, the three saltworks were not enough to meet the demand for salt. They had reached their limits, and it was getting too costly to produce salt. The brine became less concentrated and it was harder to supply wood. This led the administration to begin plans for making a saltworks situated in a more strategic location; (Near the Chaux forest). At the royal Saltworks,

The pipeline, was built to connect Salins-les-bains to Arc-et-Senans. Its only purpose, was to provide Brine to the Royal Saltworks. It was 21.25 kilometers long, and followed the route of the Furieuse and Loue Rivers, taking advantage of their natural slopes. The area had very low geographical relief, making this the only option for the route. The pipeline was a double pipe system of two pipes laid parallel to each other, one meter apart. This was done so one pipeline would always be working if a problem arised in the other. It was also done to combat the weather, and the robberies that would have occurred.

any source of salt water, the salt had to be brought from Salins-les-Bains.

Salt Production Step 1: Collecting and pumping Underground wells store Brine (water saturated with salt) which comes from both salt and fresh water. Water was then brought up to the surface.

Step 3: gathering and conditioning Workers used large rake-like tools to scrape the salt from the vats. In some saltworks, the vats were equipped with wooden roofs which were used for drainage.

Step 2 : heating and extracting Using wood, water was evaporated and the salt was removed. This was done by storing the brine in large metal vats called “poêles”. This process was called “cooking” and it lasted from 8 –18 hours depending on the salinity of the brine. The salt was then crystalized and harvested.

methods and mechanisms of drilling and pumping were created. This brought water up much more easily.

2. Director’s Gardens

9. Stoves

16. Coopers Building

3. Courtyard for the transportation of salt

13. Blacksmiths’ building with store room for iron

17. Great court for the storage of wood

4. Director’s Building

14. Gatehouse

18. Workers’ Gardens

Talaha Rashid | Spring 2018 | Professor Kim


First Site Plan

COLUMN ORDERS Column Orders

Second Site Plan

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-Ledoux designed an original plan for this saltworks, without a request from King Louis XV. -He imposed a rigid geometry to the overall design -The buildings were placed around the edges of an immense square, and were linked to each other by porticoes (No building stood in isolation). -It was originally rejected

10

11 16

13 11

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Third Site Plan (Continuation of Second Plan)

In the “Ideal city of Chauxâ€? the semicircle continues on to become a circle. The ten buildings in the site, are complemented by others. ,WLVDUHĂ€HFWLRQRIWKHRULJLQDOSODQ -Each of these new buildings, was detailed with a plan and explanation that Ledoux created -These documents were to be published afterwards in his treaty of architecture, which was only partially created.

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14

1. Clerk-Overseers’ houses

7. Buildings for the evaporation of salt

13. Blacksmiths� building with storeroom for iron

2. Director’s gardens

8. Drinking pond

14. Gatehouse (Containing prisons, Guards House, Courtroom, and Bakery)

3. Courtyard for the transportation of salt

9. Stoves

15. Basins for soaking the hoops

4. Packing sheds

10. Workers courtyard

16. Cooper’s building with storerooms

5. Director’s building

11. Avenues

17. Great court for the storage of wood

6. Salt storage

12. Workers’ gardens

18. Workers’ Gardens

PURE GEOMETRIC SHAPED PLAN

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Royal Saltworks, Arc-et-Senans Northern Plan and Elevation 1’=1/16�

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Project 2b | Analysis The Typologies of Ledoux

Royal Saltworks 1779 Directors House

Barrière de l’Etoile 1787

Royal Saltworks 1779 Gatehouse

Barrière des Bonhommes 1787

Royal Saltworks 1779 Salt Building

Barrière du Trône 1787

Royal Saltworks 1779 Overseers House

Barrière d’Enfer 1787

Typology Comparisons

Talaha Rashid

After conducting the complete analysis of the Royal Saltworks, a site model was created (shown at the right). This model was made to gain a better understanding of the site. Since the actual site was symmetrical, only half the site was built in the model with a section cut through the gate house and directors building. There was also a focus on the typologies used by Ledoux in the site (shown above). The column types, pediments and fascades were looked into. Since power was a main aspect of the site, the typologies were all related in some way. They even mirrored the fascades of the toll houses that were built right after. This process started off by first sketching some fascades for these toll houses (shown below). These toll houses were made to impose the tax that was put on salt in the time. They too, were representations of power. All of these buildings relate back to the idea that typology is something important and useful in defining power, and the uses of a building.

Talaha Rashid | Spring 2018 | Professor Kim


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"Architecture Portfolio" (Fall '16 - Spring '18)  

City College of New York (Years 1 & 2)

"Architecture Portfolio" (Fall '16 - Spring '18)  

City College of New York (Years 1 & 2)

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