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First Avenue & Moore Road ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Submitted to: Upper Merion Township 175 West Valley Forge Road King of Prussia, PA 19406

King of Prussia Business Improvement District 1012 W. 8th Avenue, Suite A King of Prussia, PA 19406 February 2013


First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................................4 Transportation Study Area ......................................................................................................8 Study Methodology ...................................................................................................................8 Existing Transportation Network .............................................................................................8 Roadway Network ................................................................................................................................ 8 Public Transportation ......................................................................................................................... 10 Available Right-of-Way....................................................................................................................... 11 Utilities ............................................................................................................................................... 11

2012 Existing Traffic Conditions ............................................................................................12 Existing Traffic Volumes ..................................................................................................................... 12 Existing Levels of Service .................................................................................................................. 12 Accident History ................................................................................................................................. 15

2012 Traffic Conditions with ‘Road Diet’ ...............................................................................16 ‘Road Diet’ Configuration ................................................................................................................... 16 2012 Operational Conditions with ‘Road Diet’ Configuration ............................................................... 20

Future 2025 Traffic Conditions...............................................................................................23 Potential Development Generated Traffic Volumes............................................................................. 23 Trip Distribution and Assignment ........................................................................................................ 27 Background Growth Rates ................................................................................................................. 34 Future 2025 Operational Conditions Analysis ..................................................................................... 34 ‘Road Diet’ Impacts on Traffic............................................................................................................. 37

Potential Uses for Remaining Roadway Space with 'Road Diet'..........................................39 Bicycle Lanes..................................................................................................................................... 39 Pedestrian Improvements – New and Improved Sidewalks/Curb Bump-Outs ...................................... 40 Transit Stop Improvements ................................................................................................................ 40 Shoulder(s)/Parking Lanes ................................................................................................................. 40 Comprehensive Streetscape Design Alternatives & Other Off-Street Improvements ........................... 40

Opinion of Probable Costs .....................................................................................................44 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................45

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

FIGURES Figure 1

Study Area ........................................................................................................... 6

Figure 2

Potential Development Areas ............................................................................... 7

Figure 3 Figure 4

Study Intersections .............................................................................................. 9 2012 Existing AM/PM Peak Hour Traffic Volumes.............................................. 13

Figure 5 Figure 6

2012 Existing Midday Peak Hour Traffic Volumes .............................................. 14 ‘Road Diet’ Concept - First Avenue & N. Gulph Road ........................................ 16

Figure 7

‘Road Diet’ Concept - Moore Road & Valley Forge Road ................................... 17

Figure 8 Figure 9

‘Road Diet’ Concept - First Avenue & Allendale Road ........................................ 18 ‘Road Diet’ Concept - First Avenue & Moore Road ............................................ 19

Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12

‘Road Diet’ Concept - First Avenue & American Avenue .................................... 19 ‘Road Diet’ Concept - Moore Road & 8th Avenue ............................................... 20 Potential Development Areas - Overall Entering Trip Distribution Patterns......... 27

Figure 13 Figure 14

Potential Development Areas - Overall Exiting Trip Distribution Patterns ........... 27 East End Development Area Vehicular Trip Distribution..................................... 28

Figure 15 Figure 16

West End Development Area Vehicular Trip Distribution.................................... 29 East End Development Area - New AM Peak Hour Vehicular Trips ................... 30

Figure 17

East End Development Area - New PM Peak Hour Vehicular Trips ................... 31

Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20

West End Development Area - New AM Peak Hour Vehicular Trips .................. 32 West End Development Area - New PM Peak Hour Vehicular Trips .................. 33 2025 Future Conditions - AM/PM Peak Hour Volumes ....................................... 35

TABLES Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

2012 AM Peak Hour Overall Intersection Operations ........................................ 21 2012 PM Peak Hour Overall Intersection Operations ........................................ 21 2012 AM Peak Hour Overall Corridor Performance ............................................ 22

Table 4

2012 PM Peak Hour Overall Corridor Performance ............................................ 22

Table 5

West End Development Trip Generation ............................................................ 25

Table 6

East End Development Trip Generation ............................................................. 26

Table 7 Table 8

2025 AM Peak Hour Overall Intersection Operations ......................................... 34 2025 PM Peak Hour Overall Intersection Operations ......................................... 36

Table 9

2025 AM Peak Hour Overall Corridor Performance ............................................ 36

Table 10

2025 PM Peak Hour Overall Corridor Performance ............................................ 37

APPENDICES A

Traffic Count Data

B

Level of Service Criteria

C

Synchro Capacity Analysis Worksheets

D

Trip Generation Calculations

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report evaluates the feasibility of implementing a ‘Road Diet’ along First Avenue and Moore Road in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, PA. A ‘Road Diet’ is typically defined as the conversion of a four-lane undivided roadway into a three-lane roadway, consisting of two travel lanes (one in each direction) and a center lane typically reserved for either left-turning traffic or a landscaped median area. The additional space created by removing a lane of traffic can then be converted into a number of other uses, including but not limited to additional shoulder area, bicycle lanes, or on-street parking lanes. The excess roadway can also be removed or reconstructed and utilized for curb bump-out areas or additional sidewalk space. Typically, ‘Road Diets’ operate successfully on roadways with an average daily traffic (ADT) volume of less than 20,000 vehicles, and peak hourly volumes below 750 vehicles in each direction. Currently, land uses within the King of Prussia Business Park consist primarily of office and light industrial. Given projections of market trends, the KOP Business Improvement District (KOP BID) wishes to promote new development within several areas of the Park, and foresees eventual mixed-use development of residential and retail land uses to complement and balance existing uses. Currently, First Avenue and Moore Road are perceived by some to be unnecessarily wide, which may contribute to higher traffic speeds and limited pedestrian activity. As such, one important reason to consider narrowing the cartway is to calm traffic and promote pedestrian and bicycle activity. Typically, there is evidence that ‘Road Diets’ improve vehicular safety by reducing the average speed of vehicles, as well as reducing the crash frequency and severity of crashes. Pedestrians and bicyclists may also benefit from improved safety, through reduced vehicular speeds, improved sight distance, and potentially shorter roadway crossings. The ability to circulate on foot or bicycle is seen as a critical feature of successful mixed-use development, both as an amenity for residents and as a way to maximize access to potential future retail establishments. However, a careful study of the resulting impact on traffic flow and potential congestion must be performed and taken into consideration prior to implementing the significant modifications that typically accompany a ‘Road Diet’. In completing our analysis, we have reviewed and incorporated the latest recommendations and guidelines of both the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC). Within the First Avenue and Moore Road corridors, the following intersections were chosen for detailed study:      

First Avenue and N. Gulph Road (SR 3039) First Avenue and Moore Road First Avenue and American Avenue First Avenue and Allendale Road Moore Road and 8th Avenue Moore Road and Valley Forge Road (SR 0023)

The traffic analysis for this study considers two analysis years, the existing 2012 baseline conditions and a 2025 future build out scenario. The analyses include an assessment of the operational conditions of the study intersections during the morning and afternoon peak hour periods under both the existing roadway geometry conditions and the potential ‘Road Diet’ conditions.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

The KOP BID currently anticipates two large redevelopment projects to occur on the east and west ends of First Avenue, to be completed by 2025. The east end development is anticipated to be located on the northwest corner of the intersection of First Avenue and Allendale Road, and may include up to 288 apartment units, 121,000 ft 2 of office space, 55,000 ft2 of retail space, 6,000 ft2 of bank space, and 10,000 ft 2 of restaurant space. The west end development is anticipated to be located in the area bounded by First Avenue, Moore Road, Rogers Road, and the Valley Forge Convention Center, and may include up to 88 apartment units, 20,000 ft 2 of office space, 5,000 ft2 of bank space, and 15,000 ft2 of restaurant space. The ‘Road Diet’ configuration considered consisted of the following potential changes to the roadway and intersections in the study area: 

Maintain existing intersection configurations at First Avenue & N. Gulph Road, Moore Road & Valley Forge Road, and First Avenue & Allendale Road, with the following modifications. o

On First Avenue at N. Gulph Road, maintain two eastbound lanes along First Avenue leading away from the intersection for 400 feet to provide space for northbound N. Gulph Road right turns to merge so that the movement can remain free flowing.

o

On Moore Road at Valley Forge Road, begin the left-most northbound left-turn lane after the ITT Technical Institute Driveway to provide enough space for a dedicated left-turn lane from southbound Moore Road into the ITT Campus.

At the intersection of First Avenue and Moore Road, the following modifications were considered: o

Eastbound First Avenue approach would consist of a shared through/right lane, and an exclusive left-turn lane;

o

Westbound First Avenue would consist of an exclusive right-turn lane, a through lane, and an exclusive left-turn lane;

o

Southbound Moore Road would consist of an exclusive right-turn lane and shared left/through lane;

o

The southbound right-turn lane would operate as an overlapping phase with eastbound left-turns. This will help to provide more time to westbound through movements during the PM peak.

At the intersections of First Avenue & American Avenue and Moore Road & 8 th Avenue, exclusive left-turn lanes and shared through/right turn lanes were considered on First Avenue and Moore Road, while the side streets remained in their existing configuration.

The analyses resulted in the following conclusions: 

If development occurs as anticipated by the KOP BID, the western site is expected to generate 122 new vehicle trips and 18 pass-by trips during a typical weekday AM peak hour and 237 new vehicle trips and 24 pass-by trips during a typical weekday PM peak

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

hour. The eastern site is expected to generate 396 new vehicle trips and 34 pass-by trips during a typical weekday AM peak hour and 588 new vehicle trips and 103 pass-by trips during a typical weekday PM peak hour. Modal split reductions due to the anticipated increase in transit service and internal trip reductions due to the mixed use nature of the development were included in the trip generation calculations. 

With optimization of signal timing and phasing, the ‘Road Diet’ configuration can be implemented without creating significant increases in delay and queue length at the study area intersections. The intersections which experience the largest overall peak hour delay, which include First Avenue & N. Gulph Road, First Avenue & Allendale Road, and Moore Road & Valley Forge Road, are located on the perimeter of the study area and will not be significantly impacted by the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’. The increase in delay is primarily associated with the increase in traffic anticipated from new development in the area.

The intersection of First Avenue and Moore Road will experience the largest increase in delay and 95th percentile queue lengths as the result of the implementation of the potential ‘Road Diet’. These increases are greatest during the 2025 PM peak period and result in 95th percentile queue lengths of approximately 1000 feet on the westbound First Avenue through movement approach to the intersection and of approximately 368 feet on the southbound Moore Road through/left-turn lane approach. During the AM peak period, the largest increase in queue length as a result of the ‘Road Diet’ occurred on the eastbound through movement and resulted in 95 th percentile queues of approximately 363 feet. Although the queues reach these lengths, they do not impact adjacent intersections and do not extend beyond these lengths over the course of the peak hour simulation.

If the ‘Road Diet’ configuration is pursued, there are several alternatives for the use of the excess space created. There are also numerous streetscape improvements that can be implemented along the corridor both with and without the implementation of a ‘Road Diet’ along the study area roadways. Recommended next steps include community involvement with stakeholders in the area to explain the positive and negative aspects associated with the ‘Road Diet’ concept if implemented along First Avenue and Moore Road. Also, it may be possible to implement a ‘Road Diet’ configuration on a pilot project basis using temporary elements, in order to conduct actual measurements regarding safety and operational impacts before deciding whether to keep it permanently and/or whether to fund enhanced design features and a more permanent solution. Ideally, if a ‘Road Diet’ project is ultimately implemented on a permanent basis, the project should be coordinated with a pavement overlay project, if possible.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

INTRODUCTION This report evaluates the feasibility of implementing a ‘Road Diet’ along First Avenue and Moore Road in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, PA. A ‘Road Diet’ is typically defined as the conversion of a four-lane undivided roadway into a three-lane roadway, consisting of two travel lanes (one in each direction) and a center lane typically reserved for either left-turning traffic or a landscaped median area. The additional space created by removing a lane of traffic can then be converted into a number of other uses, including but not limited to additional shoulder area, bicycle lanes, or on-street parking lanes. The excess roadway can also be removed or reconstructed and utilized for curb bump-out areas or additional sidewalk space. Typically, ‘Road Diets’ operate successfully on roadways with an average daily traffic (ADT) volume of less than 20,000 vehicles, and peak hourly volumes below 750 vehicles in each direction. Currently, land uses within the King of Prussia Business Park consist primarily of office and light industrial. Given projections of market trends, the KOP Business Improvement District (KOP BID) wishes to promote new development within several areas of the Park, and foresees eventual mixed-use development of residential and retail land uses to complement and balance existing uses. Currently, First Avenue and Moore Road are perceived by some to be unnecessarily wide, which may contribute to higher traffic speeds and limited pedestrian activity. As such, one important reason to consider narrowing the cartway is to calm traffic and promote pedestrian and bicycle activity. Typically, there is evidence that ‘Road Diets’ improve vehicular safety by reducing the average speed of vehicles, as well as reducing the crash frequency and severity of crashes. Pedestrians and bicyclists may also benefit from improved safety, through reduced vehicular speeds, improved sight distance, and potentially shorter roadway crossings. The ability to circulate on foot or bicycle is seen as a critical feature of successful mixed-use development, both as an amenity for residents and as a way to maximize access to potential future retail establishments. However, a careful study of the resulting impact on traffic flow and potential congestion must be performed and taken into consideration prior to implementing the significant modifications that typically accompany a ‘Road Diet’. In completing our analysis, we have reviewed and incorporated the latest recommendations and guidelines of both the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC). In all 5 case studies summarized by ITE in their most recent November 2007 evaluation of ‘Road Diet’ implementations, the number of crashes and measured speeds decreased along the corridor after implementation of a ‘Road Diet’. However, the implementation of a ‘Road Diet’ can also negatively affect the travel time through the corridor, and the speed and reliability of transit service operating within the corridor. In evaluating the feasibility of whether a ‘Road Diet’ concept would work within the First Avenue and Moore Road corridors, the following elements were evaluated:       

Roadway function and environment; Overall traffic volume and Levels of Service (LOS); Turning volumes and patterns; Presence of frequent-stop and slow-moving vehicles (buses, mail/delivery vehicles, etc.); Crash types and patterns; Pedestrian and bicycle activity; Right-of-way availability;

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

It is also important to note that ‘Road Diet’ alternatives need to:   

Provide a safe and efficient transportation system corridor for vehicles, buses, bicycles, and pedestrians; Balance the needs of the transportation system with the interests of the surrounding community and the environment; Create a transportation facility that is an asset to the community;

First Avenue and Moore Road are four lane undivided roadways located in the King of Prussia Business Park in King of Prussia, PA. The entire length of each roadway and major intersecting roadways were analyzed to determine the feasibility of implementing a ‘Road Diet’. The study area includes First Avenue from N. Gulph Road to Allendale Road and Moore Road from First Avenue to Valley Forge Road. The study area is illustrated in Figure 1. The King of Prussia Business Improvement District currently anticipates two potential redevelopment areas, located at the east and west ends of First Avenue, between now and the year 2025. The east end development is anticipated to be located on the northwest corner of the intersection of First Avenue and Allendale Road, and may include up to 288 apartment units, 121,000 ft2 of office space, 55,000 ft2 of retail space, 6,000 ft2 of bank space, and 10,000 ft 2 of restaurant space. The west end development is anticipated to be located in the area bounded by First Avenue, Moore Road, Rogers Road, and the Valley Forge Convention Center, and may include up to 88 apartment units, 20,000 ft 2 of office space, 5,000 ft2 of bank space, and 15,000 ft2 of restaurant space. The approximate locations of the anticipated east and west end development areas are illustrated in Figure 2. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if it is feasible to implement a ‘Road Diet’ on First Avenue and Moore Road and, if feasible, determine what roadway configuration is required in order for the ‘Road Diet’ to function without significantly increasing delay or intersection queues throughout the study area. The study provides a comparison of existing 2012 and future 2025 conditions with the roadways remaining in their current geometric configuration versus implementing a ‘Road Diet’.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

TRANSPORTATION STUDY AREA The transportation study area for this analysis includes the entire length of First Avenue and Moore Road. The following intersections are included in the study area and are illustrated in Figure 3:      

First Avenue and N. Gulph Road (SR 3039) First Avenue and Moore Road First Avenue and American Avenue First Avenue and Allendale Road Moore Road and 8th Avenue Moore Road and Valley Forge Road (SR 0023)

STUDY METHODOLOGY The traffic analysis for this study considers two analysis years: the existing 2012 baseline condition and a 2025 future build out scenario. Planned development anticipated by the King of Prussia BID is expected to be completed by 2025 and is included. The existing 2012 and future build 2025 analyses include a detailed assessment of the operational conditions of the study intersections during the morning and afternoon peak hour periods under existing roadway geometry conditions and ‘Road Diet’ conditions. The weekday mid-day peak hour period was initially evaluated as part of the 2012 baseline condition, but was not studied in detail due to the fact that the study intersections exhibit lower traffic volumes during this time period, and because there is limited trip generation data available for this time period.

EXISTING TRANSPORTATION NETWORK Roadway Network The existing roadway network within the transportation study area is summarized below. 

First Avenue – First Avenue is an east-west collector roadway traveling through the King of Prussia Business Park, linking the businesses in the park with the surrounding regional arterial roadways. East of Moore Road, the roadway has a four lane cross section consisting of two (2) 10-foot wide lanes in each direction. Left-turn lanes in this section are only present at the intersections with Allendale Road, American Avenue, and Moore Road. Left-turns into individual property driveways in the sections between these intersections are made from the inner-most through lane. West of Moore Road, First Avenue has a 60-foot wide five (5) lane cross section with two (2) 10-foot wide lanes in each direction and dedicated left-turn lanes located adjacent to mountable concrete medians. Along the entire length of the roadway, right-turn lanes are not present and right-turns are made from the right-most through lane (curb lane). Curbing is present along both sides of the roadway for its entire length. Sidewalks are located at various locations along First Avenue, but the sidewalk is not continuous and there are several fairly large gaps along both the north and south sides of the roadway. Parking is prohibited along First Avenue.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Moore Road – Moore Road is a north-south collector roadway traveling through the King of Prussia Business Park, linking the businesses in the park with the surrounding regional arterial roadways. Moore Road and First Avenue form the roadway network that provides primary access to the properties within the King of Prussia Business Park. Moore Road has a four lane section with two (2) 10-foot wide lanes in each direction. No exclusive left or right-turn lanes are present, requiring any turning movements to be made from the through lanes. Curbing is present along both sides of the roadway for its entire length. The majority of the roadway provides no sidewalk (exists on the east side of Moore Road, just south of 8 th Avenue), and parking is prohibited along Moore Road.

N. Gulph Road – At its intersection with First Avenue, N. Gulph Road is a north-south regional arterial linking the King of Prussia area to the regions north and west of the study area. The roadway has two (2) 12-foot wide through lanes in each direction with dedicated left and right-turn lanes present at its intersection with First Avenue. Curbing is present along both sides of N. Gulph Road and no sidewalk is present.

Valley Forge Road (SR 0023) – At its intersection with Moore Road, Valley Forge Road is an east-west regional arterial linking Valley Forge and US Route 422 to the regions east of the area. Valley Forge Road has one (1) 11-foot wide through lane in each direction east of Moore Road and two (2) 11-foot wide through lanes in each direction west of Moore Road. Dedicated left and right-turn lanes are present at its intersection with Moore Road. Curbing and sidewalk are not present along Valley Forge Road.

Allendale Road – Allendale Road is a north-south community arterial that connects US Route 202 to Valley Forge Road through the King of Prussia Area. At its T-intersection with First Avenue, Allendale Road has two (2) 11-foot wide lanes in each direction with a dedicated left-turn lane for the northbound approach. Curbing is present along both sides of Allendale Road and sidewalk exists at several locations, although the sidewalk is not continuous and there are several gaps along the east and west sides of the roadway. Parking is prohibited along Allendale Road in the area of First Avenue, but is allowed further to the south.

American Avenue – American Avenue is a local roadway with one (1) unmarked travel lane in each direction. Curbing exists along both sides of American Avenue while sidewalk is only found in a few non-continuous locations.

8th Avenue – 8th Avenue is a local roadway with one (1) unmarked travel lane in each direction. Curbing exists along both sides of 8th Avenue while a majority of the roadway has no sidewalk.

Public Transportation The King of Prussia Business Park has two bus lines that run through the area, the SEPTA Route 99 and Route 125 bus lines. The Route 99 bus connects Phoenixville to the Norristown Transportation Center and travels through the study area via First Avenue. The Route 125 bus connects Center City Philadelphia to the King of Prussia Business Park and travels through the study area on First Avenue and again passes the study area on Valley Forge Road at Moore Road. Bus stops along First Avenue have shelters, with several locations also providing a bus pull-off area. According to the 2012 Act 209 Land Use Assumption Report prepared by Upper Merion

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Township, there is currently an effort being undertaken by the King of Prussia BID to extend the SEPTA Norristown High Speed Line to the King of Prussia Mall and into the Business Park. This project is still in the planning and feasibility phase. Available Right-of-Way Based upon available plans from Upper Merion Township, the public right-of-way along the roadways varies throughout the project area. Along First Avenue, the right-of-way ranges from 60’ near N. Gulph Road, which effectively runs along the existing curb line and leaves no available area behind beyond the roadway, to 55’ east of American Avenue, and 78’ near the eastern end of the roadway at Allendale Road, leaving available area on each side that ranges inconsistently from 0’ to 10’ depending upon the section of the roadway. Along Moore Road, the right-of-way ranges from 60’ near First Avenue to 65’ near Valley Forge Road, which currently provides an average of 10’ of available area on each side of the roadway beyond the curb line. It is also important to note that there is a bridge between First Avenue and 8th Avenue that has limited width to provide pedestrian/bicycle facilities. Utilities For the purpose of this analysis, a cursory review of the existing visible utilities was prepared. Typical ‘Road Diet’ projects involve roadway pavement markings and some adjacent streetscape work; as such the impact to utilities is typically manageable. Along First Avenue there is a utility pole line that exists along both sides of the roadway near N. Gulph Road, and then sporadically along the remainder of the roadway. In addition, there are several electrical transformer cabinets along the roadway, an underground stormwater system with inlets and conveyance pipes, along with other typical utilities including water and gas. Along Moore Road, there is a utility pole line that exists along the western side of the roadway. In addition, there is an underground stormwater system with inlets and conveyance pipes, along with other typical utilities including water and gas. A detailed PA One-Call will be performed during any design associated with the implementation of any modifications along or adjacent to the study area roadways. With regard to the ‘Road Diet’ concepts for First Avenue and Moore Road, the most significant issue identified is the presence of the utility pole lines along the roadway, which must be considered with any design of off-street bicycle/pedestrian facilities, and streetscape enhancements. Should either the widening of the roadways or the reduction of the existing pavement width (i.e., for curb/sidewalk bump-outs) be considered, the adjustment of the stormwater inlets and underground system could also become a significant cost issue.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

2012 EXISTING TRAFFIC CONDITIONS Existing Traffic Volumes Peak hour traffic volumes were collected during the AM Peak Period (7-9 AM), Midday Peak Period (11-1 PM), and PM Peak Period (4-6 PM) on Wednesday April 25, 2012 and Thursday April 26, 2012 at the following intersections:      

First Avenue and N. Gulph Road (SR 3039) First Avenue and Moore Road First Avenue and American Avenue First Avenue and Allendale Road Moore Road and 8th Avenue Moore Road and Valley Forge Road (SR 0023)

The 2012 existing traffic volumes for the study intersections are provided in Figures 4 and 5. Copies of the detailed traffic count data are provided in Appendix A. Existing Levels of Service The performance of the study intersections under existing 2012 traffic conditions were evaluated through a qualitative measure of operating conditions, defined as ‘Levels of Service’. Six levels of service (LOS) were defined with letter designations from ‘A’ to ‘F’, with Level of Service ‘A’ representing excellent operating conditions (average delays up to ten seconds) and Level of Service ‘F’ indicating generally deficient operating conditions (average delays exceeding eighty seconds). Level of Service ‘D’ or better is typically considered an acceptable operating condition in urban and developed suburban areas. Levels of Service are determined through analysis procedures outlined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual (Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.). Levels of Service for signalized intersections are based on average delay experienced by motorists passing the intersection. The delay is based on the results of the capacity analysis (ratio of demand flow to capacity) and other important variables such as quality of progression, cycle length, and allocation of green time. Levels of Service for unsignalized intersections are defined in terms of delay to vehicles entering from the side road and turning left from a major road. Delay is a function of the capacity of the approach and degree of saturation along the major street. The capacity is based on the distribution of gaps in the major street traffic stream, driver judgment in selecting a gap through which to execute the desired maneuver, and follow-up time required by each driver in a queue. The Level of Service Criteria for signalized and unsignalized intersections is provided in Appendix B. During the existing AM peak conditions, all intersections operate at an overall Level of Service of ‘C’ or better. The intersections of First Avenue & N. Gulph Road and Moore Road & Valley Forge Road exhibit the largest overall average intersection delays of 20.9 seconds and 23.9 seconds respectively. The existing PM peak hour exhibits larger delays than the AM peak hour with all intersections operating at an overall Level of Service of ‘D’ or better. Similar to the AM peak period, the intersections of First Avenue & N. Gulph Road and Moore Road & Valley Forge Road exhibit the largest overall average intersection delays of 38.0 seconds and 46.8 seconds respectively.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Results of the existing conditions analysis are summarized in Tables 1 and 2, contained in the next section. Synchro capacity summary outputs from the 2012 Existing Analyses are provided in Appendix C. The operational analyses of the study intersections under all conditions were performed using the Synchro Version 7.0 software. The levels of service and delays are based on the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) analysis results. Accident History According to the Upper Merion Township Police Department, the following number of accidents has occurred in the most recent 2-year period:      

Intersection of First Avenue & N. Gulph Road Intersection of First Avenue & Moore Road Intersection of First Avenue & Allendale Road Intersection of Valley Forge Road & Moore Road First Avenue (between intersections) Moore Road (between intersections)

4 0 2 8 9 4

The type of accidents in each location can be further summarized as follows: Type of Accident Intersection

Leftturn/angle

Rear-End

First Avenue & N. Gulph Road First Avenue & Moore Road First Avenue & Allendale Road Valley Forge Road & Moore Road First Avenue (between intersections) Moore Road (between intersections)

1

3 2 2

3 2

Other/ Weather

4

Improper Lane Change

Hit Object

2 2

1 1

4

Based upon this available information, there are accidents that may be corrected by the implementation of a ‘Road Diet’ configuration, notably those related to left-turning vehicles and rear-end accidents. It is also important to note that there does not appear to be any accidents within the corridors involving pedestrians or bicycles.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

2012 TRAFFIC CONDITIONS WITH ‘ROAD DIET’ CONFIGURATION ‘Road Diet’ Configuration The effects of the potential ‘Road Diet’ configuration on the study area roadways with 2012 existing volumes was analyzed to determine how a ‘Road Diet’ would affect current traffic patterns. The ‘Road Diet’ will reduce the number of lanes on First Avenue and Moore Road. Currently these roadways consist of four travel lanes, with two through lanes in each direction. The ‘Road Diet’ reduces the number of travel lanes on the roadway to three, consisting of one through lane in each direction and a two-way center turning lane. This ‘Road Diet’ configuration was analyzed between each of the study area intersections. Within the analysis models, First Avenue and Moore Road were reduced from four-lane configurations to three-lane configurations, with one through lane in each direction and a two-way center turning lane. The study intersections were modeled in the same way they were modeled for the 2025 build conditions. It is important to note that the analysis of the year 2025 future conditions influenced the potential ‘Road Diet’ configuration that was evaluated using the existing traffic volumes. A detailed evaluation of the 2025 conditions is described in a subsequent section of this report. The intersections of First Avenue & N. Gulph Road, Moore Road & Valley Forge Road, and First Avenue & Allendale Road maintained their existing lane configurations. At First Avenue & N. Gulph Road, two eastbound lanes exiting the intersection on First Avenue were configured to allow the northbound free flowing right turn lane enough space to merge with the inner through lane on First Avenue before becoming one eastbound lane. Figure 6 illustrates this roadway configuration. The northbound right turns to First Avenue are anticipated to total 1,157 vehicles per hour during the 2025 AM peak hour. To accommodate this traffic entering First Avenue, in addition to the 398 vehicles entering from the other two approaches (N. Gulph Road southbound lefts and Route 422 off-ramp through movements), the free flowing northbound right turn should remain. The two eastbound lanes on First Avenue should merge approximately 400 feet east of N. Gulph Road before reaching the Freedom Business Center driveway.

Figure 6 – ‘Road Diet’ Concept - First Avenue at N. Gulph Road

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

At Moore Road & Valley Forge Road, Moore Road was anticipated to be configured with one southbound receiving lane and the northbound dedicated turning lanes were anticipated to begin after passing the ITT Technical Institute Driveway in order to allow a left-turn lane into the ITT Campus. This roadway configuration is illustrated in Figure 7. Although the traffic volume using the ITT Campus Driveway was not counted, space needs to be provided for a southbound left-turn lane to accommodate the large volumes of vehicles observed to be entering the campus.

Figure 7 – ‘Road Diet’ Concept - Moore Road at Valley Forge Road The intersection of First Avenue and Allendale Road is anticipated to remain in its existing configuration with the exception of only having one westbound receiving lane. The eastbound dedicated left turn lane should begin approximately 400 feet from the intersection to still allow space for left turns into the driveway on the south side of First Avenue located 700 feet from Allendale Road. Figure 8 illustrates the proposed configuration of First Avenue and Allendale Road.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Figure 8 – ‘Road Diet’ Concept - First Avenue at Allendale Road The intersection of First Avenue and Moore Road was anticipated to be reconfigured to allow only one through lane in each direction on First Avenue. Eastbound First Avenue was considered to include a dedicated left-turn lane and a shared through/right turn lane. Westbound First Avenue was configured with a dedicated left-turn lane, dedicated through lane, and a dedicated right -turn lane. Figure 9 shows the proposed intersection configuration. The dedicated right-turn lane was added to accommodate the large amount of right turns from First Avenue to Moore Road in the northbound direction during the PM peak period. During the 2025 PM peak hour, it is anticipated that there will be 851 westbound through movements on First Avenue and 313 westbound right turns. Moore Road southbound at First Avenue was reconfigured to have a dedicated right turn lane and a shared left/thru lane. The dedicated right turn lane was proposed in order to allow the signal to run an overlapping southbound right turn phase with an eastbound leading left-turn phase. This phasing is recommended in order to maximize the amount of green time that can be provided for the westbound movements on First Avenue. The right turn lane should begin on southbound Moore Road approximately 400 feet from the intersection to accommodate anticipated queues. The northbound intersection approach from Freedom Drive is recommended to consist of a dedicated left-turn lane and through/right turn lane. Careful consideration needs to be given to the lane alignment for the north/south approaches through the intersection so that the through lanes do not experience an unacceptable transition shift through the intersection.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

First Avenue

Figure 9 – ‘Road Diet’ Concept - First Avenue and Moore Road The intersections of First Avenue & American Avenue and Moore Road & 8 th Avenue will consist of a shared through/right turn lane in each direction and dedicated left turn lanes on the First Avenue and Moore Road approaches at each intersection. The side streets will remain in their existing configuration. Figure 10 and 11 illustrate these intersection configurations.

Figure 10 – ‘Road Diet’ Concept - First Avenue and American Avenue

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Figure 11 – ‘Road Diet’ Concept - Moore Road and 8th Avenue 2012 Operational Conditions with ‘Road Diet’ The results of the existing 2012 AM and PM conditions analyses for the individual study intersections with and without a ‘Road Diet’ are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. In addition, Tables 3 and 4 outline the anticipated impact of the potential ‘Road Diet’ on the overall First Avenue and Moore Road corridors with regard to average travel time, average speed, and overall Level of Service. During the AM peak 2012 conditions with the potential ‘Road Diet’ configuration, all intersections continue to operate at an overall LOS of ‘C’ or better. The overall delay at each of the study intersections, except the intersection of First Avenue & Moore Road, does not increase by more than 2 seconds as compared to the 2012 existing conditions without a ‘Road Diet’. At the intersection of First Avenue & Moore Road, the overall delay increases from 15.0 seconds (LOS ‘B’) to 20.9 seconds (LOS ‘C’) after the potential ‘Road Diet’ is implemented during the AM peak period. With regard to the overall corridor operation, the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’ will increase the average travel time and reduce the average travel speed for Eastbound and Westbound First Avenue, and Southbound Moore Road. The PM peak 2012 conditions with a ‘Road Diet’ are similar to those of the 2012 conditions with the existing roadway configuration. The overall delay at each of the study intersections with a ‘Road Diet’ does not increase more than 5 seconds as compared to the 2012 existing conditions without a ‘Road Diet’, with the exception of the intersection of First Avenue and American Avenue, which increases in average delay from 11.1 seconds (LOS ‘B’) to 18.2 seconds (LOS ‘B’). With regard to the overall corridor operation, the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’ will increase the average travel time and reduce the average travel speed for Eastbound and Westbound First Avenue, and Southbound Moore Road, similar to the AM Peak Hour.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Table 1 – 2012 AM Peak Hour Overall Intersection Operation Intersection

2012 Existing Configuration

2012 w/ ‘Road Diet’*

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

First Avenue and Allendale Road

10.3

B

11.4

B

First Avenue and American Avenue

10.2

B

11.0

B

15.0

B

20.9

C

20.9

C

23.2

C

Moore Road and 8th Avenue

2.2

A

1.8

A

Moore Road and Valley Forge Road

23.9

C

24.3

C

First Avenue and Moore Road First Avenue and N. Gulph Road/SR 0422 EB Ramps

*assumes optimized signal timing/phasing

Table 2 – 2012 PM Peak Hour Overall Intersection Operation 2012 Existing Configuration* Intersection

2012 w/ ‘Road Diet’*

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

First Avenue and Allendale Road

20.0

C

20.8

C

First Avenue and American Avenue

11.1

B

18.2

B

First Avenue and Moore Road

26.2

C

26.4

C

First Avenue and N. Gulph Road/SR 0422 EB Ramps

38.0

D

37.7

D

Moore Road and 8th Avenue

4.8

A

4.0

A

Moore Road and Valley Forge Road

46.8

D

46.8

D

*assumes optimized signal timing/phasing

For comparison purposes, the average speed, travel time, and arterial Level of Service were also evaluated for the existing traffic conditions, with both the existing lane configurations and the potential ‘road diet’ configurations. These results are summarized in Tables 3 and 4.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Table 3 – 2012 AM Peak Hour Overall Corridor Performance 2012 Existing Configuration* Intersection

2012 w/ ‘Road Diet’*

Average Travel Time (seconds)

Average Speed (mph)

Level of Service

Average Travel Time (seconds)

Average Speed (mph)

Level of Service

Eastbound First Avenue

188.8

22.8

C

213.8

20.1

C

Westbound First Avenue

171.7

25.1

B

178.4

24.1

B

Northbound Moore Road

93.0

20.8

B

92.7

20.9

B

Southbound Moore Road

87.8

22.0

B

133.4

14.5

C

*assumes optimized signal timing/phasing

Table 4 – 2012 PM Peak Overall Corridor Performance 2012 Existing Configuration* Intersection

2012 w/ ‘Road Diet’*

Average Travel Time (seconds)

Average Speed (mph)

Level of Service

Average Travel Time (seconds)

Average Speed (mph)

Level of Service

Eastbound First Avenue

181.8

23.8

C

188.5

22.8

C

Westbound First Avenue

202.6

21.2

C

213.9

20.1

C

Northbound Moore Road

99.2

19.5

B

99.1

19.5

C

Southbound Moore Road

107.2

18.1

C

125.4

15.4

C

*assumes optimized signal timing/phasing

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

FUTURE 2025 TRAFFIC CONDITIONS The King of Prussia BID anticipates two large areas of redevelopment within the study area to be completed by 2025. These areas of development are located along First Avenue, near the eastern and western ends of the corridor. The east end development is anticipated to be located on the northwest corner of the intersection of First Avenue and Allendale Road, and may include up to 288 apartment units, 121,000 ft 2 of office space, 55,000 ft2 of retail space, 6,000 ft2 of bank space, and 10,000 ft2 of restaurant space. The west end development is anticipated to be located in the area bounded by First Avenue, Moore Road, Rogers Road, and the Valley Forge Convention Center, and may include up to 88 apartment units, 20,000 ft 2 of office space, 5,000 ft2 of bank space, and 15,000 ft 2 of restaurant space. The east and west end development areas have been previously illustrated in Figure 2. It is anticipated that access to each development will be available from each of the adjacent roadways. Trips to and from the east end development will be able to access the site from First Avenue and Allendale Road. Trips to and from the west end development will be able to access the side from both First Avenue and Moore Road. Potential Development Generated Traffic Volumes New vehicular trip generation computations were completed for the potential east and west end developments assuming the sizes and uses anticipated by the King of Prussia BID. The traffic volumes for the proposed site were estimated based on information contained in the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) publication Trip Generation (8th Edition, 2003) and in the ITE publication Trip Generation Handbook (2nd Edition, 2004). The ITE Trip Generation Manual defines a trip as a “single or one-direction vehicle movement with either the origin or the destination (exiting or entering) inside a study site.” Both the east end and west end developments are expected to have a mix of residential, office, retail, restaurant, and bank space. The anticipated trip generation for the residential units was based on the ITE Land Use Code 220 “Apartment,” the office space was based on the ITE Land Use Code 710 “General Office Building,” the retail space was based on the ITE Land Use Code 820 “Shopping Center,” the bank space was based on the ITE Land Use Code 912 “Drive-in Bank,” and the restaurant space was based on the ITE Land Use Code 931 “Quality Restaurant.” The trips generated from the planned development include vehicular, bus, rail, walking, and biking trips. It is assumed that by 2025 SEPTA will link the Norristown High Speed Line with the King of Prussia Business Park. This transit expansion, combined with improved walking and bicycling facilities along First Avenue and Moore Road, may create a larger modal split for nonautomobile trips. The Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission’s (DVRPC) study Journey-to-Work Trends in the Delaware Valley Region, 1980-2000 was used to determine the overall modal split for Montgomery County. A large portion of southern Montgomery County is served by SEPTA Regional Rail or light rail lines, with the exception of King of Prussia. The King of Prussia Business Park is currently a very automobile dependent area. If transit service is expanded to the area, it will only help to serve commuters traveling to or from central Philadelphia via the Norristown High Speed line. However, this analysis assumed that a large portion of commuters will still drive alone to work, and that the Montgomery County average rate would be representative of the future King of Prussia Business Park with improved transit service. The DVRPC study found that 83.5% of Montgomery County commuters drove alone to

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

work while 8.6% carpooled. The carpools were considered 4% of the total number of trips, creating an 87.5% modal split for automobile trips to developments within the study area. Due to the auto oriented design of the King of Prussia region, the modal split reduction was only applied to residential and office space trips. New trips versus pass-by trips were also taken into account when analyzing the trips generated by the proposed developments. The ITE Trip Generation Handbook second edition (2004) defines a pass-by trip as one made as an intermediate stop on the way from an origin to a primary trip destination without a route diversion. Pass-by trips are trips attracted from existing traffic already passing the site. For the anticipated development, it was assumed that the residential and office uses would not have any pass-by trips. To determine pass-by rates for the commercial space, shopping center pass-by trip data tables from the ITE Trip Generation Handbook were used. The pass-by rate at a location in nearby Tredyffrin Township, PA was used for comparison due to a similar average 24 hour traffic volume (10,000 vehicles per day in ITE study versus 12,530 vehicles per day on First Avenue between Gulph Road and Allendale Road as measured by DVRPC in 2006) and its geographic proximity to King of Prussia, PA. Using this information, it was determined that a pass-by trip rate of 25% was appropriate to use for the anticipated east and west end developments. Each proposed development site is anticipated to consist of several mixed uses. With a mixture of uses present at each site, several of the trips are anticipated to be internal trips that are captured within the mixed use development. The percent of internal trips for each type of use were calculated using the Multi-Use Development Trip Generation and Internal capture Summary worksheet from the ITE Trip Generation Handbook. The capture rates provided in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 in the Trip Generation Handbook were used with the exception of changing the capture rates to 10% for “to Residential from Retail,” “from Residential to Retail,” and “to Office from Retail.” The internal trip worksheet calculations are provided in Appendix D. Tables 5 and 6 summarize the anticipated peak hour trips to/from the proposed east and west end developments during the morning and afternoon peak hours.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Table 5 – West End Development Trip Generation WEST END DEVELOPMENT ITE TRIP GENERATION LAND USE DESCRIPTION

WEEKDAY IN

#220 – Apartment – 88 units Internal Trip Reduction (11%) (PM Peak Only) Modal Split (12.5%) Total Apartment #710 – General Office Building – 20,000 sf Internal Trip Reduction (11%) (PM Peak Only) Modal Split (12.5%) Total Office #912 – Drive-in Bank – 5,000 sf Internal Trip Reduction (5%) (PM Peak Only) Pass-by Trips (25%) Total Bank #931 – Quality Restaurant – 15,000 sf Internal Trip Reduction (5%) (PM Peak Only) Pass-by Trips (25%)

TOTAL NEW TRIPS

A.M. PEAK OUT TOTAL

IN

P.M. PEAK OUT TOTAL

9 0 -1

36 0 -5

45 0 -6

35 -4 -3

19 -2 -2

54 -6 -5

8

31

39

28

15

43

27 0 -3

4 0 -1

31 0 -4

5 0 -1

25 -3 -3

30 -3 -4

24

3

27

4

19

23

35 0 -9

27 0 -7

62 0 -16

65 -4 -15

65 -4 -15

130 -8 -30

26

20

46

46

46

92

6 0 -1

6 0 -1

12 0 -2

75 -4 -18

37 -2 -9

112 -6 -27

5

5

10

53

26

79

63

59

122

131

106

237

The western site is expected to generate 122 new vehicle trips and 18 pass-by trips during a typical weekday AM peak hour and 237 new vehicle trips and 24 pass-by trips during a typical weekday PM peak hour.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Table 6 – East End Development Trip Generation EAST END DEVELOPMENT ITE TRIP GENERATION LAND USE DESCRIPTION

WEEKDAY IN

#220 – Apartment – 288 units Internal Trip Reduction (11%) (PM Peak Only) Modal Split (12.5%) Total Apartment #710 – General Office Building – 121,000 sf Internal Trip Reduction (11%) (PM Peak Only) Modal Split (12.5%) Total Office #820 – Shopping Center – 55,000 sf Internal Trip Reduction (5%) (PM Peak Only) Pass-by Trips (25%) Total Retail #912 – Drive-in Bank – 6,000 sf Internal Trip Reduction (5%) (PM Peak Only) Pass-by Trips (25%) Total Bank #931 – Quality Restaurant – 10,000 sf Internal Trip Reduction (5%) (PM Peak Only) Pass-by Trips (25%)

TOTAL NEW TRIPS

A.M. PEAK OUT TOTAL

IN

P.M. PEAK OUT TOTAL

29 0 -3

118 0 -15

147 0 -18

116 -13 -13

62 -7 -7

179 -20 -20

26

103

129

90

48

139

165 0 -21

23 0 -3

188 0 -24

30 -4 -2

150 -16 -18

180 -20 -20

144

20

164

24

116

140

34 0 -9

21 0 -5

55 0 -14

101 -5 -24

105 -5 -25

205 -10 -49

25

16

41

72

75

146

41 0 -10

33 0 -8

74 0 -18

77 -4 -18

77 -4 -18

154 -8 -36

31

25

56

55

55

110

4 0 -1

4 0 -1

8 0 -2

50 -3 -12

25 -1 -6

75 -4 -18

3

3

6

35

18

53

229

167

396

276

312

588

The eastern site is expected to generate 396 new vehicle trips and 34 pass-by trips during a typical weekday AM peak hour and 588 new vehicle trips and 103 pass-by trips during a typical weekday PM peak hour. A summary of the detailed trip generation calculations is provided in Appendix D.

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Fiirst Avenue & Moore Roa ad – ‘Road D Diet’ & Pedestria an/Bicycle Im mprovementt Feasibility S Study

Trip Disttribution an nd Assignm ment The trips s generated by the devellopment of the sites are distributed in accordance with proje ected travel patterns on the study area a roadways. Trip distrib ution into an nd out of the e study area a was calculate ed based on n existing tra affic counts. Three mai n access po oints were cconsidered w when determining how trip ps would app proach and leave each development site. Thesse access p points were the intersection n of First Ave enue & Gulp ph Road, Firrst Avenue & Allendale R Road, and M Moore Road & Valley V Forge e Road. It was determined that morre vehicles e exited the stu udy area thrrough the inters section of Moore M Road & Valley Forrge Road th an entered through thiss intersection n and that more e vehicles entered e the study s area via v First Ave enue & Gulp ph Road tha an exited thrrough this intersection. This is due to the presenc ce of an off rramp from R Route 422 eastbound att First Avenue while w there is no on ram mp to Route e 422 westb ound at thiss location. T To access R Route 422 wes stbound, trafffic must us se Valley Forge Road. The anticcipated distrribution of ttraffic entering and exiting the t proposed developments is show wn in Figure es 12 and 13 3 below.

Figure 12 1 – Overall Entering E Trip p Distribution n

Figure e 13 – Overall Exiting Trip Distributio on

For the purposes p of this study, itt was anticip pated that tra affic would e enter the devvelopment ssite at the first access a pointt it passes. For examplle, if a vehiccle was trave eling to the w west end sitte via Moore Road R they would w enter the site wiithout proce eeding throu ugh the inte ersection of First Avenue & Moore Ro oad. The trip ps to each site s were asssigned throu ughout the sstudy interse ection based on n existing turrning movem ment volume es. t approac ching and departing d the e site is dep picted in Fig gures 14 and 15. The distrribution for trips Figures 16, 17, 18 and a 19 show w how the trrips were asssigned to th he roadway network for each of the an nticipated de evelopments in both the AM and PM M 2025 cond ditions. Deta ailed calcula ations showing how the an nticipated trips were dis stributed to the roadwa ay network can be found in Appendiix D.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Background Growth Rates The Act 209 Land Use Assumption Report prepared by Upper Merion indicates that approximately 95% of Upper Merion Township is currently developed. This study analyzes the specific development occurring along First Avenue and Moore Road. It is anticipated that there will be no further traffic growth on these roadways beyond what has been projected for the East End and West End developments. It is anticipated that the only background traffic growth in the study area will occur on the roadways that connect King of Prussia to other locations in the region. A background growth rate was applied to the regional roadways of Gulph Road and Valley Forge Road. An annual growth rate of 0.76% as obtained from the PennDOT Growth Factors for 2012 (Appendix D) was applied to the through movements on Gulph Road and Valley Forge Road at the study area intersections. Future Operational Condition Analysis Operational conditions of the study intersections during the peak hours were evaluated based on the future peak hour traffic volumes with the anticipated development within the study area. The performance of the study intersections under future 2025 traffic conditions were evaluated through Level of Service analysis. Future volumes for the 2025 build conditions can be found in Figure 20. When evaluating the future 2025 conditions, the signal timing and phasing at the study area intersections was optimized for the anticipated conditions for both the existing lane configurations and the ‘Road Diet’ configurations, in order to minimize delays and queue lengths and evaluate the actual impact, and therefore feasibility, of the ‘Road Diet’ configuration. Overall intersection Level of Service comparisons for both the existing 2012 and anticipated 2025 traffic volumes are summarized in Tables 7 and 8 below. Table 7 – 2025 AM Peak Hour Overall Intersection Operation Intersection First Avenue and Allendale Road First Avenue and American Avenue First Avenue and Moore Road First Avenue and Gulph Road/SR 0422 Ramps Moore Road and 8th Avenue Moore Road and Valley Forge Road

2012 Existing Configuration

2012 w/ ‘Road Diet’

2025 Existing Configuration

2025 w/ ‘Road Diet’

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

10.3

B

11.4

B

11.1

B

11.6

B

10.2

B

11.0

B

9.5

A

11.9

B

15.0

B

20.9

C

16.4

B

36.2

D

20.9

C

23.2

C

23.3

C

23.2

C

2.2

A

1.8

A

2.1

A

1.7

A

23.9

C

24.3

C

35.1

D

35.1

D

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Table 8 – 2025 PM Peak Hour Overall Intersection Operation

Intersection First Avenue and Allendale Road First Avenue and American Avenue First Avenue and Moore Road First Avenue and Gulph Road/SR 0422 Ramps Moore Road and 8th Avenue Moore Road and Valley Forge Road

2012 Existing Configuration

2025 Existing Configuration

2012 w/ ‘Road Diet’

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

20.0

C

20.8

C

25.1

11.1

B

18.2

B

26.2

C

26.4

38.0

D

4.8 46.8

2025 w/ ‘Road Diet’ Delay (Seconds)

Level of Service

C

25.1

C

10.9

B

30.1

C

C

34.5

C

45.7

D

37.7

D

53.3

D

54.7

D

A

4.0

A

5.3

A

4.0

A

D

46.8

D

77.3

E

77.6

E

For comparison purposes, the average speed, travel time, and arterial Level of Service were also evaluated for the anticipated year 2025 traffic volume conditions, with both the existing intersection lane configurations and the potential ‘road diet’ configurations. These results are summarized in Tables 9 and 10. Table 9 – 2025 AM Peak Hour Overall Corridor Performance 2025 Existing Configuration* Intersection

2025 w/ ‘Road Diet’*

Average Travel Time (seconds)

Average Speed (mph)

Level of Service

Average Travel Time (seconds)

Average Speed (mph)

Level of Service

Eastbound First Avenue

198.8

21.6

C

243.9

17.6

D

Westbound First Avenue

170.6

25.2

B

182.4

23.6

C

Northbound Moore Road

90.7

21.3

B

90.6

21.3

B

Southbound Moore Road

86.8

22.3

B

136.5

14.1

C

*assumes optimized signal timing/phasing

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Table 10 – 2025 PM Peak Overall Corridor Performance 2025 Existing Configuration* Intersection

2025 w/ ‘Road Diet’*

Average Travel Time (seconds)

Average Speed (mph)

Level of Service

Average Travel Time (seconds)

Average Speed (mph)

Level of Service

Eastbound First Avenue

182.0

23.6

C

217.0

19.8

C

Westbound First Avenue

214.8

20.0

C

237.0

18.2

C

Northbound Moore Road

100.0

19.3

B

100.0

19.3

B

Southbound Moore Road

119.9

16.1

C

167.7

11.5

D

*assumes optimized signal timing/phasing

A discussion of the impacts of the proposed traffic volumes throughout the study area follows. ‘Road Diet’ Impacts on Traffic As previously mentioned, the intersections of First Avenue & Gulph Road, Moore Road & Valley Forge Road, and First Avenue & Allendale Road are anticipated to remain in their existing configuration after the potential ‘Road Diet’ is implemented. The future 2025 Level of Service conditions and 95th percentile queues at these intersections with a ‘Road Diet’ are similar to the 2025 conditions without a ‘Road Diet’. At the intersection of First Avenue and Allendale Road, the future 2025 conditions do not exhibit any major delays on any of the approaches. At the intersection of First Avenue and N. Gulph Road, the northbound through movements exhibit the largest delays and queues during the PM Peak period in both 2025 scenarios. In each 2025 PM scenario, the northbound queues do not reach the adjacent intersection at Freedom Business Center. Modifying the signal timing at this intersection will help to accommodate the future traffic volumes generated by the east and west end developments in addition to increases in regional traffic on N. Gulph Road. The intersection of Moore Road and Valley Forge Road has the largest delays on the northbound and westbound approaches during the 2025 PM peak period. Large volumes of vehicles traveling west on Valley Forge Road and large volumes of vehicles turning left from Moore Road northbound to Valley Forge Road westbound contribute to the large delays. Modifying the signal timing at this intersection will help to accommodate the future traffic volumes generated by the east and west end developments in addition to increases in regional traffic on Valley Forge Road. The northbound left turn 95 th percentile queues in the ‘Road Diet’ scenario remain similar to the queues in the existing layout scenario even with the left most northbound left turn lane limited by the entrance into the ITT Technical Institute Campus. The ‘Road Diet’ has the largest impact on the performance of the intersection of First Avenue and Moore Road. At this intersection, the ‘Road Diet’ is removing an eastbound and westbound through lane in each direction. During the 2025 AM peak hour, the overall intersection delay is projected to increase from 16.4 seconds (LOS ‘B’) to 36.2 (LOS ‘D’) seconds if the ‘Road Diet’ was implemented. The eastbound through movements saw the largest increase in delay. In both cases, the 95th percentile queues remained within the available storage space and no

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

significant queuing was observed. During the 2025 PM peak hour, the overall intersection delay was projected to increase from 34.5 seconds (LOS ‘C’) to 45.7 seconds (LOS ‘D’) after the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’. The westbound through movement experienced the largest increase in delays and queues. After the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’, the westbound through 95th percentile queue increased to approximately 1000’ from a queue of approximately 350’ without a ‘Road Diet’. Although the queues extended to this length, they did not grow further over the course of the full peak-hour simulation, and did not create any adverse effects at other intersections within the study area. The westbound right turn lane was included to provide additional capacity for the large right-turning volume anticipated. The southbound through/left turn lane also experiences larger delays queues after the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’. The southbound through/left 95 th percentile queue remains within the 400’ of storage space recommended on Moore Road. Although the delays and queues increased on these two approaches, the intersection continued to function without creating a bottleneck that would impact adjacent intersections. The intersection of First Avenue and American Avenue also experienced an overall increase in delay during the 2025 conditions after the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’. During the AM peak, the eastbound through movement delay is projected to increase by only 2.4 seconds after a ‘Road Diet’ was implemented. However, the PM peak showed a larger increase as the eastbound through movement delay increased by 19.2 seconds, from 10.9 seconds without a ‘Road Diet’ to 30.1 seconds if the ‘Road Diet’ were implemented. The eastbound 95th percentile queues also increased during the PM peak after the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’ but did not have an impact on adjacent intersections. At the intersection of Moore Road and 8 th Avenue, the overall intersection delay decreased in the 2025 scenario after the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’. In both the AM and PM scenarios, the delay on Moore Road increased slightly but the delay for the turning movements from 8th Avenue to Moore Road decreased. The 95 th percentile queues on both Moore Road and 8th Avenue remained at levels similar to the 2025 condition without a ‘Road Diet’ after the ‘Road Diet’ was implemented. With regard to the overall corridor operation, the implementation of the ‘Road Diet’ is projected to increase the average travel time and reduce the average travel speed for Eastbound and Westbound First Avenue, and Southbound Moore Road, during both the AM and PM peak hours.

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Potential Uses for Remaining Roadway Space with ‘Road Diet’ Implementing a ‘Road Diet’ along First Avenue and Moore Road can create additional roadway space as a result of the roadway cross section being reduced from either four or five lanes to three lanes. The excess roadway space can be used for a wide variety of applications, some of which are discussed below. Bicycle Lanes Commonly, the result of a ‘Road Diet’ enables additional roadway space that can be used to provide space for on road bike lanes. The AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities (1999) recommends that bike lanes are a minimum of 5 feet in width on roadways where curbing is present. The 40-foot wide cross section found on many portions of First Avenue and Moore Road provides adequate width for two 10 foot travel lanes, a 10 foot center turning lane, and two 5 foot bike lanes to be striped if the ‘Road Diet’ is implemented. On-street bicycle lanes (or off-street multi-use pedestrian/bicycle trails, discussed in a subsequent section) within the study area can provide commuters and residents of the area with an additional transportation option to reach their destinations. Due to the distance between adjacent properties, biking may be a more realistic alternative transportation option to use than walking. The large property parcels create blocks that are ¼ to ½ mile in length between intersections. These long distances, combined with the lack of buildings or other features to keep a pedestrian engaged with their surroundings, may make walking within the area an unattractive option, but are short enough for bicycle trips between destinations. First Avenue is 1 ¼ miles long from end to end while Moore Road is ½ mile long. While an average person typically will not walk more than ¼ mile to reach their destination or a transit stop to take them to their destination, an average person can comfortably bicycle 2-3 miles to reach their destination. In addition to connecting the properties within the King of Prussia Business Park with additional transportation mode choices, the installation of bike lanes can be used to help create a bicycle network that will connect the area to Valley Forge National Park and the Schuylkill River Trail. Both Valley Forge Park and the Schuylkill River Trail contain large amounts of bicycle facilities that are used for recreation and as a transportation link to connect the Valley Forge area to other locations along the Schuylkill River. The installation of bike lanes on First Avenue and Moore Road will help connect the King of Prussia area to the southeast Pennsylvania region’s bicycle network. If on-street bicycle lanes are pursued, careful consideration needs to be given to how the bike lanes are designed through the study area intersections, particularly the intersection of First Avenue and Moore Road. Problems at intersections can arise when cyclists want to travel straight through the intersection while motorists may want to make a right hand turn. Currently, the AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities states that at major intersections bike lane markings should go from a solid to a dashed line with additional markings that encourage right turning motorists and bicyclists traveling straight to merge before the intersection to reduce conflicts. Additional pavement markings and colored bike lanes can also help to warn drivers of a cyclist’s presence at intersections.

PENNONI ASSOCIATES INC. Consulting Engineers

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Pedestrian Improvements - New & Improved Sidewalks/Curb Bump Outs Currently First Avenue and Moore Road have limited pedestrian infrastructure in place. First Avenue has sidewalks along some portions of the roadway, but is not continuous in most areas. Moore Road does not have any sidewalk. The additional roadway space gained by the ‘Road Diet’ could be used to narrow the roadways, and relocate the curb lines to either widen or add pedestrian facilities within the study area. Or in lieu of relocating the curb lines for large segments of roadway, curb bump outs could be installed at intersections to shorten the distance required to cross the street and reduce the turning radii to help calm traffic. If sidewalk facilities are improved, we would recommend that a buffer area be provided between the motor vehicle travel lanes and the pedestrian area. User stress levels on multi-use paths or sidewalks tend to increase when the paths are directly adjacent to high speed traffic lanes with no protection barrier or buffer. Transit Stop Improvements The Route 99 and 125 SEPTA buses use First Avenue as part of their route. The additional roadway space provided by the ‘Road Diet’ could also be used to create improved bus shelter areas or additional dedicated bus pull-off lanes to remove the buses from the traffic lane. Improving the pedestrian connections to the bus stops and making the wait at the bus stop a more pleasant experience may help to encourage more people to utilize transit. Currently standard bus shelters are present along the curb line in many locations. A more attractive shelter design can contribute to a positive identity. A great variety of pre-fabricated shelter structures are available in the marketplace, and these can easily be customized in virtually unlimited fashion to create a stylish structure well-coordinated with the design of light poles, furnishings, and other streetscape elements. Shoulder(s)/Parking Lane(s) The excess roadway space could also be converted into a shoulder area, either 5’ on either side of the roadway, or a full 10’ on one side of the roadway in most areas. The shoulder area(s) could function similarly to a bicycle lane, with the exception of not having bicycle markings or special treatments through intersections. The shoulder area(s) could also function as a space for buses to pull out of the travel lane, or serve as an emergency parking and stopping area. On street parking does not appear to be necessary along First Avenue or Moore Road, given the current adjacent land uses, as observations indicate that all of the properties along these roadways have large amount of surface parking lots surrounding their buildings. However, onstreet parking may be a viable alternative in several areas if adjacent properties are redeveloped. Although it is not ideal, the shoulder can also provide a space for pedestrians to walk along the roadway in sections that do not contain sidewalks. Also, creating unmarked shoulder area(s) could serve as a temporary design until funds are available for major streetscape enhancements or other significant modifications. Comprehensive Streetscape Design Alternatives and Other Off-Street Improvements Dependent upon whether a ‘Road Diet’ is pursued by Upper Merion Township and the King of Prussia BID or not, there are opportunities to incorporate a number of typical Streetscape features in combination with any of the above referenced measures. Comprehensive improvements to the streetscape environment of First Avenue and Moore Road would beautify

PENNONI ASSOCIATES INC. Consulting Engineers

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

the street frontages, buffer pedestrians physically and psychologically from vehicular traffic, enhance the distinct identity as a desirable place to be, and provide public infrastructure as a catalyst for new mixed-use development. Specific streetscape elements, in addition to the measures discussed above, may also include: 

Gateways At key intersections on the perimeter of the Business Park, gateway signage and landscape treatments will provide an identity for the area and welcome visitors. The BID is currently seeking professional services for the design of gateway treatments at three locations.

Landscaping & Green Areas If the ‘Road Diet’ concept is pursued, the excess roadway space provides opportunities for increased landscaping along First Avenue and/or Moore Road. The roadway lanes can be shifted to provide landscaped medians or landscaped bump outs throughout the corridors. Landscaping can also be used to create a buffer between automobile traffic and existing or new areas of sidewalk or multi-use trails, improving the experience for pedestrians and bicyclists. While the BID has limited maintenance capacity, enhanced landscaping deployed at key locations can brighten the street considerably and add a festive and seasonally celebratory atmosphere. When concentrated in key areas, high-quality landscaping can signal the entry to the district at gateway locations, and convey a distinct sense of place. Maintenance of landscape features is vitally important. Funding mechanisms and responsibilities for maintenance should be identified before committing capital funds for implementation. The large scale of the streets and availability of adequate space for plantings suggests that urban-style hanging flower baskets and container planters are not appropriate for this location. Instead, in-ground planting beds within or alongside the sidewalk allow the highest degree of intensity for landscaping, and can incorporate a great diversity of plant materials including trees, shrubs, ornamental grasses, perennials, and annual flowers. These can also serve as an effective buffer between the street and sidewalk. Concentrated at key intersections, intensely-planted landscaped areas can serve as dynamic gateway entry features requiring a much lower capital investment than architectural gateway treatments. Ultimately, portions of the shoulder could be used for storm water infiltration. Areas of paving can be removed and replaced with planted “rain gardens” to collect storm water from the street and bypass the piped conveyance system. This can serve as a visible demonstration of environmentally responsible storm water management practices. Substituting planting for paving will help to beautify the street, and planted shoulders will help to calm traffic.

Decorative/Textured Crosswalks At key intersections where future pedestrian activity is envisioned, decorative crosswalks are a tool that can be useful in signifying the possible presence of pedestrians to motorists. They contribute to the overall impression of a quality public environment. There are a number of materials and techniques available to construct decorative crosswalks. Pattered pavement markings are relatively low-cost and available in a wide variety of colors and

PENNONI ASSOCIATES INC. Consulting Engineers

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

styles. Precast concrete pavers are higher cost but more durable, and can be designed to withstand vehicular traffic and coordinate with the design of sidewalk paving. 

Improved Lighting Currently, neither First Avenue nor Moore Road have adequate lighting. In fact, there is almost none. This presents safety concerns for vehicular traffic, and also is a strong discouragement to pedestrian and bicycle traffic in winter months and during evening hours. While there are presently no significant evening destinations within the Business Park, the hope is that such establishments can be developed in the future. Lighting of streets and public areas is part of the basic infrastructure that will be necessary to support such development. A high-performing and attractive system of street lighting poles should be installed on both sides of the street for First Avenue and Moore Road. Spacing should be consistent and coordinated with the spacing of other streetscape elements. Given the wide scale of the streets, a suitably-scaled light pole should be selected. Pole height should be 18-24 feet. Smaller 12-15 foot high “pedestrian scale” fixtures may appear too small and require too close a spacing. Many fixtures of the appropriate scale and style are available in the marketplace.

Street Trees The presence of street trees along First Avenue and Moore Road is inconsistent. Trees are present in some locations, but there are long stretches with none. The result is a somewhat harsh and pedestrian-unfriendly environment. A comprehensive street tree planting along the roadway shoulders will enhance the perception of this as a pedestrian-oriented place, and greatly enhance the comfort of pedestrians due to increased shade and buffering from vehicular traffic. Canopy trees will also help to mitigate the scale of the street, providing an important sense of enclosure for pedestrians. New street tree plantings should be consistently spaced at approximately 40-50 feet. A variety of appropriate species should be used, to avoid monoculture. Given the scale of the streets, recommended species should be large shade trees such as maples and oaks.

Pedestrian Amenities Currently there are no meaningful pedestrian amenities in the study area (due largely to the fact that there are few pedestrians). As a pedestrian infrastructure develops over time, and changes in land use prompt more pedestrian activity, supporting amenities such as benches, trash receptacles, and bicycle racks, provide design uniformity and contribute to a positive overall image. A coordinated system of street furnishings should relate in design style to the chosen light fixture. Furnishings should be placed at regular consistent intervals to create a logical pattern on the street that ties into sidewalk paving patterns, light pole locations, and other features such as bus stops.

Wayfinding Signage and Identity Elements Currently the BID installs colorful decorative banners on certain major streets in the vicinity, including Moore Road. These are effective in adding vibrancy to the street and to communicate a positive message and strong sense of place. Lack of such banners on First

PENNONI ASSOCIATES INC. Consulting Engineers

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

Avenue is most likely due to the lack of street light or utility poles for mounting. New lighting on First Avenue can provide this opportunity for banners. The BID is currently engaged in a Similarly, a coordinated graphic system of wayfinding and identification signs is an important way to enhance the visual identity of the district and assist visitors in finding key destinations. These add greatly to an overall welcoming atmosphere. The BID should continue to extend its overall branding efforts to encompass such signage types. For the purpose of this Study, we have prepared concept sketches of two alternatives that incorporate the elements discussed above. Alternative 1 proposes to accomplish the cartway lane reduction through use of striping and pavement markings. Pedestrian and bicycle circulation is accommodated with a paved off-road side path separated from the street by landscaped buffer. This Alternative is seen as a low cost option to establish the new vehicular and pedestrian/bicycle circulation patterns, and provide the framework for other amenities to be added over time. Alternative 2 proposes a full build-out of amenities to create a Landscaped Boulevard as the centerpiece of a welcoming and attractive public environment. In this scheme, landscaped medians and curb bump-outs replace painted pavement markings, higher grade materials convey a sense of quality, and lights, signs, seasonal landscaping, and street furnishings reinforce a strong positive identity for the district.

PENNONI ASSOCIATES INC. Consulting Engineers

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Project Area Legend Major Streets Secondary Streets Key Intersections Gateways Rail Corridor Stream Corridor

1st Avenue

1.25 miles

Project Area August 2012


First Avenue – Existing Roadway 4-lane cross-section

First Avenue – Existing Conditions August 2012


Alternative 1 3-lane cross-section

Alternative 2 3-lane cross-section with median and Landscape Amenities

Proposed Road Diet August 2012


First Avenue

Enlarged plan: First Avenue, intersection with Moore Road

First Avenue Intersection August 2012


Enlarged plan: First Avenue

First Avenue Median August 2012


First Avenue - Existing

Landscaped Boulevard: Proposed Road Diet with Median and Streetscape Amenities

Landscaped Boulevard August 2012


Curb Bump-Outs

Crosswalks

Landscaped Median

Streetscape Amenities August 2012


Storm Water Management Practices

Light Pole and Banners

Street Furnishings

Streetscape Amenities August 2012


First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

OPINION OF PROBABLE COSTS The anticipated costs of the implantation of a ‘Road Diet’ will depend upon the final selection of project limits, along with the inclusion and level of adjacent off-street modifications and improvements. In summary, we evaluated the following scenarios for the purposes of this feasibility study: Option

Description

Opinion of Probable Cost

First Avenue - Road Diet

Pavement marking modifications only (including mill/overlay).

Design Right-of-Way Utility Adjustments Construction Inspection

$84,000 ($479,000)

Moore Road – Road Diet

Pavement marking modifications only (including mill/overlay).

Design Right-of-Way Utility Adjustments Construction Inspection

$55,000 ($220,000)

First Avenue Streetscape Alternative 1

Including ramps.

ADA

Design Right-of-Way Utility Adjustments Construction Inspection

$2,150,000

First Avenue Streetscape Alternative 2

Including alternative 1 and additional rain gardens, planted median, street trees, lighting, furniture, intersection bumpouts and decorative crosswalks.

Design Right-of-Way Utility Adjustments Construction Inspection

$720,000

Moore Road – Streetscape Alternative 1

Including ramps.

ADA

Design Right-of-Way Utility Adjustments Construction Inspection

$4,400,000

Moore Road – Streetscape Alternative 2

Including alternative 1 and additional rain gardens, planted median, street trees, lighting, furniture, intersection bumpouts and decorative crosswalks.

Design Right-of-Way Utility Adjustments Construction Inspection

$1,500,000

PENNONI ASSOCIATES INC. Consulting Engineers

sidewalk-path,

sidewalk-path,

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First Avenue & Moore Road – ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study

CONCLUSIONS The analyses summarized in this document has shown that implementing a ‘Road Diet’ on First Avenue and Moore Road can be done along their entire lengths without creating significant increases in delay and queue length at the study area intersections when considering existing 2012 traffic volumes and patterns. The intersections which currently experience the largest overall delay, First Avenue & Gulph Road, First Avenue & Allendale Road, and Moore Road & Valley Forge Road, are all located on the edge of the study area and will not be significantly impacted by the implementation of a ‘Road Diet’. If additional development occurs as expected by the KOP BID, The intersection of First Avenue and Moore Road will experience the largest increase in delay and 95 th percentile queue lengths as the result of the implementation of a ‘Road Diet’. These increases are greatest during the PM peak period, and result in intersection Level of Service degrading from a ‘C’ with the existing lane configuration to a ‘D’ with the ‘Road Diet’ configuration, and an increase in the 95th percentile queue lengths from 350’ to 1000’ on the westbound First Avenue through movement approach to the intersection and from 228’ to 368’ on the southbound Moore Road through/left turn lane with the ‘Road Diet’ configuration. During the AM peak period, the largest increase in queue length as a result of the ‘Road Diet’ occurred on the eastbound through movement and resulted in an increase in the 95th percentile queues of 127’ to 363’. It was found that although the queues reach these lengths, they do not impact adjacent intersections and do not extend beyond these lengths over the course of the peak hour simulation. However, these changes will be practically noticeable to motorists in the area, and the single lane sections between the study area intersections will limit vehicular mobility and speed through the area. If the ‘Road Diet’ configuration is pursued, there are numerous alternatives for the use of the excess space created. There are also numerous streetscape improvements that can be implemented along the corridor both with and without the implementation of a ‘Road Diet’ along the study area roadways. Recommended next steps include community involvement with stakeholders in the area to explain the positive and negative aspects associated with the ‘Road Diet’ concept if implemented along First Avenue and Moore Road. Also, it may be possible to implement a ‘Road Diet’ configuration as a pilot project basis using temporary elements, in order to conduct actual measurements regarding safety and operations impacts before deciding whether to keep it permanently and/or whether to fund enhanced design features and a more permanent solution. Ideally, if a ‘Road Diet’ project is ultimately implemented on a permanent basis, the project should be coordinated with a pavement overlay project, if possible.

PENNONI ASSOCIATES INC. Consulting Engineers

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Profile for King of Prussia District

First Avenue & Moore Road ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study  

First Avenue & Moore Road ‘Road Diet’ & Pedestrian/Bicycle Improvement Feasibility Study  

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