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Copyrighted Material Text and design copyright © Toucan Books Ltd. 2011 Based on an original concept by Toucan Books Ltd. Illustrations copyright © Simon Basher 2011 First published 2011 by Kingfisher Published in the United States by Kingfisher, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010 Kingfisher is an imprint of Macmillan Children’s Books, London. All rights reserved. Distributed in the U.S. by Macmillan, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010 Distributed in Canada by H.B. Fenn and Company Ltd., 34 Nixon Road, Bolton, Ontario L7E 1W2 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data has been applied for. ISBN 978-0-7534-3083-5 Consultant: Kwêsi Edman Designed and created by Basher www.basherbooks.com Text written by Dan Green Dedicated to my dad Kingfisher books are available for special promotions and premiums. For details contact: Special Markets Department, Macmillan, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010. For more information, please visit www.kingfisherbooks.com Printed in China 987654321 1TR/0411/UG/WKT/140MA

Note to readers: the website addresses listed above are correct at the time of going to print. However, due to the ever-changing nature of the Internet, website addresses and content can change. Websites can contain links that are unsuitable for children. The publisher cannot be held responsible for changes in website addresses or content or for information obtained through a third party. We strongly advise that Internet searches should be supervised by an adult.

CONTENTS Introduction Sound Musical Marvels Noteworthy Nerds Rowdy Bunch Sweet Sounds Index Glossary

4 6 8 22 36 48 60 62


Copyrighted Material

Text and design copyright © Toucan Books Ltd. 2011 Based on an original concept by Toucan Books Ltd. Illustrations copyright © Simon Basher 2011 First published 2011 by Kingfisher Published in the United States by Kingfisher, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010 Kingfisher is an imprint of Macmillan Children’s Books, London. All rights reserved. Distributed in the U.S. by Macmillan, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010 Distributed in Canada by H.B. Fenn and Company Ltd., 34 Nixon Road, Bolton, Ontario L7E 1W2 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data has been applied for. ISBN 978-0-7534-3083-5 Consultant: Kwêsi Edman Designed and created by Basher www.basherbooks.com Text written by Dan Green Dedicated to my dad Kingfisher books are available for special promotions and premiums. For details contact: Special Markets Department, Macmillan, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010. For more information, please visit www.kingfisherbooks.com Printed in China 987654321 1TR/0411/UG/WKT/140MA

Note to readers: the website addresses listed above are correct at the time of going to print. However, due to the ever-changing nature of the Internet, website addresses and content can change. Websites can contain links that are unsuitable for children. The publisher cannot be held responsible for changes in website addresses or content or for information obtained through a third party. We strongly advise that Internet searches should be supervised by an adult.

CONTENTS Introduction Sound Musical Marvels Noteworthy Nerds Rowdy Bunch Sweet Sounds Index Glossary

4 6 8 22 36 48 60 62


Sound

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Cacophonous character created by vibrating air molecules Has four traits: pitch, volume, timbre, sound-source location You are surrounded by this guy wherever you go

I’m the “vibey” kinda dude that really gets a place thumpin’. Your world is alive with my hullabaloo: sirens; cell phones; the hum of traffic and squeal of brakes; the buzz of people chattering; cups, plates, and silverware clattering. Out in the countryside, there I am again—in birdsong, flowing rivers, rain, and thunder. At my most basic, I am a vibration—a disturbance in molecules of air that travel to your ear. You can make me by hitting a drum, blowing through a tube, plucking a string, or just by clapping your hands—anything that generates energy to move molecules in the air. Music takes me one magical step farther. It goes beyond making sound to create textures and combinations that speak to the emotions. Just feel those vibes!

Sound Speed of sound in air: 1,083 ft. (330m)/sec. Deepest-ever concert: 994 ft. (303m) below sea level (Katie Melua, 2006) World’s largest and loudest instrument: Atlantic City Boardwalk Hall Auditorium Organ 6


Sound

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Cacophonous character created by vibrating air molecules Has four traits: pitch, volume, timbre, sound-source location You are surrounded by this guy wherever you go

I’m the “vibey” kinda dude that really gets a place thumpin’. Your world is alive with my hullabaloo: sirens; cell phones; the hum of traffic and squeal of brakes; the buzz of people chattering; cups, plates, and silverware clattering. Out in the countryside, there I am again—in birdsong, flowing rivers, rain, and thunder. At my most basic, I am a vibration—a disturbance in molecules of air that travel to your ear. You can make me by hitting a drum, blowing through a tube, plucking a string, or just by clapping your hands—anything that generates energy to move molecules in the air. Music takes me one magical step farther. It goes beyond making sound to create textures and combinations that speak to the emotions. Just feel those vibes!

Sound Speed of sound in air: 1,083 ft. (330m)/sec. Deepest-ever concert: 994 ft. (303m) below sea level (Katie Melua, 2006) World’s largest and loudest instrument: Atlantic City Boardwalk Hall Auditorium Organ 6


Pitch

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Musical Marvels The most basic quality of a sound—how high or low it is A single sound at an unchanging pitch is called a note Pitch is measured in Hertz, but notes are known by letters A–G

I am the first thing you notice about Sound—how high or low it is. But—beware—for in the wrong hands, I can be a dangerous weapon! I’m what makes Note sound clear and regular, and I’m all about good vibrations. The more vibrations per second, the higher the sound of the note you hear. Twang a short string or blow a short pipe and Note goes high. A wide, thick, or long string or pipe has the opposite effect, with Note heading way down low. While musical sound is pitched at just the right level, some sounds are above the range of hearing (ultrasonic), and others are beneath it (infrasonic). Very high sounds can be painfully piercing, and very low sounds might make you short of breath, want to be sick, or even lose your balance.

Pitch Concert pitch: 440 Hz (A above middle C) Range of human hearing: 25–20,000 Hz Scientific name for pitch: frequency 10

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Pitch

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Musical Marvels The most basic quality of a sound—how high or low it is A single sound at an unchanging pitch is called a note Pitch is measured in Hertz, but notes are known by letters A–G

I am the first thing you notice about Sound—how high or low it is. But—beware—for in the wrong hands, I can be a dangerous weapon! I’m what makes Note sound clear and regular, and I’m all about good vibrations. The more vibrations per second, the higher the sound of the note you hear. Twang a short string or blow a short pipe and Note goes high. A wide, thick, or long string or pipe has the opposite effect, with Note heading way down low. While musical sound is pitched at just the right level, some sounds are above the range of hearing (ultrasonic), and others are beneath it (infrasonic). Very high sounds can be painfully piercing, and very low sounds might make you short of breath, want to be sick, or even lose your balance.

Pitch Concert pitch: 440 Hz (A above middle C) Range of human hearing: 25–20,000 Hz Scientific name for pitch: frequency 10

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Melody

Musical Marvels This chirpy character holds the secret of a good tune A short, catchy musical phrase that gets repeated in a song Can be used as a theme, arranged in different variations

Catchy and irresistible, I’m all hook! Always at the heart of a tune, I’m the piece of music that you can hum. I tend to stick in your head; you just can’t help hearing me long after I’ve been played. My sweet sounds speak to something deep inside your brain, and I get stuck right in there, popping up when you least expect it. I use sequences of notes at different pitches to construct little ditties. My simplest versions are single lines, such as the nursery rhymes you used to sing. You’ll find all of the Musical Marvels embedded in my phrasing—that is, the pattern of my notes. Different styles of music use me in different ways, mixing me with Rhythm and Harmony. Catchy and irresistible, I’m all hook. Sorry? Did I say that already? Well, I do have a habit of repeating myself!

Melody Monophonic music: a single melody played on its own Polyphonic music: two or more melodies played at the same time Homophonic music: a melody played with harmony added 18

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Melody

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Musical Marvels This chirpy character holds the secret of a good tune A short, catchy musical phrase that gets repeated in a song Can be used as a theme, arranged in different variations

Catchy and irresistible, I’m all hook! Always at the heart of a tune, I’m the piece of music that you can hum. I tend to stick in your head; you just can’t help hearing me long after I’ve been played. My sweet sounds speak to something deep inside your brain, and I get stuck right in there, popping up when you least expect it. I use sequences of notes at different pitches to construct little ditties. My simplest versions are single lines, such as the nursery rhymes you used to sing. You’ll find all of the Musical Marvels embedded in my phrasing—that is, the pattern of my notes. Different styles of music use me in different ways, mixing me with Rhythm and Harmony. Catchy and irresistible, I’m all hook. Sorry? Did I say that already? Well, I do have a habit of repeating myself!

Melody Monophonic music: a single melody played on its own Polyphonic music: two or more melodies played at the same time Homophonic music: a melody played with harmony added 18

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Harmony

Musical Marvels Name derives from Greek harmonia, meaning agreement Supports the melody of a tune The biggest influence on the mood of a piece of music

Melody and I are best friends. She tends to hog the limelight, sure, but we get along so well that I’m always happy to play second fiddle! I can be very subtle and am often overlooked—you don’t always realize I’m there—but I do a lot to color the sounds you hear. It’s because of me that music makes you feel a certain way. I can infuse a tune with sad, somber inflections or bolster a ditty with bright, brassy washes. My trick is to layer Pitch on top of Melody’s tinkling line of notes. My careful choice of when to match or partner one note with another determines whether Melody’s line has a smooth jazzy feel to it or has the moody blues! From the pride of the nation to spooked-out scary, you can certainly rely on me to stir up the emotions!

Harmony Harmonies made up of two musical threads include Bach’s two-part inventions Discordant harmony: used in a lot of 20th- and 21st-century music Chorus: made up of several harmonious sounds of a similar pitch 20

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Harmony

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Musical Marvels Name derives from Greek harmonia, meaning agreement Supports the melody of a tune The biggest influence on the mood of a piece of music

Melody and I are best friends. She tends to hog the limelight, sure, but we get along so well that I’m always happy to play second fiddle! I can be very subtle and am often overlooked—you don’t always realize I’m there—but I do a lot to color the sounds you hear. It’s because of me that music makes you feel a certain way. I can infuse a tune with sad, somber inflections or bolster a ditty with bright, brassy washes. My trick is to layer Pitch on top of Melody’s tinkling line of notes. My careful choice of when to match or partner one note with another determines whether Melody’s line has a smooth jazzy feel to it or has the moody blues! From the pride of the nation to spooked-out scary, you can certainly rely on me to stir up the emotions!

Harmony Harmonies made up of two musical threads include Bach’s two-part inventions Discordant harmony: used in a lot of 20th- and 21st-century music Chorus: made up of several harmonious sounds of a similar pitch 20

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Note

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Noteworthy Nerds A single pure and unwavering pitch Has both pitch (high or low) and duration (long or short) Almost all music is made using only 12 different notes

I am one “note-able” character, believe me—the most basic building block of all music; nothing gets made or played without me. Always dressed in black, I sit on—and between—the lines of a musical staff. My rounded forms can be solid or hollow, and I often come with a fancy-looking tail or have a dot by my side. I am the perfect combination of Pitch and duration. My most common form is a quarter note. Four of these little critters make a whole note. Two quarter notes make a half note, and half of a quarter note is an eighth note. I also have different names, determined by Pitch. Seven natural notes make up Scale and are called A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, while my pals Sharp and Flat make up the halftones in between.

Note Flag: a tail attached to a stem, denoting duration Dot: follows a note to indicate that it is one-and-a-half times the value shown CABBAGED: the longest word that can be played on a musical instrument 24

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Note

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Noteworthy Nerds A single pure and unwavering pitch Has both pitch (high or low) and duration (long or short) Almost all music is made using only 12 different notes

I am one “note-able” character, believe me—the most basic building block of all music; nothing gets made or played without me. Always dressed in black, I sit on—and between—the lines of a musical staff. My rounded forms can be solid or hollow, and I often come with a fancy-looking tail or have a dot by my side. I am the perfect combination of Pitch and duration. My most common form is a quarter note. Four of these little critters make a whole note. Two quarter notes make a half note, and half of a quarter note is an eighth note. I also have different names, determined by Pitch. Seven natural notes make up Scale and are called A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, while my pals Sharp and Flat make up the halftones in between.

Note Flag: a tail attached to a stem, denoting duration Dot: follows a note to indicate that it is one-and-a-half times the value shown CABBAGED: the longest word that can be played on a musical instrument 24

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Sharp

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Flat

Noteworthy Nerds

Noteworthy Nerds

Eager-beaver twin who is a note raised by a halftone Can be found on the black keys of a piano (as can Flat) When singing, sharp notes overshoot the correct note

Don’t make a mess of it— I’m no boring #! You hear me when I occur as a passing accidental, but there’s nothing random about me. My snazzy notes deliberately pop out of the key signature. I’m a cut above Flat, my halftone brother. While he stands downwind of a natural note of the same name, I am pitched one halftone higher. That’s me, looking sharp!

#

Flat

Sharp

Written as and placed to the left of the note to be played Not marked by each note if it already appears in the key signature Double sharp: raises the note by two halftones 30

The cooler brother of the black-key twins A note that has been lowered by a halftone When singing, a flat does not reach the correct note

I am one hepcat, and I hang out on the black keys of a piano, among other places. While Sharp overshoots the natural note, I never quite reach it. Instead, I end up one halftone lower. I’m accidental—that is, on purpose, but out of key— and sound cool in the right places. Be careful, though: if you hit a flat when it should be a natural, musicians call me a bum note!

b

Written as and positioned just the same as for a sharp Double flat: lowers the note by two halftones A soft-sounding note in contrast to a sharp’s brighter sound 31


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Sharp Noteworthy Nerds

Noteworthy Nerds

Eager-beaver twin who is a note raised by a halftone Can be found on the black keys of a piano (as can Flat) When singing, sharp notes overshoot the correct note

Don’t make a mess of it— I’m no boring #! You hear me when I occur as a passing accidental, but there’s nothing random about me. My snazzy notes deliberately pop out of the key signature. I’m a cut above Flat, my halftone brother. While he stands downwind of a natural note of the same name, I am pitched one halftone higher. That’s me, looking sharp!

#

The cooler brother of the black-key twins A note that has been lowered by a halftone When singing, a flat does not reach the correct note

Flat

Sharp

Written as and placed to the left of the note to be played Not marked by each note if it already appears in the key signature Double sharp: raises the note by two halftones 30

Flat

I am one hepcat, and I hang out on the black keys of a piano, among other places. While Sharp overshoots the natural note, I never quite reach it. Instead, I end up one halftone lower. I’m accidental—that is, on purpose, but out of key— and sound cool in the right places. Be careful, though: if you hit a flat when it should be a natural, musicians call me a bum note!

b

Written as and positioned just the same as for a sharp Double flat: lowers the note by two halftones A soft-sounding note in contrast to a sharp’s brighter sound 31


Voice

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Rowdy Bunch Your built-in musical instrument You mix voice and music with words to get all-powerful song Produced using a combination of vocal cords and cavities

I am your built-in boom box—the most basic of all musical instruments and the world’s only completely natural one. And boy, am I powerful; with me in full voice, things can get loud, rowdy, and raucous, believe me! Put me to music and I really start to sing! Soprano is my high register; alto brings rich harmonies; tenors become famous (male) opera singers; and basses are the guys with voices deep in their boots. Anyone can use me. You have two tiny elastic strips of cartilage in your throat—your vocal cords. They make only a small squeak, but the caverns of your mouth, nose, and throat amplify the sound to a howl. I’m fully automatic—just imagining the sound you want to make is enough to tense your vocal cords to exactly the right pitch. You should be singing my praises!

Voice Soprano frequency: 2500 Hz and above Length of each vocal cord: 0.50 in. (1.25cm) Number of muscles in the throat and mouth: 60 38

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Voice

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Rowdy Bunch Your built-in musical instrument You mix voice and music with words to get all-powerful song Produced using a combination of vocal cords and cavities

I am your built-in boom box—the most basic of all musical instruments and the world’s only completely natural one. And boy, am I powerful; with me in full voice, things can get loud, rowdy, and raucous, believe me! Put me to music and I really start to sing! Soprano is my high register; alto brings rich harmonies; tenors become famous (male) opera singers; and basses are the guys with voices deep in their boots. Anyone can use me. You have two tiny elastic strips of cartilage in your throat—your vocal cords. They make only a small squeak, but the caverns of your mouth, nose, and throat amplify the sound to a howl. I’m fully automatic—just imagining the sound you want to make is enough to tense your vocal cords to exactly the right pitch. You should be singing my praises!

Voice Soprano frequency: 2500 Hz and above Length of each vocal cord: 0.50 in. (1.25cm) Number of muscles in the throat and mouth: 60 38

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Brass

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Percussion

Rowdy Bunch

Rowdy Bunch

Brassy bunch at the heart of big-band sound Their music appears in the middle of a full orchestral score These shiny wind instruments are called aerophones

Big and bold, we’re full of bluster. We’ve got tootin’ trumpets, elegant French horns, crooning cornets, and comical trombones, euphoniums, and tubas. Each is played by blowing into a mouthpiece. Valves change the length of the tube down which the air travels—the smaller and shorter the pipe, the higher the sound. Big brass band, reggae, soul, or jazz: we dig it all. Oom pah pah!

Brass

Alternative name for brass instruments: labrosones (lip vibrators) Newest brass instrument: vuvuzela A tuba’s lowest note: 16 Hz—four octaves lower than middle C, written as C0 46

This noisy tribe beats a tattoo to provide rhythm Hit with the hand, beaten with a stick, or shaken Also known as membranophones and idiophones

Percussion

We’re a tub-thumpin’ crew, and we’re here to make a hullabaloo! Our rhythmic beats form the back line of any band. And our tribe is huge. Besides drums, with skins stretched over tubs, we are crashing cymbals and gongs, funky shakers and maracas, whip-crackin’ wood blocks, chiming glockenspiels, jazzy xylophones, and ding-dong bells. Gimme some skin, brother!

Membranophone: any kind of drum with a vibrating skin Idiophone: an instrument whose entire frame vibrates when struck (e.g., bell) Strangest percussion instrument: aquaggaswack (29 hanging pot lids) 47


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Brass

Percussion

Rowdy Bunch

Rowdy Bunch

Brassy bunch at the heart of big-band sound Their music appears in the middle of a full orchestral score These shiny wind instruments are called aerophones

Big and bold, we’re full of bluster. We’ve got tootin’ trumpets, elegant French horns, crooning cornets, and comical trombones, euphoniums, and tubas. Each is played by blowing into a mouthpiece. Valves change the length of the tube down which the air travels—the smaller and shorter the pipe, the higher the sound. Big brass band, reggae, soul, or jazz: we dig it all. Oom pah pah!

Brass

Alternative name for brass instruments: labrosones (lip vibrators) Newest brass instrument: vuvuzela A tuba’s lowest note: 16 Hz—four octaves lower than middle C, written as C0 46

This noisy tribe beats a tattoo to provide rhythm Hit with the hand, beaten with a stick, or shaken Also known as membranophones and idiophones

Percussion

We’re a tub-thumpin’ crew, and we’re here to make a hullabaloo! Our rhythmic beats form the back line of any band. And our tribe is huge. Besides drums, with skins stretched over tubs, we are crashing cymbals and gongs, funky shakers and maracas, whip-crackin’ wood blocks, chiming glockenspiels, jazzy xylophones, and ding-dong bells. Gimme some skin, brother!

Membranophone: any kind of drum with a vibrating skin Idiophone: an instrument whose entire frame vibrates when struck (e.g., bell) Strangest percussion instrument: aquaggaswack (29 hanging pot lids) 47


Pop

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Sweet Sounds This groovy tunester really gets the kids movin’ around Targets the teenage market Usually combines music and voice in a 3–5 minute song

Hey, baby, check me out! I’m the brash, glitzy glamour puss of the Sweet Sounds posse! Out of all of our members, I get the most exposure. You can hear me blasting out of radios and on music TV. There’s simply no escaping me! I make the tunes you sing in the shower and dance to in front of the mirror. Ever popular, I hit the scene in the 1950s as jive-tastic rock ’n’ roll. Since that time, I have splintered into a dazzling array of sounds: rock, heavy metal, funk, soul, urban, hip-hop, rap, indie, disco, J-pop, emo, goth, reggae, salsa, reggaeton, punk, merengue, grunge, and Motown. There’s something for everyone. Throw in a billion crossover acts and you’ve got more than enough tribes to drive your parents insane!

Pop Top-selling single: 37,000,000 (Candle in the Wind, Elton John, 1997) Most successful songwriting duo: John Lennon and Paul McCartney (The Beatles) Most Grammy Awards in one year: 8 (Michael Jackson, 1984) 56

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Pop

Copyrighted Material

Sweet Sounds This groovy tunester really gets the kids movin’ around Targets the teenage market Usually combines music and voice in a 3–5 minute song

Hey, baby, check me out! I’m the brash, glitzy glamour puss of the Sweet Sounds posse! Out of all of our members, I get the most exposure. You can hear me blasting out of radios and on music TV. There’s simply no escaping me! I make the tunes you sing in the shower and dance to in front of the mirror. Ever popular, I hit the scene in the 1950s as jive-tastic rock ’n’ roll. Since that time, I have splintered into a dazzling array of sounds: rock, heavy metal, funk, soul, urban, hip-hop, rap, indie, disco, J-pop, emo, goth, reggae, salsa, reggaeton, punk, merengue, grunge, and Motown. There’s something for everyone. Throw in a billion crossover acts and you’ve got more than enough tribes to drive your parents insane!

Pop Top-selling single: 37,000,000 (Candle in the Wind, Elton John, 1997) Most successful songwriting duo: John Lennon and Paul McCartney (The Beatles) Most Grammy Awards in one year: 8 (Michael Jackson, 1984) 56

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Electronic Sweet Sounds

This audio wizard makes sounds using only electronic circuits Allows you to record music quickly and easily Electronic instruments use MIDI to talk to one another

I am the future. You’ll really flip your switch for my outtaspace sounds! I use electronic circuits to generate music, freeing me from the fiddling Rowdy Bunch. There’s no sound I can’t replicate: you just imagine it and my synthesizer circuits do the rest. That’s the theory, anyway. In my youth, my bleeps and tweeks sounded weird, but these days, almost every form of music incorporates me somewhere in the mix. Want an organ? Why lug that huge lump around when a small keyboard can do the same trick? I’m best known for dance music—electro, techno, house, rave, and trance—but my samplers grab snatches of audio and loop them for hip-hop and many other styles. Even rock bands use my sequencers to trigger loops and drumbeats. Just don’t pull the plug on me!

Electronic MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface Only instrument played without touching it: theremin Hot-wiring old electronic instruments is called circuit bending 58

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Electronic

Copyrighted Material

Sweet Sounds This audio wizard makes sounds using only electronic circuits Allows you to record music quickly and easily Electronic instruments use MIDI to talk to one another

I am the future. You’ll really flip your switch for my outtaspace sounds! I use electronic circuits to generate music, freeing me from the fiddling Rowdy Bunch. There’s no sound I can’t replicate: you just imagine it and my synthesizer circuits do the rest. That’s the theory, anyway. In my youth, my bleeps and tweeks sounded weird, but these days, almost every form of music incorporates me somewhere in the mix. Want an organ? Why lug that huge lump around when a small keyboard can do the same trick? I’m best known for dance music—electro, techno, house, rave, and trance—but my samplers grab snatches of audio and loop them for hip-hop and many other styles. Even rock bands use my sequencers to trigger loops and drumbeats. Just don’t pull the plug on me!

Electronic MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface Only instrument played without touching it: theremin Hot-wiring old electronic instruments is called circuit bending 58

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Glossary

Root note The particular note around which a scale or chord is based. Rosin An amber-colored resin used to coat the bows of stringed instruments. Score The printed musical notation for a piece of music. It has separate instructions for all of the instruments of an orchestra, telling them what and how to play. Semitone The smallest interval used in Western music. One 12th of an octave. Also known as a halftone. Soprano A singing voice that is the highest in a piece of music sung in four parts. Usually sung by women. Sound-source location This identifies where a sound is coming from. Staff Five parallel lines with spaces in between and divided into measures. Notes are written on the lines and in the spaces to indicate their pitch. Also called stave. Tenor A singing voice that is the second lowest in a piece of music sung in four parts. Usually sung by men. Tension When something is stretched tight. Timbre The tone or quality of a sound. A trumpet and a guitar sound very different, even when playing the same note and are said to have a different timbre. Treble clef A symbol that indicates that the notes are treble (high) notes. On the piano, music with a treble clef is usually played with the right hand. 64


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Music Sampler