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Text and design copyright © Toucan Books Ltd. 2011 Based on an original concept by Toucan Books Ltd. Illustrations copyright © Simon Basher 2007, 2011 First published 2011 by Kingfisher Published in the United States by Kingfisher, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010 Kingfisher is an imprint of Macmillan Children’s Books, London. All rights reserved. Material in this deck previously published by Kingfisher as The Periodic Table: Elements with Style! in 2007 Science consultant: Dr. Christopher Hutchinson Consultant: Dr. Mark Winter Dr. Winter is a senior lecturer of chemistry at the University of Sheffield, England, and the author of www.webelements.com. This book uses data adapted from www.webelements.com. Designed and created by Basher www.basherbooks.com Text written by Adrian Dingle and Dan Green Dedicated to Ella Marbrook Distributed in the U.S. by Macmillan, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data has been applied for. ISBN: 978-0-7534-6608-7 Kingfisher books are available for special promotions and premiums. For details contact: Special Markets Department, Macmillan, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010. For more information, please visit www.kingfisherbooks.com Printed in China 987654321 1TR/0511/HH/-/350C1S

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The Periodic Table Introduction Everything in the world is made of elements—substances that cannot be broken down or made into anything simpler by chemical reactions. Each element has its own unique personality. Many, such as gold, silver, and lead, have been known for thousands of years. Others, such as darmstadtium, have been created in high-tech labs, only as recently as the 1990s. And just a handful— some of them yet to be named officially—are littleknown wonders of the 21st century. The periodic table was the brainchild of Siberian superchemist Dimitri Mendeleev (1834–1907). In 1869, he arranged the known elements into groups (columns) and periods (rows), leaving gaps in his table for chemical elements that were still undiscovered at the time. Today the gaps have been filled, and there are a total of 118 known elements, but there may be others that are yet to be discovered. The vertical “groups” of the table make up families— all closely related and liking the same sorts of chemical shenanigans. In this set of flash cards you’ll meet each and every one of them. Some, you’ll discover, are perfect representatives of the groups from which they come, while others are the renegade breakaways and mavericks that prefer to do things their own way. . . .

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Hydrogen

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Hydrogen

✔ Symbol: H ✔ Atomic number: 1 ✔ Atomic weight: 1.008

✔ Color: None ✔ Standard state: Gas at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Nonmetallic

I may be undersized, but don’t underestimate me, my friend. I’m a petite package that packs a punch, and I have a fiery character to boot—always remember that I’m numero uno! I am the simplest and lightest of all the elements, the most abundant in the universe, and the source of everything in it—from matter and energy to life. I’m what powers nuclear fusion in the stars, and I’m the building block for all of the other elements of the periodic table. I exist as a gas consisting of a pair of hydrogen atoms. Things always happen with a bang when I’m around. I’m extraordinarily flammable. I was used to fill airships, until a few fatal explosions ended my career. In the future, I am set to become important in fuel cells— a clean and efficient way of generating electricity.

Fast facts Date of discovery: 1766 Melting point: –259.14°C (–434.45°F)

Density: 0.082 g/l Boiling point: –252.87°C (–423.17°F)

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Beryllium Magnesium

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Beryllium

The Alkaline Earth Metals ✔ Symbol: Be ✔ Atomic number: 4 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Silvery ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

9.012182

Soft and silvery, I’m used mostly in metal alloys. When added to metals, I make them extremely hard. I’m so superlight, I get used for making airplanes and space rockets. I’m also, usefully, transparent to x-rays. But there is a catch—I am the single most toxic element there is! I am a silver-white metal and burn with incredible intensity and a bright white light. My powers of combustion are used in flashbulbs, distress flares, fireworks, and incendiary bombs. Strong and light, I help make bike frames, car parts, and aircraft engines. 24.3050

✔ Symbol: Mg ✔ Atomic number: 12 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Silver-white ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Alkaline Earth Metals

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Helium

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Helium

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The Noble Gases ✔ Symbol: He ✔ Atomic number: 2 ✔ Atomic weight: 4.002602

✔ Color: None ✔ Standard state: Gas at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Nonmetallic

I prefer my own company, thank you very much. Some call me aloof, but I’m happy not to mix with the riffraff of the periodic table. I am a “noble” gas— the very first. I am completely inert, with no color, taste, or smell. I am also known as a party prankster. Gulp me from a birthday balloon, and your voice will go all high-pitched and squeaky for a few seconds! I am produced in massive stars like the Sun, where four hydrogen nuclei fuse together, releasing enormous amounts of energy. On Earth, my nucleus is one of the products of radioactive decay—the alpha particle. My main uses for mankind are in weather balloons and airships—which need my lofty, lighter-than-air properties—and I’m often used in welding, which requires an inert, unreactive atmosphere.

Fast facts Date of discovery: 1895 Melting point: –272.2ºC (–457.96ºF)

Density: 0.164 g/l Boiling point: –268.93ºC (–452.07ºF)

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Nickel Palladium

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Nickel

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The Transition Elements ✔ Symbol: Ni ✔ Atomic number: 28 ✔ Atomic weight: 58.6934

✔ Color: Silvery ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25°C (77°F)

✔ Classification: Metallic

I’m a devil in disguise, often mistaken for copper. I love hanging out with the other transition elements, and I’m great at forming alloys to make materials stronger and more resistant to corrosion. You’ll find me charging around batteries and in special heat-resistant materials. I’m a wizard all around the industrial world because of my amazing skill as a catalyzer of reactions. The secret lies in my surface pores. Hard at work in the catalytic converters of modern cars, I can potentially save the planet from harmful hydrocarbon emissions.

✔ Symbol: Pd ✔ Color: Silvery ✔ Atomic number: 46 ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25°C (77°F) ✔ Atomic weight: 106.42 ✔ Classification: Metallic

The Transition Elements

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Copper Silver

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Copper

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The Transition Elements ✔ Symbol: Cu ✔ Color: Reddish ✔ Atomic number: 29 ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25°C (77°F) ✔ Atomic weight: 63.546 ✔ Classification: Metallic As a pure metal or mixed with tin to make bronze, I have been used for hundreds of years to make ornaments and practical tools. Along with tin, I formed the basis of the Bronze Age. I am unique among metals in that I have a red hue, but some of my salts are a vivid blue. Whether as money, jewelry, or candlesticks, I have always been coveted for my short-lived shininess. But I lose out to gold because I tarnish when I come into contact with air. Soft and flexible, I’m very easy to work with. Dentistry and electrical devices are among my fields of expertise. 107.8682

✔ Symbol: Ag ✔ Atomic number: 47 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Silver ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Transition Elements

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Platinum Darmstadtium

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Platinum

The Transition Elements ✔ Symbol: Pt ✔ Atomic number: 78 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Silver-white ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25°C (77°F)

✔ Classification: Metallic

195.084

Rarer and even more expensive than gold, I am a bright, shiny metal found in South Africa and Russia. Steadfast and dependable, I never lose my shine because I’m resistant to corrosion. This endlessly fascinating sheen of mine means that I’m perfect for making jewelry. Fresh-faced and eager, I’m a child of the ’90s. However, since you need to make a handful of atoms of me at a time (like all my superheavy brothers and sisters), and most of my atoms are gone in the blink of an eye, there’s very little you can do with me. All in all, I’m a little fussy!

✔ Symbol: Ds ✔ Atomic number: 110 ✔ Atomic weight: 281

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Unknown ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Superheavies

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Lutetium Lawrencium

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Lutetium

The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Lu ✔ Atomic number: 71 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Silver-white ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

174.9668

I’m the last of the lanthanoid gang—soft metals with similar habits. We’re bright and silvery but tarnish easily. Chemically, we tend to get up to the same tricks. I’m a French discovery, and I am one of the few corrosionresistant “rare earth” elements. I’m the last of the actinoid elements—the long strip of superheavies at the bottom of the periodic table. I’m named after Ernest Lawrence, who built the very first “cyclotron” particle accelerators in which many of these new, unnatural elements are made.

✔ Classification: Metallic ✔ Symbol: Lr ✔ Atomic number: 103 ✔ Atomic weight: 262

25°C (77°F)

✔ Standard state: Solid at silver-gray

✔ Color: Unknown/

The Actinoid Elements

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Neodymium Uranium

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Neodymium

The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Nd ✔ Atomic number: 60 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Dull silver ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

144.242

I have a magnetic personality! Permanent magnets made with me (plus iron and boron) are incredibly strong. You’ll also find me in microphones and loudspeakers, the vibrating parts of your cell phone, the electric motors of hybrid cars, oil filters, and computer hard disks. I am a force of nature. Fire a neutron at my unstable, radioactive form, and my nucleus splits apart, scattering neutrons in all directions and starting a chain reaction that rips me apart. Control this reaction, and I generate great power, but pack me into a bomb, and I’m lethal. 238.02891

✔ Symbol: U ✔ Atomic number: 92 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Gray ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Actinoid Elements

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Promethium Neptunium

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Promethium

The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Pm ✔ Atomic number: 61 ✔ Atomic weight: 145

✔ Color: Metallic ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

I’m named after the Greek hero Prometheus, who stole fire from the gods and brought it to Earth, and even though I’m surrounded by stable elements, I’m unstable, radioactive, and dangerous! I’m used in industry to gauge the thickness of sheets of plastic, metal, or paper. I get my name from the planet Neptune. Less well known than my cousins, plutonium (Pluto) and uranium (Uranus), I can substitute for them in atomic bombs. I’m a waste product of nuclear reactors and, with a two-million-year half-life, I’m around and thoroughly nasty for a long time.

✔ Symbol: Np ✔ Atomic number: 93 ✔ Atomic weight: 237

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Silvery metallic ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Actinoid Elements

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Europium Americium

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Europium

The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Eu ✔ Atomic number: 63 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Discolored silver ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

151.964

Useful for all sorts of lighting, my compounds give off a spooky glow when light is shone on them. I help energyefficient bulbs give out white light by combining my fluorescent red and blue glows. I also make a neat antiforgery strip on Euro banknotes. How illuminating! I’m an all-American hero! Playing a key role in smoke alarms, I’ve saved countless peoples’ lives from fire. I’m the only dangerous radioactive element allowed in your home—I had to get a special permit for it! Still, it takes less than a millionth of a gram to do the job.

✔ Symbol: Am ✔ Atomic number: 95 ✔ Atomic weight: 243

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Silver-white ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Actinoid Elements

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Gadolinium Curium

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Gadolinium

The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Gd ✔ Color: Silver-white ✔ Atomic number: 64 ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF) ✔ Atomic weight: 157.25 ✔ Classification: Metallic We lanthanoid elements are so similar to each other, chemically, yet I do my best to stand out from the rest. I excel in one area in particular: when injected into the body, my magnetic properties make it easy for an MRI machine to detect and pick out very fine details. Don’t let my name fool you—I am not a cure for all, but instead, another no-good radioactive element! I get my name from Marie and Pierre Curie. I have had some wild, out-of-this-world times in space probes, satellites, and warming chilly robot rovers on the planet Mars.

✔ Symbol: Cm ✔ Atomic number: 96 ✔ Atomic weight: 247

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Silvery ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Actinoid Elements

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Dysprosium Californium

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Dysprosium

The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Dy ✔ Atomic number: 66 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Bright silver ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

162.500

Dysprosium means “hard to get at,” and I played hideand-seek with chemists for almost 70 years. Since I’m so coy, I don’t get used in many things. To be honest, there’s not much I can do that one of my lanthanoid cousins can’t do better or cheaper than me. I have a chilling ability to release streams of neutrons from my atomic nucleus. My ferocious rays can pass through an object as if it weren’t there, leaving everything in its path radioactive. My neutron beams are used to kickstart nuclear reactors, as well as to detect oil and gold.

✔ Symbol: Cf ✔ Atomic number: 98 ✔ Atomic weight: 251

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Silvery ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Actinoid Elements

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Holmium Einsteinium

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Holmium

The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Ho ✔ Atomic number: 67 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Silver-white ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

164.93032

I’m not magnetic on my own, but put me in a magnetic field and I boost its strength like crazy. Metals find me irresistible! A small lump of me will soup up your run-ofthe-mill bar magnet, and, used as the pole pieces in an MRI scanning machine, I’m stupendously powerful! With my crazy looks, there’s no mistaking that I’m named after the famous scientist Albert Einstein. I was created in the hellish furnace of the world’s first thermonuclear bomb. In 1952, the “H” bomb exploded with the energy of ten million tons of TNT, obliterating a small South Pacific island.

✔ Symbol: Es ✔ Atomic number: 99 ✔ Atomic weight: 252

✔ Classification: Metallic 25°C (77°F)

✔ Color: Silvery ✔ Standard state: Solid at

The Actinoid Elements

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Erbium Fermium

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Erbium

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The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Er ✔ Atomic number: 68 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Shiny silver ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

167.259

My pretty pink ions have a magical talent with light: a small section of optical fiber doped with me “boosts” light traveling through it, so that it leaves brighter than it entered! When you use the telephone or go online, you use me to help deliver your data with blistering speed. I am named after the scientist who made the first nuclear reactor, Enrico Fermi. Finding a new source of power was the first step in the U.S. project to build that terrifying weapon—the atomic bomb—and I was created in the explosion of “Ivy Mike,” the world’s first “H” bomb.

✔ Classification: Metallic ✔ Symbol: Fm ✔ Atomic number: 100 ✔ Atomic weight: 257

25°C (77°F)

✔ Standard state: Solid at silver-gray

✔ Color: Unknown/

The Actinoid Elements

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Ytterbium Nobelium

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Ytterbium

The Lanthanoid Elements ✔ Symbol: Yb ✔ Atomic number: 70 ✔ Atomic weight:

✔ Color: Bright silver ✔ Standard state: Solid at 25ºC (77ºF)

✔ Classification: Metallic

173.054

I’m one of four elements named after the small Swedish town, Ytterby. Many of the “rare earth” elements were discovered in minerals mined in a quarry there—they sure like to hang out together. I am used in small quantities for lasers as well as for portable x-ray machines. I’m a true prizewinner! All of the heroes who have had elements named after them have been great nuclear physicists making astounding discoveries . . . aside from me. Instead, I’m named after Alfred Nobel, who gave his name to the prize that has honored (most of) them.

✔ Classification: Metallic ✔ Symbol: No ✔ Atomic number: 102 ✔ Atomic weight: 259

25°C (77°F)

✔ Standard state: Solid at metallic

✔ Color: Unknown/

The Actinoid Elements

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Flashcards: The Perodic Table sampler  

Basher's best-selling Perioidc Table is now available in a handy deck so young chemists can take thier favorite characters on the go!

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