Mastering the Art of French Cooking By Simone Beck Louisette Bertholle and Julia Child
Mastering the Art of French Cooking
Mastering the Art of French Cooking The only cookbook that explains how to create authentic French dishes American kitchens with American Foods
By Simone Beck Louisette Bertholle and Julia Child Drawings by Sidonie Coryn
L.C catalog card number: 61-12313 this is a borzoi book,
published by alfred a. knopf, inc.
Copyright ÂŠ 1961 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages and reproduce not more than three illustrations in a reivew to be printed in a magazine or newspaper. Manufactured in the United States of America and distributed by Random House, Inc. Published in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited. published october
reprinted four times
sixth printing, may
To La Belle France whose peasants, fisherman, housewives, and princes – not to mention her chefs – through generations of inventive and loving concentration have created oneof the world’s great arts
kitchen equipment ․ 3 definitions ․ ii ingredients ․ 15 measures ․ 20 temperatures ․ 24 cutting ․ 26 wines ․ 31
Pie Dough and Pastry Shells ․ 139 Quiches, Tarts, and Gratins ․ 146 Soufflés and Timbales ․ 157 Pâte à Choux, Puffs, Gnocchi, and Quenelles ․ 175 Crépes ․ 190 Cocktail Appetizers ․ 196
chapter i-soups ․ 37
chapter v–fish ․ 207
chapter ii-sauces White Sauces Brown Sauces Tomato Sauces The Hollandaise Family The Mayonnaise Family Vinagrettes Hot Butter Sauces Cold-Flavored Butters List of Miscellaneous Sauces Stocks and Aspics chapter iii-eggs Eggs Poached Shirred Eggs Eggs in Ramekin Scrambed Eggs Omelettes
․ 54 ․ 55 ․ 66 ․ 76 ․ 79 ․ 86 ․ 94 ․ 96 ․ 99 ․ 105 ․ 106 ․ 116 ․ 116 ․ 122 ․ 123 ․ 125 ․ 126
chapter iv-entrées and luncheon dishes ․ 139
Fish Filets Poached in White Wine Two Recipes from Provence Muscles List of Other Fish Dishes
․ 208 ․ 218 ․ 226 ․ 232
chapter vi–poultry ․ 234 Roast Chicken ․ 240 Casserole-roasted Chicken ․ 249 Sautéed Chicken ․ 254 Fricassed Chicken ․ 258 Broiled Chicken ․ 265 Chicken Breasts ․ 267 Duck ․ 272
chapter vii–meat ․ 288
chapter x–desserts and cakes ․ 579
Beef ․ 288 Fundamentals ․ 579 Lamb and Mutton 328 Sweets, Sauces, and Fillings ․ 588 Veal ․ 350 Custards, Mousses, Pork ․ 375 and Molded Desserts ․ 594 Ham ․ 389 Sweet Soufflés ․ 613 Cassoulet ․ 399 Fruit Desserts ․ 623 Liver ․ 405 Tarts ․ 632 Sweetbreads ․ 409 Crêpes ․ 648 Brains ․ 412 Clafoutis ․ 655 Kidneys ․ 416 Babas and Savarins ․ 658 Ladyfingers ․ 665 chapter viii–vegetables ․ 421 Cakes ․ 667 Green Vegetables ․ 423 Carrots, Onions, index Turnips ․ 476 ․ 684 Lettuce, Celery, Endive, and Leeks ․ 489 The Cabbage Family ․ 496 Cucumbers ․ 499 Eggplants ․ 501 Tomatoes ․ 505 Mushrooms ․ 508 Chestnuts ․ 517 Potatoes ․ 520 Rice ․ 528 chapter ix–cold buffets ․ 536 Cold Vegetables ․ 536 Aspics ․ 544 Molded Mousses ․ 558
Pâtés and Terrines ․ 564 List of Other Cold Dishes ․ 576
MEASURES A pintâ€™s a pound the world except in England where a point of water weights a pound of a quarter, and all measurements in this book are level. The following table is for those who wish to translate French measurements into the nearest convenient American equivalent and vice versa:
BRITISH MEASURES British dry measures for ounces and pounds, and linear measures for inches and feet, are the same as American measures. However, the British liquid ounce is 1.04 times the American ounce; the British pint contains 20 British ounces; and the quart, 40 ounces. A gill is 5 ounces, or about 2/3 of an American cup.
CONVERSION FORMULAS American, British, Metric
unces to grams O Grams to ounces Liters to U.S quarts Liters to British quarts U.S quarts to liters British quarts to liters Inches to centimeters Centimeters to inches
the ounces the grams the liters the liters the quarts the quarts the inches the centimeters
28.35 0.035 0.95 0.88 1.057 1.14 2.54 0.39
CUP-DECILITER EQUIVALENTS 1 deciliter equals 62/3 tablespoons
1/4 0.56 1/3 0.75 1/2 1.13 2/3 1.5 3/4 1.68 1 2.27
11/4 2.82 11/3 3.0 11/2 3.4 12/3 3.75 13/4 4.0 2 4.5
grams 25 30 50
0.87 1.0 1.75
75 80 85
2.63 2.8 3.0
100 125 150
3.5 4.4 5.25
TEMPERATURE fahrenheit and centigrade TO CONVERT FAHRENHEIT INTO CENTIGRADE
substract 32, multiply by 5, divide by 9
–32 x 5 ÷ 9 TO CONVERT CENTIGRADE INTO FAHRENHEIT multiply by 9, divide by 5, add 32
x 9 ÷ 5 + 32
TEMPERATURE CONVERSION EXAMPLE:
212 (Fahrenheit) minus 32 equals 180 180 multiplied by 5 equals 900 900 divided by 9 equals 100, or the temperature of boiling water in centigrade
100 (centigrade) multiplied by 9 equals 900 900 divided by 5 equals 180 180 plus 32 equals 212, or the temperature of boiling water in Fahrenheit
TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLE American–French–British
COLD BUFFET prĂŠparations froides
Cold vegetables, composed salads, aspics, molded mousses, patĂŠs, and terrines, any of these may be served as a first course for a dinner, or be the mainstay of a summer meal. And a collection of such dishes on a buffet table can be most inviting. Recipes for various salad dressings are in the Sauce chapter under vinagrettes starting on page 94, and mayonnaise starting on page 87. The French are interested in vegetables as food rather than as purely nutrient objects valuable for their vitamins and minerals. And it is in the realm of the green vegetable that French methods differ most radically from American.The French objective is to produce a cooked green vegetable so green, fresh-tasting, and full of flavor that it really can be served as a separate course.They do not hesitate to peel, boil, squeeze, drain, or refresh a vegetable, which is often upsetting to those very Americans who weep in delighted remembranceof vegetables in France. For many Americans have been taught that by performing any of these acts one is "throwing away the best part."
Céleri-Rave Rémoulade Celery Root in Mustard Sauce Note: This Céleri-rave rémoulade has nothing to do with sauce rémoulade, a mayonnaise with pickles, capers, and other sour ingredients.
Celeriac or celery root prepared in this manner makes a typically French hors d'oeuvre. The root must first be softened in some way. You may drop it in boiling water for a minute before dressing it, or steep it in salt and lemon juice, then dress it several hours before serving. We have suggested the latter system as it removes the slight bitterness of celeriac, softens it, yet preserves its flavor and freshness of taste.
1 lb. celery root ( 3 to 3½ cups when cut) A 2-quart mixing bowl 1½ tsp salt 1½ tsp lemon juice
Peel the celery root and cut it into julienne match sticks as illustrated on page 28. Toss in a bowl with the salt and lemon juice, and let steep for 30 minutes. Rinse the pieces in cold water, drain, and dry them in a towel
4 Tb strong dijon type prepared mustard 3 Tb boiling water A wire whip Â˝ cup of olive oil or salad oil 2 Tb wine vinegar Salt and pepper
2 to 3 Tb chopped mixed green herbs or parsley
Warm the mixing bowl in hot water. Dry it. Add the mustard and beat in the boiling water by droplets with a wire whip. Then beat in the oil by droplets to make a thick creamy sauce. Beat in the vinegar by drops, and season to taste.
Fold the celery root into the sauce, and allow it to marinate for 2 to 3 hours or overnight. Decorate with herbs such as paresley, before serving.
Salade de Boeuf Ă€ La Parisienne Cold Beef and Potato Salad This is an attractive way to use cold boiled or braised beef as a main course summer dish or on a cold buffet table. We shall not give proportions because they depend on how much meat you have.
for about 6 cups
01 Thinly sliced, cold, boiled, or braised beef. Vinaigrette Thinly sliced rings of mild onion A serving platter
In separate bowls, marinate the beef and the onion rings in vinaigrette for half an hour or longer. When ready to serve the salad, arrange the beef on the platter alternating the slices with onion rings.
02 French potato salad Boston lettuce Quartered hard- boiled eggs Quartered tomatoes Mixed fresh green herbs
Decorate the platter with the rest of the ingredients, spoon a bit of vinaigrette over them and sprinkle with herbs.