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AquaPath!–!Awareness!raising!! module!for!children! !

Teacher!Textbook! Comune!di!Monza!

This!project!has!been!funded!with!support!from!the! European!Commission.!This!publication!reflects!the!views! only!of!the!author,!and!the!Commission!cannot!be!held! responsible!for!any!use!which!may!be!made!of!the! information!contained!therein

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Table'of'contents' !

1.! EXECUTIVE!SUMMARY!...........................................................................!3! 2.! WATER!FOOTPRINT!................................................................................!4! 2.1.!WHAT!the!Water!Footprint!IS?!..................................................................!4! 2.2.!Water!Cycle!...............................................................................................!6! 2.3.!WATER!FOOTPRINT:!green,!blue!or!grey?!..............................................!7! 2.4.!Our!HIDDEN!TREASURE:!DIRECT!U!INDIRECT!WATER!FOOTPRINT!..!8! 2.5.!WATER!USE!and!WATER!FOOTPRINT:!WHAT!is!the!DIFFERENCE?!..!8! 2.6.!The!NATIONAL!WATER!FOOTPRINT!......................................................!9! 2.7.!AQUAULAB:!Let’s!learn!about!the!WATER!FOOTPRINT!........................!10! 3.! WATER!SUSTAINABILITY!......................................................................!12! 3.1.!WATER!SCARCITY!................................................................................!12! 3.2.!WATER!POLLUTION!..............................................................................!13! 3.3.!WATER!EQUITY!.....................................................................................!14! 3.4.!WATER!WASTE!and!PERSPECTIVES!..................................................!14! 3.5.!AQUAULAB:!Let’s!learn!about!the!WATER!SUSTAINABILITY!................!16! 4.! DIETARY!HABITS!...................................................................................!17! 4.1.!DRINKS!...................................................................................................!18! 4.2.!FOOD!......................................................................................................!19! 4.2.1.! Which!diet!to!choose?!.......................................................................!20! 4.2.2.! Not!only!food…!.................................................................................!21! 4.3.!AQUAULAB:!Let’s!learn!about!DIETARY!HABITS!...................................!24! 5.! TIPS!and!TRICKS!...................................................................................!25! 5.1.!How!to!reduce!our!water!footprint?!.........................................................!25! 5.1.1.! What!do!you!wear?!...........................................................................!26! 5.1.2.! Which!transport!means?!...................................................................!26! 5.2.!AQUAUFESTIVAL:!Let’s!play!about!the!“AquaUPATH!!”!..........................!28! 6.! REFERENCES!........................................................................................!30! 6.1.!Publications!.............................................................................................!30! 6.2.!LINKS!......................................................................................................!30! 6.3.!Videos!......................................................................................................!30! 7.! GLOSSARY!.............................................................................................!31! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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1.' EXECUTIVE'SUMMARY' ! This!text!book!is!devoted!to!primary!school!teachers,!in!order!to!help!them!explaining! to!children:!1)!what!the!water!footprint!ish!2)!the!sustainability!of!water!footprint,!3)!how! dietary! habits! affect! the! water! footprint! and! 4)! some! practical! hints! that! also! children! can!put!into!practice!in!order!to!reduce!their!water!footprint.!It!is!both!user!friendly!and! scientific! based,! offering! food! for! thoughts,! as! well! as! some! sources.! There! is! a! glossary! and,! after! every! chapter,! practical! experiments! and! games! to! be! carried! out! with! children! (AQUALAB)! and! with! citizens! (AQUAFESTIVAL).! It! is! based! on! the! module!for!adults,!which!you!can!address!for!further!development.!Enjoy!reading!it!!!

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This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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2.' WATER'FOOTPRINT' 2.1.'

WHAT'the'Water'Footprint'IS?'

Fresh'water!is!what!we!call!“sweet!water”.!It!is!the!natural!water!on!the!Earth's!surface! which!is!not!seawater!and!is!located!in!ice!sheets,!ice!caps,!glaciers,!icebergs,!bogs,! ponds,! lakes,! rivers! and! streams,! and! underground! as! groundwater! in! aquifers! and! underground!streams.!Fresh!water!generally!has!low!concentrations!of!dissolved!salts! and! other! solids! and! it! is! needed! to! maintain! life! on! Earth! and! for! nearly! all! human! activities.! But!how!much!accessible!fresh!water!there!is?!Very!little!!Only!2.5%!of!all!the!water!on! Earth!is!fresh!water!and!97.5%!is!saltwater.! Water'accessibility:!how!much!can!we!use!of!this!fresh!water?!Very!very!little!!!! More! than! 2/3! (68.7%)! of! the! available! fresh! water! are! not! usable! by! humans! as! it! is! frozen!as!snow!and!ice,!and!more!than!1/3!is!stored!as!ground!water.!This!means!that! only'0.3%'of'all'fresh'water'on'the'planet'is'readily'available'as'surface'water'in' lakes,'

swamps,'

streams1,'

rivers'

and'

not'

even'

meaning'

0,01%'of'the'global'world'water!!! ! ! TOTAL!WATER!on!EARTH!100! -!saltwater!97.5! =!fresh!water!2.5!!

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…!FRESH!WATER!100!

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-!frozen!water!68.9!

This! means! that! humans!

-!ground!water!30.8!

need! to! consider! water! as! a!

=!ready!available!water!0.3!!!

finite! resource:! the! Water' footprint'(WF)'expresses!the' human' appropriation' of' fresh'water'and!helps!us!understanding!if!this'appropriation'is'higher'than'what'we' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1

!Source:!(Gleick,!P.!H.,!1996:!Water!resources.!(In!Encyclopedia!of!Climate!and!Weather)! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! should' use.' Human! population! keeps! growing! throughout! time! and! consequently! water! resources! will! be! more! and! more! subjected! to! pollution! and! shortage! stress.! Therefore,! fresh! water! is! the! “blue' gold”! as! it! becomes! more! and! more! rare! and! precious.!

! Figure'1:!Global!water!Demand!according!to!population!growth'' Water!as!a!resource!for!people!is!not!always!available!at!the!right!place!and!time.!This! is!because!water!availability!depends!on:! •!

The!amount!of!water!a!country!or!region!has!

•!

The!individual!demand/consumption!of!water!

If! fresh! water! is! becoming! the! “blue! gold”,! what!

DO!YOU!KNOW!THAT?! GLOBALLY!IT!IS! ESTIMATED!THAT!663!MILLION!PEOPLE!AROUND! THE!WORLD!DOES!NOT!HAVE!ACCESS!TO!SAFE! DRINKING!WATER!AND!2.4!BILLION!PEOPLE!LIVE! WITHOUT!ADEQUATE!SANITATION !

about!the!access!to!fresh!water?!Worldwide!access! to! fresh! water! is! scattered,! primarily! in! developing! countries:! we! need! not! to! forget! that! out! of! every! seven! people! in! the! world,! 2! leave! with! water! scarcity!! In! developed! countries! (of! which! European! countries! are! part)! “only”! 9! million! of! people! are! without! access! to! water:! a! small! number! if! compared! to! 654!million!of!people!in!developing!countries.!Major!challenges! happen!in!Africa!and!South!west!and!East!Asia.!While!water!is! abundant!in!much!of!Europe,!large!areas!are!affected!by!water! scarcity! and! droughts! —! particularly! in! Southern! Europe! with! their!severe!lack!of,!and!high!demand!for,!water.2!

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LEARN!MORE:!SAVE!WATER!TO!DEFEND!LIFE:!https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zUiVl3JJRM!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! A!THIRSTY!WORLD:! 2

!Source:!Data!from!the!United!Nations!on!the!Millennium!Sustainable!Development!goals!available!in!inter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jIJOOfOpUYs&index=7&list=PLHnzEAZ3lShlnekss0LWodXCLcskhW active!maps!at!http://www.theguardian.com/globalUdevelopmentUprofessionalsUnetwork/2015/jul/01/globalUa DHY! ccessUcleanUwaterUsanitationUmapped! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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2.2.'

Water'Cycle'

Water!as!we!described!above!is!a!finite!resource,!so!which!are!water!origins?! Water' on' hearth' is' always' moving' and' changing' status' on' the' soWcalled' water' cycle:!from!liquid!to!vapour,!to!ice!and!back!again.! The!water!cycle!describes!the!continuous!movement!of!water!on,!above!and!below!the! surface!of!the!Earth.!The!mass!of!water!on!Earth!remains!fairly!constant!over!time!but! the! partitioning! of! the! water! into! the! major! reservoirs! of! ice,! fresh! water,! saline! water! and!atmospheric!water!is!variable!depending!on!a!wide!range!of!climatic!variables.!The! water! moves! from! one! reservoir! to! another,! such! as! from! river! to! ocean,! or! from! the! ocean! to! the! atmosphere,! by! the! physical! processes! of! evaporation,! condensation,! precipitation,!infiltration,!runoff,!and!subsurface!flow.!!

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In! doing! so,! the! water! goes! through! different! phases:! liquid,! solid! (ice),! and! gas! (vapour).!This!process!keeps!constantly!moving!! ! ! !

The!sun!heats!the!water!in!the!ocean!and!it!evaporates.!A! smaller!part!of!moisture!is!added!in!form!of!ice!and!snow,! sublimate!from!the!solid!state!into!vapour.!Into!the!atmosphere! the!vapour!ascends!with!water!from!evapotranspiration,!i.e.! water!transpired!from!plants!and!evaporated!from!the!soil!and! other!open!water!surfaces.!When!vapour!reaches!in!the! atmosphere!cooler!temperatures,!it!condenses!into!clouds.!

During!warm!weather! ! snowpacks!often!thaw! and!melt!flowing!as! snowmelt,!back!into!the! ! oceans!or!onto!land,! brought!by!gravity!flowing! over!the!ground!as! ! surface!runoff.!A!portion! of!it!enters!rivers.!Runoff! ! and!groundwater! seepage!accumulate!and! are!stored!as!fresh!water! ! in!lakes.!A!major!amount! of!fresh!water!soaks!into! the!ground!as!infiltration,! ! replenishing!aquifers,! some!of!it!stay!close!to! the!land!surface!seeping! ' back!into!surfaceUwater! bodies!as!groundwater! ' ! discharge

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Figure'2:!The!water!cycle' ' ' This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! Table'1:!How!humans!impact!the!water!cycle?!

Eutrophication'

It!is!the!process!by!which!an!ecosystem!responds!to!the!addition!of! natural! or! artificial! substances! to! an! aquatic! system.! EFFECTS:! excessive!growth!of!algae!in!lakes,!ponds!and!rivers’!receiving!more! nutrients!than!it!is!needed!

Hydro! dams! to! generate! electricity! change! the! stored! gravitational! energy! of! water! held! behind! the! dam! into! electrical! energy.! Hydroelectricity' EFFECTS:!It!is!a!nonUpolluting!renewable!way!to!produce!electricity,! but!it!alters!the!flow!of!rivers!

Irrigation'

It!is!an!artificial!watering!system!of!cultivated!land!that!does!not!get! enough! water! through! rainfall.! EFFECTS:! it! removes! water! from! its! natural!source!causing!leaching!and!runUoff!where!it!is!used.!Also!it! may! lead! to! pollution! (due! to! the! use! of! fertilizers)! and! salination! (when!salt!is!brought!up!from!lower!levels)!

Deforestation'

Trees!release!vapour!when!they!transpire,!which!evaporates!into!the! atmosphere,! accumulates! and! transforms! in! precipitations.! EFFECTS:! It! has! a! major! impact! on! water! cycle! and! on! global! climate! change,! as! there! is! less! water! evaporating! into! the! atmosphere!and!subsequently!less!rain.!!

Greenhouse' effect'

It! is! a! phenomenon! of! Earth’s! atmosphere! trapping! some! gases,! which!in!turn!capture!infrared!radiation!to!keep!earth!at!a!moderate! temperature! range.! Human! activity! increasing! Earth’s! temperature! causes! an! increase! of! evaporation! melting! of! ice! that! adversely! affects!climate.!EFFECTS:!directly!on!water!cycle!

2.3.'

WATER'FOOTPRINT:'green,'blue'or'grey?'

There!are!three!different!types!of!water!footprints:!blue,!green!and!grey:! A.! Green! water! footprint! is! water! from! precipitation! that! is! stored! in! the! root! zone!of!the!soil!and!evaporated,!transpired!or!incorporated!by!plants.!It!is! particularly!relevant!for!agricultural,!horticultural!and!forestry!products.! B.! Blue! water! footprint! is! water! that! has! been! sourced! from! surface! or! groundwater!and!is!either!evaporated,!incorporated!into!a!product!or!taken! from!one!body!of!water!and!returned!to!another,!or!returned!at!a!different! time.!Irrigated!agriculture,!industry!and!domestic!water!use!can!each!have! a!blue!water!footprint.! C.! Grey! water! footprint! is! the! amount! of! fresh! water! required! to! assimilate! pollutants!to!meet!specific!water!quality!standards.!The!grey!water!footprint! considers! pointUsource! pollution! discharged! to! a! freshwater! resource! directly! through! a! pipe! or! indirectly! through! runoff! or! leaching! from! the! soil,! impervious!surfaces,!or!other!diffuse!sources.! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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2.4.'

Our'HIDDEN'TREASURE:'DIRECT'W'INDIRECT'WATER'FOOTPRINT'

Most!of!the!water!we!consume!is!not!visible!to!our!eyes!!Considering!that!15.000!litres! of!water!are!needed!to!produce!1!kg!of!beefh!100!litres!of!water!for!1!kg!of!oranges,!our! direct! impact! on! our! water! footprint! is! 3%! of! the! total,! while! almost! 97%! of! our! water! footprint!is!hidden!on!what!we!buy!and!we!eat!! Fresh! water! is! the! blue! gold,! but! not! many! people! are! aware! that! there! is! a! hidden! treasure!which!we!can!all!discover,!save!and!enhance!with!our!consuming!behaviours.! It! is! the! indirect! water! footprint! related! to! our! consuming! behaviours.! What! is! the! difference! with! our! direct! water! footprint?! The! direct! water!

DIRECT!WATER!FOOTPRINT:!INDICATES!THE! AMOUNT!OF!FRESH!WATER!CONSUMPTION!AND! POLLUTION!THAT!IS!ASSOCIATED!TO!THE!WATER!

DIRECTLY!USED!BY!THE!CONSUMER!OR!PRODUCER!

footprint! indicates! the! freshwater! consumption! INDIRECT!WATER!FOOTPRINT:!INDICATES! THE!WATER!CONSUMPTION!AND!POLLUTION! ASSOCIATED!WITH!THE!PRODUCTION!OF!GOODS! AND!SERVICES!CONSUMED. !

and!pollution!that!is!associated!to!the!water!directly! used! by! the! consumer! or! producer! for! drinking,! washing,! etc.! The! indirect! water! footprint! indicates! the!consumption!and!pollution!of!the!(virtual)!water!

associated! with! the! production! of! the! goods! (food,! clothes! or! any! other! product)! and! services! consumed3.! Whereas! direct! water! footprints! are! the! traditional! focus! of! consumers! and! companies,! the' indirect' water' footprint' is' generally' much' larger:! activities! such! as! drinking,! cooking,! cleaning! represents! only! the! 3%! of! your! personal! water! footprint!! Your' water' footprint' is' largely' associated'with'the'products'you'buy!!

WANT!TO!LEARN!MORE?! HAVE!A!LOOK!ON! WWW.YOUTUBE. COM/WATCH?V=NTK AV5X OWEO ! WWW.YOUTUBE. COM/WATCH?V=IEMCJPDMCNE !

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2.5.'

WATER'USE'and'WATER'FOOTPRINT:'WHAT'is'the'DIFFERENCE?'

What!is!the!difference!between!water!use!and!water!footprint?!! ! The! water! use! includes! the! water! withdrawal! and! the! water! consumption.! The! water! footprint! counts! only! the! water! consumption,! so! the! volume! of! freshwater! used! and! then! evaporated! or! incorporated! into! a! product.! It! is! the! water! that! is! no! longer! available! because! it! has! evaporated,! been! transpired! by! plants,! incorporated! into! products! or! crops,! consumed! by! people! or! livestock,! or! otherwise! removed! from! the! immediate!water!environment.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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!Source:!The!Water!Footprint!Assessment!Manual,!Arjen!Y.!Hoekstra,!Ashok!K.!Chapagain,!Maite!M.!Ald aya!and!Mesfin!M.!Mekonnen!–!2011! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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2.6.'

The'NATIONAL'WATER'FOOTPRINT'

There! is! a! large! difference! of! water! footprint! between! nations,! according! to! the! water! availability:!by!buying!imported!products!we!indirectly!affect!the!water!availability!of!the! country!where!the!product!is!from,!according!to!the!WF!of!the!product!itself.!Therefore,! to! be! a! responsible! consumer! means! also! to! pay! attention! on! purchases,! avoiding! to! buy! products! impacting! a! lot! on! the! water! footprint! of! countries! with! water! scarcity.!! A! nation’s! water! footprint! can! be! viewed! from! two! perspectives:! production! and! consumption.!The!water!footprint!of!production!is!the!amount!of!local!water!resources! used!to!produce!goods!and!services!within!the!country:!it!includes!the!water!footprint!of! agriculture,!industry!and!domestic!water!use!and!tells!us!the!total!volume!of!water!and! assimilation!capacity!consumed!within!the!borders!of!the!country.!!

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The!water!footprint!from!the!perspective!of!consumption!is!calculated!for!all!the!goods! and!services!that!are!consumed!by!the!people!living!in!a!country.!This!water!footprint! may! be! partly! inside! the! country! and! partly! outside! of! it,! depending! on! whether! the! products! are! locally! produced! or! imported.! Together,! the! water!footprint!of!production!and!consumption!tell!

WANT!TO!KNOW!MORE?!! PLAY!WITH!THE!NATIONAL!WATER!FOOTPRINT!

EXPLORER!!FIND!OUT!THE!WATER!FOOTPRINT!OF! YOUR!COUNTRY!AND!COMPARE!IT!WITH!OTHERS’ !

an! important! story! about! a! nation’s! water! use! and! dependence! on! external! water! resources.!The!water!footprint!of!production!measures!the!amount!of!pressure!on!local! water!resources!and!helps!to!understand!whether!they!are!used!in!a!sustainable!way.! The!water!footprint!of!consumption!reflects!the!standard!of!living!and!lifestyle!choices! of! residents.! Understanding! how! much! of! water! footprint! of! consumption! is! within! its! borders! and! how! much! is! elsewhere! is! a! first! step!

toward!

assessment!

of!

the! the!

country’s!external!water! dependence! and! its! influence! on! food! and! other! forms! of! security.! Figure' 3:! Water! footprint! of!national!production!and! 4

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consumption !

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!Source!the!Water!Footprint!Network! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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2.7.'

AQUAWLAB:'Let’s'learn'about'the'WATER'FOOTPRINT' Blue,'green'and'grey!'The'water'footprint'colors! Blue.! The! blue! water! footprint! is! an! indicator! that! is! suitable! to! be! developed! with! various! educational! activities,! including! several! experiments!of!evaporation!and!transformation!of!state.!At!school!you!can! also! look! at! some! of! the! features! of! the! land! causing! the! formation! of!

surface!and!groundwater!basins,!e.g.!by!analysing!the!composition!and!permeability!of! different!types!of!soils.!You!just!need!to!go!out!in!the!school!garden!and!collect!some! samples!or!you!just!bring!in!some!samples!of!soil!collected!in!different!areas,!making! sure!you!dig!for!at!least!30!cm.!In!the!classroom,!divided!into!working!groups,!you!will! put! all! collected! samples! into! transparent! containers,! where! you! will! add! water! and! vigorously!shake!the!mixture.!After!about!24!hours,!after!the!soil!is!deposited!again!on! the!bottom,!you!will!be!able!to!observe!the!different!materials!composing!the!samples,! with! the! lowest! layer! made! of! stones,! and! the! upper! level! made! of! humus.! Various! layered! materials! –! e.g.! sand! and! stones,! clay! and! humusU! can! in! turn! be! used! as! filters! for! three! bottles,! each! one! equipped! with! a! funnel! closed! with! wadding.! By! pouring! water! on! the! three! filters,! timing! and! comparing! the! time! taken! to! get! off! the! water!in!the!bottles,!you!can!examine!the!different!permeability!of!soils!and!figure!out! the! journey! that! a! raindrop! makes! once! it! touches! the! ground.! Further,! by! measuring! the! water! felt! into! the! bottle,! each! group! can! also! detect! how! much! water! remains! "trapped"!in!the!ground!(relevant!for!the!green%water%footprint%concept).! Green.!Do!plants!and!soil!contain!water?!In!order!to!answer!to!this!question,!identify!an! area!in!the!school!garden,!where!you!can!dig!a!hole,!deep!enough!to!accommodate!a! container! inside.! Close! the! hole! with! a! plastic! sheet,! lock! the! edges! with! stones! and! place! a! small! stone! in! the! centre,! so! as! to! lower! the! plastic! where! the! container! is! placed.! After! a! few! days,! check! the! container:! ground! water! heated! by! the! sun,! once! evaporated! and! condensed! on! the! nylon! cloth,! will! fall! into! the! container! as! droplets.! You!can!set!up!the!tests!under!different!conditions,!for!example!with!different!types!of! exposure!to!the!sun,!or!with!more!or!less!sandy!soils,!in!order!to!record!different!results! and!to!reflect!on!differences!in!the!water!cycle!applied!on!different!climatic!conditions.!! This! task! can! be! simplified! by! taking! a! small! quantity! of! terrain,! or! by! collecting! the! grass!from!the!school!garden.!You!will!just!need!to!fill!in!few!plastic!cups!with!different! samples!collected!and!cover!them!with!plastic!wrap:!after!a!few!hours,!on!the!cover!a!

This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! condensation! will! appear,! and! a! small! “cloud�! will! produce! a! droplets! rain! on! the! ground.! Grey.! This! is! the! less! obvious! water! appropriation! concept,! but! among! the! most! important!ones,!as!it!is!linked!to!the!need!of!natural!systems,!such!as!a!river!or!a!lake,! assimilating!the!pollution!generated!by!human!activities!and!which!is!directly!related!to! the! pollutants! concentration.! In! order! to! get! what! the! grey! water! footprint! is,! you! can! use!water!and!ink!and!imagine!that!ink!is!poison!if!it!is!very!intense.!By!adding!water,! students! will! understand! the! ink! becomes! lighter! and! an! imaginary! point! of! brightness/darkness!can!be!established!for!the!fish!to!survive.!They!can!then!see!how! much!water!they!had!to!add!before!the!water!was!good!for!the!fish!to!swim.!! Also,! you! can! organize,! as! a! class,! a! visit! to! the! sewage! treatment! plant! or! to! a! company,! for! example! food! producer.! Before! the! visit,! the! class,! divided! into! groups,! examines!the!LCA!of!some!products,!namely!it!will!assess!environmental!impacts!of!a! product's!life!cycle,!starting!from!its!production!until!its!disposal,!and!it!will!highlight!the! stages! where! there! is! a! higher! water! consumption,! in! order! to! prepare! questions! and! topics!to!be!discussed!and!asked!to!the!technicians!during!the!visit.!

'

'

This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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3.' WATER'SUSTAINABILITY' As! water! is! a! finite! resource,! is! its! consumption! sustainable?! If! sustainability! is! “the! practice! of! reserving! resources! for! future! generation! without! any! harm! to! the! nature! and! other! components! of! it5”,! water! is! one! of! the! most! important! natural! resources,! supporting!all!forms!of!life!on!the!planet,!fundamental!for!human!needs!and!related!to! numerous! global! issues! such! as! poverty! reduction,! health! and! sanitation,! inequalities! and!degradation!of!ecosystems.!!

!

But:! why! to! concern! about! water! sustainability! if! our! planet’s! surface! is! composed! of! 75%!of!water?!Because,!as!we!saw!in!the!previous!chapter,!2.5%!of!the!total!water!is! fresh!water!and!only!0.3%!of!it!is!readily!available!for!human!consumption!! Our! pressure! on! limited! water! resources! is! getting! more! and! more! intense:! globally,! human!population!is!growing!(now!topping!over!7!billion!people,!more!than!double!than! 50! years! ago!)! and! citizens! consumption! patterns! (especially! of! US! and! Europeans! citizens)! have! a! great! impact! on! water! consumption! and! water! pollution! all! over! the! world.! Water! is! a! finite! resource! worldwide:! producing! our! daily! products! causes! significant!water!consumption!and!pollution,!which!does!not!always!make!an!impact!in! places! where! products! are! used,! but! many! times! in! river! basins! already! experiencing! water!scarcity!/!water!pollution.! !

3.1.'

WATER'SCARCITY'

Water! scarcity! occurs! when! in! an! area! every! person! has! less! than! 1000m3! of! water! available!p/year.!Water!scarcity!does!not!depend!just!from!limited!water!resources,!but! also!from!fast!increasing!needs!and!exponential!growth!of!the!population.!!

!

Figure'4:!Hoekstra,!A.Y.!and!Mekonnen,!M.M.!(2012)!The!water!footprint!of!humanity,! Proceedings!of!the!National!Academy!of!Sciences,!109(9):!3232–3237!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5!

Melvin!K.!Hendrix,!Sustainable!Backyard!Polyculture:!Designing!for!ecological!resiliency!Smashwords!ebook!ed!2014! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! By!2050,!the!global!population!could!reach!9.5!billion,!meaning!an!additional!demand! of!freshwater!of!64!billion!m3!per!year6.!! Analogically!with!the!world’s!GDP!(Gross!Domestic!Product)!growth,!also!consumption! patterns! worldwide,! both! in! terms! of! resources,! food,! energy! and! therefore! water! are! aligning! with! standards! of! developed! countries,! severely! impacting! on! water! consumption:! it! is! foreseen! that! by! 2050,! water! withdrawals! may! increase! by! 55%! overall,!and!especially:! U!

Agricultural!water!consumption!is!expected!to!raise!by!19%!by!2050,!according!

to!an!increase!of!food!demand!by!60%,!100%!in!developing!countries.! U!

Urban! areas! are! developing! at! unprecedented! rates:! every! second! the! world’s!

urban!population!grows!by!2!people.! To! cover! their! water! needs,! cities! will! have! to! dig! deeper! or! go! further,! or! rely! on! innovative!solutions!and!technological!progress.!Therefore,!the!earth!could!not!sustain! such! stress! and! by! 2050! it! is! foreseen! that! 1.8! billion! people! could! be! exposed! to! absolute!water!scarcity.!! !

3.2.'

WATER'POLLUTION'

Water! scarcity! is! becoming! a! more! and! more! serious! problem,! not! only! in! terms! of! available!quantity!of!fresh!water,!but!also!with!regards!to!its!quality:! U!

Demographic!growth!creates!pressures!in!terms!of!sanitation!and!waste!production!

U!

Cities! are! built! at! unprecedented! rates! and! often! their! infrastructures! are! not! adequate:! over! 80%! of! wastewater! worldwide! is! not! collected!or!treated!

U!

The!food!sector!highly!contributes!to!the!production!of! organic!water!pollutants!!

U!

Heavy! industries! (leather! and! chemicals)! reject!

DO!YOU!KNOW!THAT?! ! DISEASES!CAUSED!BY!POOR!WATER,!SANITATION!AND! HYGIENE!LEAD!TO!A!FEW!MILLION!DEATHS!EACH!YEAR! AND!AFFECT!PEOPLE!FILLING!HALF!OF!THE!HOSPITAL! BEDS!IN!DEVELOPING!COUNTRIES!!

pollutantsh!also,!about!15U18!billion!m3!of!freshwater!resources!are!contaminated!by! fossil!fuels!extraction!every!year! Water! pollution! has! considerable! impacts! on! the! environment.! The! services! ecosystems! can! provide! across! the! planet! have! deteriorated.! Half! of! the! world’s! wetlands! (rivers,! streams,! swamps,! lakes,! etc.)! which! play! a! critical! role! in! regulating! water!quality!and!quantity!have!already!disappeared!since!1900!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6

!UN!2015,!World!Water!Development!Report! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! As! humans,! we! also! may! get! exposed! in! a! number! of! ways7:! drinking! polluted! water,! swimming!or!bathing!in!it,!consuming!food!contaminated!by!polluted!water,!consuming! meat!from!animals!that!fed!on!food!polluted!by!water,!etc.!! !

3.3.'

WATER'EQUITY'

Freshwater! resources! are! unequally! shared! and! strong! disparities! exist! at! all! levels.! Water! scarcity! and! pollution! are! impacting! some! populations! more! than! others:! they! affect!primarily!the!most!vulnerable,!especially!the!poor!as!well!as!women!and!children.!! Inequalities! regarding! water! consumption! are! also! tremendous:! on! average,! a! citizen! will! consume! 250! litres! of! freshwater! per! day! in! North! America,! 100! to! 230! litres! in! Europe,!

DO!YOU!KNOW!THAT?! !

against!less!than!10!litres!in!SubUSaharan!Africa.!

WOMEN!IN!SOME!PLACES!IN!AFRICA!SPEND!AN! AVERAGE!OF!225!MINUTES!A!DAY!COLLECTING!

And! this! is! only! about! direct! water! footprint!!! In!terms!of!access!to!drinkable!water,!more!than!

WATER!

1/3! of! the! global! population! (over! 40%! in! some! countries)!is!suffering!from!deprivation.!This!particularly!impacts!women!and!children,! often!in!charge!of!collecting!water8.!In!SubUSaharan!Africa,!only!60%!of!the!population! had! access! to! drinkable! water! in! 2008.! Also! European! regions! (in! Spain,! Italy,! the! Netherlands! or! Germany)! are! exposed! to! high! or! extremely! high! water! stress.! So,! water!equity!is!a!concern!also!for!our!continent!and!this!issue!should!be!considered!at! regional!and!local!levels.! !

3.4.'

WATER'WASTE'and'PERSPECTIVES'

Globally,!one!third!of!the!global!food!production!is!wasted!or!lost!annually.!Citizens!of! Europe! and! North! America! waste! 95! to! 115kg! of! food! per! year,! about! 10! to! 15! times! more! than! a! consumer! in! Asia! or! SubUSaharan! Africa9.! As! most! of! the! products! we! consume!are!produced!abroad,!the!impacts!linked!to!our!consumption!patterns!are!felt! worldwide.!! Further,! European! cities! tend! to! be! water! intensive! and! mostly! inefficient! in! the! way! they!use!the!resource.!At!the!end!of!1990s,!up!to!half!of!water!was!lost!in!urban!water! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7

!From!http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/water/!

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!Pickering,!a.J.!and!davis,!J.!2012.!freshwater!availability!and!Water!fetching!distance!affect!Child!Health!in!subUsahara n!africa.!

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!FAO,!from!UNWATER!website! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! networks,!due!to!poor!maintenance!and!leakages.!So,!at!global!level!the!issue!of!water! sustainability! is! a! matter! of! availability,! but! also! of! distribution! and! management! of! available!resources.!Individual!behaviour!change!is!the!key!to!sustainability,!regarding! direct!water!consumption!but!also!our!diet,!habits,!waste!and!energy!consumption.!

This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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3.5.'

AQUAWLAB:'Let’s'learn'about'the'WATER'SUSTAINABILITY'

3.5.1.' Water'is'Life' What! a! seed! absolutely! needs! in! order! to! sprout?! After! a! brainstorming! within! the! classroom,!the!"essential!ingredients"!are!identified!and,!after!bringing!in!the!classroom! all!needed!materials,!we!set!up!in!the!classroom!some!germination!tests!with!trays!and! cotton! wool.! Each! test! will! be! marked! with! a! label! pin! where! growing! conditions! and! added! substances! are! reported.! For! example,! you! can! make! experiments! with! all! the! chosen! ingredients! and! see! what! happens! if! one! or! more! ingredients! are! removed.! Also,!once!the!seed!has!germinated,!does!the!new!plant!need!the!same!ingredients!to! keep!on!growing?! ! 3.5.2.' Smart'water'tap.' Why!not!to!try!drinking!water!from!tap!during!school!meals?!The!activity!is!introduced! by!analysing!the!processes!behind!the!production!of!mineral!water!and!tap!water,!and! by! analysing! and! comparing:! consumption! data,! production! costs,! data! related! to! transportation! and! disposal! of! bottled! water! and! water! supply,! by! highlighting! the! environmental! impacts! and! costs! incurred! by! each! school! in! order! to! provide! bottled! water!in!school!canteens.!It!is!then!possible!to!proceed!on!the!analysis!of!the!water!of! the! school,! by! using! colorimetric! strips! in! order! to! define! the! major! chemical! water! features!(nitrates,!nitrites,!chlorides!and!sulphates),!to!estimate!the!water!hardness!and! pH,!and!finally!to!make!a!comparison!with!the!data!reported!on!labels!of!bottled!water.! ' 3.5.3.' Water'for'everyone' After!gym!class,!you!can!play!an!interesting!roleUplaying!game!related!to!the!availability! of! water! in! the! planet.! You! bring! to! the! class! five! bottles! of! water! or! a! single! tank,! preferably! transparent,! filled! in! with! water,! and! as! many! glasses! as! the! number! of! children.! The! teacher/facilitator! makes! sure! that! every! thirsty! kid! will! have! one! glass.! Before!drinking,!though,!everyone!will!have!to!first!“change”!its!identity!and!become!the! representative! of! one! State! belonging! to! the! UN,! by! randomly! picking! up! his/her! new! nationality! from! a! range! of! cards! prepared! in! advance.! You! distribute! water! in! the! glasses,!not!equally,!but!according!to!the!availability!of!water!of!the!citizens’!state!the! kid!is!representing!!Who!can!drink!and!who!cannot?!Reflections,!reactions:!the!debate! that! follows! will! be! the! starting! point! for! an! inUdepth! activity,! in! order! to! discover! reasons!and!problems!–!such!as!pollution,!drought,!intensive!agriculture,!etc.!–!making! difficult!the!access!to!fresh!and!drinkable!water!in!many!regions!of!the!planet.! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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4.' DIETARY'HABITS' Our!consumption!patterns,!especially!our!diet,!are!critical!to!the!final!freshwater!use.! Although! we! are! not! aware,! daily! consumption! habits! such! as! food,! dressing! and! everything!else!we!purchase,!imply!large!amounts!of!water!consumption!and!pollution! and!therefore!contribute!to!our!water!footprint!as!citizens!and!as!a!nation.!This!invisible! water!we!consume!every!day,!needed!to!produce!the!goods!we!use!and!the!food!we! eat,!is!called!“Virtual!Water”10.!! Averagely!the!daily!water!footprint!of!a!citizen!is!around!3800!litres.!However,!only!3%! of!this!water!footprint!relates!to!the!water!we!use!at!home!to!bath,!cook,!wash!our!car! or!irrigate!our!garden.!97%!of!our!water!footprint!comes!from!the!products!we!purchase! and!consume!every!day11.!! The! water! footprint! of! an! European! Union! consumer! is! 25%! higher! than! the! World’s! average! –! 5.130! litres! of! water! per! day.! This! means! that! the! average! annual! water! footprint! of! an! European! Union! consumer! is! equivalent! to! the! volume! of! water! necessary!to!fill!in!two!thirds!of!an!Olympic!swimming!pool.!! How'can'we'make'an'impact'on'this'water'if'it'is'invisible'to'us?'Can'we'make'a' difference'with'our'water'footprint?'Surely'yes!'Starting'from'our'table!!' Dietary!habits!strongly!impact!on!our!water!footprint:!while!our!body!needs!2!to!4!litres! of! drinking! water! per! day,! producing! our! daily! food! requires! averagely! 3.000! litres! of! water12.! The! dietary! shift! to! meatUbased! products! is! one! of! the! main! concerns.! Producing!1kg!of!beef!requires!15.000!litres!of!water,!ten!times!more!than!1!kg!of!grain!! And! meat! consumption! is! expected! to! rise! from! 37kg! per! person! per! year! in! 2000! to! 52kg!by!2030.!Within!European!Union!countries,! Luxembourg,! Portugal! and! Spain! have! the! top!

DO!YOU!KNOW!THAT?! THE!WATER!USED!TO!PRODUCED!AGRICULTURAL!

water!footprints!(and!in!the!world),!and!only!the!

COMMODITIES!IS!CALLED!“VIRTUAL!WATER”! !

United! Kingdom! and! Slovakia! have! an! average!

LEARN!MORE!

consumption!water!footprint!per!capita!below!the!

http://www.angelamorelli.com/1/?projects=virtual UwaterUcommunicatingUwaterUscienceUonUtv !

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 10

!Virtual!Water!U!the!Water,!Food,!and!Trade!Nexus'W'Useful!Concept!or!Misleading!Metaphor?'by!J.A.!(To ny)!Allan,!SOAS/King’s!College!London,!Water!Research!Group,'The!Strand,!London,!United!Kingdom! https://www.soas.ac.uk/water/publications/papers/file38394.pdf! 11

!Mekonnen,!M.M.!and!Hoekstra!(2011)!National!water!footprint!accounts:!The!green,!blue!and!grey!water! footprint!of!production!and!consumption,!Value!of!Water!Research!Report!Series!No.!50,!UNESCOUIHE,!D elft,!the!Netherlands.!http://www.waterfootprint.org/Reports/Report50UNationalWaterFootprintsUVol1.pdf! 12

!Source:!FAO,!from!UNWATER!website! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! world’s! average.! These! high! water! footprints,! are! mainly! due! to! the! large! amounts! of! meat!in!these!countries!typical!meals.!!

The!global!water!demand!for!production!of!

food,!feed,!fibre!and!energy!crops!rapidly!increases.!Although!in!many!countries!most! of! the! food! still! originates! locally,! substantial! volumes! of! food! and! feed! are! internationally!traded.!All!the!European!countries!have!net!virtual!water!import,!as!well! as!they!use!some!water!for!making!export!products!but!more!water!is!used!elsewhere! to!produce!commodities!that!are!imported.!

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Figure'5:!European!Union!consumers!average!water!footprint!per!sector .!!

!

4.1.'

DRINKS'

Drinks! have! also! an! important! WF,! related! to! the! product! and! its! ingredients,! the! process!for!producing!and!transporting!it,!for!producing!and!disposing!of!its!packaging.! How!much!water!actually!goes!into!making!a!bottle!of!water?!! Water:! The! amount! of! water! needed! to! make! a! bottle! of! water! could! be! up!to! 6! or! 7! times!what's!inside!the!bottle.! Wine:! one! glass! (125! ml)! costs! 110! litres! of! water,! but! it! depends! were! wine! is! produced:!In!France,!Italy!and!Spain,!the!world’s!largest!wine!producers,!the!average! water!footprint!is!90,!90,!195!litres!per!glass!of!wine,!respectively14.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 13

!Source:!D.!Vanham,!A.Y.!Hoekstra,!G.!Bidoglio!(2013).!Potential%water%saving%through%changes%in%Europ ean%diets.!Environment!International!61!(2013)!45–56.! 14

!Mekonnen!and!Hoekstra,!2011! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! Soft'drinks:!The!WF!of!a!soft!drink!depending!on!its!ingredients,!sugar!is!one!of!the! main!water!consuming!ingredients.!The!ratio!of!water!needed!for!producing!CocaUCola! in!Europe!is!roughly!70:1,!as!per!½!litre!in!PET!bottle,!23!litres!of!water!are!needed!(15! litres!related!to!Green!WF,!8!to!Blue!WF)!and!12!litres!of!water!are!wasted15!

4.2.'

FOOD'

The!products!which!have!been!created!with!the!involvement!of!animals!in!supply!chain! are!much!more!difficult!to!be!quantified!in!terms!of!water!footprint,!as!animals!are!often! fed! by! a! variety! of! feed! ingredients! whose! supply! chains! are! difficult! to! trace.! Unless! we!have!milk,!cheese,!eggs,!or!meat!from!an!animal!that!was!completely!raised!locally,! it!is!hard!to!assess!the!exact!WF!of!such!products.!!

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Figure'6:!the!water!footprint!of!our!food! ! !

The!largest!fraction!(98%)!of!the!water!footprint!of!animal!products!refers!to!the!water! footprint!of!the!feed!for!the!animals.!Generally!speaking,!the!water!footprint!per!gram!of! protein!for!milk,!eggs,!and!chicken!meat!is!about!1.5!times!larger!than!that!for!pulses.! Also,! there! is! a! great! difference! between! different! kinds! of! meat:! chickens! are! less! water!impacting!than!cowsh!also!sheep!meat!is!less!impacting!as!this!animal!is!usually! raised!on!grass!instead!of!fed!on!grain.!The!global!water!footprint!of!animal!production!

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!Source:!Product!Water!Footprint!assessment!U!Practical!Application!in!Corporate!Water!Stewardship!Se ptember!2010!report,!presented!by!the!Coca!Cola!Company!joint!with!the!Nature!Conservancy!http://water footprint.org/media/downloads/CocaColaUTNCU2010UProductWaterFootprintAssessments_1.pdf! 16

!Source:!http://temp.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/InfoGraphics!! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! amounts! to! 2.422! billion! mÂł/year! (87%! green,! 6%! blue,! 7%! grey).! 1/3! of! this! total! is! related!to!beef!cattle,!and!another!19%!is!related!to!dairy!cattle17.!

4.2.1.' Which'diet'to'choose?' A!vegetarian!diet!(or!at!least,!diet!based!on!much!less!consumption!of!meat),!reduces! the! foodUrelated! water! footprint! to! 2.300! L/day,! which! means! a! reduction! of! 36%! in! relation!to!a!meatU!based!diet.!Consumers!can!reduce!their!WF!either!by!reducing!their! volume! of! meat! consumption! or! by! being! more! selective! on! the! meat! they! choose.! Also,!it!is!important!to!consider!that!low!impacting!products!might!also!have!a!high!blue! and! green! water! footprint,! but! low! grey! water! footprint.! Mediterranean! diet,! based! on! cereals!and!vegetables,!can!be!a!good!example!of!a!WFUhealthy!plan,!less!impacting! than!Northern!Europe!and!American!diets,!as!it!uses!less!meat!and!animal!products18.! Let’s!see!the!water!footprint!of!2!typical!products!of!Mediterranean!diet:! Water' Footprint' of' PASTA:! The! global! average! water! footprint! of! wheat! is! 1827! litre/kg.!1!kilogram!of!wheat!gives!about!790!gram!of!pasta,!so!that!the!water!footprint! of!pasta!on!average!is!about!1850!litre/kg.!! Water'Footprint'of'PIZZA'MARGHERITA:!The!global!average!water!footprint!of!one! pizza!margherita!(725!gram)!is!1.260!litre!of!water.!The!largest!contribution!to!the!total! comes!from!the!mozzarella19,!as!it!represents!about!50%!of!the!total!water!use,!bread! wheat!flour!44%!and!tomato!puree!about!6%.!The'impact'of'the'water'footprints'of' pasta'and'pizza'depends'on'the'vulnerability'of'the'water'systems'where'the' water'footprints'are'located.!The!impact!of!WF!of!pasta!is!most!severe!in!Puglia!and! Sicily,!where!groundwater!overexploitation!for!durum!wheat!irrigation!is!common.! The! impact! of! the! water! footprint! of! pizza! is! more! diverse.! It' is' concentrated' in' the' first' step' of' the' supplyWchain' of' tomato' puree' and' mozzarella,' i.e.' in' the' cultivation' of' tomatoes' and' the' feed' crops' of' dairy' cows.! The! bread! wheat! used! for! the! pizza! base! does! not! have! large! impacts.! The! water! footprint! impact! of! the! tomato!puree!on!the!pizza!is!concentrated!in!Puglia!(groundwater!overexploitation!and! pollution!related!to!tomato!cultivation)!and!EmiliaURomagna!(water!pollution).!The!water! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 17

!Mekonnen!and!Hoekstra,!2010!

18

!Source:!Ecological,!carbon!and!water!footprints!of!food!production!and!consumption!in!the!Mediterranea n!region!U!Roberto!Capone,!Abderraouf!Elferchichi,!Hamid!El!Bilali,!Nicola!Lamaddalena1!,!Lamberto!Lam berti1! http://dietamediterranea.iamb.it/index.php/it/areaUdownload/anteprimaUdocumenti/22UomedUpreviewUf iles/93U3UecologicalUcarbonUandUwaterUfootprintsUofUfoodUproductionUandUconsumptionUinUtheUmediterranea nUregion!! 19

The!water!needed!to!have!Italians!eat!pasta!and!pizza,!UNESCO!Institute!for!water!education,!May!2009!! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! footprint!impact!of!mozzarella!lies!mostly!in!the!effects!of!water!use!for!producing!the! feed!ingredients!for!the!dairy!cows.'Mozzarella'production'further'poses'a'potential' threat' to' water' quality,' mostly' in' the' Po' valley,' but' this' problem' seems' to' be' properly'regulated,'although'possibly'not'fully'controlled20.!

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Figure'7:!Green,!blue!and!Grey!Water!footprints!of!bread!and!pasta ! !

4.2.2.' Not'only'food‌' We!affect!our!WF!with!food!but!also!with!other!products!and!services!we!buy,!such!as:! textiles,!electricity,!transports.!Let’s!have!a!quick!glance:! 1.!

Textile:!Cotton!is!the!most!important!natural!fibre!used!in!the!textile!industries!

worldwide.!But!cotton!consumption!is!responsible!for!2.6%!of!the!global!water!use.!The! global!average!water!footprint!of!cotton!fabric!is!10.000!litre!per!kg.!That!means!that!on! average!one!cotton!shirt!of!250!gram!takes!in!average!about!2500!litres!of!water.!A!pair! of!jeans!of!800!gram!take!8.000!litres.!About!84%!of!the!WF!of!cotton!consumption!in! the! EU! region! is! located! outside! Europe,! with! major! impacts! particularly! in! India! and! Uzbekistan.!Which!are!the!effects?!A!sad!but!meaningful!effect!is!the!shrinking!of!the! Aral! sea22,! in! Central! Asia,! due! to! the! over! exploitation! of! water! for! irrigating! cotton!

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!Source:!http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/AldayaUHoekstraU2010_1.pdf!

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Source:!http://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/interactiveUtools/productUgallery/!!

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!Source:!http://reconsideringrussia.org/2014/08/15/aUguideUtoUtheUstansUofUcentralUasia/aralUsea/!! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! fields.!Formerly!one!of!the!four!largest!lakes!in!the!world,!it!has!been!steadily!shrinking! since!the!1960s!after!the!rivers!that!fed!it!were!diverted!by!Soviet!irrigation!projects.!

! Figure'8:!water!footprint!of!a!cotton!tUshirt,!depending!on!the!origin!of!the!cotton!fabric!

! The!shrinking!of!the!Aral!Sea!has!been!called!"one!of!the!planet's!worst!environmental! disasters23!as!the!region's!onceUprosperous!fishing!industry!has!been!destroyed,!bringing! unemployment! and! economic! hardship.! The! region! is! heavily! polluted,! with! serious! public! health!problems24.!

' Figure'9:!photographs!illustrating!the!diminution!of!the!Aral!sea.!From!left!to!right:!(top!row)! 1973,!1989,!1999,!(bottom!row)!2001,!2003,!2009!(US!geological!survey!and!NASA)! ! !

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!Source:!Daily!Telegraph!(2010U04U05).!"Aral!Sea!'one!of!the!planet's!worst!environmental!disasters'".!Th e%Daily%Telegraph!(London)! 24

!https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aral_Sea!! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! 2.! Transport:!!

The! water! footprint! is! different! among! transport! modes! and! depends! on! the! transport! fuel.! In! western! societies,! transport! requires! about! 1/3! of! total! energy! use25! and! contributes!substantially!to!greenhouse!gas!emissions,!but!it!affects!WF!as!well:!If!10%! of! the! fuel! used! in! transports! is! replaced! by! bioUethanol,! biofuel! U! based! transport! in! Europe!will!require!a!water!volume!equal!to!about!10%!of!the!European!water!footprint! of!food!and!cotton!consumption.! 3.' Energy' There! is! a! great! differences! between! the! types! of! energy! source.! Biofuels! and! hydrogen! economy! need! considerably! more! water! usage! than! the! fossil! fuels.! CornU based!ethanol,!which!some!tout!as!an!ecoUfriendly!alternative!fuel,!is!not!waterUfriendly:! ethanol!or!biodiesel!production!requires!13.05!litres!of!water!per!litre!of!biofuel!and!oil! shale!needs!more!than!22.71!litres!of!water!for!every!litre!of!gasoline.!Thermal!power! plants! (80%! of! electricity! production)! are! particularly! water! intensive26:! their! cooling! is! responsible!for!43%!of!total!freshwater!withdrawal!in!Europe,!nearly!50%!in!the!US27.! 4.' Electronic'goods' Also! unexpected! products! may! be! considered! regarding! their! WF,! such! as! electronic! goods! and,! specifically,! smartphones,! which! are! manufactured! of! many! key! components! of! general! electronic! devices.! Smartphones! require! raw! materials! extracted! from! across! the! globe! and! the! manufacturing! process! has! a! significant! footprint!as!well.!The!overall!footprint!of!a!generic!smartphone!estimated!to!be!12.760! litres,!or!160!baths,!of!water,!during!their!production.! 5.' Other‌' Also! your! stationery! products! have! a! water! footprint!! A! simple! paper! implies! the! consumption!of!10!litres!of!water!!28! !

!

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!Blok,!2006h!IEA,!2009!

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!UNESCO,!2014,!World!Water!Assessment!Programme!

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!UNESCO,!2014,!World!Water!Development!Report!

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!Source:!Hoekstra,!Van!Oel,!P.R.!and!Hoekstra,!A.Y.!(2010)!The!green!and!blue!water!footprint!of!paper! products:!methodological!considerations!and!quantification,!Value!of!Water!Research!Report!Series!No.46 ,!UNESCOUIHE,!Delft,!the!Netherlands! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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4.3.'

AQUAWLAB:'Let’s'learn'about'DIETARY'HABITS'

! 4.3.1.' How'much'water'do'we'eat?' We!can!prepare!in!the!classroom!some!simple!experiments!devoted!to!evaporation,!in! order! to! check! how! much! water! is! present! in! living! beings! and! that! all! life! forms! are! actively!involved!in!the!water!cycle.!We!bring!an!electronic!scale!and!apples,!then!we! ask!pupils,!in!groups,!to!cut!them!into!pieces!or!slices,!to!accurately!record!their!weight! and!then!to!put!everything!exposed!to!the!sun!or!the!a!heat!source!such!as!a!radiator! of!the!class.!! What!is!going!to!happen?!During!the!dehydration!process,!the!apple!slices!will!dry!up! and!the!pupils!will!be!able!to!quantify!the!water!evaporated,!by!weighting!them!again! and!compare!the!weights!before!and!after!the!water!evaporation.!The!experiment!can! be! done! also! with! other! fruits! and! vegetables! such! as! tomatoes,! potatoes,! zucchini,! carrots,!bananas!and!grapes!to!find!out!the!differences!of!water!contained!in!each!one! of!them!and!also!with!other!foods!such!as!ham,!meat!and!mozzarella.!This!could!also! be!the!starting!point!for!introducing!the!theme!of!water!needed!to!produce!food!on!our! table.!! ' 4.3.2.' An'inverted'pyramid' Try! to! draw! on! a! large! poster! the! food! pyramid,! the! graphic! designed! by! the! US! Department! of! Agriculture! in! 1992! and! then! amended! with! the! latest! health! research,! used!to!encourage!people!to!consume!foods!situated!at!the!top!in!small!quantities!and,! on!the!contrary,!to!increase!foods!placed!at!the!base!of!the!pyramid.!Afterwards,!look! for!the!water!footprint!of!all!foods!of!the!pyramid!and!make!a!similar!chart!of!the!one!of! food! pyramid:! you! will! discover! recommended! and! healthiest! foods! are! those! with! lower! water! footprint!! You! can! also! build! pyramids! of! both! food! and! water! footprint! in! three! dimensions! with! coloured! paper! and! expose! the! installation! in! the! school! premises!in!order!to!raise!awareness!among!fellowUstudents.! ! !

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This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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5.' TIPS'and'TRICKS' 5.1.'

How'to'reduce'our'water'footprint?''

Our! lifestyle! can! be! more! sustainable! in! terms! of! water! footprint.! A! small! effort! to! conserve!water!generates!exponential!benefits,!and!each!citizen!has!the!power!to!have! a!significant!impact!on!it!!! How!can!we!do!it?!Through!small!but!significant!steps:! A.! Become!more!responsible!citizens,!aware!of!our!consumes!and!products!we!buy!!! If! consumers! are! properly! informed,! they! can! choose! and! have! the! chance! to! change! their! consumption! habits,! such! as! buying! food,! clothes! with! lower! water! footprint,! or! preferring! public! to! private! highly! water! impacting! transport.! How! simplier!would!be!if!products!would!“say”!their!own!water!footpirnt:!we!would!be!led! in! our! purchases! much! more! easily!! Although! a! labelling! system! stating! the! water! footprint!of!products!does!not!exists!yet29!we!can!get!informed!and!through!several! sources!and!follow!some!simple!good!habits:!! B.! Follow!a!balanced!diet!!It!does!not!mean!not!to!eat!meat,!but!to!be!moderated!and! balanced:! a! meatUeating! person! has! an! average! daily! water! footprint! of! 5.000! litres! per!day,!whilst!the!average!for!a!vegetarian!is!

WARNING!! ! YOU!DO!NOT!NEED!TO!“STOP”!EATING!IN!ORDER!TO! REDUCE!YOUR!WATER!FOOTPRINT!!

2.500! litres.! In! heavy! meatUconsumption!

LOW!IMPACTING!PRODUCTS!MIGHT!ALSO!HAVE!A!

oriented! countries,! the! advice! is:! one! meatU

GREY!WATER!FOOTPRINT!

HIGH!BLUE!AND!GREEN!WATER!FOOTPRINT,!BUT!LOW!

freeUday!a!week!!! C.! Choose! the! kind! of! meat! you! eat!! Not! all! types! of! meat! are! the! same:! meat! of! animals! raised! on! grass! is! less! impacting.! Usually! sheep! meat! is! of! this! kind,! whereas!cornUfed!beef!is!much!more!impacting!in!terms!of!waterfootprint.! D.! Do!not!waste!products!you!buy!and,!specifically,!do!not!waste!food!!It!is!a!“double”! waste! as,! by! wasting! food,! you! waste! both! the! food! itself! and! its! virtual! water,! necessary! water! for! producing! it.! We! should! not! accept! having! industrialized! countries,!where!wasted!food!is!approximately!30%!of!the!food!we!purchase,!whilst! several!developing!countries!are!at!risk!of!both!famine!and!water!scarcity!!

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!See!http://www.theguardian.com/sustainableUbusiness/waterUfootprintUlabelsUconsumerUproducts!! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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Figure'10:!check!out!the!water!footprint!of!your!daily!life!and!choose!poptions!for!reducing!it! !

! DO!YOU!KNOW!THAT?! !

5.1.1.'

REDUCING!WATER!USAGE!ALSO!HELPS!TO!PREVENT! CLIMATE!CHANGE!

What'do'you'wear?'

Lower!water!consumption!can!be!achieved!at!the!

beginning! of! textile! production! chain! and! ! depending! on! the! raw! material! used! for! the! manufacture! of! fibres,! as! well! as! using! more!efficient!technologies!in!dyeing!and!finishing!manufactures.!.!Sometimes!we!buy! too!many!clothes.!Why!should!we!have!four!pairs!of!jeans!if!we!can!live!only!with!two?! Try!buying!less,!according!to!your!real!needs.!

5.1.2.' Which'transport'means?' It!is!more!efficient!to!use!bioUelectricity!or!bioUethanol!than!biodiesel.!Transport!per!train! based!on!bioUelectricity!is!more!waterUefficient!than!transport!by!car!using!bioUethanol! or! airplane! using! bioUethanol.! Therefore,! using! public! transport,! train! and! ship! for! travelling,!instead!of!bioethanol!and!biofuel!vehicles!is!not!only!good!for!air!quality,!but! could!reduce!the!water!footprint!for!36%!per!person!in!1!year.!! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 30

!Source:!http://temp.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/InfoGraphics! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! Conclusions'

There! is! a! generalized! lack! of! awareness! amongst! citizens! about! the! water! that! is! required! and! polluted! to! produce! the! goods! they! consume.! Moreover,! there! is! a! generalized!perception!our!personal!water!footprint!is!mostly!due!to!the!water!we!use! at! home,! when! in! fact,! this! averagely! represents! only! around! 3%! of! our! total! water! footprint.!! While! international! action! is! therefore! necessary! and! welcome! to! improve! water! use! efficiency,!what!we!do,!as!Europeans,!will!strongly!influence!the!success!of!any!policy.! We!consume!on!average!far!more!water!than!in!most!other!parts!of!the!world,!and!our! consumption!patterns,!our!diet,!our!energy!consumes,!our!clothes,!have!considerable! impacts!on!global!water!use!and!the!related!discussed!issues.!So,!we!need!to!change! our!consumption!behaviours!! At!the!end!of!our!“AquaUpath�!we!know!that!the!Earth’s!water!is!finite,!but!it!is!infinitely! renewable:!if!we!are!able!to!respect!its!finite!resources!with!our!lifestyle!we!can!make! an!effective!footprint!for!the!sustainability!of!our!planet!! ! !

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This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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5.2.'

AQUAWFESTIVAL:'Let’s'play'about'the'“AquaWPATH!!”'

5.2.1.' Talking'water!' We!prepare!a!cosy!space!with!tables,!some!chairs!and!posters!where!citizens,!children! and! young! people! can! stop! and! leave! their! "footprint"! regarding! the! theme! of! water.! Tools:!pencils,!markers,!coloured!paper,!tempera,!watercolours!and!adhesive!tape.! The' voice' of' water.! We! invite! passersUby! to! close! their! eyes! and! think! of! the! water! under!whatsoever!form.!Then!we!ask!them!to!find!an!adjective,!a!sound,!a!smell!or!a! place! inextricably! linked! to! water! and! to! draw! or! write! associated! terms! on! a! large! waveUshaped!poster!lying!on!the!ground!or!hung!up!on!a!wall.! Acrostics.!On!another!poster,!we!ask!passersUby!to!choose!one!of!the!words!they!can! find! on! the! poster! "the! voice! of! water",! to! reUwrite! it! vertically! and! then! to! compose! a! sentence!by!using!words!beginning!with!the!letters!from!columns.! Water'music.!We!fix!with!silicone!on!a!table!some!wine!glasses,!possibly!of!different! shapes.!We!fillUin!each!glass!with!different!amounts!of!water!and!we!invite!passersUby! to!wet!the!tip!of!their!finger!and!continuously!slide!it!on!the!rim!of!the!glass,!making!a! light!pressure.!Different!sounds!will!be!produced!and!it!will!be!possible!to!use!glasses! as!musical!instruments!of!an!orchestra,!like!in!1700!when!a!musical!instrument,!the!soU called!harmonic!crystal,!was!made!with!crystal!glasses.! ' 5.2.2.' How'much'rain?' We!set!in!the!city!a!stationing!for!setting!a!rain!gauge,!simply!made!of!reused!plastic! bottles.!It!is!sufficient!to!cut!out!the!upper!part!of!a!bottle!with!a!scissors!so!as!to!obtain! a!funnel!and!a!container.!! We!put!the!funnel!into!the!container,!with!a!permanent!marker!and!with!the!help!of!a! ruler! we! graduate! it! and! the! rain! gauge! is! ready!! You! can! leave! instructions! for! the! construction!of!the!rain!gauge!drawn!on!a!panel!or!on!cards!and!foresee!a!poster!with! some! information! for! citizens,! concerning,! for! instance,! the! availability! of! water! in! the! world!and!the!data!of!the!average!annual!precipitation!in!our!area,!compared!with!other! regions!worldwide.! ' 5.2.3.' Check'out'your'footprint!' You! reproduce! on! a! large! poster! all! questions! of! the! “Aquapass”Ubooklet! and! you! distribute! paper! copies! of! it! to! citizens,! by! inviting! them! to! respond! to! the! shown! questions!and!to!report!on!the!big!poster!their!answers!by!using!coloured!dots,!so!that! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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! passersUby! can! easily! see! given! answers.! It! is! relevant! to! have! an! Aquapath! Project! Expert,! able! to! give! information! on! water! footprint! and! readyUtoUuse! suggestions! on! how! you! can! easily! reduce! your! water! footprint.! Set! up! two! locations:! the! first! one! where! citizens! can! experiment! the! online! calculator,! the! second! one! with! some! practical!experiences!to!be!tested.!For!example,!you!can!suggest!the!construction!of!a! model! of! flow! reducer! made! of! plastic! cups,! perforated! in! the! same! position! by! a! needle! and! an! awl,! respectively.! You! encourage! citizens! to! close! the! holes! with! adhesive! paper! tape,! to! fillUin! the! glasses! of! water,! and,! stopwatch! ready,! to! rapidly! remove! the! tape! and! measure! the! time! water! needs! to! fall! down! in! a! basin.! The! “needlesUshower�!can!last!up!to!twice!longer!than!the!one!with!larger!holes.!In!order!to! maintain!the!same!output!pressure,!despite!the!smaller!capacity,!filters!available!on!the! market!not!only!break!up!the!water!into!tiny!particles!like!the!filter!made!of!needles!did,! but!also!they!mixed!it!with!air!so!as!to!keep!the!water!flow!rich!and!comfortable.!The! water! consumption! is! reduced! of! about! half! and! the! outflow! pressure! remains! the! same,! despite! the! smaller! capacity.! Other! tests! can! be! suggested:! e.g.! citizens! can! visualize! the! amount! of! water! used! for! brushing! teeth! or! hands,! whether! the! tap! is! closed!or!not,!or!else!the!quantity!of!water!contained!in!toilet!flushes.! ' 5.2.4.' Water'hunt!' Organize!an!outdoors!teamUbased!treasure!hunt!with!tests!and!riddles!on!the!theme!of! water.! You! need! to! foresee! some! tests! of! general! knowledge,! other! specific! on! the! theme! of! water! footprint,! other! involving! passersUby! with! interviews,! or! contributing! to! the!creation!of!a!large!installation!on!one!of!the!project!themes,!in!order!to!give!visibility! to!the!event.!Teams!can!start!at!the!same!time!or!staggered.!At!the!end!of!the!treasure! hunt,! the! teams! who! answered! correctly! all! questions! and! in! the! shortest! time! will! be! rewarded! with! a! symbolic! prize! such! as! waterUsaving! filters! and! fruits! or! vegetables! with!labels!showing!their!water!footprint!will!be!distributed!to!all!participants.!! !

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This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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6.' REFERENCES' 6.1.' •! •! •! •!

•!

•!

6.2.'

Publications' The! Water! Footprint! Assessment! Manual,! Arjen! Y.! Hoekstra,! Ashok! K.! Chapagain,! Maite! M.! Aldaya!and!Mesfin!M.!Mekonnen!–!2011! Gleick,!P!H.,!1996:!Water!resources.!(In!Encyclopaedia!of!Climate!and!Weather! Hoekstra,!A.Y.!and!Mekonnen,!M.M.!(2012)!The!water!footprint!of!humanity,!Proceedings!of!the! National!Academy!of!Sciences,!109(9):!3232–3237! The! water! needed! for! Italians! to! eat! pasta! and! pizza,! M.M.! Aldaya! *,! A.Y.! Hoekstra,! Twente! Water! Centre,! University! of! Twente,! 7500! AE! Enschede,! The! Netherlands! http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/AldayaUHoekstraU2010_1.pdf!! Hoekstra,!Van!Oel,!P.R.!and!Hoekstra,!A.Y.!(2010)!The!green!and!blue!water!footprint!of!paper! products:! methodological! considerations! and! quantification,! Value! of! Water! Research! Report! Series!No.46,!UNESCOUIHE,!Delft,!the!Netherlands! Virtual!Water!U!the!Water,!Food,!and!Trade!Nexus'W'Useful!Concept!or!Misleading!Metaphor?'by! J.A.! (Tony)! Allan,! SOAS/King’s! College! London,! Water! Research! Group,' The! Strand,! London,! United!Kingdom!https://www.soas.ac.uk/water/publications/papers/file38394.pdf!

LINKS'

6.2.1.! What!the!water!footprint!is?!http://www.angelamorelli.com/water/! 6.2.1.1.! 6.2.1.2.! 6.2.1.3.! 6.2.1.4.!

Graphs!of!WFN!http://temp.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/InfoGraphics!! Interactive!tool!of!WFN:!http://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/interactiveUtools/waterU footprintUassessmentUtool/!! National!WF:!play!with!the!WF!explorer!tool!! http://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/interactiveUtools/nationalUwaterUfootprintUexplorer/! Water!scarcity!www.learner.org/courses/envsci/unit/text.php?unit=8&secNum=5!

6.2.2.! Water!sustainability! 6.2.2.1.! 6.2.2.2.! 6.2.2.3.! 6.2.2.4.!

www.unep.org/water! Water!availability!http://www.theguardian.com/globalUdevelopmentUprofessionalsU network/2015/jul/01/globalUaccessUcleanUwaterUsanitationUmapped! Water!scarcity!http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml!! The!shrinking!of!the!Aral!Sea!http://reconsideringrussia.org/2014/08/15/aUguideUtoUtheU stansUofUcentralUasia/aralUsea/!

6.2.3.! Dietary!habits! 6.2.3.1.! 6.2.3.2.! 6.2.3.3.!

Interactive!Tool!of!WFN:!http://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/interactiveUtools/productU gallery/!! Virtual!Water:!http://www.angelamorelli.com/1/?projects=virtualUwaterUcommunicatingU waterUscienceUonUtv!! Textiles:!http://www.sewyourselfsilly.com.au/news/waterUfootprintUhowUtheUfashionU industryUandUyourUshoppingUimpactUtheUplanet/!!

6.2.4.! Tips!and!tricks:!how!to!assess!your!WF?! 6.2.4.1.! 6.2.4.2.!

6.3.' •! •! •! •!

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WF!Label!http://www.theguardian.com/sustainableUbusiness/waterUfootprintUlabelsU consumerUproducts!! Vademecum:!http://temp.waterfootprint.org/downloads/2010UPocketGuideU toReducingYourWaterFootprint.jpg!!

Videos' https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zUiVl3JJRM!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jIJOOfOpUYs&index=7&list=PLHnzEAZ3lShlnekss0LWodXC LcskhWDHY! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=alUdoUHGuIk!! http://waterstink.com/tag/tonyUallan/! !

This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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7.' GLOSSARY' A.! Accessible!water:! the!part!of!sweet!water!(0,3%)!readily!accessible!for!use!as!surface!water!in! lakes,!swamps,!rivers!and!streams:!not!even!0,01%!of!the!global!world!water!!

B.! Blue!WF:!indicates!the!consumption!of!fresh!surface!or!ground!water,!! Blue! Gold:! it! is! a! term! to! identify! water,! as! it! is! getting! more! and! more! scarce! and! therefore,! precious!

C.! (Water)! cycle:! The! water! cycle! describes! the! existence! and! movement! of! water! on,! in,! and! above!the!Earth!

(water)! consumption:! is! the! water! no! longer! available! because! it! has! evaporated,! been! transpired! by! plants,! incorporated! into! products! or! crops,! consumed! by! people! or! livestock,! or! otherwise!removed!from!the!immediate!water!environment!

D.! Direct!WF:!indicates!the!amount!of!fresh!water!consumption!and!pollution!that!is!associated!to! the!water!used!by!the!consumer!or!producer,!!

Deforestation:! permanent! destruction! of! forests! in! order! to! make! the! land! available! for! other! uses,!having!a!major!impact!on!water!cycle!and!on!global!climate!change,!as!there!is!less!water! evaporating!into!the!atmosphere!and!subsequently!less!rain!

E.! Eutrophication:! It!is!the!process!by!which!an!ecosystem!responds!to!the!addition!of!natural!or! artificial!substances!to!an!aquatic!system!

Earth's!water:!it!is!always!in!movement!and!is!always!changing!states,!from!liquid!to!vapour!to! ice!and!back!again!!

F.! Fresh! water:! soUcalled! “sweet! water”! is! the! natural! water! on! earth’s! surface! apart! from! salt! water,!consisting!of!glaciers,!groundwater!and!surface!water.!It!is!2,5%!of!the!global!world!water!

G.! Green!WF:!fresh!water!from!precipitation!consumed!by!plants,!! Grey! WF:! fresh! water! consumed! to! assimilate! the! load! of! pollutants! based! on! natural! background!concentrations!and!existing!ambient!water!quality!standards,!

H.! Hydroelectricity:! it!is!the!electricity!generated!by!hydropowerh!the!production!of!electrical!power! through!the!use!of!the!gravitational!force!of!falling!or!flowing!water!

Habits:!what!we!should!pay!attention!to!in!order!to!reduce!our!WF!!Not!only!by!closing!tap!when! brushing!teeth!(12!litres!are!wasted!if!it!you!leave!it!running!),!but!also!our!dietary,!transportation! and!living!habits!!

I.! Indirect! WF:! indicates! the! consumption! and! pollution! of! the! (virtual)! water! associated! with! the! production!of!goods!and!services!consumed,!!

Irrigation:! It! is! an! artificial! watering! system! of! cultivated! land! that! does! not! get! enough! water! through!rainfall!

J.! Jeans:!a!pair!of!jeans!of!800!gram!costs!8.000!litres!! K.! Kilogram:!1kg!of!cotton!requires!10.000!litresh!1!kg!of!oranges!requires!100litres! L.! Litres! of!fresh!water!directly!consumed!per!person!per!day:!250!in!North!America,!100!U!230!in! Europe,!less!than!10!in!SubUSaharan!Africa:!how!to!accept!those!inequalities?!

This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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WF!labelling:!it!is!still!an!on!progress!idea:!every!product!could!indicate!its!blue,!green!and!grey! water!footprint,!so!that!consumer!could!be!more!aware!of!his!WF!

M.! !Meat:!Producing!1kg!of!beef!requires!15.000!litres!of!water,!while!1!kg!of!grain!1.500! N.! !National!WF:!is!the!WF!of!both!the!production!and!consumption!of!a!nation!! O.! Oceans:!covering!with!all!saline!waters!97.5%!of!the!earth!water!surfaces.!They!are!essential!for! water!cycle!

P.! !(Water)!pollution:! has! considerable! impacts! on! the! environment! and! affects! the! availability! of! fresh! water:! half! of! the! hospital! beds! in! developing! countries! are! filled! by! people! affected! by! diseases!caused!by!poor!water,!sanitation!and!hygiene!

Policies:!what!citizens!can!influence,!by!requiring!better!management!of!water!

Q.! Quality!and!Quantity!of!Water:!are!to!be!both!considered!to!define!the!water!footprint! R.! Rainfall:! impacted! by! climate! change! are! becoming! more! erratic,! putting! at! risk! especially! regions!depending!on!rainfed!agriculture!

Renewable:!water!is!finite!resource!but!infinitely!renewable!thanks!to!the!water!cycle!

S.! (Water)! sustainability:! fresh! water! is! a! finite! resource! and! its! consumption! needs! to! become! more!sustainable!worldwide,!!

(Water)! scarcity:! As! far! as! the! global! population! increases,! consequently! water! resources! are! more! subjected! to! pollution! and! shortage! stress:! by! 2050! it! is! foreseen! that! 1.8! billion! people! could!be!exposed!to!absolute!water!scarcity!!

T.! Tea:! it! has! a! high! WF! (a! cup! of! tea! requires! 30! litres! of! water)! but! 82%! green,! 10%! blue,! and! “only”!8%!grey!WF!

Tap:! by! drinking! water! from! it,! not! only! you! are! sure! you! drink! a! wellU! controlled! highUquality! water,!but!also!you!save!1,39!L!per!litre!of!water!you!drink,!plus!a!lot!of!pollution!!!

U.! (Water)!use:!includes!water!withdrawal!and!water!consumption! V.! !Virtual!Water:!invisible!water!we!consume!every!day,!needed!to!produce!the!goods!we!use!and! the!food!we!eat!

Vulnerability!of!water!systems:!affects!the!impact!of!the!water!footprints!of!several!products!!

W.' !Water'footprint:!human!appropriation!of!fresh!water.!It!indicates!water!consumption' X.! XXL!=!US!and!European!WFh!XXS=!WF!of!developing!countries,! X! year:! when! fresh! water! will! not! be! any! longer! available,! unless! we! change! our! consumption! patterns!!

Y.! You:!what!can!you!do!to!reduce!your!WF?!1)!Be!responsible!consumerh!2)!Not!exceed!meath!3)! Choose!the!meat!you!eath!4)!Do!not!waste!food!!

Z.! ZeroUcommaUthree:!the!quantity!of!available!freshUwater!on!the!global!Earth’s!water!! zero!kilometres:!buy!local!products,!usually!having!a!lower!water!impact! (be)!zealous!!on!reducing!your!WF!and!help!your!family!and!friends!doing!the!same,!for!a!better! world!!

! This! project! has! been! funded! with! support! from! the! European! Commission.! This! publication! reflects! the! views! only! of! the! author,! and! the! Commission! cannot! be! held! ! responsible! for! any! use! which! may! be! made! of! the! information! contained! therein.!

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