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AquaPath!–!Module!5! !

Water!in!the!Household!Sector!

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Module'V'–'Water'in'the'Household'Sector!

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1.' DOMESTIC'WATER'USE' Running%water%from%the%tap%is%one%of%the%luxuries%of%our%houses%today%that%we%are%taking%for% granted% –% only% few% of% us% might% still% have% to% rely% on% a% well% and% carry% water% to% the% house% for% drinking,%cooking,%washing,%cleaning%etc.%Well,%actually:%would%you%know%how%much%water%an% average%household%is%using%at%all?%Sure,%you%may%remember%the%last%water%bill,%but%then,%there% is%so%much%more%to%consider.! ! What'is'water'used'for?! When%we%compare%the%withdrawal%of%water%between%different%sectors%worldwide%(Figure%1),%we% notice%that%agriculture%accounts%for%about%70%%of%all%water%withdrawal,%compared%to%about%20%% for%industry%and%10%%for%municipal%use.% World

19

69

Europe

57

21

Americas Oceania

22 34

51 60

Asia

15

15

25 81

10

82 5

Africa 0%

20%

Agriculture

40%

Industries

60%

12

9 13

80%

100%

Municipalities 1

Figure'1.%Ratios%of%water%uses%in%different%continents .!

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Municipal%water%is%the%water%that%is%supplied%by%a%central%distribution%system,%which%apart%from% supplying% water% for% public% and% commercial% service% establishments% (such% as% hotels),% also% includes%domestic%water%supply.%Worldwide,%325%billion%cubic%metres%of%municipal%water%is%used% each%year2.%% % In% the% modified% world% map% below% (Figure% 2),% the% territory% size% shows% the% proportion% of% all% municipal%water%used,%including%domestic%purposes,%for%each%county%–%it%is%easily%seen%that%the% water%use%differs%greatly.%It%ranges%from%the%lowest%annual%per%capita%use%of%water%in%Cambodia%

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% Figure%reproduced%from:%FAO%AQUASTAT%(2015).%Water&withdrawal&ratios&by&continent&[Chart].%Retrieved%from% http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use/index.stm% This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% !responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein.!

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Module'V'–'Water'in'the'Household'Sector!

! ! with% average% 1,8% cubic% metres,% to% the% most% “thirsty”% consumers% in% Australia% with% 487% cubic% metres%–%a%lot%of%which%is%used%to%water%their%lawns%and%fill%pools2.!

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©%Copyright%Sasi%Group%(University%of%Sheffield)%and%Mark% Newman%(University%of%Michigan)%

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Figure'2.%Domestic%Water%Use%(Source:%Worldmapper ).!

! % Compared%with%other%uses%of%water,%it%is%the%domestic%water%that%we,%each%of%us,%have%the%most% control%over.%Therefore,%we%have%the%imminent%power%to%reduce%its%consumption,%which%has% been%realized%for%a%good%part%in%Germany%–%the%average%daily%water%use%has%dropped%from%147% litres%per%inhabitant%in%1990%to%120%litres%today3.%How%to%reduce%the%water%use%at%home?%Look% at%page%4%for%tips.%% The%main%water%uses%in%a%household%are%divided%among%a%handful%of%activities,%such%as%personal% hygiene,%cooking%and%cleaning.%However,%when%we%compare%countries%individually%we%start%to% see%interesting%differences.%For%example,%when%we%compare%the%German%and%UK%household% water%uses,%we%see%that%flushing%the%toilet%has%significantly%higher%share%in%UK%(Figure%3).!

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% Worldmapper% (2006).% Map& 324& Domestic& http://www.worldmapper.org/posters/worldmapper_map324_ver5.pdf%

Water&

Use.%

Retrieved%

from%

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! BDEW% (2015).% Development& of& the& water& use& per& capita& from% 1990& to& 2014% [graph].% Retrieved% from% www.bdew.de/internet.nsf/id/8DFG2NiDE_Grafiken% This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% !responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein.!

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Module'V'–'Water'in'the'Household'Sector!

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! 40% 35%

Germany

UK

36% 33% 30%

30%

27%

25% 20% 15%

12%

12%13% 9%

10%

5%

6% 7%

6%

5%

4%

n/a 0% bathing,% cooking% washing% showering,% and% the%clothes daily% drinking hygiene

other

doing% dishes

cleaning% flushing% the%house%/% the%toilet% washing% the%car%/% watering% the%garden

! Figure!3.!German4!and!UK5!household!water!uses!compared.! Some'tips'on'how'to'save'water:' •% When%you%wash%dishes%by%hand%do%not%leave%the%water%constantly%running%from%the%tap,% and% •% use%the%least%amount%of%detergent%(e.g.%biodegradable%soaps)%to%reduce%pollution%and%cut% down%on%rinsingj% •% defrost%foods%slowly%in%the%fridge%instead%of%using%warm%waterj% •% run%your%dishwasher%and%washing%machine%only%when%fullj% •% turn%off%the%tap%while%brushing%your%teethj% •% shorten%your%showers%by%one%or%two%minutes%and%prefer%showers%to%bathsj% •% install%a%lowiflow%shower%head%and%toiletj% •% water%garden%in%the%early%morning%or%during%evening%hours%to%avoid%evaporationj% •% use%tap%water%instead%of%bottled%water%for%drinking.% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4

% BDEW% (2015).% Domestic& water& use& in& 2014& [chart].% Retrieved% from% www.bdew.de/internet.nsf/id/8DFG2Ni DE_Grafiken% 5 !Figure%reproduced%from!http://www.greenspec.co.uk/downloads/?filename=ecoplay-brochure.pdf! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% !responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein.!

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Module'V'–'Water'in'the'Household'Sector!

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More!tips!on!water!conservation:!!

Try'to'do'this'at'home!'

wateruseitwisely.com! IN!A!NUTSHELL!

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Where'does'the'freshwater'of'our'houses'even'come'

As%the%water%resources%are%limited,% the% water% supply% and% sanitation% systems% are% under% pressure% from% urbanisation' and' climate' change.%%

from?!

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2.' SOURCES'AND'SUPPLIES'

The% freshwater% supply% may% have% several% possible% sources,% for% example,% municipal% water% comes%from%ground%water%and/or%from%processed%water%from%the%sea,%rivers,%lakes,%reservoirs,% rainwater,%etc.%The%European%water%sources%are%composed%of%65%%ground%water,%35%%surface% water%and%a%very%small%amount%of%the%desalination%of%salt%water%[6].%Needless%to%say%that%many% of%these%sources%require%treatment%in%order%to%be%used%as%fresh%water%or%“improved%drinking% water”.% Access%to%improved%water%sources%refers%to%the%percentage%of%the%population%using%piped%water% on% premises% (piped% household% water% connection% located% inside% the% user’s% dwelling,% plot% or% yard),% and% other% improved% drinking% water% sources% (public% taps% or% standpipes,% tube% wells% or% boreholes,%protected%dug%wells,%protected%springs,%and%rainwater%collection)%[7].%% Unfortunately,%easy%access%to%drinking%water%is%not%a%matter%of%course,%not%even%in%Europe.% Although% access% has% increased% in% general,% this% progress% masks% significant% disparities% within% and%

DID!YOU!KNOW?! '

19' million% people% in% the% WHO% European% between% countries,% between% urban% and% rural% Region%(Europe,%Russia%etc.)%still%get%their% areas,% as% well% as% between% high% and% lowiincome% drinking%water%from%sources%that%are%prone% to%microbial%contamination%and%almost%100' groups%[8].%%% million% people% still% lack% access% to% piped% [8] Moreover,% the% European% Environment% Agency% water%in%their%homes% .!

clearly% shows% how% water% availability% scarcity% happens%when%the%demand%for%water%exceeds%the%available%amount%in%a%certain%period.%They% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6

!Freshwater!Society,!www.freshwater.org!!

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!WHO/UNICEF!Joint!Monitoring!Programme!(JMP)!for!Water!Supply!and!Sanitation,!http://www.wssinfo.org/]!As!part!of!its! Millennium!Development!Goals,!the!United!Nations!expressed!its!commitment!by!2015!to!reduce!by!one!half!the!1.1!billion! people!without!sustainable!access!to!improved!water!supply.! 8

!World!Health!Organization!(2015).!Water&and&sanitation&in&the&WHO&European&Region:&2014&Highlights.!Retrieved!from! http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/275887/water\sanitation\EURO_2014\highlights\en.pdf! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% !responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein.!

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Module'V'–'Water'in'the'Household'Sector!

! ! occur%frequently%in%areas%with%low%rain%and%high%population%density,%and%in%areas%with%intensive% agricultural%or%industrial%activities.%This%causes%the%drying%up%of%the%natural%areas%in%western% and%southern%Europe%and%saltiwater%intrusion%in%aquifers.! %

3.' WASTE'WATER'MANAGEMENT' How'can'water'become'waste?'! There%are%various%sources%of%water%pollution,%according%to%the%different%water%uses%and%sectors,% such%as%industries,%agriculture%and%power%plants,%but%also%domestic%water%use.%Typical%water% pollution%in%households%comes%from%cleaning%detergents,%human%faeces,%and%other%waste%which% is%disposed%to%the%sewerage.%The%Water%Footprint%concept%considers%this%water%pollution%in%the% endiuse%stage%as%part%of%the%footprint%of%a%product,%e.g.%the%water%pollution%that%results%from%the% use%of%soaps%in%the%household.! !

How'is'the'waste'water'treated?! A%household%or%business%not%served%by%a%municipal%treatment%plant%may%have%an%individual% septic%tank,%which%preitreats%the%waste%water%on%site%and%infiltrates%it%into%the%soil.%Pilot%projects% have%successfully%tested%the%use%of%vacuum%toilets%that%separate%urine%and%faeces%in%order%to% treat%them%separately%for%anaerobic%treatment%in%a%biogas%power%plant%(Figure%4).!

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Visible%part%of%a%biogas%plant%which%is%run%by%human%faeces%% (Source:%Project%Wohnen&Arbeiten%in%Freiburg/Germany)%

! However,% in% urban% areas% of% developed% countries,% domestic% sewage% is% typically% treated% by% centralized%sewage%treatment%plants.%They%include%physical,%chemical%and%biological%processes% to% remove% contaminants% and% produce% environmentally% safe% treated% wastewater% (Figure% 5).% Wellidesigned% and% operated% systems% (i.e.% secondary% treatment% or% better)% can% remove% 90% This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% !responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein.!

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Module'V'–'Water'in'the'Household'Sector!

! ! percent%or%more%of%the%pollutant%load%in%sewage.%Some%facilities%have%additional%systems%to% remove%nutrients%and%pathogens,%including%natural%treatment%systems.%%

% Figure'5.%The%processes%involved%in%waste%water%treatment%(Source:%Timex%Filtration%and%Water%Systems).!

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The%treated%wastewater%can%be%released%back%into%the%lakes,%rivers%or%seasj%or%it%can%be%used% again%as%recycled%water.%Depending%on%the%cleanness%of%the%recycled%water,%it%can%be%used%for% toilet%flushing,%irrigation%and%other%nonipotable%uses.%% As% an% example,% Singapore% is% using% such% an% extensive% and% thorough% purification% of% its% wastewater%that%it%turns%out%to%be%cleaner%than%the%conventional%tap%water9.% However,%probably%due%to%the%stigma%(commonly%called%“toilet%to%tap”%water),%this%water%is%not% directly%used%as%drinking%water,%but%rather%in%industries%where%very%high%quality%water%is%needed.% % Learn!more:!

%%

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aosm1sr3DDc! % A% byiproduct% of% sewage% treatment% is% usually% a% semiisolid% waste% or% slurry,% called% sewage% sludge,%which%also%has%to%undergo%further%treatment%before%being%suitable%for%disposal%or%land% application.!!

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!Singapore´s!national!water!agency,!www.pub.gov.sg/water/newater/Pages/default.aspx! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% !responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein.!

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Module'V'–'Water'in'the'Household'Sector!

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Learn!more:!

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aosm1sr3DDc!

! ! What'is'beyond'waste'water?'! In%many%cases,%waste%water%can%be%reused%as%fertilizers%in%agriculture%and%aquaculture,%with%a% number% of% microbial% threats.% But% waste% water% can% also% be% a% source% of% energy:% in% the% waste% water%treatment%plant%of%Renningen%in%Germany,%the%sewage%sludge%is%being%dried%with%solar% power%and%rejected%heat,%which%is%then%used%to%fire%a%CHP%gasification%plant%that%is%supplying% the%waste%water%treatment%facility%with%all%the%necessary%heat%and%electricity%[10].%% ! ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' Figure'6.%Energetic%use%of%sewage%sludge%at%waste%water%treatment%facilities%in%Renningen,%Germany% 11 (source%Jürgen%Fälchle%/%Fotolia.com) .!

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !Sustainable!use!of!sewage!sludge,!Federal!Office!for!Environment,!!www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/klaerschlamm\

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umweltfreundlich\nutzen\pilotanlage\im!! 11

!Umwelt!Bundesamt,!www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/klaerschlamm\umweltfreundlich\nutzen\pilotanlage\im! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% !responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein.!

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Module 5  
Module 5  

This module will allow a closer look at what is basically right in front of our eyes, and part of our everyday life – water in our household...

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