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AquaPath!–!Module!3! !

WATER!FOOTPRINT!OF!CONSUMPTION! AND!PRODUCTION!


Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

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EXECUTIVE!SUMMARY! ! The%water%footprint%of%production%of%a%nation%is%the%amount%of%local%water%resources%that% are%used%to%produce%goods%and%services%within%a%country.%The%water%footprint%of% consumption%of%a%nation%is%the%water%footprint%of%all%the%goods%and%services%that%are% consumed%by%the%people%living%in%a%country.%Part%of%the%water%footprint%of%a%country%lies% within%the%country’s%borders%(internal%water%footprint)%and%part%somewhere%else%in%the% world%from%imported%products.%Worldwide,%averagely%22%%of%a%person’s%water%footprint% lie%in%a%different%country%which%is%imported%virtual%water,%i.e.%water%used%to%produce%the% imported%goods%at%their%place%of%origin.%Hence,%when%a%country%imports%or%exports% commodities,%it%is%also%importing%or%exporting%the%water%that%was%necessary%to%produce% such%commodities.%This%is%named%“virtual%water%trade”.%Europe%is%the%biggest%water% importer%region%in%the%world.%In%other%countries%in%the%world,%such%as%India%and% Paraguay%only%3%%of%the%national%water%footprint%of%consumption%is%external.%Together,% the%water%footprint%of%production%and%consumption%tell%an%important%story%about%a% nation’s%water%use%and%dependence%on%external%water%resources,%which%can%be%used%to% help%governments%manage%their%water%resources%as%well%as%understand%the%links% between%their%economic%development,%food%security%and%international%trade%relations% and%water.!

1.! VIRTUAL!WATER!TRADE! !

1.1.!

NATIONAL!WATER!FOOTPRINT!AND!VIRTUAL!WATER!

The% water% that% you% do% not% consume% directly,% but% which% was% necessary% to% produce% something%you%eat,%buy%or%use,%is%“virtual%water”.%Virtual%water% [1]%is%defined%as%the%total% volume%of%water%needed%to%produce%and%process%a%commodity%or%service%[2].%! The%Water%Footprint%of%a%nation%can%be%viewed%from%two%perspectives:%production%and% consumption.! The%water%footprint%of%production%is%the%amount%of%local%water%resources%that%are%used%to% produce% goods% and% services% within% a% country.% This% includes% the% water% footprint% of%

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!Link!to!indirect!WF! !Hoekstra!AY,!Chapagain!AK!(2007).!"Water!footprints!of!nations:!water!use!by!people!as!a!function!of! their!consumption!pattern".!Water!Resources!Management!21!(1):!35–48! 2

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

! ! agriculture,%industry%and%domestic%water%use%and%tells%us%the%total%volume%of%water%[3]%and% assimilation%capacity%[4]%consumed%within%the%borders%of%the%country%[5].! We%can%also%view%the%water%footprint%from%the%perspective%of%consumption.%In%this%case,% the%water%footprint%is%calculated%for%all%the%goods%and%services%that%are%consumed%by%the% people%living%in%a%country.%This%water%footprint%may%be%partly%inside%the%country%and%partly% outside%of%it,%depending%on%whether%the%products%are%locally%produced%or%imported.%!

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Figure!1.%Water%footprint%of%national%consumption%and%national%production%(Source:% http://waterfootprint.org/en/waterRfootprint/nationalRwaterRfootprint/).!

When% looking% in% detail% to% the% water% footprint% of% consumption% in% a% country,% there% are% significant% differences% amongst% countries% in% the% world% about% how% much% of% that% water% footprint%is%internal%(water%footprint%that%lies%in%the%country%where%the%good%is%consumed)% or%external%(water%footprint%lies%somewhere%else%in%the%world%–%imported%goods).%!

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!Link!to!blue!and!green!water!footprint!definitions! !Link!to!grey!water!footprint!definition! 5 !Hoekstra!AY,!Chapagain!AK!(2007).!"Water!footprints!of!nations:!water!use!by!people!as!a!function!of! their!consumption!pattern".!Water!Resources!Management!21!(1):!35–48;! http://waterfootprint.org/en/waterRfootprint/nationalRwaterRfootprint/!!

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This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

! ! Worldwide,% averagely% 22%% of% a% person’s% water% footprint% lie% in% a% different% country% (836% litres%out%of%3800%litres).%These%836%litres%are%imported%virtual%water,%i.e.%water%used%to% produce%the%imported%goods%at%their%place%of%origin.%Hence,%when%a%country%imports%or% exports%commodities,%it%is%also%importing%or%exporting%the%water%that%was%necessary%to% produce% such% commodities.% This% is% named% “virtual%water%trade”.! The% average% European% citizen% external% water% footprint%(part%of%the%water%footprint%which%relates% to% imported% virtual% water)% is% higher% than% the%

The%average%European%citizen% external%water%footprint%is%more%than% two%times%higher%than%the%world’s% average.%!

world’s% average.% The% average% external% water% footprint%of%European%Union%countries%is%54%%R%more%than%two%times%the%world’s%average.% In%countries%like%Poland,%Hungary%and%Bulgaria%the%external%water%footprint%is%higher%than% 70%%and,%in%the%Netherlands%and%Malta%96%%and%92%%of%the%water%footprint%is%imported% [6]

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Europe%is%the%biggest%water%importer%region%in%the%world.%In%other%countries%in%the%world,% such%as%India%and%Paraguay%only%3%%of%the%national%water%footprint%of%consumption%is% external.! !

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Use!the!National!Water!Footprint!Explorer! interactive!map!to!explore!all!nations’!internal!and! external!footprints:! http://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/interactiveR tools/nationalRwaterRfootprintRexplorer%!

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1.2.!

VIRTUAL!WATER!TRADE!

When%looking%at%the%global%commodities%trade%in%the%world,%it%is%possible%to%identify%the% biggest%water%importer%nations%(nations%in%orange%and%red%in%Figure%2)%and%the%biggest% water%exporters%(nations%in%green%in%Figure%2).%%! !

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!Hoekstra,!A.Y.!and!Mekonnen,!M.M.!(2012)!The!water!footprint!of!humanity,!Proceedings!of!the!National! Academy!of!Sciences,!109(9):!3232–3237.! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

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! Figure!2.%National%virtual%water%balances%–%arrows%show%gross%virtual%water%flows%bigger%than%15% 15%million%cubic%meters%per%year%(Source:%Hoekstra,%A.Y.%and%Mekonnen,%M.M.%(2012)%The%water% footprint%of%humanity,%Proceedings%of%the%National%Academy%of%Sciences,%109(9):%3232–3237).!

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The%global%trade%in%goods%has%allowed%countries%with%limited%water%resources%to%rely%on% water%resources%in%other%countries%to%meet%the%needs%of%their%inhabitants.%As%food%and% other%products%are%traded%internationally,%their%water%footprint%follows%them%in%the%form%of% virtual%water.%This%allows%us%to%link%the%water%footprint%of%production%to%the%water%footprint% of%consumption,%wherever%they%occur.! Countries% can% both% import% and% export% virtual% water% through% their% international% trade% relations.%Globally,%the%major%gross%virtual%water%exporters%are%USA,%China,%India,%Brazil,% Argentina,% Canada,% Australia,% Indonesia,% France% and% Germany% and% the% major% gross%

Europe%is%amongst%the%biggest%virtual% water%importers%in%the%World%along% with%North%Africa,%Middle%East,% Mexico,%Japan%and%South%Korea.% !

virtual% water% importers% are% the% USA,% Japan,% Germany,% China,% Italy,% Mexico,% France,% the% UK% and% the% Netherlands.% The% largest% net% exporters%of%virtual%water%are%found%in%North%

and% South% America% (the% USA,% Canada,% Brazil% and% Argentina),% Southern% Asia% (India,% Pakistan,%Indonesia%and%Thailand)%and%Australia.%The%biggest%net%virtual%water%importers% are%North%Africa%and%the%Middle%East,%Mexico,%Europe,%Japan%and%South%Korea.! ! ! !

Learn!some!more:! % https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ca3fB BizR3U! % https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nR kAv5xOwEo%!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

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1.3.!

IMPORTANCE!OF!THE!VIRTUAL!WATER!TRADE!

As% nations% work% towards% securing% food,% water,% energy% and% other% essential% inputs% for% people’s%wellbeing,%livelihoods%and%the%country’s%economic%development,%most%countries% rely%on%imports%as%well%as%exports%of%goods%and%services.%A%country%may%aim%to%be%selfR sufficient% by% relying% primarily% on% goods% that% can% be% produced% within% its% borders.% Or% a% country%may%choose%to%reduce%the%burden%on%the%natural%resources%within%its%borders%by% importing%water%intensive%products.! A%country%may%select%energy%security%by%using%its%natural%resources%to%produce%electricity% in%exchange%for%food%security%by%importing%food.%The%water%footprint%and%its%translation% into%virtual%water%can%illuminate%these%choices%and%their%interRdependencies.%Virtual%water% helps%us%understand%the%dependencies%our%economies%have%on%others’%resources.! Coupling%this%with%the%water%footprint%enables%us%to%map%out%the%dependencies%and%to% identify% when% and% where% risks% may% lie,% in% terms% of% scarcity% and% pollution.% This% has% implications%for%food%security,%economy%and%diplomacy.%! For%waterRscarce%countries%it%can%sometimes% Countries%with%scarce%water% resources%may%reduce%their%domestic% water%consumption%by%importing% goods%which%require%large%amounts%of% water%to%be%produced.%!

be%attractive%to%import%virtual%water%(through% import% of% waterRintensive% products),% thus% relieving%the%pressure%on%the%domestic%water% resources.% This% happens,% for% example,% in% Mediterranean% countries,% the% Middle% East%

and%Mexico.%Northern%European%countries%import%a%lot%of%water%in%virtual%form%(more%than% they%export),%but%this%is%not%driven%by%water%scarcity.! Virtual% water% flows% help% us% see% how% the% water% resources% in% one% country% are% used% to% support%consumption%in%another%country.! ! ! Learn!some!more!! The!Water!Footprint!of!Modern! ! Consumer!Society:! % https://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=6XvBxC9XMpE%!

! ! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

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2.! TYPICAL!WATER!FOOTPRINTS!OF!EUROPEAN!CONSUMERS! The%water%footprint%of%an%European%Union%consumer%is%5130%litres%per%day.%This%means% that%the%average%annual%water%footprint%of%an%European%Union%consumer%is%equivalent%to% the% volume% of% water% necessary% to% fill% in% two% thirds% of% an% Olympic% swimming% pool.% The% European%Union%consumer%water%footprint%is%also%25%%higher%than%the%world’s%average% consumer% water% footprint7% R% 3800% litres% per% European%Union%citizens%have,%in% average%a%25%%higher%water%footprint% than%the%rest%of%the%world,%with% Luxembourg,%Portugal%and%Spain% leading.%%!

day.! Luxembourg,% Portugal% and% Spain% have% the% top% water% footprints% in% the% EU% (and% in% the% world),% and% only% the% United% Kingdom% and% Slovakia% have% an% average% consumption%

water%footprint%per%capita%below%the%world’s%average%(see%Figure%3).! !

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!Hoekstra,!A.Y.!and!Mekonnen,!M.M.!(2012)!The!water!footprint!of!humanity,!Proceedings!of!the! National!Academy!of!Sciences,!109(9):!3232–3237.;!WaterStat,!available!at:! http://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/waterRfootprintRstatistics/!! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

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! Figure!3.%Water%footprint%of%national%consumption%in%the%European%Union%Countries.%(Source:% Hoekstra,%A.Y.%and%Mekonnen,%M.M.%(2012)%The%water%footprint%of%humanity,%Proceedings%of%the% National%Academy%of%Sciences,%109(9):%3232–3237.l%WaterStat,%available%at:% http://waterfootprint.org/en/resources/waterRfootprintRstatistics/).!

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Why% do% European% nations% have% in% average% a% higher% water% footprint% than% most% of% the% countries%in%the%world?%And%why%are%countries%like%Luxemburg,%Portugal%and%Spain%on% top?! When%we%look%at%the%graph%in%Figure%3,%we%can%see%that%the%largest%share%of%the%water% footprint%of%consumers%is%green!water!footprint,%which%is%water%that%is%used%to%grow%the% crops%used%as:! ●% Food%and%ingredients%to%prepare%our%food%–%like%fruits,%vegetables,%rice,%cereals,% sugar,%oil,%flour,%pastal! ●% Animal%feed%for%animal%products%–%like%eggs,%milk,%cheese,%meatl! ●% Non%edible%crops%–%like%cotton%to%produce%clothes.!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

! ! Figure%4%presents%the%water%footprint%of%the%average%European% [8]%citizen%per%sector.%It%is% possible%to%see%that%in%average%46%%of%our%water%footprint%is%related%to%the%production%of% animal% products% and% 37%% to% crops% [9].% This% means% that% more% than% 80%% of% our% water% footprint%as%consumers%relates%to%what%we%eat%[10].! !

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Figure!4.%European%Union%consumers%average%water%footprint%per%sector.%(Source:%D.%Vanham,% A.Y.%Hoekstra,%G.%Bidoglio%(2013).%Potential)water)saving)through)changes)in)European)diets.% Environment%International%61%(2013)%45–56).!

Therefore% a% nation’s% consumption% water% footprint% is% very% much% related% to% the% citizens’% dietary% habits,% which% are% also% related% to% average% income% and% cultural% habits% (link% to% Module%4).%On%the%other%hand,%in%some%territories,%the%amount%of%water%required%to%grow% certain%crops%is%higher%due%to%climatic%conditions%(like%in%Mediterranean%countries%where% summers%are%hotter%and%dryer%than%in%central%or%northern%Europe).%!

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!Within!the!28!European!Union!countries:!Austria,!Belgium,!Bulgaria,!Croatia,!Cyprus,!Czech!Republic,! Denmark,! Estonia,! Finland,! Germany,! Greece,! Hungary,! Italy,! Latvia,! Luxembourg,! Malta,! Netherlands,! Poland,!Portugal,!Romania,!Slovakia,!Slovenia,!Spain,!Sweden!and!United!Kingdom.! 9 !D.!Vanham,!A.Y.!Hoekstra,!G.!Bidoglio!(2013).!Potential!water!saving!through!changes!in!European!diets.! Environment!International!61!(2013)!45–56.! 10 !Link!to!module!4! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

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The%European%Union%countries%are%divided%in%four%geographical%zones%(according%to%the% UN%standard%country%or%area%codes%and%geographical%regions):%! ●% NORTH:%Ireland,%UK,%Sweden,%Finland,%Denmark,%Estonia,%Latvia,%Lithuania! ●% WEST:%Germany,%Belgium,%The%Netherlands,%Luxembourg,%France,%Austria! ●% EAST:%Poland,%Czech%Republic,%Slovakia,%Hungary,%Romania,%Bulgaria! ●% SOUTH:%Portugal,%Spain,%Italy,%Slovenia,%Croatia,%Greece,%Malta,%Cyprus! ! When%the%diet%habits%of%these%regions%are%compared%against%what%are%the%recommended% dietary%quantities%(Figure%5),%it%is%possible%to%verify%that:! % Sugar,% crop% oils% and% animal% fats% product% groups% are% consumed% above%

recommended%amounts%and%should%be%reduced%in%all%four%regionsl! % Vegetables%and%fruit%consumption%are%below%recommended%quantities%and%should%

be%increased%in%all%four%regionsl! % Apart%from%the%North,%the%intake%of%meat%is%high%above%the%recommended%amounts%

and% should% drastically% be% reduced.% This% is% particularly% visible% in% the% South% and% West,% where% consumers’% water% footprints% are% higher% (Portugal,% Spain% and% Luxembourg).%! !

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This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

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Figure!5.%Intake%products%(kilogram%per%capita%per%year)%and%has%recommended%for%healthy% diet%for%the%EU%zones.%(Source:%D.%Vanham,%A.Y.%Hoekstra,%G.%Bidoglio%(2013).%Potential)water) saving)through)changes)in)European)diets.%Environment%International%61%(2013)%45–56).!

Therefore,% changing% diet% habits% can% significantly% contribute% to% the% water% footprint% reduction.%Check%out%how%much%meat%products%you%eat%and%try%to%find%ways%to%reduce% your%water%footprint%by%changing%your%habits%(link%to%Module%IV).! ! !

3.! LOCAL!VS!GLOBAL!AND!IMPLICATIONS!FOR!WATER!POLICY! Together,%the%water%footprint%of%production%and%consumption%tell%an%important%story%about% a%nation’s%water%use%and%dependence%on%external%water%resources,%which%can%be%used% to% help% governments% manage% their% water% resources% as% well% as% understand% the% links% between%their%economic%development,%food%security%and%international%trade%relations%and% water.! The%water%footprint%of%production%measures%the%amount%of%pressure%that%is%being%put%on% local%water%resources%and%forms%the%basis%for%determining%whether%they%are%being%used% in%a%sustainable%way.%The%water%footprint%of%consumption%reflects%the%standard%of%living% and%lifestyle%choices%of%the%country’s%residents.%Understanding%how%much%of%that%water% This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

! ! footprint%is%within%its%borders%and%the%amount%and%location%of%the%water%footprint%that%is% elsewhere%is%a%first%step%toward%assessing%the%country’s%external%water%dependence%and% its%influence%on%food%and%other%forms%of%security%(link%to%module%2).! Countries%with%limited%water%resources%such%as%North%Africa,%Mexico%and%the%Middle%East% must%depend%on%imported%goods%to%fulfil%all%the%needs%of%their%populations.%This%is%also% true%for%countries%with%limited%land%area%like%Japan%and%Singapore.%Europe,%whilst%rich%in% water%resources%and%land%area,%has%half%of%its%water%footprint%outside%its%borders.%! !

3.1.!

!WATER!SAVING!BY!TRADE!

Many%nations%save%domestic%water%resources%by%importing%waterRintensive%products%and% exporting%commodities%that%are%less%water%intensive.%National%water%saving%through%the% import%of%a%product%can%imply%saving%water%at%a%global%level%if%the%flow%is%from%sites%with% relatively%high%water%productivity%(i.e.%commodities%with%a%small%water%footprint)%to%sites% with%low%water%productivity%(commodities%with%a%large%water%footprint).! The%total%amount%of%water%that%would%have%been%required%in%the%importing%countries%if%all% imported%agricultural%products%were%produced%domestically%is%2%407%billion%cubic%meters% per% year.% These% products% are,% however,% being% produced% with% only% 2% 038% billion% cubic% meters%per%year%in%the%exporting%countries,%saving%global%water%resources%by%369%billion% cubic%meters%per%year% [11].%This%saving%is%equivalent%to%4%%of%the%global%water%footprint% related%to%agricultural%production%(which%is%8%363%billion%cubic%meters%per%year).! National% policy% makers% in% waterRscarce% countries% are% likely% to% be% more% interested% in% national%water%savings%than%in%global%water%savings.%There%are%many%examples%of%waterR poor% countries% that% save% their% domestic% water% resources% by% importing% waterRintensive% goods.% Mexico,% for% example,% imports% maize% and,% in% doing% so,% it% saves% 12% billion% cubic% meters%per%year%of%its%national%water%resources.%This%is%the%volume%of%water%that%it%would% need%domestically%if%it%had%to%produce%the%imported%maize%within%the%country.! !

3.2.!

HOW!TO!ACHIEVE!A!SUSTAINABLE!NATIONAL!WATER!FOOTPRINT!

Achieving%a%sustainable%national%water%footprint,%means%working%both%in%the%country%and% outside%its%boundaries.!

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!National%virtual%water%balances%–%arrows%show%gross%virtual%water%flows%bigger%than%15%15%million% cubic% meters% per% year% (Source:% Hoekstra,! A.Y.! and! Mekonnen,! M.M.! (2012)! The! water! footprint! of! humanity,!Proceedings!of!the!National!Academy!of!Sciences,!109(9):!3232–3237.)! This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

! ! Governments% can% engage% with% businesses% and% establish% mechanisms% encouraging% companies%to%be%resource%efficient%and%transparent%in%their%water%use.%Creating%legislation% or%voluntary!agreements%per%sector%to%promote%product%transparency%and%disclosure%on% water%footprint%is%one%example%of%this.%Governments%can%also%engage%with%their%citizens% raising%their%awareness%of%the%water%footprint%of%their%consumption%and%ways%to%reduce%it.! Outside%their%borders%governments%can%focus%foreign%aid%on%improving%the%sustainable% management%of%water%resources%in%locations%where%the%external%water%footprint%lies,%work% with% trade% partners% to% ensure% sustainable% production% of% goods% that% are% imported% and% exported%and,%ultimately,%can%work%towards%the%promotion%of%international%agreements%on% maximum%sustainable%water%footprint%limits%and%equitable%sharing%of%the%water%footprint% of%consumption.! !

3.3.!

FAIR!AND!SMART!WATER!USE!

Governments%can%secure%longRterm%sustainability%of%freshwater%resources%use%by:! ●% Setting%maximum%sustainable%limits%for%water%consumption%and%water%pollution%in% river% basins% and% aquifers% to% ensure% the% appropriate% balance% between% water% people% and% nature.% These% limits% can% be% defined% through% a% geographic% Water% Footprint%Assessment%(link%to%what%is%a%WFA),%which%provides%information%on%river% basins’%and%aquifers’%water%availability%and%pollution%assimilation%capacity.! ●% Establishing% water% footprint% benchmarks% for% producers% and% sectors,% based% on% best%available%technologies%and%practices%to%drive%improved%resource%efficiency.! ●% Establishing%equitable%allocation/fair%sharing%of%water%footprints%within%river%basins% and%amongst%all%people.! Extending% water% use% statistics% beyond% what% is% traditionally% accounted% will% provide% governments%with%the%information%needed%to%manage%their%water%resources%and%external% water%dependence%in%a%comprehensive%way.%Traditional%national%water%use%accounts%only% refer%to%the%water%withdrawal%within%a%country.%They%do%not%distinguish%between%water%use% for% making% products% for% domestic% consumption% and% water% use% for% producing% export% products.%They%also%exclude%data%on%water%use%outside%the%country%related%to%the%water% footprint%of%consumption.! In%addition,%they%include%blue%water%use%only,%excluding%green%and%grey%water%footprints.% In%order%to%support%broader%analyses%and%to%better%inform%decisionRmaking,%the%traditional% national%water%use%accounts%need%to%be%extended.!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module!II!–!Water!Footprint!of!Consumption!and!Production!

! ! Extending%water%use%statistics%to%include%all%aspects%of%the%water%footprint%will%broaden% the% basis% for% the% formulation% of% integrated% water% resources% management% plans% and% policies,%improved%water%governance%and%sustainable%development.! By% looking% only% at% water% use% in% their% own% country,% governments% tend% to% overlook% the% question% of% whether% national% consumption% is% sustainable.% Many% countries% have% significantly% externalised% their% water% footprint% without% assessing% whether% the% imported% products% are% related% to% water% depletion% or% pollution% in% the% producing% countries.% Few% countries% that% have% externalised% their% water% footprint% fully% understand% their% resultant% dependency%on%foreign%freshwater%resources%and%overlook%the%potential%risks%this%might% incur.! ! ! Learn!some!more:! % https://www.youtube.com/ ! watch?v=plfiHRw1a_U!

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This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein ! !

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Module 3  
Module 3  

The water footprint of production of a nation is the amount of local water resources that are used to produce goods and services within a co...

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