Page 1

! !

!

AquaPath!–!Module!2! !

WATER!SUSTAINABILITY!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

!!

!

INTRODUCTION''

!

! Water% plays% a% critical% role% in% sustainable% development% and% is% related% to% numerous% global% issues% such% as% poverty% reduction,% health% and% sanitation,% inequalities% and% degradation% of% ecosystems.% This% being% said,% water% sustainability% could% appear,% at% first,% as% an% irrelevant% concern:%isn’t%our%planet’s%surface%composed%of%75%%of%water%after%all?! ! Figure'1.'Composition%of%the%world’s%water.! Whereas% this% is% true,% module% 1% already% mentioned% that% 97,5%% of% Earth’s% water% volume% (1,4% billion%km3)%is%contained%in%oceans% and% seas.% The% rest% is% freshwater% but% around% 70%% of% it% remains% locked% in% permanent% snow% cover% and% in% ice% caps% in% the% Antarctic% and%Arctic%regions.%What’s%left%lies% mostly% in% soil% moisture% and% deep% aquifers%[1]:%only%a%small%proportion% (in%fact,%less%than%1%)%can%thus%be% exploited% for% our% production% and% consumption%(Fig.%1).!

! !

'

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1

!layers!of!rock!or!unconsolidated!materials!(gravel,!sand,!or!silt)!that!contains!water,!definition!from! http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/aquifer!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

2!

!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

!!

!

2.1.'WATER'SCARCITY'

!

! In'a'nutshell!

! According%to%estimations,%around%40%%of%the%world%population%is%already%affected,%at% some%point,%by%water%scarcity,%and%20%%of%the%world’s%aquifers%are%over%exploited% [2].% By%2030,%the%world%may%face%a%40%%water%deficit% [3],%with%severe%impacts%on%health,% security%and%food%production,%among%others%issues.%%!

! ! ! Are'you'familiar'with'the'concept'of'water'scarcity?'! The% definition% itself% may% vary% from% one% organisation% to% another.% According% to% the% United% Nations,%water%scarcity%occurs%when%an%area’s%water%supplies%fall%below%1000m3%per%capita% (i.e.%per%person)%per%year%[4].%The%water%footprint%concept%takes%a%rather%different%approach:%it% measures% the% blue% water% footprint% (see% module% 1)% after% considering% environmental% flow% requirements:%freshwater%ecosystems%degrade%when%these%requirements%are%not%met%over% time% [5].% According% to% the% Water% Footprint% network,% more% than% 2.7% billion% people% may% be% affected%by%water%scarcity%at%least%for%a%month%per%year%[6].! But%let’s%forget%definitions%for%now%and%put%things%more%simply:%water%scarcity%is%mainly%the% result%of%limited%resources%confronted%with%fast%increasing%needs.! ! Why'do'our'water'needs'increase?! Depletion% of% water% resources% considerably% accelerated% with% demographic% growth:% from% around%3%billion%people%in%the%1950s,%the%population%is%now%over%7%billion%and%could%reach%9,5% billion%by%2050.%In%parallel,%the%world’s%GDP%[7]%grew%at%a%rate%of%3,5%%per%year%between%1960% and%2012%[8],%leading%to%substantial%increase%in%water%needs.%Below%are%highlighted%some%of% the%main%factors:%! !

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2

!Gleeson,!t.,!Wada,!Y.,!bierkens,!M.f.P.!and!van!beek,!l.P.H.!2012.!Water!balance!of!global!aquifers!revealed!by!groundwater!footprint.! Nature,!488:!197P200,!doi:10.1038/nature11295.! 3 !2030!WrG!(2030!Water!resources!Group).!2009.!Charting!our!water!future:!Economic!frameworks!to!inform!decisionPmaking.! 4 5 6 7 8

!UN!website,!http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml!

!http://waterfootprint.org/en/waterPfootprint/waterPfootprintPassessment/! !http://waterfootprint.org/en/waterPfootprint/whatPisPwaterPfootprint/! !Gross!Domestic!Product!

!World!economics,!2014.!World!Economics:!Global!Growth!Tracker.! http://www.worldeconomics.com/papers/Global%20Growth%20Monitor_7c66ffcaPff86P4e4cP979dP7c5d7a22ef21.paper!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

3!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

! [%

[%

[%

! !! Agricultural'water'consumption%is%expected%to%raise%by%19%%by%2050%[9],%with%food% demand% increasing% by% 60%,% 100%% in% developing% countries% [10].% Agriculture% was% responsible% for% over% 53%% of% the% global% Water% Footprint% (WF)% of% production% (see% module%3)%during%the%period%1996[2005%[11].! ! Urban'areas,%which%could%harbour%more%than%6,3%billion%people%in%2050%(3,9%billion% in%2014)%[12],%are%developing%at%unprecedented%rates:%every%second%the%world’s%urban% population%grows%by%two%people% [13].%To%cover%their%water%needs,%cities%have%to%dig% deeper%or%go%further,%or/and%rely%on%innovative%solutions.! ! From% 1973% to% 2010,% the% world' energy' consumption% increased% by% 186%,% and% demand%could%raise%by%a%further%35%%by%2035,%70%%for%electricity%alone%[14].%The%WF% of%electricity%and%heat%consumption%is%estimated%at%378%billion%m3%per%year.%!

!

! Did'you'know?...'our'diet'is'critical'to'water'sustainability!

! The%water%we%use%for%our%daily%needs%accounts%only%for%a%small%part%of%global%water% footprint,%which%is%mainly%related%to%agriculture%and%irrigation.%But'we'still'have'a'high' influence' on' this' matter!% Our% diet,% in% particular,% is% critical% to% water% sustainability:% producing% our% daily% food% requires% no% less% than% 2000% to% 5000% litres,% 3000% litres% on% average15.%%Whereas%meat%consumption%is%expected%to%rise%from%37kg%per%person%per% year%in%2000%to%52kg%by%203016,!we%should%know%that%producing%a%kilo%of%beef%requires% 15000%litres%of%water,%ten%times%more%than%a%kilo%of%grain%(learn%more%in%module%4!).!

! !

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9

!FAO,!from!UNWATER!website!

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

!Alexandratos,!n.!and!Bruinsma,!J.,!2012.!World!agriculture!towards!2030/2050:!The!2012!revision.! !http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/HoekstraPMekonnenP2012PWaterFootprintPofPHumanity.pdf! !UN,!2012,!World!Water!Assessment!Report! !UN!Habitat,!2011.!World!Water!Day!2011:!Water!and!urbanization.!Water!for!Cities:!Responding!to!the!urban!challenge.! !IEA!2012,!World!Energy!Outlook! !FAO,!from!UNWATER!website!

!FAO,!from!UNWATER!website!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

4!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

!!

!

Figure'2.'Water%stress%per%area.%

[17]%

!

This% map% is% drawn% from% the% World%Resources%Institute,%which% definition% of% water% stress% depends% on% the% ratio% of% withdrawals% against% supply.% A% ratio%above%80%%(dark%red%on%the% map)% indicates% extremely( high( stress,% a% ratio% between% 60% and% 80%% (red)% indicates%high( stress,% and% so% on18.! This% not% only% demonstrates% that% water% is% a% ! concern%for%Europe,%but%also%that% the% issue% should% be% considered% at%regional%and%local%levels.!

%!

!

!

2.2.'WATER'POLLUTION' !

! In'a'nutshell!

! Demographic%growth,%urbanisation%and%economic%development%led%to%unsustainable% pressure%on%and%pollution%of%water%resources.%Every%day,%no%less%than%2%million%tons%of% human% waste% are% disposed% of% into% water% course% [19].% This% widespread% pollution% has% damaging%effects%on%the%environment%and%is%also%a%growing%risk%for%human%health.! %!

! ! Water%pollution%directly%relates%to%the%grey%water%footprint,%which%accounted%for%around%a%fifth% of%the%total%water%footprint%of%production%(see%module%3)%during%the%period%1996[2005,%at%1378% billion%m3%of%water% [20].%Once%the%level%of%pollution%in%the%water%crosses%a%certain%threshold,% this%water%is%no%longer%fit%to%sustain%human%and%ecosystems’%needs.! ! ' Why'are'freshwater'resources'getting'more'polluted?! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 17 18 19 20

!WRI,!from!http://www.wri.org/blog/2013/12/world%E2%80%99sP36PmostPwaterPstressedPcountries! !WRI,!from!http://www.wri.org/blog/2013/12/world%E2%80%99sP36PmostPwaterPstressedPcountries!! !UNESCO,!2014,!World!Water!Assessment!Programme! !http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/HoekstraPMekonnenP2012PWaterFootprintPofPHumanity.pdf!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

5!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

! ! !! Drivers% for% water% pollution% are% numerous% and% can% be% compared% to% those% cited% above% for% increasing%water%needs.!Demographic!growth%is%creating%pressures%in%terms%of%sanitation% and%waste:%over%a%billion%people%still%defecate%in%the%open,%and%faecal%contaminated%water%is% drunk%by%at%least%1,8%billion%people%across%the%planet%[21].%With%their%rapid%development,%cities% face%difficulties%in%investing%in%adequate%infrastructures.%Over%80%%of%wastewater%worldwide% is%not%collected%or%treated%[22].! ! The%food!sector%contributes%to%40%%and%54%%to%the%production%of%organic%water%pollutants% in%high[income%and%low[income%countries,%respectively%[23].%A%number%of%heavy!industry%are% rejecting% pollutants% such% as% mercury,% nitrates,% phosphates,% petrochemicals,% etc.,% and% approximately% 15[18% billion% m3% of% freshwater% resources% are% contaminated% by% fossil! fuels! extraction%every%year%[24].%! ! !

Figure'3.%Sources%of%water%pollution.%

[25]

!

!

!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 21 22 23 24 25

!WHO!UNICEF!Joint!Monitoring!Programme!for!Water!Supply!and!Sanitation!P!from!UNWATER!website! !UNESCO,!2014,!Water!World!Development!Report! !UNEP,!2007!Global!environment!outlook!4,!available!at!http://www.unep.org/geo/GEO4/report/GEOP4_Report_Full_en.pdf! !UNESCO,!2014,!Water!World!Development!Report! !From!Filterwater.com!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

6!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

!!

!

! !

!

Learn'some'more:! •% http://www.water[pollution.org.uk/%!

!

! Water%pollution%has%considerable%impacts%on%the%environment.%The%services%ecosystems%can% provide% across% the% planet% have% deteriorated% [26].% Half% of% the% world’s% wetlands% (wetlands% include% rivers,% streams,% swamps,% lakes,% estuaries,% etc.)% have% already% disappeared% since% 1900%[27].%By%2050,%at%least%20%%more%lakes%will%be%affected%by%harmful%algae%bloom%[28].%This% pollution% also% impacts% us% in% a% number% of% ways% [29],% leading% to% disease% outbreaks% such% as% diarrhoea% [30]% or% cholera% (cholera% cases% increased% by% 130%% from% 2000% to% 2010% [31]),% along% other%health%issues%(intoxication,%cancers,%etc.).%According%to%the%World%Health%Organisation,% a%few%million%deaths%could%be%related%to%unsafe%sanitation,%water%and%hygiene%each%year%[32].%! !

! Desalination'plants,'a'solution?'!

! There% are% currently% 16% thousand% desalination% plants% in% operation% worldwidec% the% process,%however,%remains%very%energy%intensive%and%is%mostly%used%in%the%Gulf%Region,% which%lacks%freshwater%but%has%tremendous%oil%and%gas%reserves.%This%is%done%at%the% cost%of%important%greenhouse%gases%emissions,%the%main%driver%for%climate%change.%!

! ! ! !

!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 26

!Costanza,!r.,!de!Groot,!r.,!sutton,!P.,!van!der!Ploeg,!s.,!anderson,!s.J.,!Kubiszewski,!i.,!farber,!s.!and!turner,!r.K.!2014.!Changes!in!the! global!value!of!ecosystem!services.!Global!Environmental!Change,!26:!152P158.! 27 !UNESCO,!2014,!World!Water!Assessment!Programme! 28 29 30 31 32

!UNDESA!(UN!department!of!economic!and!social!affairs),!2012.!Back!to!our!Common!Future:!Sustainable!Development! !From!http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/water/! !WHO!UNICEF!Joint!Monitoring!Programme!for!Water!Supply!and!Sanitation,!2013!P!from!UNWATER!website! !UNESCO,!2012,!Water!World!Development!Report! !From!http://www.who.int/heli/risks/water/water/en/!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

7!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

!!

!

2.3.'WATER'EQUITY'

!

!

! In'a'nutshell'!

! Freshwater%resources%are%unequally%shared%and%strong%disparities%exist%at%consumption% level.%Water%scarcity%and%pollution%are%impacting%some%populations%more%than%others,% often% affecting% the% most% vulnerable.% These% inequities,% reinforced% by% climate% change,% already%led%to%social%and%political%tensions.!!

! ! ! In%terms%of%resource%available,%and%if%we%exclude%any%consideration%for%water%pollution,%more% than% 60%% of% all% natural% and% renewable% freshwater% resources% are% located% within% the% boundaries%of%only%nine%countries,%including%giants%such%as%Brazil,%Russia,%China,%Canada% and%the%US% [33].%From%a%consumption%perspective,%the%average%European%consumer%has%a% water%footprint%of%5130%liters%per%year,%close%to%five%times%more%than%a%Chinese% [34]%and%far% above%any%African%[35].%The%map%below%shows%the%global%water%footprint%per%area%and%shows% that% Europe% and% North% America% are% competing% with% the% most% densely% populated% regions% (East%China,%India,%South[East%Asia).! !

Figure'4.'Humanity’s%total%water%footprint.!

!

! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 33 34 35

!http://www.cieau.com/lesPressourcesPenPeau/dansPlePmonde/ressourcesPenPeauPmonde.!! !http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/ReportP48PWaterFootprintPAnimalProductsPVol1.pdf!!

http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/Rapport%20sur%20l'empreinte%20%C3%A9cologique%20de %20l'Afrique%20P%20Infrastructure%20vertes%20pour%20la%20s%C3%A9curit%C3%A9%20%C3%A9cologique%20en%20Afrique.pdf!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

8!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

! ! !! In%terms%of%access%to%drinkable%water,%more%than%a%third%of%the%global%population%is%suffering% from%deprivation,%a%rate%rising%to%over%40%%in%countries%such%as%Chad,%Ethiopia,%Mauritania,% Afghanistan%or%Cambodia.%This%particularly%impacts%women%and%children,%often%in%charge%of% collecting% water% [36].% In% Sub[Saharan% Africa,% only% 60%% of% the% population% had% access% to% improved%drinkable%water%in%2008%[37].! ! As%a%result%of%these%inequities,%frictions%between%sectors%and%countries%over%the%use%of%water% already%appeared% [38],%even%in%Europe.%In%July%2015,%Swiss%helicopters%crossed%the%French% borders%without%authorisation,%to%collect%water%from%a%local%lake%for%their%livestock.%This%need% was% created% by% an% unusual% heatwave,% a% phenomenon% which% could% get% more% intense% and% recurrent%with%climate%change%[39].%%! !

2.4'PERSPECTIVES:'MOVING'TOWARDS'SUSTAINABILITY?' !

! In'a'nutshell:%while%the%impacts%of%climate%change%will%reinforce%the%issues%previously% described% in% this% module,% water% sustainability% can% still% be% promoted% through% higher% efficiency%in%the%use%of%the%resource%and%behaviour%change%at%consumers%level.%!

! ! Are'you'aware'that'climate'change'is'impacting'water'resources?! ! Climate%change%is%mainly%the%results%of%increasing%anthropic%greenhouse%gases%emissions.% It%is%accelerating%and%already%has%severe%impacts%on%freshwater%availability:! •% Sea%level%rise%affects%coastal%sources%of%drinkable%water%through%saline%intrusionc! •% Rainfall%patterns%change%and%become%more%erraticc! •% Glaciers%melting%in%all%mountainous%region%will%affect%surface%water%availabilityc! •% More%intense%heatwaves%and%extreme%climatic%events%are%to%be%expected%[40]c! •% Climate%change%has%significant%impacts%on%ecosystems%that%provide%essential%services% for%sustaining%water%reserves,%such%as%wetlandsc! •% Climate%change%will%reinforce%water%inequities%and%affect%the%poor%more%stronglyc! •% People%vulnerable%to%flood%disaster%could%increase%to%2%billion%by%2050%[41].! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 36 37 38

!Pickering,!a.J.!and!davis,!J.!2012.!freshwater!availability!and!Water!fetching!distance!affect!Child!Health!in!subPsaharan!africa.! !WRI,!from!http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/report_wash_low.pdf!!

!uneCe!(united!nations!economic!Commission!for!europe).!2011.!Second!Assessment!of!Transboundary!Rivers,!Lakes!and! Groundwaters.!! 39 !From:!http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/switzerland/11765748/SwissPhelicopterPshocksPFrenchPlakePbathersP byPstealingPwaterPforPthirstyPcows.html! 40 !UNESCO,!2012,!World!Water!Development!Report! 41

!UNWATER!website!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

9!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

! ! !! ! What'can'we'do'to'reach'water'sustainability?! ! Reaching%water%sustainability%would%require%dramatic%changes%in%the%way%we%use,%manage% and%share%the%resource.%! ! In% the% agricultural% sector,% rain% fed% systems% remain% predominant% and% significant% efficiency% improvement% could% be% reached% [42].% As' consumers,' we' should' work' towards' reducing' wastage' as% about% a% third% of% the% global% food% production% is% wasted% or% lost% annually:% the% equivalent,%in%2011,%of%1,3%billion%tons%of%food.%Citizens%of%Europe%and%North%America%waste% on%average%95%to%115%kg%per%year,%far%more%than%in%Asia%or%Africa%[43].%We%should%also%try%to% adapt'our'diet,%as%indicated%earlier%and%as%stressed%in%Module%4.%! ! In%the%energy%sector,%it%is%critical%that%we%move%towards%less%water%intensive%sources%of%energy% and% that% as% consumers' we' minimise' energy' wastage' and' use.% In% cities,% the% lack% of% financial% and% technical% means% to% invest% in% infrastructure% is% a% concern,% particularly% in% developing%countries%(827,6%million%people%live%in%slums%[44]).%European%cities%tend%to%be%water% intensive%and%mostly%inefficient%in%the%way%they%use%the%resource%(above%50%%loss%in%public% networks%in%certain%cases)% [45].%You'can'put'pressure'on'your'local'authority'and'make' sure'it'considers'this'issue'seriously!! ! Did'you'know?'…'Europe'is'working'towards'water'sustainability'[46]!

! The%European%Union%aims%to%cut%back%water%abstraction%at%maximum%20%%of%available% renewable% water% resources,% according% to% the% EU% Roadmap% to% a% Resource% Efficient% Europe.% Water% use% in% the% agricultural% sector% may% significantly% be% impacted% by% the% reform%of%the%EU%Common%Agricultural%Policy%adopted%for%the%post[2013%era%[47].!

! ! We'are'at'the'centre'of'the'solution!!! ! While%international%action%is%necessary%and%welcome%to%improve%water%use%efficiency,%what% we%do,%as%European%citizens,%has%strong%influence%on%the%success%of%any%policy.%Our%water% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

42

!Optimal!management!!in!this!sector!could!also!have!additional!effects!on!land!quality:!around!10%!of!the!world’s!irrigated!lands!are! subject!to!waterlogging!!and!salinization!due!to!poor!drainage!(UNESCO)! 43 !FAO,!from!UNWATER!website! 44 45 46 47

!Source!:!http://whatPwhenPhow.com/climatePchange/mitigationPclimatePchangePwaterPandPwastewaterPinPcities! !From!http://whatPwhenPhow.com/climatePchange/mitigationPclimatePchangePwaterPandPwastewaterPinPcities/! !UN,!2014,!World!Water!Development!Report! !eCa!(european!Court!of!auditors),!2014.!Integration!of!EU!water!policy!objectives!with!the!CAP:!A!partial!success.!

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

10!


Module'II'–'Water'Sustainability!

!

! ! !! footprint%is%high%and%has%considerable%impacts%here%and%abroad%where%most%of%our%products% and%food%come%from.%Go%and%consult%our%next%modules!%They%will%guide%you%through%more% sustainable%behaviours.! !

!

!

This% project% has% been% funded% with% support% from% the% European% Commission.% This% publication%reflects%the%views%only%of%the%author,%and%the%Commission%cannot%be%held% ! responsible%for%any%use%which%may%be%made%of%the%information%contained%therein!

11!

Module 2  
Module 2  

Water plays a central place in the sustainable development agenda. In this module you will learn more about the pressure we put on this vita...

Advertisement