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WULI GARDEN OF TOWERS SUSTAINABLE MASTERPLAN the Oval partnership

2011

STAGE THREE FINAL REPORT


目录

CONTENTS WULI MASTERPLAN 1.0 INTRODUCTION CASE STUDIES & REFERENCES MASTERPLAN

1.1 1.2 1.3

1 3 13 33

OBJECTIVES 2.0

55

CONCLUSION 3.0

119

CULTIVATE NATURAL ECOLOGY WITHIN THE CITY WATER: REDUCE, RECYCLE & CLEAN GENERATE ENERGY ON SITE MAXIMIZE PASSIVE BUILDING DESIGN PROVIDE OPTIONS FOR MOVEMENT FOSTER COMMUNITY VITALITY

WULI, GARDEN OF TOWERS RENDERINGS

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

3.1 3.2

59 75 85 91 101 111

121 123


1.0 WULI MASTERPLAN INTRODUCTION CASESTUDIES & REFERENCES MASTERPLAN

1.1 1.2 1.3

the Oval partnership


aerial of Kunming & the project site location

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INTRODUCTION

Wuli is a major redevelopment site between the first and second ring roads in Kunming. This high density proposal envisions the creation of a new park at the centre of the site, pushing up the density at the perimeter and integrating natural ecology with the urban landscape. This extensive greening functions to enhance the social, environmental and economic value of the District and beyond - creating an ecological network linking into the surrounding city. The development is conceived as an integrated urban living complex, contributing to the ‘sustainable compact city’ aspirations of Kunming. Adopting a people-oriented planning and design approach, the development aims to provide opportunities through high quality investment, architecture, planning and implementation to develop a healthy and vibrant urban landscape. A true sustainable community requires the intelligent use of technology in its infrastructure and integrated social and community functions. The large Central Park is used for leisure, culture and sporting activities as well as for cultivating food in allotments. Fingers of green are extended from the park onto the rooftops of the Uptown District through

the Highwalk – a raised and planted linear pedestrian loop that detaches people from the bustling pace of the city streets below to a slower realm containing both social gathering and intimate spaces. The extensive planting throughout provides acoustic and air quality improvement, surface water run-off control and reduces the urban heat island effect. Grey water from residential towers is filtered and cleansed by running it through the biological planting beds of the Highwalk, after which it is reused to irrigate the planted podium roofs and Central Park. In Wuli an emphasis is placed on manifesting the sustainable technologies that are being used. This transparency makes visible the environmental cycles and connections beween people and place. The Central Park & Highwalk incorporate both infrastructure & social purposes into their design. The aim of this document is to raise the sustainable design standard throughout the District by establishing a set of objectives along with methods for achieving them. It should be noted that these are guidelines and in their implementation should allow for individual flexibility and adaptability through community engagement.

THE HOPE AND CHALLENGE IS TO CREATE A DIVERSE AND VIBRANT URBAN ENVIRONMENT THAT REALIZES AN ECOLOGICAL BALANCE BETWEEN PEOPLE & NATURE. 3


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ‘Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This requires the reconciliation of environmental, social and economic demands - the “three pillars” of sustainability.’ Brundtland Commission of the United Nations on March 20, 1987 & 2005 World Summit

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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

THE WULI MASTERPLAN AIMS TO NURTURE THE INTERACTION OF PEOPLE WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT.

SOCIAL.

The urban design of the public spaces in Wuli provides a healthy quality of life & connectivity between the people who live & work there. The park & highwalk provide a green place of respite from the city & a local site for food cultivation. An open & permeable urban pattern & the layering of housing, office, shopping, schools & recreation, limits the need for automobile trips & creates a vibrant, walkable environment.

ENVIRONMENTAL.

Environmentally, Wuli helps mitigate climate change by enhancing the natural biodiversity & air quality of the site through extensive native planting; sourcing local materials; establishing a stormwater collection, cleaning & reuse system; applying passive building design strategies; & implementing a district wide central heating and power (CHP) system integrated with solar thermal technology and biogas production by recycling black water.

ECONOMIC.

The economic viability of Wuli is enhanced by creating market distinction through a high-density development that integrates a diversity of overlapping uses with the green amenity of the central park & highwalk. High-quality materials & construction are utilized to extend the life cycle of the buildings. A vibrant & diverse street life attracts all kinds of people.

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OBJECTIVES

1

CULTIVATE NATURAL ECOLOGY IN THE CITY

APPROACH

• • •

• •

2

WATER: REDUCE, RECYCLE & CLEAN

• • • • • • •

6

RESULT

plant a variety of different types of natural habitats: wild grasses & flowers, tree groves, water gardens, bio-swales line streets with trees & planters provide many types & sizes of outdoor space: • large scale, public: central park • linear, public: the highwalk • semi-private, small-medium: green roofs & courtyards use native plants from the Yunan region locally grow fruit & vegetables in allotments in park & on roofs

• • • • • • • • •

increase biodiversity improve air quality healthy, organic produce to eat time spent outdoors is increased people are more active integrated built & natural environments reduced stormwater run-off reduced urban heat island effect add commercial & social value

collect grey water from the residential towers & reuse to water the podium green roofs & landscaping in the park use black water to produce biogas, a fuel used in the CHP plants use the Highwalk planted beds to filter & clean grey water, & distribute from the towers to the park plant water efficient, native landscaping plant green roofs create landscaped bio-swales along the greenway & in courtyards collect stormwater in an underground tank to be used in the thermal solar system integrate a filtration system beneath the Waterway

• •

reduce effect on natural water resources reduce the usage demand on the City’s water system recycle water within the District remove silt and pollution from surface runoff water, reducing water pollution in the City’s water system reduce stormwater runoff reduce heat island effect enhance natural hydrological systems add commercial & social value

• • • • • •


SIX OBJECTIVES

OBJECTIVES

3

GENERATE ENERGY ON SITE

APPROACH

• • • • •

• • •

4

MAXIMIZE PASSIVE BUILDING DESIGN

• • • • • •

build CHP (Central Heat & Power) Plants in the district to generate heat & power locally utilize solar thermal heating, with solar panels on all the tower rooftops to capture solar energy & turn it into heat integrate a large scale solar photovoltaic feature into the canopy above the football stadium seating; powers night lighting integrate pv cells into the south facing tower facades use low energy, long life LED lights

orient the longer length of the blocks & buildings along the east/west axis for optimum conditions for use of passive & active solar strategies provide large amounts of glazing for natural daylighting treat south facing facades to shade glazing in summer months and allow sunlight inside in winter months using extended horizontal floor slabs, vertical wood louvres, extensive vegetation & street trees install green roofs & walls provide insulation & reduce stormwater runoff thermal mass walls, constructed of heavy masonry materials such as exposed concrete, are placed in a direct sunpath to slow the heating of buildings enclosed, glazed solar porches on south facing facades cross ventilation is employed in the podium buildings because their narrow depth and open floor plans allow for openings on two sides of rooms stack ventilation uses the vertical inner courts & atriums in the podium buildings to create a natural upward moving current as the warm air rises operable windows and high spec double glazing are used throughout

RESULT

• • • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

reduce carbon emission reduce energy demand on the City’s energy grid increase energy efficiency increase heating efficiency utilize renewable energy sources add commercial & social value

buildings optimise the plentiful amount of sunshine in Kunming energy-efficient buildings reduce air, water and land pollution & adverse environmental effects enhance indoor air quality & movement reduce need for mechanical heating & cooling increase indoor thermal equilibrium, lessen temperature fluctuation increase building insulation increase thermal comfort add commercial & social value

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OBJECTIVES

APPROACH

• • • •

5

PROVIDE OPTIONS FOR MOVEMENT • • •

8

allocate bus stops within the District connect underground from the Midtown Center north to the City metro stop bikes lanes are on every street provide on-street bicycle parking & secure, below ground bicycle storage create a walkable street environment • network of internal non-motorized streets provide a pedestrian way through at least every 250m • all buildings are built right up to the street edge setback line • ground level retail street frontage- shopping, restaurants, cafes, services - with street front entries on 80% or more of the street level facade • layers such as street trees, street furniture, bicycle lanes & on-street parking buffer pedestrians from moving vehicles Highwalk provides a raised pedestrian environment removed from the street level on-street parking is provided on at least 70% of both sides of the streets all streets connect though - there are no deadends

RESULT

• • • •

• • • • •

provide a variety of movement speeds, transitions & linkages reduce automobile dependence and negative effects of vehicle emissions promote transportation efficiency connect District to City & regional transit provide a multi-modal transportation network: design streets for slower vehicle speeds; encourage use of public transportation, cycling & walking provide a walkable, safe, appealing, & comfortable street environment increase safety, thus reducing pedestrian & bicyclist injuries encourage physical activity; improve public health provide a high level of internal connectivity within the development & externally to the greater city add commercial & social value


SIX OBJECTIVES

OBJECTIVES

APPROACH

• • •

6

FOSTER COMMUNITY VITALITY

• • • • • • • • •

a system of connected, 24 hour open public spaces: Central Park, Highwalk, internal courtyards, Landmark & Midtown Plazas provide recreational facilities - football pitch & running track - in the park, connected to schools located on the south side of the park mixed use & high density - layer housing, shopping, restaurants, entertainment, culture, office, hotel, education & park space together - combie compatible day/night & weekday/weekend activities to keep the place constantly active include a variety of housing sizes & types include a proportion of affordable dwelling units priced for households earning below the area income universal design used throughout development, allowing disabled and elderly to enjoy all the spaces community outreach & involvement; ask for local expertise from the locals; create a ‘village within the city’ allow buildings to be adaptable & flexible as they need to change over time reuse materials from the existing buildings on the site in the paving & landscape; recall the history & culture of the site & Kunming with signposts allocate shopfront spaces for small to medium scale local enterprises have a weekly craft & farmer’s market at the Midtown Plaza create spaces for the wild & cultivated, the intimate & social, the fast & slow pace

RESULT

• • • • •

• •

greater connectivity create a diverse environment expressed in spatial & people terms enable residents from a wide range of economic levels, household sizes, & age groups to live in the community enable all people, regardless of age or ability, to participate in community life vibrant street life that demonstrates the dynamic culture of Wuli & Kunming; becomes an enjoyable place to walk and explore, encouraging the interaction of people within the urban space improve physical & mental health & facilitate social networking, civic engagement, physical activity, & time spent outdoors create a neighbourhood character that positively affects the quality of life of those within it add commercial & social value

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UPTOWN

MIDTOWN

LANDMARK

CENTRAL PARK

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The large Central Park is used for leisure, culture and sporting activities as well as for cultivating food. Wuli Hill is a focal point which one can walk up and get a view over the park to the surrounding city. The waterway and flower beds form a linear east to west connecting link along the length of the development. A football pitch with running track and garden allotments are shared by the residents and the schools.

UPTOWN

Midtown is a commercial hub and major connection point to the metro via an underground walkway. Two tall office towers are set on either side of a mid level terraced housing which faces to the south forming an advertising billboard wall facing north towards the elevated ring road. A pedestrian retail environment is found through the ground levels with a large public plaza for functions and performances.

Uptown comprises the majority of the residential towers with 3-6 story podiums that shape the street level environment. Retail storefronts open up to the street edge comprising most of the ground floor, with a mixture of housing, office and hotel above. The highwalk crosses from the park over the podium rooftops, creating green terraces and planted roofs to inhabit. The blocks follow a pattern of pedestian paths cutting through and carving out internal courtyards. Many spaces are provided for restaurants, cafes and bars where people can socialize.

LANDMARK

MIDTOWN

CENTRAL PARK

DISTRICTS

The Landmark district is a business hub and a higher end luxury retail shopping environment, linking across the first ring road into central Kunming. It consists of a hotel and office high rise tower and two high end residential towers. The top floors of these towers could include themed restaurants and bars that provide views across the whole of Kunming. A plaza marks the end of the retail blvd as a place for gathering with restaurant tables spilling out into it from around the edges.

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1.2 CASE STUDIES & REFERENCES

FALSE CREEK NORTH; VANCOUVER, CANADA SOUTH WATERFRONT; PORTLAND, OR, USA POTZDAMER PLATZ; BERLIN, GERMANY KING’S CROSS REGENERATION; LONDON, UK HOUSING TOWERS WITH PODIUMS REGENT’S PARK; LONDON, UK THE HIGHWALK; NYC, USA PIET OUDOLF; LANDSCAPE DESIGNER THE STONE FOREST; YUNAN, CHINA

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FALSE CREEK NORTH VANCOUVER, CANADA

The transformation of some 80 hectares (204 acres) of inner city area has taken place over a twenty year period and has changed Vancouver’s downtown skyline as well as its waterfront public realm. It has brought a long lost body of water back into public use. FCN is one of the largest urban redevelopment projects in North America, and has created a diversity of new urban experiences. City Council determined in 1991 that the portion of land hilighted at upper left, south of downtown and near the former Expo ‘86 lands, “be developed as a residential community that incorporates principles of energy efficient design in its area plan and explore the possibility of using SEFC as a model sustainable community.” Open space and greenways are a significant piece of the development, helping extend Vancouver’s greenway network, and the city is beginning to see parks as a multi-serving part of the infrastructure. The hinge park plays a significant role in stormwater management.

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SOUTH WATERFRONT; PORTLAND, OR, USA

The South Waterfront is a 38-acre high-rise district under construction on former brownfield industrial land south of downtown Portland, Oregon, U.S which balances residential and retail development with cutting-edge, sustainable transportation options. It is one of the largest urban redevelopment projects in the United States. ECOROOFS & BIOSWALES A series of landscaped areas called bioswales run through the South Waterfront, they channel storm water through gravel and vegetation, and cleanse rainwater by removing particles and contaminants before they soak into the ground or flow into the River. Ecoroofs on top of the buildings in South Waterfront work the same way. URBAN FARMING A community garden is located in the green space for local residents to partake in growing their own veggies. A farmer’s market takes place once a week

ATWATER PLACE 437,000 sq. ft. 23-story 212 urban homes 10,000 sq. ft. ground floor retail 317 stalls of underground parking

MERIWETHER 600,000 sq. ft. 21-story and 24-story (two towers) 245 urban homes and townhouses Underground parking the ardea, 30 floors

JOHN ROSS 31-story, 325 feet high 303 urban homes 39 podium residences 21,400 sq. ft. ground floor retail space Underground parking

THE ARDEA 587,000 sq. ft. 30-story 323 urban apartment homes total 33 apartment townhomes 17,000 sq. ft. ground floor retail 138,000 sq. ft. and 380 stalls of underground parking

Being a densely developed community with limited off-street parking and offering an array of transportation options are paramount in the district’s success. This emerging neighborhood integrates alternative transportation, parks and trails, green building practices, mixed-use retail, and healthy living with art and design. It is connected to downtown Portland by an extension of the Portland Streetcar, and to the Oregon Health and Sciences University campus atop Marquam Hill by the Portland Aerial Tram, as well as roads to Interstate 5 and Oregon Route 43. The South Waterfront is part of the Portland Development Commission’s North Macadam Urban Renewal District.The first phase of the South Waterfront is the $1.9 billion “River Blocks” development. Construction began in early 2004. The full build-out of the district envisions many residential (primarily condominiums) and medical research towers ranging in height from 6 stories to 35+ stories.

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POTZDAMER PLATZ BERLIN, GERMANY

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Planning Application Area

Principle Public Realm Areas

Access & Circulation

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Development zones


KING’S CROSS REGENERATION LONDON, UK

Area: 60 acres Architect: Allies & Morrison OBJECTIVES: •

To regenerate the 67 acres of brownfield land at King’s Cross

To transform the site into nearly 2,000 new homes, almost 40 per cent of which will be earmarked for first-time buyers and other low-income earners.

The project will also include art galleries, shops, restaurants, offices, 20 new streets and several new bridges over Regent’s Canal.

It is expected to cost about £2 billion in total

OFFICES 23 new and refubished office buildings totalling some 3.4 million sq ft (315,867 sqm) NIA of Grade A, energy-efficient office space RESIDENTIAL Up to 2,000 homes and serviced apartments are planned, with 950 of the homes available for open market sale or rent. They will include a mix of studios; one, two, three and four bed family homes - with up to 200 in the listed gasholder structures.

independent shops, boutique units and convenience stores. 160,000 sq ft (1,4864 sqm) of the retail offer is based in conservation areas and historic buildings and will attract a diverse range of eclectic stores, food ‘clusters’ and outdoor seasonal markets. PUBLIC SPACE & ART Over 40% of the development will be world-class public open space, with the highest standards in design, management and maintenance

RETAIL Up to 500,000 sq ft of retail space will be available at King’s Cross, from the finest the high street has to offer to locally run and

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De Architeckten CIE, A101 Moscow City block competition 75x125m block

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HOUSING TOWERS WITH PODIUMS

à balos & Herreros, Plaza y Torre Woermann – Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

Barbican, Chamberlin, Powell & Bon 1963-76 42 storey towers on plinth with 2500 parking spaces. 6500 residents, music school, arts centre, gallery, performance halls

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transverse roads through park inner-circulating paths minor paths

lakes & ponds sports fields & centres London Zoo water features & gardens food & restaurants

Regent’s Park Camden Middle-class residentials, markets, artistic St John’s wood middle-upper class to upper class residentials Belsize Park Lively district with cafes, pub and restaurants

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Marylebone commercial, residential district with diversed community

King’s Cross Major trasportation link in London Islington modern busy upperstreet, residential and commercia

Bloomsbury Universities and colleges, middleclass resistentials, commercial streets Maida Vale Resisdential mainly affluent maison flats Kentish Town residential, small retails pub and restaurants on the high street


REGENT’S PARK LONDON, UK

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THE HIGHLINE NYC, USA

‘THE PARK ACCOMMODATES THE WILD, THE CULTIVATED, THE INTIMATE, AND THE SOCIAL. ACCESS POINTS ARE DURATIONAL EXPERIENCES DESIGNED TO PROLONG THE TRANSITION FROM THE FRENETIC PACE OF CITY STREETS TO THE SLOW OTHERWORLDLY LANDSCAPE ABOVE. BY CHANGING THE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT BETWEEN PLANT LIFE AND PEDESTRIANS, OUR STRATEGY OF AGRI-TECTURE COMBINES ORGANIC AND BUILDING MATERIALS INTO A BLEND OF CHANGING PROPORTIONS THAT ACCOMMODATES THE WILD, THE CULTIVATED, THE INTIMATE, AND THE HYPER-SOCIAL. IN STARK CONTRAST TO THE SPEED OF HUDSON RIVER PARK, THE SINGULAR LINEAR EXPERIENCE OF THE NEW HIGH LINE LANDSCAPE IS MARKED BY SLOWNESS, DISTRACTION AND AN OTHER-WORLDLINESS THAT PRESERVES THE STRANGE, WILD CHARACTER OF THE HIGH LINE, YET DOESN’T UNDERESTIMATE ITS INTENDED USE AND POPULARITY AS A PUBLIC SPACE. THIS NOTION UNDERPINS THE OVERALL STRATEGY THE INVENTION OF A NEW PAVING AND PLANTING SYSTEM THAT ALLOWS FOR VARIOUS RATIOS OF HARD TO SOFT SURFACE THAT TRANSITION FROM HIGH USE AREAS (100% HARD) TO RICHLY VEGETATED BIOTOPES (100% SOFT), WITH A VARIETY OF EXPERIENTIAL GRADIENTS IN BETWEEN.’

James Corner Field Operations with architects Diller Scofidio and Renfro, and planting designer, Piet Oudolf

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PIET OUDOLF, LANDSCAPES

“ALL MY WORK IS RELATED TO TRYING TO RECREATE THE SPONTANEOUS FEELING OF PLANTS IN NATURE. THE IDEA IS NOT TO COPY NATURE, BUT TO GIVE A FEELING OF NATURE.”

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NATURAL LANDSCAPE IN YUNAN STONE FOREST

The Stone Forest is a special type of karst landform. Its towering rock pillars in high concentration (between 5 and 30m) like a forest. The Stone Forest is approximately 120 kilometres (75 mi) away from Kunming, connected both by highway and railway and enjoying easily accessible trasnport. These rock pillars, high and strangely shaped, spread widely in an area of over 26,000ha. Only 80ha of this area are open to visitors. In addition, there are numerous karst caves fraught with stalagmite, stalactite, stone pillar, stone corridor and five underground rivers, lakes, ponds and waterfalls The rocks have memorable names such as Ten Thousand Year Mushroom (10m high), Mother and Son, Camel Riding on Elephant, Avalokitesvara Rock, Buddha Stone, Rhinoceros looking at the moon and beautiful maiden ascending from the water.

SITE, KUNMING

STONE FOREST

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1.3 MASTERPLAN DRAWINGS MASTERPLAN MASTERPLAN, NOTED EXPLODED AXON CONCEPT SKETCHES DESIGN DIAGRAMS VIGNETTES AERIALS SECTION CENTRAL PARK THE HIGHWALK

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MASTERPLAN


MASTERPLAN 1

MIDTOWN HOTEL/OFFICE TOWERS (2) 240m high max

9 SCHOOL

2

RESIDENTIAL TOWERS (23) 100m high residential towers in Uptown cascading down in height to the park’s edge

3

LANDMARK HOTEL/OFFICE TOWER 240m high max

4

LANDMARK HIGH END RESIDENTIAL TOWER (2) 240m high

5

HIGHWALK raised pedestrian walkway integrating the built with natural; with biological planting beds to treat storm & grey water

16 WILD GRASSES

6

TERRACED HOUSING 5 levels of housing on top of office & retail with green planted, terraced roofs

18 GREENWAY

7

PODIUM BUILDINGS 3-8 levels of ground floor retail with housing, office & hotel above and green planted, terraced roofs and undulating interior courtyards within the blocks

8

PERFORMANCE HALL, CULTURE a landscape building, cantileavering over the Waterway in one direction and blending into the Park on the other side with an outdoor ampiheater built down from the planted rooftop into the grassy park

10 LANDMARK PLAZA 11 MIDTOWN PLAZA 12 CONNECTION UNDERGROUND TO METRO 13 WATERWAY & RAISED FLOWER BEDS 14 WULI HILL 15 GARDEN ALLOTMENTS 17 FOOTBALL STADIUM & RUNNING TRACK 19 CITY CANAL SYSTEM 20 PARK BLVD 21 RETAIL BLVD 22 1ST RING RD 23 2ND RING RD 24 JUHUA MOTORWAY INTERCHANGE 25 MINGHANG RD 26 DONGJIAO RD 27 PEDESTRIAN & BICYCLE PATH

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22

27 4

3

27 7

10

26 7

2

4

12

5

18 2 21

7

9

1 20 17

5 13

24

12

2 7

6

11

18

9 15

8

14 16

7

1

23

25 9 19

18

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EXPLODED AXON 1

MIDTOWN HOTEL/OFFICE TOWERS 240m high

2

RESIDENTIAL TOWERS 100m high residential towers in Uptown cascading down in height to the park’s edge

3

LANDMARK HOTEL/OFFICE TOWER 240m high LANDMARK HIGH END RESIDENTIAL TOWERS 240m high

4

5

HIGHWALK raised pedestrian walkway integrating the built with natural with biological planting beds to treat storm & grey water

6

TERRACED HOUSING 5 levels of housing on top of office & retail with green planted, terraced roofs

7

PODIUM BUILDINGS 3-8 levels of ground floor retail with housing, office & hotel above with green planted, terraced roofs and undulating interior courtyards within the blocks

8

PERFORMANCE HALL, CULTURE a landscape building, cantileavering over the Waterway in one direction and blending into the Park on the other side with an outdoor ampiheater built down from the planted rooftop into the grassy park

9

SCHOOL

STREET GRID & BLOCK all streets connect through; a network of small pedestrian alleys make passages through the built blocks 11 CENTRAL PARK 10

12 13 14 15

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WATERWAY & RAISED FLOWER BEDS WULI HILL

ALLOTMENTS

FOOTBALL STADIUM & RUNNING TRACK


3

4

1

2

4 2

1

5

5

UPTOWN

K

AR

DM

N LA

7 6

7 9

CEN

TRA

L PA

RK

6

MIDTOWN

8

15

13

14

10 12 11

11

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1

2

1

SECTION

1

2

2

1

1

1 PLAN

CONCEPT SKETCHES Two different types of environments are formed:

1 the streets are for the faster movement of vehicles with the 1. edges taking on a more orthogonal & fixed rhythm

2 the courtyards form softer interior rooms for the slower scale of 2. the pedestrian, a more organic approach is taken

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MASTERPLAN DESIGN

TOWERS ANCHOR EITHER END OF THE DISTRICT WITH THE HILL IN THE MIDDLE

GREEN FINGERS OF THE HIGHWALK EXTEND INTO THE BUILT BLOCKS FROM THE PARK

GREEN FINGERS EXTEND INTO THE BUILT BLOCKS FROM THE PARK

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TOWERS STEP DOWN TO THE PARK


DESIGN CONCEPTS SOLAR ORIENTATION

TOWER HEIGHTS DECREASE TOWARDS THE SOUTH FOR OPTIMUM DAYLIGHTING

PODIUM MASSING ORIENTATED FOR OPTIMUM DAYLIGHTING

BLOCK DESIGN

MANY LEVELS OF GREENERY

EDGES MAKE PLACES FOR SITTING & LEVEL CHANGES & PLANTING DIVIDE SPACES

SOLAR PANELS INTEGRATED INTO STADIUM CANOPY

BLOCKS CARVED OUT FOR INTERAL COURYARDS & PEDESTRIAN PATHS THROUGH

PODIUM STEPS DOWN

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44


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SECTION CENTRAL PARK TO UPTOWN 0m

100m


CENTRAL PARK The central park is a natural, organic landscape within the dense city, recalling the rural terrain of the surrounding countryside. The towers of uptown form the park’s edge, looking down onto the greenery.

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HIGHWALK The Highwalk extends fingers of green from the park onto the podium rooftops. This raised and planted linear loop detaches people from the bustling pace of the city streets below to a slower realm which yields moments of both social gathering and intimate spaces. Additionally the planting acts as natural biological beds for filtering storm & grey water.

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2.0 OBJECTIVES CULTIVATE NATURAL ECOLOGY WITHIN THE CITY REDUCE, RECYCLE & CLEAN THE WATER GENERATE ENERGY ON SITE MAXIMIZE PASSIVE BUILDING DESIGN PROVIDE OPTIONS FOR MOVEMENT FOSTER COMMUNITY VITALITY

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

the Oval partnership


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OBJECTIVES

This section breaks down the 6 major Sustainable Objectives within the Wuli Masterplan into the methods used for achieving them. This creates the framework for the district development:

1 CULTIVATE NATURAL ECOLOGY WITHIN THE CITY

As more & more of the population moves into cities, it is important to cultivate a healthy urban ecosystem that integrates the built & natural environments. Throughout Wuli the intensive, native planting increases the biodiversity while also enriching the air quality & providing a green outdoor space for people to enjoy. The highwalk extends as green fingers from the central park over the rooftops of the podium buildings. Local food cultivation gardens are located on the numerous greens roofs & in allotments in the park. All of these play a part in retaining & promoting the popular understanding of humans’ rural relationship with the environment as the Chinese nation rapidly urbanizes.

2 REDUCE, RECYCLE & CLEAN WATER

Water is collected, reused & cleaned in Wuli by means of both natural & mechanical processes, reducing the demand on the city water supply. Grey water is collected from the residential towers & distributed to water the green roofs & park via pipes built into the highwalk system. Water efficient landscaping & native plants are used throughout the district. Green roofs reduce stormwater run-off, bio-swales cleanse stormwater from roads, & rainwater is collected in tanks below the courtyards to be used for watering the landscape. The canal has a water filtration system built within it, benefiting the local waterways, and black water is used to produce biogas as fuel for the Central heat & power system.

3 GENERATE ENERGY ON SITE

By producing power on-site, Wuli decreases the amount of power needed from the city’s grid system and reduces carbon emission. Renewable energy is captured through photovoltaic cells on the southern facade skin of the towers, solar panels integrated into the stadium seating canopy in the park, and solar thermal water heating system. A district combined heat and power (CHP) plant efficiently supplies the buildings with electricity and heating and is fuelled using biogas that is produced using black water collected from the residential towers.

4 MAXIMIZE PASSIVE BUILDING DESIGN

The benign regional climate of Kunming makes it ideal for the maximum use of passive building design strategies based on buiding location, and orientation. Horizontal floor slab extensions & vertical wood louvres are applied on the south facing facades along with extensive planting to protect from the direct rays of the summer sun, while allowing natural light to the interiors during the winter months. The podium buildings are designed to allow for cross ventilation with operable windows & substantial amounts of natural light. Green roofs reduce surface temperatures, provide insulation, improve air quality & reduce stormwater runoff. Local materials, such as yunan sandstone, are utilized throughout the built landscape.

5 PROVIDE A VARIETY OF OPTIONS FOR MOVEMENT

In Wuli, the street environment is not given over entirely to the car - instead the layering & proximity of housing, jobs & retail, tree lined sidewalks and on-street parking, cafes & street front shops makes for walkable streets. Additionally, a pedestrian only network is provided above ground at the highwalk, by paths that cut through the blocks’ internal courtyards, & within the central park. There is a system of bicycle lanes on & off the streets & connections to city & regional transit via the metro & buses.

6 FOSTER COMMUNITY VITALITY

Wuli is designed to be a balanced, healthy community with a connected urban structure that promotes walking, cultivation of local food, social engagement in public spaces, and a diversity of types of people & mixture of uses.

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APPROACH • • •

• •

58

plant a variety of different types of natural habitats: wild grasses & flowers, tree groves, water gardens, bio-swales line streets with trees & planters provide many types & sizes of outdoor space: • large scale, public: central park • linear, public: the highwalk • semi-private, small-medium: green roofs & courtyards use native plants from the Yunan region locally grow fruit & vegetables in allotments in park & on roofs

RESULT • • • • • • • • •

increase biodiversity improve air quality healthy, organic produce to eat time spent outdoors is increased people are more active integrated built & natural environments reduced stormwater run-off reduced urban heat island effect add commercial & social value


2.1 CULTIVATE NATURAL ECOLOGY IN THE CITY AS MORE & MORE OF THE POPULATION MOVES INTO CITIES, IT IS IMPORTANT TO CULTIVATE A HEALTHY URBAN ECOSYSTEM THAT INTEGRATES THE BUILT & NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS. THROUGHOUT WULI THE INTENSIVE, NATIVE PLANTING INCREASES THE BIODIVERSITY WHILE ALSO ENRICHING THE AIR QUALITY & PROVIDING A GREEN OUTDOOR SPACE FOR PEOPLE TO ENJOY. THE HIGHWALK EXTENDS AS GREEN FINGERS FROM THE CENTRAL PARK OVER THE ROOFTOPS OF THE PODIUM BUILDINGS. LOCAL FOOD CULTIVATION GARDENS ARE LOCATED ON THE NUMEROUS GREENS ROOFS & IN ALLOTMENTS IN THE PARK. ALL OF THESE PLAY A PART IN RETAINING & PROMOTING THE POPULAR UNDERSTANDING OF HUMANS’ RURAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AS THE CHINESE NATION RAPIDLY URBANIZES.

59


02 01

07

05 06

03

04 08 09

60


KUNMING PARKS 地块

site

公园

parks

01

翠湖公园

green lake park

02

圆通山动物园

yuantongshan zoo

03

大观公园

daguan park

04

西华园

xihua park

05

金牛公园

taurus park

06

茶花公园

camelia park

07

昙华寺公园

tanhua temple park

08

宝海公园

baohai park

09

官渡森林公园

guandu forest park

翠湖公园 Cuihu park 面积 21.6 公顷 (15 公顷湖面) 特点 花园,游乐场, 荷花池,划船

圆通山动 物园 Yuantongshan zoo 面积 26公顷 特点 动物园,赏樱花,

Area 21.6 ha

Area 26 ha

gardens, playground, boating,

zoo, cherry blossoms

大观公园 Daguan park

西华园 Xihua park

金牛公园 Jinniu park

茶花公园 Camelia park

昙华寺公园 宝海公园 Tanhua temple park Baohai park

面积 47.8公顷 (24.7 公顷湖面) 特点 大观楼,游园区, 荷花池

面积 8公顷 特点 花卉,白族民居

面积 0.5公顷 特点 市中心街边公园, 园中心金牛雕像

面积 0.65公顷 特点 60余种花卉品种, 市中心园林空间

面积 8公顷 特点 仿江南古典园林, 瑞应塔,花卉, 水池垂钓池

面积 16.7公顷 特点 昆明最大公园之 一,61.3% 绿化率

Area 47.8 ha (24.7 water surface)

Area 8 ha

Area 0.5 ha

Area 0.65 ha

Area 8 ha

Area 8 ha

Flowers , architecture of Bai ethnic group

small park in city centre, golden tauru statu in the centre of the park

60 types of flowers chinese gardens, Ruiying pagoda, flower and fising ponds

Daguan temple, park, lily ponds

one of the biggest park in Kunming, 61.3% green surface

61


红梅

桢楠

美国红枫

二乔玉兰

马缨花

red plum blossom

machilus

red maple

magnolia

落叶小乔木,

常绿大乔木

落叶乔木

soulangeana

red lantana

高达10米

高达30余米

高达30余米

落叶小乔木高6-10米

高3-8米

早春开花

中性偏阴性树种

冠径10米

冠径10米

喜凉爽

宜做庭荫树风景树

耐寒耐湿

花期4月

湿润气候

耐盐碱

果期9月

阳性植物

生长迅速

广用于公园

喜光

春季新叶泛红

绿地河庭园等

耐水湿

常绿小乔木

秋枫 maple 常绿乔木 高15-20米 花期3-4月 径8-15米

不耐寒 生长快

62


NATIVE YUNAN BOTANICAL SPECIES

腊梅 plum blossom 常绿灌木 高达4~5米 花期12-1月

乐昌含笑 michelia chapensis

醉香含笑 McClure’s michelia

常绿乔木

常绿乔木

高15-30 米

高达35米

3~4 月开花

1月下旬开花

蓝花楹

紫洋荆

山茶

jacaranda

bauhinia

camelia

落叶乔木

长绿小乔木

小灌木

高12~15米

高3~4米

高达15米

可达20米

花期冬到春季

花期冬末春初

春末至秋 喜阳光 浓芳香

63


HABITAT VARIATIONS

1

2

3

5

4

6

7

8

0

1 GARDEN ALLOTMENTS

60

80

3

6 DRY COURTYARD

2 4

RAISED FLOWER BEDS

64

40

TREE GROVE

5 GREEN ROOF HIGHWALK

WILD FLOWERS & GRASSES

20

7

WET COURTYARD

8

BERM / BIO SWALE

100 m


PLANTING & PAVING MATERIALS

hardscape highwalk water

flower beds

wild flowers wild grasses tree canopy

wet courtyard greenway swales green roofs football pitch allotments food gardening

65


WILD GRASSES RAISED FLOWER BEDS CUT GRASS

66

PLANTED ROOF HIGHWALK & GREEN WALL

MATURE TREE GROVE RED PLUM BLOSSOM ORCHARD STREET TREES


TYPES OF LANDSCAPES

WATER GARDEN

GREENWAY BIO-SWALES

FOOD CULTIVATION ALLOTMENTS

PLAZAS & COURTYARDS

WATER FEATURES

PUBLIC SCULPTURE

SEATING

67


GREEN ROOFS many of the podium rooftops are planted, creating semi-private garden spaces to be inhabited by those who live or work in the building

68


GREEN SPACE IN THE WULII MASTERPLAN

WULI HILL Earth that is removed for the underground levels and brick and stone building materials from buildings demolished on the site are piled up in the Park to form Wuli Hill.

69


TYPICAL PLANTER DETAIL

70


GREENWAY BERM & SWALE

71


people stroll along the raised planted walkway

the highwalk continues in a loop over the podium rooftop and bridges across the retail street

72


THE HIGHWALK

73


APPROACH • • • • • • • •

74

collect grey water from the residential towers & reuse to water the podium green roofs & landscaping in the park use black water to produce biogas, a fuel used in the CHP plants use the Highwalk planted beds to filter & clean grey water, & distribute from the towers to the park plant water efficient, native landscaping plant green roofs create landscaped bio-swales along the greenway & in courtyards collect stormwater in an underground tank to be used in the thermal solar system integrate a filtration system beneath the Waterway

RESULT • • • • • • • •

reduce effect on natural water resources reduce the usage demand on the City’s water system recycle water within the District remove silt and pollution from surface runoff water, reducing water pollution in the City’s water system reduce stormwater runoff reduce heat island effect enhance natural hydrological systems add commercial & social value


2.2 WATER: REDUCE, RECYCLE & CLEAN WATER IS COLLECTED, REUSED & CLEANED IN WULI BY MEANS OF BOTH NATURAL & MECHANICAL PROCESSES, REDUCING THE DEMAND ON THE CITY WATER SUPPLY. GREY WATER IS COLLECTED FROM THE RESIDENTIAL TOWERS & DISTRIBUTED TO WATER THE GREEN ROOFS & PARK VIA PIPES BUILT INTO THE HIGHWALK SYSTEM. WATER EFFICIENT LANDSCAPING & NATIVE PLANTS ARE USED THROUGHOUT THE DISTRICT. GREEN ROOFS REDUCE STORMWATER RUN-OFF, BIO-SWALES CLEANSE STORMWATER FROM ROADS, & RAINWATER IS COLLECTED IN TANKS BELOW THE COURTYARDS TO BE USED FOR WATERING THE LANDSCAPE. THE CANAL HAS A WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM BUILT WITHIN IT, BENEFITING THE LOCAL WATERWAYS. AND BLACK WATER IS USED TO PRODUCE BIOGAS AS FUEL FOR THE CENTRAL HEAT & POWER SYSTEM

75


76


WATER SYSTEM

0

GREY WATER • water from baths, showers, hand basins and washing machines is recycled within the landscaping • beneficial to local waterways as it reduces demand on conventional water supplies and pressure on sewage treatment systems • the highwalk network incorporates pipes that transport the greywater to the park

CANAL FILTRATION SYSTEM • the canal is filled with moving water with a filtration system integrated into the bottom, cleaning the water in it before it is added to the local waterway

STORMWATER COLLECTION & MANAGEMENT

• collect stormwater runoff in a cistern below each individual courtyard • collected water is used to water the central park, especially

GREEN ROOFS & HIGHWALK NETWORK

• integrated into all of the podium roofs along the highwalk, providing semi-private garden space raised above the street level • absorb & filter stormwater • decrease runoff into streams

20

40

60

GREENWAY BERM / BIOSWALES

• a bioswale is a vegetated depression that treats stormwater and removes silt and pollution from surface run-off water • consists of a swaled drainage course with gently sloped sides and filled with vegetation • the water's flow path, along with the wide and shallow ditch, is designed to maximize the time water spends in the swale, which aids the trapping of pollutants and silt

80


WATER SYSTEM

12

11

*4

1

9

DEEP END

*

6

7

2

5

*8

3 SHALLOW END

10

fountain direction of water flow change of level, water fall plaza pool; rainwater collection below ground grey water pipes integrated into highwalk bio-swales, vegetated drainage course the water in the canal is recirculated in a loop system. the pump to power the water movement is powered by solar energy captured through on site photo voltaics.

78

*

0

50

100

150

200 m


MOMENTS ALONG THE WATER EDGE

E/W WATERWAY PATH

1

path between shallow water & flower beds

2 path between shallow water & flower beds

3

raised path

N/S PASSAGES

4

glazed wall into higher level pool

5 path between different levels of water

6

cascading water levels

BUILT OVER WATER

7

bridge over canal

8 cultural centre cantilevers over canal

9 pier over canal

ORGANIC WATER EDGE

10 planted edge of waterway

11 planted edge of bio-swale

12 vegetated bio-swale

79


80


WATER GARDEN DETAIL

81


82


LINEAR CASCADING WATERWAY

The waterway runs east/west along the north edge of the Central Park with a line of raised flower beds just next to it. The water starts at a high point on the western Landmark end and cascades down to the eastern end where it meets with the City canal.

83


APPROACH • • • • •

84

build CHP (Central Heat & Power) Plants in the district to generate heat & power locally utilize solar thermal heating, with solar panels on all the tower rooftops to capture solar energy & turn it into heat integrate a large scale solar photovoltaic feature into the canopy above the football stadium seating; powers night lighting integrate pv cells into the south facing tower facades use low energy, long life LED lights

RESULT • • • • • •

reduce carbon emission reduce energy demand on the City’s energy grid increase energy efficiency increase heating efficiency utilize renewable energy sources add commercial & social value


2.3 GENERATE ENERGY ON SITE BY PRODUCING POWER ON-SITE, WULI DECREASES THE AMOUNT OF POWER NEEDED FROM THE CITY’S GRID SYSTEM AND REDUCES CARBON EMISSION. RENEWABLE ENERGY IS CAPTURED THROUGH PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ON THE SOUTHERN FACADE SKIN OF THE TOWERS, SOLAR PANELS INTEGRATED INTO THE STADIUM SEATING CANOPY IN THE PARK, AND SOLAR THERMAL WATER HEATING SYSTEM. A DISTRICT COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP) PLANT EFFICIENTLY SUPPLIES THE BUILDINGS WITH ELECTRICITY AND HEATING AND IS FUELLED USING BIOGAS THAT IS PRODUCED USING BLACK WATER COLLECTED FROM THE RESIDENTIAL TOWERS. FORUM ESPLANADE SOLAR PERGOLA, BARCELONA The solar pergola is inclined at an angle of 35 towards the south and, at its highest point, it is some 50m above sea level. It is equipped with 2,686 photovoltaic modules, covering a total area of 3,494m and has a nominal potential of 443 kilowatts. In 2007, the solar pergola produced almost 500,000 kilowatt hours of electricity.

85


4

4

6 5

1

7

5

1

5

5 4

6

6 N

2 S

1

86

DISTRICT CHP PLANT (COMBINED HEAT & POWER) centralized heating plants that pipe hot water via underground pipe to multiple buildings at the same time. According to the International District Energy Association, they also are about 20 percent more efficient than conventional approaches, and transition easily to renewable fuels such as biomass.

2

PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL ARRAY integrated into the canopy covering the football stadium seating

3

SOLAR THERMAL PANELS panels cover much of the tower roofscape

4

PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL ARRAY panels on parts of the podium roof

5

PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS integrated into the south facing facade skin of the towers along the park edge

6

VERTICAL PANELS ON TOWERS on the south facing facade

0

50

100

150

200 m


ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

3 3

2

PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL ARRAY integrated into the canopy covering the football stadium seating

2

5

4

0

20

40

60

80

100 m 0

87


1 STORMWATER COLLECTION Stormwater is used to water the roof planting & flower beds; it is treated along the highwalk biological beds, green walls & courtyard water garden; collected in a basement tank to be reused in toilets, sinks & the solar thermal system.

2 SOLAR THERMAL

Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar energy for thermal energy. Medium-temperature collectors are usually flat plates and are used for heating water for residential and commercial use.

3 GREYWATER RECYCLING

Greywater is collected from baths, showers, hand basins and washing machines and treated by running it through the biological treatment beds in the Highwalk. It ends up in a basement collection tank to be reused in toilets, sinks & the solar thermal system.

4 COMBINED HEAT & POWER PLANT (CHP)

CHP is the generation of thermal and electrical energy in a single process. In this way, optimum use can be made of the energy available from the fuel. A typical Power Station uses around 35% of its fuel to create electricity, the other 65% is released as heat into the environment - making it around 35% efficient; whereas CHP is 80% efficient.

5 BIOGAS

Biogas from biological wastes tops renewable energies as it also prevents carbon emissions and environmental pollution. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops.

88


ENERGY PRODUCTION/USAGE SYSTEM DIAGRAM

SUNSHINE RAINWATER

2

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT BED ALONG HIGHWALK

WATER GARDEN

BASEMENT TANK & FILTER TO REUSE TREATED STORM & GREY WATER

40% ENERGY PRODUCED FOR ELECTRICITY

ELECTRICITY

RAINWATER COLLECTION CISTERN

COLD WATER RETURN

BLACKWATER

40% ENERGY FOR HEATING HOT WATER FOR HEATING

1

HOT WATER TO TAPS

GREYWATER

3

SOLAR COLLECTORS

20% ‘WASTE’ HEAT REJECTED TO ENVIRONMENT

BIOGAS

4

100% FUEL INPUT

biogas

slurry

5

89


APPROACH • • •

• • • • • •

90

orient the longer length of the blocks & buildings along the east/west axis for optimum conditions for use of passive & active solar strategies provide large amounts of glazing for natural daylighting treat south facing facades to shade glazing in summer months and allow sunlight inside in winter months using extended horizontal floor slabs, vertical wood louvres, extensive vegetation & street trees install green roofs & walls provide insulation & reduce stormwater runoff thermal mass walls, constructed of heavy masonry materials such as exposed concrete, are placed in a direct sunpath to slow the heating of buildings enclosed, glazed solar porches on south facing facades cross ventilation is employed in the podium buildings because their narrow depth and open floor plans allow for openings on two sides of rooms stack ventilation uses the vertical inner courts & atriums in the podium buildings to create a natural upward moving current as the warm air rises operable windows and high spec double glazing are used throughout

RESULT • • • • • • • • •

buildings optimise the plentiful amount of sunshine in Kunming energy-efficient buildings reduce air, water and land pollution & adverse environmental effects enhance indoor air quality & movement reduce need for mechanical heating & cooling increase indoor thermal equilibrium, lessen temperature fluctuation increase building insulation increase thermal comfort add commercial & social value


2.4 MAXIMIZE PASSIVE BUILDING DESIGN THE BENIGN REGIONAL CLIMATE OF KUNMING MAKES IT IDEAL FOR THE MAXIMUM USE OF PASSIVE BUILDING DESIGN STRATEGIES BASED ON BUIDING LOCATION, AND ORIENTATION. HORIZONTAL FLOOR SLAB EXTENSIONS & VERTICAL WOOD LOUVRES ARE APPLIED ON THE SOUTH FACING FACADES ALONG WITH EXTENSIVE PLANTING TO PROTECT FROM THE DIRECT RAYS OF THE SUMMER SUN, WHILE ALLOWING NATURAL LIGHT TO THE INTERIORS DURING THE WINTER MONTHS. THE PODIUM BUILDINGS ARE DESIGNED TO ALLOW FOR CROSS VENTILATION WITH OPERABLE WINDOWS & SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNTS OF NATURAL LIGHT. GREEN ROOFS REDUCE SURFACE TEMPERATURES, PROVIDE INSULATION, IMPROVE AIR QUALITY & REDUCE STORMWATER RUNOFF. LOCAL MATERIALS, SUCH AS YUNAN SANDSTONE, ARE UTILIZED THROUGHOUT THE BUILT LANDSCAPE.

91


M SU ER M N SU

VEGETATION

natural shading enhances air quality

GREEN ROOFS WIN TER

adds insulation reduces stormwater runoff decreases heat island effect

SU N

THERMAL MASS

provides thermal equlibrium reduces mechanical cooling/heating

CROSS VENTILATION

improves indoor air quality reduces mechanical cooling/heating utilizes interior courts/atriums to boost air flow

VERTICAL SHADING LOUVERS

SOLAR PORCH

provides shading from direct sun reduces need for summer cooling can be enclosed for solar gain in winter vertical louvers angle can be adjustable

SOUTH FACING FACADE

92

NORTH FACING FACADE


PASSIVE STRATEGIES

PV CELLS

on the south facades of the towers - create energy out of the sun’s rays

VERTICAL WOOD LOUVRE SYSTEM

on the south facades of the podiums & towers to protect the glazing from direct sunlight

0

93


94


VERTICAL LOUVRE OPTIONS ON SOUTH FACING PODIUM FACADES

40mm

500mm

450mm

LOUVER SIZE: LARGE, 500MM X 40MM SPACING: 450MM APART

LOUVER SIZE: SMALL, 300MM X 40MM 300mm

40mm

SPACING: 250MM APART

250mm

LOUVER SIZE: SMALL, 300MM X 40MM 300mm

40mm

SPACING: 450MM APART

450mm

95


N

ON

WINTER SOLSTICE DEC. 21

NO

W

MARCH 20

SUN S

ET

SUMMER SOLSTICE JUNE 21

E SUN R

ISE

S SUN ROSE showing the yearly path of the sun 0

96

50

100

150

200 m


SOLAR ORIENTATION

TOWER HEIGHTS DECREASE TOWARDS THE SOUTH FOR OPTIMUM DAYLIGHTING

PODIUM MASSING ORIENTATED FOR OPTIMUM DAYLIGHTING

THE WINTER SOLSTICE 07:00, 12:00, 19:00

THE SUMMER SOLISTICE 07:00, 12:00, 19:00

97


98


FACADE DESIGN

A variety of tower & podium types are throughout the district. The facades reveal the direction it is oriented - south facing facades incorporate shading louvers with overhanging horizontal floor slabs which create extended terraces. Whereas north facing facades have more open glazing.

99


• • • • •

• • •

100

APPROACH

allocate bus stops within the District connect underground from the Midtown Center north to the City metro stop bikes lanes are on every street provide on-street bicycle parking & secure, below ground bicycle storage create a walkable street environment • network of internal non-motorized streets provide a pedestrian way through at least every 250m • all buildings are built right up to the street edge setback line • ground level retail street frontage- shopping, restaurants, cafes, services - with street front entries on 80% or more of the street level facade • layers such as street trees, street furniture, bicycle lanes & on-street parking buffer pedestrians from moving vehicles Highwalk provides a raised pedestrian environment removed from the street level on-street parking is provided on at least 70% of both sides of the streets all streets connect though - there are no deadends

RESULT • • • •

• • • • •

provide a variety of movement speeds, transitions & linkages reduce automobile dependence and negative effects of vehicle emissions promote transportation efficiency - connect District to City & regional transit provide a multi-modal transportation network: design streets for slower vehicle speeds; encourage use of public transportation, cycling & walking provide a walkable, safe, appealing, & comfortable street environment increase safety, thus reducing pedestrian & bicyclist injuries encourage physical activity; improve public health provide a high level of internal connectivity within the development & externally to the greater city add commercial & social value


2.5 PROVIDE OPTIONS FOR MOVEMENT IN WULI, THE STREET ENVIRONMENT IS NOT GIVEN OVER ENTIRELY TO THE CAR - INSTEAD THE LAYERING & PROXIMITY OF HOUSING, JOBS & RETAIL,TREE LINED SIDEWALKS, ON-STREE PARKING, CAFES & STREET FRONT SHOPS MAKES FOR WALKABLE STREETS. ADDITIONALLY, A PEDESTRIAN ONLY NETWORK IS PROVIDED ABOVE GROUND AT THE HIGHWALK, BY PATHS THAT CUT THROUGH THE BLOCKS & WITHIN THE CENTRAL PARK. THERE IS A SYSTEM OF BICYCLE LANES ON & OFF THE STREETS & CONNECTIONS TO CITY & REGIONAL TRANSIT VIA THE METRO & BUSES.

101


PEDESTRIAN PATHS STROLL

HIGHWALK STROLL

PEDESTRIAN LANES WALK

BICYCLE LANES CYCLE

STREETS & PARKING DRIVE & PARK

102


MOVEMENT NETWORK

ON STREET CAR PARKING

BICYCLE LANES

METRO PEDESTRIAN PEDESTRIAN PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION WAYS HIGHWALK PATHS BUS STOP

WALK IN 5 MINUTES @ 5KM/H

EASY CYCLE IN 5 MINUTES @ 20KM/H

103


CONNECTIVITY

DRIVING

PARKING CYCLING WALKING

STROLLING SITTING EAT/DRINKING


HIGHWALK

PARK BLVD

PEDESTRIAN / BICYCLE WAY

RETAIL BLVD

106


STREET SECTIONS

HIGHWALK

PARK BLVD, SOUTH

CANAL WALK

PARK BLVD, NORTH

PEDESTRIAN / RETAIL BICYCLE WAY BLVD

PEDESTRIAN / GREENWAY BICYCLE WAY

DONGJIAO ROAD

0

20

40

60

80

100 m

107


NORTH FACING, RETAIL STREET EDGE

108


SOUTH FACING, RETAIL STREET EDGE

109


• • •

• • • • • • • • •

110

APPROACH

a system of connected, 24 hour open public spaces: Central Park, Highwalk, internal courtyards, Landmark & Midtown Plazas provide recreational facilities - football pitch & running track in the park, connected to schools located on the south side of the park mixed use & high density - layer housing, shopping, restaurants, entertainment, culture, office, hotel, education & park space together - combie compatible day/night & weekday/weekend activities to keep the place constantly active include a variety of housing sizes & types include a proportion of affordable dwelling units priced for households earning below the area income universal design used throughout development, allowing disabled and elderly to enjoy all the spaces community outreach & involvement; ask for local expertise from the locals; create a ‘village within the city’ allow buildings to be adaptable & flexible as they need to change over time reuse materials from the existing buildings on the site in the paving & landscape; recall the history & culture of the site & Kunming with signposts allocate shopfront spaces for small to medium scale local enterprises have a weekly craft & farmer’s market at the Midtown Plaza create spaces for the wild & cultivated, the intimate & social, the fast & slow pace

• • • • •

• • •

RESULT

greater connectivity create a diverse environment - expressed in spatial & people terms enable residents from a wide range of economic levels, household sizes, & age groups to live in the community enable all people, regardless of age or ability, to participate in community life vibrant street life that demonstrates the dynamic culture of Wuli & Kunming; becomes an enjoyable place to walk and explore, encouraging the interaction of people within the urban space improve physical & mental health & facilitate social networking, civic engagement, physical activity, & time spent outdoors create a neighbourhood character that positively affects the quality of life of those within it add commercial & social value


2.6 FOSTER COMMUNITY VITALITY WULI IS DESIGNED TO BE A BALANCED, HEALTHY COMMUNITY WITH A CONNECTED URBAN STRUCTURE THAT PROMOTES WALKING, CULTIVATION OF LOCAL FOOD, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT IN PUBLIC SPACES, A DIVERSITY OF TYPES OF PEOPLE & MIXTURE OF USES.

111


SHOP - retail EATDRINK - retail WORK - office STAY - hotel LIVE/WORK - soho LIVE - apartments LIVE - tower housing GREEN - park & highwalk parking mechanical The podium contains a mixture of uses, with street front retail spaces located on the ground level and more private living & office spaces on the upper floors

112


MULTIFUNCTIONAL LAYERS


114


PUBLIC SPACE NETWORK

LANDMARK PLAZA

UPTOWN BLOCK

MIDTOWN PLAZA

PUBLIC SEMI-PUBLIC COURTYARDS RAISED PUBLIC WALKWAY MAJOR PUBLIC PLAZA/AXIS NODE OF ACTIVITY

115


B COURTYARD The kids in the family play in the courtyard after school; the elderly couple have a coffee there during the day; & the young professionals meet for a drink in the evening.

A ALLOTMENT The family & elderly couple garden at their allotment in the park, bringing fresh grown vegetables home to cook for dinner.

116

C PARK WALK The elderly couple meets other friends for an afternoon stroll in the park; the young professionals go for a jog in the park before work.

D SHOPPING Everyone pops into a shop along the retail blvd at some point during the day: the mother to the grocery, the young professionals to the shoe shop & to pick up the drycleaning, the grandmother to the bookshop for something to read.


LIFE OF WULI IN A DAY

B

C

D

20

40

60

80

100 m

ELDERLY COUPLE

YOUNG PROFESSIONALS

0

FAMILY

A

117


118


3.0 IN CONCLUSION WULI, GARDEN OF TOWERS

3.1

the Oval partnership


120


THE GARDEN OF TOWERS

THE WAY WE GROW & BUILD HAS A PROFOUND EFFECT ON OUR PLANET AND ON US. “If green and blue structures are to become significant in cities based on the services that they are capable of providing (Improve air quality, control Micro climate, Noise reduction, Rainwater drainage, Improved water quality, Increased groundwater recharge, Wastewater treatment, Flood protection, etc) we need to engage residents in a dialogue with the ecological processes happening in them.” Unknown

If this sustainable framework is followed, the Wuli development will: • reduce energy use & carbon emissions; • create a healthier environment to live in; • give a green space back to the city; • help to clean the air & water; • teach & remind people about Yunan’s beautiful environment & the country’s rural roots; • be a district that people want to come to; • be economically profitable; • build a place where people meet each other on the street & stop to say hello; • evolve into the future for tomorrow’s generation to enjoy. The Wuli Masterplan adopts an open and permeable urban pattern within a block arrangement that is focused around a Central Park. Many streets, lanes, courtyards and plazas, crisscross and break up the blocks and connect to the Central Park. The public spaces are open 24 hours and can be used for passive relaxation such as strolling, sitting, chatting and people watching as well as holding public events such as farmer’s markets, celebrations, art exhibitions, performances and parties. Land use and neighbourhood design patterns create a physical environment that compels certain behaviours which have a positive effect on the environmental & social performance of a place. The Wuli Masterplan recognizes this and places emphasis on a high quality and diverse urban environment which highlights an urban ecology of people & nature.

121


122


124


3.1

CONCLUSION

THE GARDEN OF TOWERS


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128


130


Wuli  

Garden of Towers Masterplan, Kunming, China

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