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Spotlight TYPEFACE: Gill Sans//pg.4 ARTIST: Herb Lubalin//pg.12

Features IDENTITY THROUGH TYPE: Art Museums in NYC//pg.18 Personal Trademark//pg.32

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

Typesthesia: A condition where identity is given to an animate or inanimate object through typography

EDITORIAL Dear Reader,

Typesthesia’s mission is to explore the ideology of typography giving identity to

animate and inanimate objects. Typesthesia stems from the concept of synesthesia, which is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. Some people experience a certain type of synesthesia, where they have strong visual associations with letters and numbers. Those people are either experiencing Grapheme-Colour Synesthesia or Ordinal-Linguistic Personification. Grapheme-Colour is where someone perceives certain letters with certain colors and Ordinal-Linguistic is where ordered sequences, such as ordinal numbers, week-day names, months and alphabetical letters are associated with personalities or genders. Based off this unique and intriguing innate ability that few people in the world experience, we want to bring awareness to our unconscious use of typography as a form of identity for many people, places and/or things. Animated and inanimate objects identify themselves through typography. People have identities and a common way for people to claim their identity is through their handwriting. People’s handwriting are personalized and individualized typography. Autographs, bank receipts, legal contracts — all require a signature as an authenticity of somone’s presence and acknowledgement in particular moments and situation. Aside from animated beings like people claiming an identity through their personalized typography, inanimate objects such as a location can gain an identity through claiming a typeface as their handwriting. For example, companies and business identify with their logos and often times it will be their name in a specific typeface. When we allow a place to claim an identity and a personality, it transform them from inanimate to animate. The typography of a location emits a particular personality and demonstrates how the location wants to be viewed or seen. Regardless, if an object is animated or inanimate, it has the ability to claim its identity through its choice of typography. We want to bring awareness to this abstract concept into the world typography and hope to share our findings with you! Sincerely,

–Kimberly Chan, Senior Editor



Typesthesia/ Winter 2017



Typeface: Eric Gill and his Sans


Artist: Herb Lubalin



Identity through Type: Art Museums in NYC

Identity through Type: Personal trademark

34 38 39


New York City is home to multiple art museums and institutions, ranging from the contemporary to traditional arts.


Trademarks are closely tied with a company’s identity, the same way a someone’s handwriting and signature seen as their identity.

Esstentials for Any Typesthesian: Terms A—Z Further Research Become a Typesthesian


Table of Content

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

“Letter are things, not pictures of things�


Eric Gill and His Sans Gill Sans is a sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill and released by the British branch of Monotype from 1928 onwards. Name:

Gill Sans is based on Edward Johnston’s 1916 “Underground Alphabet”, the corporate font of London Underground. Gill as a young artist had assisted Johnston in its early development stages. In 1926, Douglas Cleverdon, a young printerpublisher, opened a bookshop in Bristol, and Gill painted a fascia for the shop for him in sans-serif capitals. In addition, Gill sketched an alphabet for Cleverdon as a guide for him to use for future notices and announcements. By this time Gill had become a prominent stonemason, artist and creator of lettering in his own right and had begun to work on creating typeface designs.

Arthur Eric Rowton Gill


February 22, 1882


November 17, 1940




Sculptor, Typeface Designer and Printmaker

Gill was commissioned to develop his alphabet into a full metal type family by his friend Stanley Morison, an influential Monotype executive and historian of printing. Morison hoped that it could be Monotype’s competitor to a wave of German sans-serif families in a new “geometric” style, which included Erbar, Futura and Kabel, all being launched to considerable attention in Germany during the late 1920s. Gill Sans was released in 1928 by

Basic Info:

Associated with the Arts and Craft Movement. Gill was named Royal Designer for Industry, the highest British award for designers, by the Royal Society of Arts. He also became a founder-member of the newly established Faculty of Royal Designers for Industry.


Gill Sans

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Monotype, initially as a set of titling capitals that was quickly followed by a lower-case. Gill’s aim was to blend the influences of Johnston, classic serif typefaces and Roman inscriptions to create a design that looked both cleanly modern and classical at the same time.Marketed by Monotype as a design of “classic simplicity and real beauty”,it was intended as a display typeface that could be used for posters and advertisements, as well as for the text of documents that need to be clearly legible at small sizes or from a distance, such as book blurbs, timetables and price lists. Designed before setting documents entirely in sans-serif text was common, its standard weight is noticeably bolder than most modern body text fonts.

covers of Penguin books, and was sold up to very large sizes which were often used in British posters and notices of the period. Gill Sans was one of the dominant typefaces in British printing in the years following its release, and remains extremely popular: it has been described as “the British Helvetica” because of its lasting popularity in British design. Gill Sans has influenced many other typefaces, and helped to define a genre of sansserif, known as the humanist style.

CHARACTERISTICS Gill Sans compared to other sans-serifs of the period. Gill Sans does not use the single-storey “g” or “a” used by many sans-serifs and is less monoline than Johnston. Its structure is influenced by traditional serif fonts such as Caslon rather than being strongly based on straight lines and circles as Futura is.

An immediate success, the year after its release the London and North Eastern Railway chose it for all its posters, timetables and publicity material. British Railways chose Gill Sans as the basis for its standard lettering when the railway companies were nationalised in 1948. Gill Sans also soon became used on the modernist, deliberately simple

The proportions of Gill Sans stem from monumental Roman capitals in the upper case, and traditional “old-style” serif letters in the lower. This gives Gill Sans a very different style of design to geometric sans-serifs like Futura, based on simple squares and circles, or realist or grotesque designs like Akzidenz-Grotesk, Helvetica and Univers influenced by nineteenth-century lettering styles. For example, compared to realist sans-serifs the “C” and “a” have a much less “folded up” structure, with wider apertures.The “a” and “g” in the roman or regular style are “double-storey” designs, rather than the “single-storey” forms used in handwriting and blackletter often found in grotesque and especially geometric sans-serifs The upper-case of Gill Sans is partly modelled on Roman capitals like those found on the Column of Trajan. Edward Johnston had written that, “The Roman capitals have held the supreme place among letters for readableness and beauty. They are the best forms for the grandest and most important inscriptions.”While Gill Sans is not based on purely geometric principles to the extent of the geometric sans-serifs that had preceded it, some aspects of Gill Sans do have a geometric feel. The “O” is an almost perfect circle and the capital “M” is based on the proportions of a square with the middle strokes meeting at the centre; this was

Anatomy of the lower case g in gill sans.


not inspired by Roman carving but is very similar to Johnston. But the influence of traditional serif letters is clear in the “two-storey” lower-case “a” and “g”, unlike that of Futura, and the “t” with its curve to bottom right and slanting cut at top left, unlike Futura’s which is simply formed from two straight lines. The lower-case “a” also narrows strikingly towards the top of its loop, a common feature of serif designs but rarer in sans-serifs.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMN O P Q R ST UVW X Y Z abcdefghijklmnopq rstuvwxyz 0123456789

Following the traditional serif model the italic has different letterforms from the roman, where many sans-serifs simply slant the letters in what is called an oblique style. This is clearest in the “a”, which becomes a “single storey” design similar to handwriting, and the lower-case “p”, which has a calligraphic tail on the left reminiscent of italics such as those cut by William Caslon in the eighteenth century. The italic “e” is more restrained, with a straight line on the underside of the bowl where serif fonts normally add a curve. Like most serif fonts, several weights and releases of Gill Sans use ligatures to allow its expansive letter “f” to join up with or avoid colliding with following letters.

The entire set of lowercase, uppercase and number Sample of Gill Sans.

for their weight until developments such as the groundbreaking release of Univers in 1957.

DEVELOPMENT Morison commissioned Gill to develop Gill Sans after they had begun to work together (often by post since Gill lived in Wales) on Gill’s serif design Perpetua from 1925 onwards; they had known each other since about 1913. Morison visited Cleverdon’s bookshop while in Bristol in 1927 where he saw and was impressed by Gill’s fascia and alphabet. Gill wrote that “it was as a consequence of seeing these letters” that Morison commissioned him to develop a sans-serif family.

The basic letter shapes of Gill Sans do not look consistent across styles (or even in the metal type era all the sizes of the same style), especially in Extra Bold and Extra Condensed widths, while the Ultra Bold style is effectively a different design altogether and was originally marketed as such. Digital-period Monotype designer Dan Rhatigan, author of an article on Gill Sans’s development after Gill’s death, has commented:

In the period during and after his closest collaboration with Johnston, Gill had intermittently worked on sans-serif letter designs, including an almost sans-serif capital design in an alphabet for sign-painters in the 1910s, some “absolutely legible-to-the-last-degree ... simple block letters” for Army and Navy Stores in 1925 and some capital letter signs around his home in Capel-y-ffin, Wales. Gill had greatly admired Johnston’s work on their Underground project, which he wrote had redeemed the sans-serif from its “nineteenthcentury corruption” of extreme boldness. Johnston

“Gill Sans grew organically ... it takes a very ‘asystematic’ approach to type. Very characteristic of when it was designed and of when it was used.” (At this time the idea that sans-serif typefaces should form a consistent family, with glyph shapes as consistent as possible between all weights and sizes, had not fully developed: it was quite normal for families to vary as seemed appropriate

“Marketed by Monotype as a design of ‘classic simplicity and real beauty’...” 7

Gill Sans

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apparently had not tried to turn the alphabet (as it was then called) that he had designed into a commercial typeface project. He had tried to get involved in type design before starting work on Johnston Sans, but without success since the industry at the time mostly created designs inhouse. Morison similarly respected the design of the Underground system, one of the first and most lasting uses of a standard lettering style as corporate branding (Gill had designed a set of serif letters for W.H. Smith), writing that it “conferred upon the lettering a sanction, civic and commercial, as had not been accorded to an alphabet since the time of Charlemagne”.

draft proposed many slanting cuts on the ends of ascenders and descenders, looking less like Johnston than the released version did. Early art for the italic looked very different, with less of a slope and swash capitals. The final version did not use the calligraphic italic “g” Gill preferred in his serif designs Perpetua and Joanna, instead using a standard “double-storey” “g”. In the regular or roman style of Gill Sans, some letters were simplified from Johnston, with diamond dots becoming round and the lower-case “L” becoming a simple line, but the “a” became more complex with a curving tail in most versions and sizes. In addition, the design was simply refined in general, for example by making the horizontals slightly narrower than verticals so that they do not appear unbalanced, a standard technique in font design which Johnston had not used. The “R” with its widely splayed leg is Gill’s preferred design, unlike that of Johnston; historian James Mosley has suggested that this may be inspired by an Italian Renaissance carving in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Particular areas of thought during the design process were

A large amount of material about the development of Gill Sans survives in Monotype’s archives and in Gill’s papers. While the capitals (which were prepared first) resemble Johnston quite closely, the archives document Gill (and the drawing office team at Monotype’s works in Salfords Surrey, who developed a final precise design and spacing) grappling with the challenge of creating a viable humanist sans-serif lower-case as well as an italic, which Johnston’s design did not have. Gill’s first

Flying Scotsman using Gill Sans.


the “a” (several versions and sizes in the hot metal era had a straight tail like Johnston’s or a mildly curving tail) and the “b”, “d”, “p” and “q”, where some versions (and sizes, since the same weight would not be identical at every size) had stroke ends visible and others did not. Rhatigan has commented that Monotype’s archives contain “enough material for a book just about the ‘b’, ‘d’, ‘p’, and ‘q’ of Gill Sans”. The titling capitals of Gill Sans were first unveiled at a printing conference in 1928; it was also shown in a specimen issued in the Fleuron magazine edited by Morison. While initial response was partly appreciative, it was still considered dubious by some ultra-conservative printers who saw all sansserif type as modern and unsound; one called it “typographical Bolshevism”. Sans-serifs were still regarded as vulgar and commercial by purists in this period: Johnston’s pupil Graily Hewitt privately commented of them that: “In Johnston I have lost confidence. Despite all he did for us ... he has undone too much by forsaking his standard of the Roman alphabet, giving the world, without safeguard or explanation, his block letters which disfigure our modern life. His prestige has obscured their vulgarity and commercialism.”

A page from the Monotype Recorder on the "Story of Gill Sans" and set in varying sizes and weights of the typeface designed by Eric Gill for the company.

Gill Sans’ technical production followed Monotype’s standard method of the period. The characters were drawn on paper in large plan diagrams by the experienced drawing office team, led and trained by American engineer Frank Hinman Pierpont and Fritz Steltzer, both of whom Monotype had recruited from the German printing industry. The drawing staff who executed the design was disproportionately female and in many cases recruited from the local area and the nearby Reigate art school; they worked out many aspects of the final drawings including adaptations of the letters to different sizes and the spacing. The diagrams were then used as a plan for machining metal punches by pantograph to stamp matrices, which would be loaded into a casting machine to cast type. It was Monotype’s standard practice at the time to first engrave a limited number of characters and print proofs (some of which survive) from them to test overall balance of colour and spacing on the page, before completing the remaining characters. Walter Tracy, Rhatigan and Gill’s biographer Malcolm Yorke have written that the

drawing office’s work has not been fully appreciated; Yorke described Gill as “tactless” in his claims that the design was “as much as possible mathematically measurable ... as little reliance as possible should be placed on the sensibility of the draughtsmen and others concerned in its machine facture”.

USAGE First unveiled in a single uppercase weight in 1928, Gill Sans achieved national prominence almost immediately, when it was chosen the following year to become the standard typeface for the LNER railway system, soon appearing on every facet of the company’s identity, from metal locomotive nameplates and hand-painted station signage to printed restaurant car menus, timetables and advertising posters. The LNER promoted their rebranding by offering Gill (who was fascinated with railway engines) a footplate ride on the Flying Scotsman express service; he also painted for it a


Gill Sans

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

signboard in the style of Gill Sans, which survives in the collection of the St Bride Library.

Gill Sans remains popular, although a trend away from it towards grotesque and neo-grotesque typefaces took place around the 1950s and 1960s under the influence of continental and American design. Typefaces that became popular around this time included original early “grotesque” sans-serifs, as well as new and more elegant designs in the same style such as Helvetica and Univers. Mosley has commented that in 1960 “orders unexpectedly revived” for the old Monotype Grotesque design:

In 1949 the Railway Executive decided on standard types of signs to be used at all stations. Lettering was to use the Gill Sans typeface on a background of the regional colour. Gill Sans was also used in much of its printed output, very often in capitalsonly settings for signage. Specially drawn variations were developed by the Railway Executive (part of the British Transport Commission) for signs in its manual for the use of signpainters painting large signs by hand. Other users included Penguin Books’ iconic paperback jacket designs from 1935 and British official mapping agency Ordnance Survey. It was also used by London Transport for documents which could not be practically set in Johnston. Paul Shaw, a historian of printing, has described it as a key element of the ‘Modernist classical’ style from the 1930s to the 1950s, that promoted clean, spare design, often with all-capitals and centred setting of headings.

“It represents, even more evocatively than Univers, the fresh revolutionary breeze that began to blow through typography in the early sixties.”

A page from the Monotype Recorder that was issued to sell the London & North Eastern Railway's decision to standardise on the use of Gill Sans typeface. It shows a wider and fascinating range of uses.


He added in 2007 “its rather clumsy design seems to have been one of the chief attractions to iconoclastic designers tired of the ... prettiness of Gill Sans”. As an example of this trend, Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert’s corporate rebranding of BR as British Rail in 1965 introduced Helvetica and Univers for printed matter and the custom but very similar Rail Alphabet for signage, and abandoned the classical, all caps signage style with which Gill Sans is often associated. Kinneir and Calvert’s road signage redesign used a similar approach. Linotype and its designer Hermann Zapf, who had begun development on a planned Gill Sans competitor in 1955, first considered redrawing some letters to make it more like these fonts before abandoning the design project (now named “Magnus”) around 1962-3. An additional development which reduced Gill Sans’ dominance was the arrival of phototypesetting, which allowed typefaces to be printed from photographs on film and (especially in display use – hot metal continued for some body text setting for longer) massively increased the range of typefaces that could cheaply be used. Dry transfers like Letraset had a similar effect for smaller projects; their sans-serif Compacta and Stephenson Blake’s Impact exemplified the design trends of the period by choosing dense, industrial designs. Of the period from the 1930s to 1950s, when he was growing up, James Mosley would later write:

A page from the Monotype Recorder that was issued to sell the London & North Eastern Railway's decision to standardise on the use of Gill Sans typeface. It shows a wider and fascinating range of uses.

became a system font on Macintosh computers and Microsoft Office. The category of humanist sans-serif typefaces, which Gill Sans helped to define, saw great attention during the 1980s and 1990s, especially as a reaction against the overwhelming popularity of Helvetica and Univers in the 1960s and 1970s. It can be identified by a tendency to use ‘doublestorey’ as and gs in the roman and “single-storey” as in italic, like serif fonts.

“The Monotype classics dominated the typographical landscape ... in Britain, at any rate, they were so ubiquitous that, while their excellent quality was undeniable, it was possible to be bored by them and to begin to rebel against the bland good taste that they represented. In fact we were already aware by 1960 that they might not be around to bore us for too long. The death of metal type ... seemed at last to be happening.” While extremely popular in Britain, and to a lesser extent in European printing, Gill Sans did not achieve popularity with American printers in the hot metal era, with most preferring gothic designs like Franklin Gothic and geometric designs like Futura and Monotype’s own Twentieth Century. Gill Sans therefore particularly achieved worldwide popularity after the close of the metal type era and in the phototypesetting and digital era, when it


Gill Sans

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017


“You can do a good ad without good typography, but you can’t do a great ad without good typography.”


Herb Lubalin

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

Herb Lubalin

Lubalin designed and collaborated with Ralph Ginzburg on three of Ginzburg’s magazines: Eros, Fact, and Avant Garde. Name:


Herbert F. “Herb” Lubalin

Herb Lubalin entered Cooper Union at the age of seventeen, and quickly became entranced by the possibilities presented by typography as a communicative implement. Gertrude Snyder notes that during this period Lubalin was particularly struck by the differences in interpretation one could impose by changing from one typeface to another, always “fascinated by the look and sound of words (as he) expanded their message with typographic impact.” After graduating in 1939, Lubalin had a difficult time finding work; he was fired from his job at a display firm after requesting a two dollar raise on his weekly salary, up from a paltry eight (around USD100 in 2006 currency). Lubalin would eventually land at Reiss Advertising, and later worked for Sudler & Hennessey, where he practiced his considerable skills and attracted an array of design, typographic and photographic talent that included George Lois, Art Kane and John Pistilli.


March 17, 1918


May 24, 1981




Graphic Designer

Basic Info:

He designed a typeface, ITC Avant Garde, for the last of these; this font could be described as a reproduction of art-deco, and is seen in logos created in the 1990s and 2000s.


chose an elegant minimalist palette consisting of dynamic serifed typography balanced by highquality illustrations. The magazine was printed on a budget, so Lubalin stuck with black and white printing on uncoated paper, as well as limiting himself to one or two typefaces and paying a single artist to handle all illustrations at bulk rate rather than dealing with multiple creators. The end result was one of dynamic minimalism that Lubalin’s redesign for his college, Cooper Union.

Emphasized the underlying sentiment of the magazine better than “the scruffy homemade look of the underground press (or the) screaming typography of sensationalist tabloids” ever could.

Pistilli Roman was Lubalin’s first typeface (1964), later comprising the logos of Lincoln Center, the Met and New York Philharmonic. Lubalin served with Sudler for nineteen years before leaving to start his own firm, Herb Lubalin, Inc., in 1964.

PRIVATE PRACTICE EROS MAGAZINE AND FACT MAGAZINWE  ubalin’s private studio gave him the freedom to L take on any number of wide-ranging projects, from poster and magazine design to packaging and identity solutions. It was here that the designer became best known, particularly for his work with a succession of magazines published by Ralph Ginzburg: Eros, Fact, and Avant Garde. Eros, (Spring 1962 to issue four 1963) which devoted itself to the beauty of the rising sense of sexuality and experimentation, particularly in the burgeoning counterculture, it was a quality production with no advertising and the large format (13 by 10 inches) made it look like a book rather than a quarterly magazine. It was printed on different papers and the editorial design was some the greatest that Lubalin ever did. It quickly folded after an obscenity case brought by the US Postal Service. Ginzburg and Lubalin followed with Fact, largely founded in response to the treatment Eros received. This magazine’s inherent anti-establishment sentiment lent itself to outsider writers who could not be published in mainstream media; Fact managing editor Warren Boroson noted that “most American magazine, emulating the Reader’s Digest, wallow in sugar and everything nice; Fact has had the spice all to itself.”Rather than follow with a shocking design template for the publication, Lubalin

Example of one of the covers of Fact Magzine, for volume 2 issue 2.


Herb Lubalin

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

Fact itself folded in controversy as Eros before it, after being sued for several years by Barry Goldwater, the Republican presidential candidate about whom Fact wrote an article entitled “The Unconscious of a Conservative: A special Issue on the Mind of Barry Goldwater.” Goldwater was awarded a total of $90,000, effectively putting Fact out of business.

AVANT GARDE MAGAZINE Lubalin and Ginzburg again turned one magazine’s demise into the creation of another, releasing Avant Garde six months later. The creation of the magazine’s logogram proved difficult, largely due to the inherent difficulties presented by the incompatible letterform combinations in the title. Lubalin’s solution, one which sought to meet Ginzburg’s hope for an expression of “the advanced, the innovative, the creative,” consisted of tightfitting letterform combinations to create a futuristic, instantly recognizable identity. The demand for a complete typesetting of the logo was extreme in the design community, so Lubalin released ITC Avant Garde from his International Typeface Corporation in 1970. Unfortunately, Lubalin quickly realized that Avant Garde was widely misunderstood and misused in poorly thought-out solutions, eventually becoming a stereotypical 1970s font due to overuse. Steven Heller, one of Lubalin’s fellow AIGA medalists, notes that the “excessive number of ligatures were misused by designers who had no understanding of how to employ these typographic forms,” further commenting that “Avant Garde was Lubalin’s signature, and in his hands it had character; in others’ it was a flawed Futura-esque face.” Regardless of ITC Avant Garde’s future uses, Lubalin’s original magazine logo was and remains highly influential in typographic design.

Example of one of the covers of Avant Garde.

in recent times, Rolling Stone art director Fred Woodward has used this method widely in his publication. Ginzburg, who held some experience as a photographer, gave Lubalin total control over the magazine’s look: “Herb brought a graphic impact. I never tried to overrule him, and almost never disagreed with him.” Other issues included a portfolio of Picasso’s oft-neglected erotic engravings, which Lubalin willingly combined with his own aesthetic, printing them in a variety of colors, in reverse, or on disconcerting backgrounds. Unfortunately, Avant Garde again caught the eye of censors after an issue featuring an alphabet spelled out by nude models; Ralph Ginzburg was sent to prison, and publication ceased with a still-growing circulation of 250,000.

Avant Garde (January 1968 to issue 14 summer1971) also provided Lubalin with a large format of wide typographwwic experimentation; the page format was an almost square 11.25 by 10.75 inches bound in a cardboard cover, a physical quality

U&LC MAGAZINE  ubalin spent the last ten years of his life working L on a variety of projects, notably his typographic journal U&lc and the newly founded International Typographic Corporation. U&lc (short for Upper and lower case) served as both an advertisement for Lubalin’s designs and a further plane of typographic experimentation; Steven Heller argues that U&lc was the first Emigre, or at least

coupled with Lubalin’s layouts, caught the attention of many in the New York design scene. Often, the magazine would employ full-page typographic titles, which at the time was a largely new idea;


Example of U&LC Magzine Cover.

the template for its later successes, for this very combination of promotion and revolutionary change in type design. Heller further notes, “In U&lc, he tested just how far smashed and expressive lettering might be taken. Under Lubalin’s tutelage, eclectic typography was firmly entrenched.” Lubalin enjoyed the freedom his magazine provided him; he was quoted as saying “Right now, I have what every designer wants and

few have the good fortune to achieve. I’m my own client. Nobody tells me what to do.”


Herb Lubalin

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

ART MUSEUMS IN NYC New York City is home to several art museums and institutions, ranging from contemporary art to traditional fine arts. Each museum aims for a specific mission and has its own field of specialty. For example, MoMA houses many modern and contemporary art exhibitions, while the Metropolitan Museum of Art has an extensive collection of historical pieces of artwork. Museums typically provide basic informational brochures to the public at the front desk of the institution. These brochures could include a map of the current exhibition or pamphlets about their programs provided. Art museums make strategically design choice in the resources they distribute to the public. Because these resources are designed for the sole purpose of selling the museum and it is also shapes the way the public views them. Being strategical about design choices apply especially to their typography because it serves two purposes. One purpose being to appear appealing to the eye and to also be functional. They are claiming their identity through their type. The question is how different could museum visual identity be through typography be, if the museums have opposing visions.

Photo by Patrick Tomasso on Unsplash 18


Art Museums in NYC

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MET METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 1000 5th Ave, New York, NY 10028

From their Website: The Met Fifth Avenue presents over 5,000 years of art spanning all cultures and time periods.

The Met’s entire brochure is using a sans typeface. Aside from the Met logo, nothing else has serifs. The color red is closely tied with the Met’s identity and is used primarily to highlight headers and subheadings.

Over 5,000 years of art from every corner of the world




235 Bowery, New York, NY 10002 From their Website: The free flow of ideas and of people is essential to what we do. We oppose xenophobia and discrimination and remain steadfastly committed to the fundamental American principles of free expression and open engagement.

Although the Met and New Museum identify and exhibit dfferent types of work, both of their informational brochures are similiarly designed. Similar to the Met, the New has all their text set in a sans typeface and they only use a single color to highlight heads and titles.

The New Museum is the only museum in Manhattan devoted exclusively to contemporary art, and is respected internationally for the adventurousness and global scope of its curatorial program


Art Museums in NYC: Met vs. New

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017


1 E 70th St, New York, NY 10021 From their Website: Internationally recognized as a premier museum and research center, the Frick is known for its distinguished Old Master paintings and outstanding examples of European sculpture and decorative arts.

The Frick’s general informational brochure is using a serif typeface. Since the subheadings are on the same line as the text, they use color and bolding to distiguish the difference. The only other color, aside from black, is a maroon for the museum name and the subheadings.

The Collection includes some of the best-known paintings by the greatest European artists, major works of sculpture, superb eighteenth-century French furniture and porecelains, Limoges enamels, Oriental rugs, and other works of remarkable quality.




From their Website: Cooper Hewitt’s exhibitions feature a rich mix of historical and contemporary design objects from our permanent collection, unique temporary installations, and dynamic interactive experiences.

Unlike the museum pairing before, the Frick’s and Cooper Hewitt’s designs share little similarities. Cooper Hewitt’s brochure has all of its type set in a sans typeface. Their colors include orange, grey and white. Their color’s puropose is more so used as a design aspect rather than using it to distiguish like Frick.

Cooper Hewitt is the only museum in the nation devoted exclusively to contemporary and historic design... offers access to a collection that includes more than 210,000 objects spanning 30 centuries.


Art Museums in NYC: Frick vs. Hewitt

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017


99 Margaret Corbin Dr, New York, NY 10040 From their Website: The Met Cloisters, located on four acres overlooking the Hudson River in northern Manhattan’s Fort Tryon Park, is the branch of the Museum dedicated to the art, architecture, and gardens of medieval Europe. Deriving its name from the medieval cloisters that form the core of the building, it presents a harmonious and evocative setting for more than 2,000 exceptional artworks and architectural elements from the medieval West.

The Cloisters is apart of Metropolitan Musem of Art, which explains the same design and layout of thier broucher as the Met. Aside from the Met logo, all of the text is set in a sans typeface. Even though, this broucher is specficially for the Cloisters, the name “Cloisters� is set in a sans like the rest of the text. Similar to the Met, the color red is used primarily to highlight headers and subheadings.

Welcome to The Met Clositers, the branch of The Metropolian Museum of Art devoted to the art and architecture of medieval Europe... collection contains works primarily from Western Europe...extensive garden feature medieval plantings




11 West 53rd Street; New York, NY 10019  From their Website: We’re committed to sharing the most thought-provoking modern and contemporary art, and hope you will join us in exploring the art, ideas, and issues of our time.

A difference between the two are the use of color. Color in MoMA’s doesn’t appear to have a very consistent purpose like the Cloister’s. Unlike many museums , MoMA doesn’t give a short summary of who they are and their mission. Instead, they highlight the different opportunties and aspect the museum offers.

While the Clositers and MoMA exhibit artworks from different time periods, they both chose to use a Sans Typeface for all of their text.

Don’t miss Vincent van Gogh’s The Starry Night on Floor 5. You’ll also find works by Frida Kahlo, Pablo Picasso, and Andy Warhol in the galleries.


Art Museums in NYC: Cloister vs. MoMA

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017


From their Website: Is the premier institution devoted to the creative expressions of selftaught artists, past and present. Self-taught art, past and present, tells empowering stories of everyday life

The American Folk use both serifs and sans typeface. Serifs are only found in reading text and everything else is in sans typeface. The headings are in all caps and has color to distuiguish it from the body text. They also use color to highlight the words that they identify with, which are “discover,” “experience”, “celebrate” and “art by the self taught”. Visit the museum to experience the diverse cultural history of America and to embrace the imagination of the human spirit

The American Folk Art Museum is the premier institution devoted to the creative expressions of selftaught artist, past and present— artist of diverse backgrounds, origins, inspirations, and goals.



WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART 99 Gansevoort St, New York, NY 10014 From their Website: As the preeminent institution devoted to the art of the United States, the Whitney Museum of American Art presents the full range of twentieth-century and contemporary American art, with a special focus on works by living artists.

Unlike the American Folk, Whitney’s entire broucher is set in a sans typeface and color is scarce in the typography.

Today, the role of art and artists in America help interpet the world and expand our understanding of it..speak to the diversity of the United States through art and culture both past and present...varied and sometimes divergent voices, and art can provide a unique lens throught which to see America in all its richness and complexity.


Art Museums in NYC: American Folk vs. Whitney

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017


A trademark is a symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product. Trademarks are closely tied with a company’s identity, the same way a someone’s handwriting and signature seen as their identity. Often times, someone can recognize another person’s handwriting because it’s so distinct and different from others. The identifiable feature in someone’s handwriting/signature could be compared to Gill Sans with its double storey g. Society uses signatures for entertainment and recreational purposes, while also using it for more serious and legal entities. A signature show authenticity and is evidence of said person’s presence, whether that’s a celebrity autograph or signing a legal document. Someone’s handwriting and signature can say a lot about a person. Certain characteristics in hand writing/signatures imply a certain quality a person has. Graphologist are people who study of handwriting, especially when regarded as an expression of the writer’s character, personality, abilities, etc. Handwritings and signatures are seen as two identities in Graphology. Often times they are compared side by side, but can also be analyzed separate. Since the concept of signatures hold a strong sense of identification within a person, the following pages will be analyzing different subject’s signatures. There are standard elemtns that researchers look for in all signatures.




Student, Chemical Engineering at City College of NY

SLANTS TO THE RIGHT: Open to new experience and enjoy meeting new people

ROUND LOWERCASE CURSIVE “S”: People pleaser and tend to avoid confrontation.

CONNECTED LETTERS: Logical, systematic and make decisions carefully

ROUNDED LETTERS: Creative and artistic

SMALL SIZE: Shy or withdrawn,studious, concentrated and meticulous NARROW SPACING: Can’t be alone. Tend to crowd people and be intrusive HEAVY PRESSURE: Good with commitment and taking things serious LEGIBLE: Confident and comfortable in their own skin



Student, Computer Arts at SVA

POINTED LETTERS: More aggressive, intense, very intelligent & curious

NARROW “L” LOOPS: May be restricting themselves, which lead to feelings of tension

CONNECTED LETTERS: Logical, systematic and make decisions carefully SLANTS TO THE RIGHT: Open to new experience & enjoy meeting new people

SMALL SIZE: Shy or withdrawn,studious, concentrated and meticulous NARROW SPACING: Can’t be alone. Tend to crowd people and be intrusive LIGHT PRESSURE: Sensitive and shows empathy to people, but also have lack of vitality NOT LEGIBLE: Very private, hard to read or understand 29


Typesthesia/ Winter 2017



Student, Communication Design at Parsons

SLASHING THEIR I’S: Overly self-critical, don’t have a lot of patience for inadequacy or people that don’t learn from their mistakes

SLANTS TO THE RIGHT: Open to new experience & enjoy meeting new people

WIDE SPACING: Enjoys their freedom and don’t like to be overwhelmed or crowded

CONNECTED LETTERS: Logical, systematic an make decisions carefully

AVERAGE SIZE: Well-adjusted and adaptable HEAVY PRESSURE: Good with commitment and taking things serious NOT LEGIBLE: Very private, hard to read or understand



NARROW “E” LOOPS: Tend to be skeptical of others; tend not to be swayed by the emotions of others

Student, Biology at College of Staten Island

POINTED LETTERS: More aggressive, intense, very intelligent and curious CONNECTED LETTERS: Logical, systematic and make decisions carefully

POINTY LOWERCASE CURSIVE “S”: Enjoy learning new things. Inquisitive and ambitious.

AVERAGE SIZE: Well-adjusted and adaptable NARROW SPACING: Can’t be alone. Tend to crowd people and be intrusive SLANTS TO THE RIGHT: Open to new experience & enjoy meeting new people LIGHT PRESSURE: Sensitive and show empathy to people, but also have lack of vitality NOT LEGIBLE: Very private, hard to read or understand 30



Student, Communication Design at Parsons

ROUNDED LETTERS: Creative and artistic

CONNECTED LETTERS: Logical, systematic and make decisions carefully

SLANTS TO THE RIGHT: Open to new experience and enjoy meeting new people

LARGE SIZE: Outgoing, people-oriented, outspoken & love attention. can put up a front and pretend to have a lot of confidence NARROW SPACING: Can’t be alone. Tend to crowd people and be intrusive HEAVY PRESSURE: Good with commitment & taking things serious LEGIBLE: Confident and comfortable in their own skins



Student, Undecided at Hunter College

HIGH OVER THE “I”: Great imagination

ROUNDED LETTERS: Creative and Artistic

CONNECTED LETTERS: Logical, systematic and make decisions carefully

AVERAGE SIZE: Well-adjusted and adaptable NARROW SPACING: Can’t be alone. Tend to crowd people and be intrusive NO SLANT: Don’t let their emotions get the best of them. tend to be logical and practical HEAVY PRESSURE: Good with commitment and taking things serious NOT LEGIBLE: Very private, hard to read or understand 31


Typesthesia/ Winter 2017



Student, Communication Design at Parsons

RIGHT OVER THE “I”: Detailed oriented, organized and empathic in what they say or do.

RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE: Confident and feel comfortable in own skin

NARROW “L” LOOPS: May be restricting themselves, which lead to feelings of tension POINTED LETTERS: More aggressive, intense, very intelligent and curious

AVERAGE SIZE: Well-adjusted and adaptable NARROW SPACING: Can’t be alone. Tend to crowd people and be intrusive NO SLANT: Don’t let their emotions get the best of them. tend to be logical and practical CONNECTED LETTERS: Logical, systematic & make decisions carefully LIGHT PRESSURE: Sensitive and show empathy to people, but also have lack of vitality LEGIBLE: Confident and comfortable in their own skin

What is Your Trademark? Graphologist have essential categories that apply to all signatures and handwritings. Use the following categories on the next page to help analyze your own signature or another’s. To learn more go to pg 38 for more resources on this subject.


size SMALL shy or withdrawn,studious, concentrated and meticulous


AVERAGE well-adjusted and adaptable

outgoing, people-oriented, outspoken and love attention

space between words WIDE


enjoy their freedom and don’t like to be overwhelmed or crowded

can’t stand to be alone and tend to crowd people and be intrusive.

slanting LEFT


tends to keep to themselves and general like to work behind the scenes

don’t let their emotions get the best of them. tend to be logical and practical

RIGHT open to new experience and enjoys meeting new people

shapes of letters POINTED


more aggressive, intense, very intelligent and curious

logical, systematic and make decisions carefully

ROUNDED creative & artistic

pressure HEAVY


good with commitment and taking things seriously

sensitive and show an empathy to people but also have lack of vitality

legibility LEGIBLE


confident and comfortable in their own skin, dont need to pretend to be something else

very private, hard to read or understand


Anaylze Your Signature

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

Esstentials for any Typesthesian: Terms A—Z

Apex: The point at the top of a letterform where two strokes meet

Bowl: The closed, round or oval curve of a letter.

Crotch: The inside angle where two strokes meet.

Descender line: The invisible line marking the lowest part of the descenders

Normal Bold Italic Bold Italic Experimental Typography:Â Artistic and offbeat approach to designing and setting type, associated with Dada art and American graphic designer David Carson.

Font: One style, weight and width of a typeface. the term font and typeface tend to be used interchangeably. 34

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Eros Magazine and Fact Magazine  ubalin’s private studio gave him the L freedom to take on any number of wide-ranging projects, from poster and magazine design to packaging and identity solutions.

Headline: The short lines of emphasized text that introduce detail information in the body text that follows.

Glyph: A single character (number, letter, mark or symbol) is represented by a glyph OR a non-standard (sometimes decorative) variation of a character that comes as an extra option with a font tile


Joint: The point where a stroke connects to a stem

Ink trap: The areas of the counter are opened to allow for ink to spread avoiding dark spots


50pt vs -50pt Kerning: The adjustments to the space between pairs of letters, it is used to correct spacing problems in combinations


Midline: The invisible line resting on the body of the lowercase letter

Ligature: Two or more letters that are connected to form one character; primarily decorative


Terms A–Z Glossary


Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

Overshoot: A round or pointed letter extends higher or lower than a flat letter to make it optically appear the same size

Negative Space: The empty or blank space that surrounds an object, character, word, or phrase. 10pt

18pt Point size: The size of the body of each character in a font




Quad: A typesetting term for a specified space size. For example, an em quad is the width of the point size, and an en quad is half that width


48pt T

ypesthesia’s mission is to explore the ideology of typography giving identity to animate and inanimate objects. Raised cap: A design style, where first capital letter of a paragraph is set in a large point size and aligned with the baseline of the first line of text.

Serifs: A short line or stroke attached to or extending from the open ends of a letterform; also refers to the general category of typefaces that have been designed with this feature. 36


Taper: The thinner and refined end of a stroke

Unjustified: Depending on alignment, this term refers to text which is set flush left, flush right, or centered.

Typesthesia: A condition where identity is given to an animate or inanimate object through typography

Typesthesia: A condition where identity is given to an animate or inanimate object through typography

Typesthesia: A condition where identity is given to an animate or inanimate object through typography

tttt Weight: The heaviness of a typeface, independent of its size, can refer to a style within a font family

Vertex: The point at the bottom of a character where two strokes meet


X-height: The height of the lowercase ‘x’ which is used as a guideline for the height of unextended lowercase letters

Yellowtail: An old school flavored flat brush script typeface of medium weight. It’s mix of connecting and non-connecting letterforms lend to its unique look and legibility. Zapf: Hermann Zapf is an outstanding modern font designer.


Terms A–Z

Typesthesia/ Winter 2017

Further Research TYPOGRAPHY


https://www.gcflearnfree. org/beginning-graphicdesign/typography/1/ beginning-graphic-design/ typography/1/ guidelines/style/typography. html#typography-styles https://medium. typography-can-makeyour-design-or-break-it7be710aadcfe

https://www.metmuseum. org/ https://www.cooperhewitt. signature-analysis/ handwriting-analysissignature/ http://www.actforlibraries. org/signature-analysiswhat-does-your-signaturesay-about-you-graphologyhandwriting-analysis-sign/ http://psychologia. co/handwriting-andpersonality/

http://www.designishistory. com/design/typography/

https://www.fastcodesign. com/1673219/infographicwhat-does-yourhandwriting-say-about-you

http://www.designhistory. org/index.html


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Identification Through Typography

Daily Feature: Art Museums New York City is home to multiple art museums and institutions, ranging from the contemporary

Typesthesia’s Mission is to explore the ideology of typography giving identity to animate and inanimate objects


Identity through Type: Art Museums in NYC

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IDENTIFICATION OF ART MUSEUMS IN NYC Learn more on page 18 Metropolian Museum of Art New Museum Frick Collection Cooper Hewitt Clositers Museum of Modern Art Amercan Folk Museum Whitney Museum