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‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻷﰊ ﺇﻳﺎﺱ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻄﻴﻒ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ) ﻋﻮﻳﻀﺔ (‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ 2002‬ﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ 2005‬ﻡ‬


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‫ﺑﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺍﳌﺒﻌﻮﺙ ﺭﲪ ﹰﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ ﻭﺳﻠﱠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﲰﻴﺘﻪ ] ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻـﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺘﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻧﻔﺴَﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺐ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ] ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ [ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻬﻧﺠﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎ َ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﻷﺻـﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ] ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ [ ﻗﺎﺻﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺃﹸﻗﺪﱢﻡ ﻣﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺁﺧﺮ ﳌﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫ َ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺎﻥ ﳝـﺜﱢﻼﻥ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﲔ ﻭﺇﱐ ﻷﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺇِﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﲔ ﻛﺒﲑﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺩﻋﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﻦ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺧﺬﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﱂ ﳜﻄﺮ ﺑﺒﺎﱄ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺿﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ﺳﻠﺴﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳـﻼﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﺻﺢ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻥ ﻛﺘـﺎﺑﲔ ﻛـﺒﲑﻳﻦ ﻳﻜﻔﻴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﺮﺟ ﱢﻮ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺄﹸﺿﻴﻒ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗ ِﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪ ُﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺗُﺒﺤ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺍﻋﻤﹰﺎ ﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫‪5‬‬


‫ﺚ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻ ﹸﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳـ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔ ٍﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺍﶈﺪﱢﺛﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻌﻔﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻻ ﳛﻞﱡ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻬﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺣﱴ ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﶈﺪﱢﺛﻮﻥ ﺑﺸﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈِﻬﻧﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺕ ﰲ ﺑﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻗﹸﺒﻠﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻓِﻘ ﹰﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺮ َﺩ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﱂ ﺗﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺑﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻓﺈِﻬﻧﺎ ﺗُﺮ ﱡﺩ ﻭﺗُﺘﺮﻙ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﺎﻉ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ُﻳﺜﹾﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭَﻳ َﻬﺒُﻪ ﻗﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻨﺒﻄﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻟﺆﻟ ٍﺆ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺗُﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺣﺒﱠﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﳍﺎ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﺣﺒﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺟﻮﺩﻬﺗﺎ ﻭﲨﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﻮﱡﻗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺇِﻋﻤﺎ ﹸﻝ ﲨﻴ ِﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﳘﺎﻝ ﺃ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧُﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﺑﻌﺎ ُﺩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻫﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺃﺻﻞ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺷﺎﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺼﻠﹸﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ ‪ :‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﲟﻘﺎﺑﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺛﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎ ِﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻄﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮ ِ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻄﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺛﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﻔﺴﲑ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﻨ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻧ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﻨ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻧ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺺ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﻄﺎﻗﻪ ﲟﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻨ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺺ ُﻳﺆْﺧﺬ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﲟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻧ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺈﺧﻀﺎﻋﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﹶﻟﻴﱡﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺴﱢﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺧﻀﺎ ُ‬ ‫‪6‬‬


‫ﺗﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺴﺘﺒﻌَﺪ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﺇﻛﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﻟﻠﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﳍﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﻜﺜﺮ ٍﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ !‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺿﻰ ﻭﺍﻃﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻩ ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺎﻙﱞ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﱴ ُﻧﻌِﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﱡﺪ ﻭﺍﻻﻟﺘـﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺑﺮﺿﻰ ﻭﺍﻃﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﺃﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﱠﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻫﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﻫﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﱠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﻜـﺮ ِﱘ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳ ِﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﱢﻴﹰﺎ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﳓﻦ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻛﻼ َﻡ ﺑﻌﻀِﻨﺎ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﺁﻳ ﹰﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﺍﻫﺔ ﻓﻄﻨﺘﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﹶﻗﻠﱠﻤﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗﻠﱠﻤﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﱠﰒ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣـﻦ ﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺑـﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﲢـ ﱡﺰ ٍ‬ ‫ﺼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭُﺟﺪﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻫ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻨﺤ ًﻰ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﱢﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﻳﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﱢﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻗﺪ ﻏﻠﺒﺖ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﻬِﺪ ﻋﻘﹶﻠﻪ ﻭﺫِﻫﻨَﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻘﻴ ٍﻪ ﺗﺎﺑ ٍﻊ ﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻣﺎﻡ ُﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﳌﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﻭﺇِﻣﺎﻣِﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻗﺴ ٌﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺼﻨﻮﻑ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﹸﻗ ﹾﻞ ﺇﻬﻧﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﺑﺄﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﳉﺪﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻮﻩ ﻣـﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋـ َﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﺮﻭﺍ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻮﻟﻴ ٍﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔ ٍﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﺮﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻗﺎﺋﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺑُﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﱢﺼﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﱠﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﲤﺎﻣـﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼـﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﱠﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗ ﱠﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﱡﻨﺎﻉ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﹸﻏﻠﻖ ﺑـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﰲ ﻏﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺻﻨﺎﻋ ﹰﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻗﻮﺍﻋ ُﺪ ﻭﺃﺻﻮ ﹲﻝ ﻗﻠًّﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻮﻋﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﻫﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍﻬﺗﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﺮﻳﻌﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﻭﺗﺸﻌﱡﺒﺎﻬﺗﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺭﺍﺡ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻛـ ِﻞ ﻣـﺬﻫ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲟﺬﻫﺒﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻔﻨﻨﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﱡﺒﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻏﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋ ُﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴ ﹸﺔ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎ ٍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﺋﺮ ِﺓ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﱴ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻨﺄﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﱠﺸﻌﱡﺒﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺼﱡﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻳﻮﺟَﺪ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻜﺜﹾﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻧﲏ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻷﺻ ﱠﺢ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻠﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﱢﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺒﺘﻌﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﱠﺸﻌﱡﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺳﻴﺠﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﲣﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﱡﺐ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺫﻫﺎﻬﻧﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﺧﱪﻬﺗﻢ ﲟﺮﺍﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺍ ﺃﺟﻮﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﻭﺩﻻﻻﻬﺗﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻧـﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺼﻨﱡﻊ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋـﺪ ﺍﻷﺻـﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻣﻊ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻌﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﺍﻬﺗﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﺼﻴﻼﻬﺗﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳُﺨﻀﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﺘﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸ ﱡﻌﺒﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛ ﱞﻞ ﻳﺘﻤﺴﱠﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﻄﻪ ﲝﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺠﻬِﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻓﺤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﺃﻣﺎﻣَﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻ ٍﺔ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭُﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺇِﻣﺎﻣِﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻏﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻌﺮﺿﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺳـﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋـﹰﺎ ﻟﻸﺣﻜـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﱠﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺣﱴ ﻳُﺼﺪَﻉ ﺭﺃﺳُﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺜﻠـ ٍﺔ ﳑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻓﻘﻬﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺣ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﱴ ﻫـﻲ ؟‬ ‫‪8‬‬


‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﻗﺾ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻮﺀ ؟ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ؟ ﻭﲡﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳍﺎﺋﻠ ﹶﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﰲ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘـﻬﺎﺩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻌﻮﺩ ﺇِﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﺎﺑﻌﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺇِﻻ ﺍﻻﻧﻜﺒﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ‪ :‬ﻗﺮﺍﺀ ﹰﺓ ﻭﺣﻔﻈﹰﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﺴﲑﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻜﺒﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻳﺼـ ﱡﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻔﹸﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺸ ﹲﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤ ﹲﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺻﺤﺎﺑ ﹸﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻃﹰﺎ ﻭﺩﻻﻻﺕ ‪ ،‬ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘـﺪﺭ ِﺓ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻔﻬﻢ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻛـﻼ َﻡ‬ ‫ﳕﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﳓﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻼ ِﻡ ﺑﻌﻀﻨﺎ ﻟﺒﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻥ ﻓﹸﺘﺢ ﻓﻠـﻦ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﻠﻦ ﻳُﻔﺘ ُﺢ ﺑﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻨﺎ ﻟﺒﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﱄ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﻗﻔ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻬﻤ ﹲﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪ ﺇِﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳎﺘﻬِﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻄﻠﻘـﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻠـﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹶﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺇِﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳎﺘﻬ َﺪ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳎﺘﻬﺪ ﻣﺬﻫ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﳋﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﳎﺘﻬﺪ ﺍﳌـﺬﻫﺐ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷُﺻﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺇِﻣﺎﻣُﻪ ﻓﻴﻨﻈﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬ ُﺪ ﻳُﻄﻠِﻖ ﻟﻌﻘﻠِﻪ ﻭﻟﻔﻬﻤِﻪ ﺍﻟﻌِﻨﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎ ِﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺇِﻣﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﻭﳎﺘﻬﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟ ِﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬ ُﺪ ﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﰲ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺟﺘـﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺇِﻣﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻫ ﱟﻢ ﻭﻗﺼ ٍﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺼﺮﺓ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﻭﺇِﻣﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪ ﻻ ﺑ ﱠﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺘﻬ ُﻢ ﲟﺠﺎﻧﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﻫ ِﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴ ِﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﺤﺠَﺐ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬


‫ﻭﱄ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﻗﻔ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟ ٍﺔ ﻟﺜﻮﺭ ٍﺓ ﻓﻜﺮﻳ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻹِﻬﻧﺎﺿﻬﻢ ﻭﲣﻠﻴﺼﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣ َﻲ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟ ٍﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻏﲑ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﱠﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻴﺎ ِﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭ ﹸﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮﺳﱡـﻊ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﺜﻮﺭ ٍﺓ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻟﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﺫ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺙ ﺛﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﲨﺪﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻳُﺮﺟﻰ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻻ ﳒﺪ ﺟﺎﻣﻌ ﹰﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﱠﺟﺖ ﳎﺘﻬﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺣﱴ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕـﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑﺘﺨﺮﻳﺞ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﻣﺘﻔﻘﻬﲔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺭﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻘﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣـﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﳝﻠﻚ ﺭﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺁﺭﺍ َﺀ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺠﺪﻩ ﺇﻥ ﺳُﺌﻞ ﻋـﻦ ﻣﺴـﺄﻟ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻬﻴﺔ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﱐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﱐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﻠﻤﺎ ﲡﺪﻩ ﻳُﺮﺟﱢﺢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻳﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺟﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺟﱢﺤﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩ ﹸﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﱐ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳊﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺣﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺑﺈِﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ‪،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺳﻴﻈ ﱠﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﲨـﻮ ٍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻛﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻳﻬﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺒﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﱐ ﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻲ ﺃﻣ ﹲﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺮﺝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺭﺟﺎ ﹲﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻬﺠﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﻌﻴﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺃﹶﺻﺎﹶﻟﺘَﻪ ﻭﲨﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻋﻈﻤﺘﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﱡﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺎﺋ َﻊ ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎ ٍﻝ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻛ ﹶﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻨﺒﻄﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺧﺬﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻩ ﻛﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻣ ُ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﺻﻮﺍﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪10‬‬


‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇِﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﻥ ُﻭ ِﺟﺪَﺕ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺭﻏﺒ ﹲﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺎﺟ ﹲﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻣﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﱡﺩ ﺭﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﱠﻫﺖ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﹾﺜﺒَﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫] ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ [ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺛﺎ ٍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺿﻌﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺭﻗﻤﹰﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺩﻋﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﲡﺪﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺛﹶﺒﺘﹰﺎ ﲟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﺼَﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌ ﹸﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﻳﺘﺴﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﱡﺒ ُ‬ ‫ﺫِﻛﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ُﺗ ْ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﱠﰎ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟـﺮﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗُﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﱠﰎ ﺗﺮﺗﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﻠﺴـﻞ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ ﺃﺭﻗﺎ ٌﻡ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﹶﺛﺒ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﻗـﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﹶﺛﺒ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻗﻢ ‪ 4‬ﻫﻮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﱢﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ) ‪ ( 250/4‬ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫‪ 250‬ﻫﻮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻟﻠﻄﱪﺍﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻠﻲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻫﻮ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﺪﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﻳ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﱐ ﻷﺩﻋﻮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻘﺒ‪‬ﻞ ﻣﲏ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺬﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻘﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ 28 :‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﲨﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1423‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪ 8‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺏ ) ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ ( ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2002‬ﻡ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡٌ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻣﺴﺎﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻤﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻛﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻓﻜﹸﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﰊ ﻭﹶﻗﺮﱢﻱ ﻋﻴْﻨﹰﺎ ﻓﺈِﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﱠﻴﹰﺎ { ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪26‬‬ ‫ﺻﻮْﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻦ ﺃﹸﻛﱢﻠ َﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮ َﻡ ِﺇْﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻟﻠﺮﲪ ِﻦ َ‬ ‫ﺸ ِﺮ ﹶﺃﺣَﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻘﻮﱄ ﺇِﱐ َﻧ ﹶﺬﺭ ُ‬ ‫َﺗ َﺮِﻳ ﱠﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟَﺒ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺮﱘ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇِﻣﺴﺎ ٌﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌ ﹶﻔﻄﱢﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻐﺮﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﱠﻴ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘ ﱡﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺸﻬﺮﻬﺗﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻛﺜ ٌﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻞﱡ ﻋﻤ ِﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱄ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﹶﺟﺰﻱ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ُﺟﻨﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳـﻮ ُﻡ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺳﺎﺑﱠﻪ ﺃﺣ ٌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺗﻠﻪ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﻘ ﹾﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺍﻣﺮ ٌﺅ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺨ ْ‬ ‫ﺼَ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻭﻻ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺻﻮ ِﻡ ﺃﺣﺪِﻛﻢ ﻓﻼ َﻳ ْﺮﹸﻓ ﹾ‬ ‫‪13‬‬


‫ﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻳﺢ ﺍﳌﺴﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﺮﺣﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻓ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻃﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﹸﻮ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﹶﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺮﺣﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻓﺮﺡ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻘﻲ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺡ ﺑﺼـﻮﻣﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 1904‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺑﻜﻢ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ :‬ﻛﻞﱡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻔﺎﺭ ﹲﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﹶﺃﺟْﺰﻱ ﺑﻪ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ) ‪ ( 2485‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻞﱡ ﻋﻤ ِﻞ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﺩﻡ ﻳﻀﺎﻋَﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺴﻨ ﹸﺔ ﻋﺸ ُﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺒﻌِﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺿﻌﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﹶﺟﺰﻱ ﺑﻪ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2707‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 9712‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻳُﻀﺎﻋَﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺴﻨ ﹸﺔ ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺒﻌِﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺿﻌﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱄ ﻭﺃﹶﻧﺎ ﺃﹶﺟﺰﻱ ﺑﻪ ‪ { ...‬ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ) ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ (‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪ – 2‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻞ – ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇِﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺮﻳﱠﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﺣ ٌﺪ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ ؟ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﺣ ٌﺪ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﹸﻏﻠﻖ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1896‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪1640‬‬ ‫( ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﺩﺧﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻠﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻈﻤﺄ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ – 3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ – ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻟﻠﺒﺼﺮ ﻭﺃﺣﺼ ُﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻓﺈِﻧﻪ ﺃﻏ ﱡ‬ ‫} ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺀ ﹶﺓ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺘﺰﻭ ْ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈِﻧﻪ ﻟﻪ ﻭِﺟﺎ ٌﺀ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1905‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺽ ﻋﺮﻭﻗﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﳋِﺼﻴﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺭ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮِﺟﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﺭ ﱡ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ – ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﻓﺘﻨ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﺎﺭِﻩ ﺗُﻜﻔﱢﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗ ﹸﺔ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫‪14‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1895‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 595/8‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻓﺘﻨ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣـ ُﺮ ﺑـﺎﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬ ُﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮ { ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗـﺎﻝ }‬ ‫ﻣَﻦ ﺧُﺘﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ . ( 1038‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻄ ﱠﻮ ﹰﻻ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﺛﱠﻘﻮﻥ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣﻨﻌﺘُﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ َﻡ‬ ‫ﻱﺭ ﱢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻳﺸﻔﻌﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ْ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﺸﻔﱢﻌﲏ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻌﺘُﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸـﻔﱢﻌﲏ ﻓﻴـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﻴُﺸﻔﱠﻌﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 6626‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﺗﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻣُﺮﱐ ﺑﻌﻤ ٍﻞ ﻳُﺪﺧﻠﲏ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ِﻋﺪْﻝ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺗﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﱄ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 22501‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺛﺎ ٍﻥ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺍﺑـﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ ) ‪( 3425‬‬ ‫ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ } ‪ ...‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻣِﺜ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻪ ‪. { ...‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺛﻼﺛ ﹲﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗُﺮ ﱡﺩ ﺩﻋﻮﺗُﻬﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻮ ﹸﺓ ﺍﳌﻈﻠﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻬـﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﲔ {‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺰﱠﰐ ﻷﻧﺼﺮﱠﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐَﻤﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺗُﻔﺘﺢ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ . ( 1752‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻤﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ } ﻳـﻮ َﻡ‬ ‫ﷲ ﰲ ﹸﻇﻠﹶـ ٍﻞ‬ ‫ﺸﻘﱠﻖُ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎ ُﺀ ﺑﺎﻟ َﻐﻤَﺎ ِﻡ { ﻭﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ } ﻫﻞ َﻳْﻨﻈﹸﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺃﹶﻥ ﻳﺄﺗَﻴﻬُﻢ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫َﺗ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ َﻐﻤَﺎ ِﻡ { ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ُﺟﱠﻨ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻛﺠُﱠﻨ ِﺔ ﺃﺣﺪِﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2231‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ َﺷْﻴﺒَﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺠ ﱡﻦ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒ ُﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﱄ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﹶﺟﺰﻱ ﺑﻪ {‬ ‫} ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺑﱡﻨﺎ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ُﺟﱠﻨ ﹲﺔ ﻳَﺴﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 14724‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫‪ - 10‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺮﻗﹾﻬـﺎ ‪ {...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪـﺪ ) ‪ . ( 1700/1690‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫} ‪ ...‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ُﺟﻨﱠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ) ‪ ( 1733‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﺟُﻨﺔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳜﺮﻗﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ {‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪ ( 4533‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻆ ﻭﻋﺼـﻤﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻛﺮ ْﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎ ِﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ٍﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻠﹸﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ُﺟﻨﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺣﻔ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﻣ ٌﻊ ﻟﻠﺸﻬﻮﺓ ﳌﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻜ ﱢﻔ ٌﺮ ﻟﻠﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﱳ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺎﻓ ٌﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻔﱠﻊ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺮﻳﱠﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺩﺧﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻈﻤﺄ ﺃﺑـﺪﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ) ﺍﳊﺴﻨ ﹸﺔ ﻋﺸ ُﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺳـﺒﻌِﻤﺎﺋ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﺿِﻌﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱄ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﹶﺟﺰﻱ ﺑﻪ ( ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻜﻔﻰ ‪ .‬ﻓﺤﻘﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻣﺜ ﹶﻞ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻋِﺪ ﹶﻝ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳ ٍ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺮﻣﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺩﻋﺎﺋِﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻀ ﹸﻞ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﻓﻀ ِﻞ ﺷﻬ ِﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹸ‬

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‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬ ﱠﻦ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌ ﹸﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻤﻌ ِﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﻔﱢﺮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﳋﻤ ُ‬ ‫} ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺋﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 552‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺟَﺘَﻨ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﺭﺟ ٍﻞ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } َﺭﻏِﻢ ﺃﻧ ُ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻧﺴﻠﺦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻐﻔﹶﺮ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼ ﱢﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭَﺭﻏِﻢ ﺃﻧ ُ‬ ‫ﺫﹸﻛﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ َﺭﻏِﻢ ﺃﻧ ُ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻜ َﱪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳُﺪﺧﻼﻩ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ – ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺑﻌﻲ – ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪُﳘﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 7444‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳُﻠﺴﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺎﻃ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻏﻠﱢﻘ ْ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﹸﺘﺤﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻑﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1899‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑـﺎﺧﺘﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣﻦ ﺻـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﹸﻏﻔِﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 38‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻷﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 8989‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ‬ ‫} ‪ ...‬ﹸﻏﻔِﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ { ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ) ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ( ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭﻱ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎ ٍﺩ‬ ‫ﻚ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﲪﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺷ ﱠ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹰﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 2994‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫} ﻋُﻤﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻝ َﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 2991‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻠﻔﻈﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻫﺐ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫َﺧْﻨﺒَﺶ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 14855‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨـﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1863‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻋُﻤﺮ ﹰﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫‪17‬‬


‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻣﻌﻲ { ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ) ‪( 364/25‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻌﻘﻞ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ ﺍﻣـﺮﺃﺓ ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻋﻤ ﹲﻞ ﻳَﺠﺰﻱ ﻋﲏ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﱵ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻋﻤـﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻘﻤ ُ‬ ‫ﻛﱪ ُ‬ ‫ُﺗﺠْﺰﻱ ُﺀ ﻋﻨﻚ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗـﺎﻝ } ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﱢﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺎﻃﲔ ﻭ َﻣﺮَﺩ ﹸﺓ ﺍﳉﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﹸﻏﻠﱢﻘﺖ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ُ ،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳُﻐﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺎﺩﻯ ﻣﻨﺎ ٍﺩ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻏ َﻲ‬ ‫ﻳُﻔﺘﺢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﹸﺘﺤﺖ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺸ ﱢﺮ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻗﺼِﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﷲ ﻋُﺘَﻘﺎﺀُ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﲑ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻗﺒِﻞ ﻭﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻏﻲ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1642‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟـﺬﻫﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ َﻣﺮَﺩ ﹸﺓ ﺍﳉﻦ { ﻭﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﱢﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺎﻃ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪ ( 1883‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪ ( 1586‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋُﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻗﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻻﻻﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻻ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﻴﻔﺖ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻇﻬﺮ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻀ ﹸﻞ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﺟﻮ َﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺟﻮ َﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺣﲔ ﻳﻠﻘﺎﻩ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﻘﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺪﺍﺭﺳُﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻓﻠﹶﺮﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺟﻮ ُﺩ ﺑﺎﳋﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﳌﺮ َﺳﻠﹶﺔ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 6‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﱴ ﺷُﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ؟‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺬﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻓﹸﺮﺽ ﻫﻮ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷـﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ‬

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‫ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ‪ :‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻧُﺴﺦ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﳝﺴﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧُﺴﺦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﺃﹸ ِﺣﻞﱠ‬ ‫ﺱ ﳍ ﱠﻦ َﻋِﻠ َﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺃﹶﻧﻜﻢ ﻛﹸﻨﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﹶﻧﺘﻢ ﻟِﺒﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺇِﱃ ﻧﺴﺎﺋِﻜﻢ ُﻫﻦﱠ ﻟِﺒﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻢ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﹶﻓ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﻋﻔﺎ ﻋﻨﻜﻢ ﻓﺎﻵﻥ ﺑﺎ ِﺷﺮُﻭ ُﻫﻦﱠ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻐﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻜـﻢ‬ ‫ﲣﹾﺘﺎﻧُﻮﻥ ﹶﺃْﻧ ﹸﻔﺴَﻜﻢ ﻓﺘﺎ َ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺳْﻮ ِﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻔﺠْـ ِﺮ ﰒ ﹶﺃِﺗﻤﱡـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷْﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ َﻡ ﺇِﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 187‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﹸﺣﻴﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸﺣﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ – ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ – ﻭﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪِﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻌﻞ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ – ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ – ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﺻﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠِﻜﻢ ‪( ...‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﹸﺘ َ‬ ‫ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ) ﻳﺎ ﹶﺃﻳﱡﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻛﹸِﺘ َ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ) ‪ ...‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳُﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧُﻪ ِﻓﺪْﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ‪ ( ...‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣَﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺀ ﺻﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺃﻃﻌﻢ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺰﺃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ) ﺷﻬ ُﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﹸﻧﺰ ﹶﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁ ﹸﻥ ‪ ( ...‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ‪ ...‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﻬ َﺪ‬ ‫ﺼﻤْﻪ ‪ ( ...‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﱠﻬ َﺮ ﹶﻓﻠﹾﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺒﱠﺖ ﺍﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍﻥ ﺣَـﻮْﻻﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺄﻛﻠﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﺸﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻧﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻌﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻﺮْﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻇﻞ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺃﻣﺴﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ِ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻠﱠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﰒ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓـﺮﺁﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ َﺟﻬَﺪ َﺟﻬْﺪﹰﺍ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣـﺎﱄ ﺃﺭﺍﻙ ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺌﺖ ﺣﲔ ﺟﺌﺖ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻣ ِ‬ ‫َﺟ َﻬﺪْﺕ َﺟﻬْﺪﹰﺍ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﻋﻤﻠ ُ‬ ‫‪19‬‬


‫ﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺣﲔ ﺃﺻﺒﺤ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻓﻨﻤﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻟﻘﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﱠﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ) ﺃﹸﺣ ﱠﻞ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﹶﻓ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺇِﱃ ﻧﺴﺎﺋِﻜﻢ … ( ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ‪ ...‬ﰒ ﺃِﺗﻤﱡﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ َﻡ ﺇِﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴ ِﻞ ‪ – ( ...‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ – ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﺗﺴﻌ ﹶﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 22475‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﹸﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ُﺗﺮِﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺒـﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﺼـﻮﻣﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1892‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 4501‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺻﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺸﺄ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻤﻪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﺸﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴـﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻓﹸﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺼ ْﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺃﻓﻄـﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 1893‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﹾﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 4504‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨـﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻪ ﻗﺮﻳﺶ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺻﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗُﺮﻙ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺻﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻤﻪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ‪ -‬ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺚ ﻭﻫﻮ َﻳ ﹾﻄﻌَﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺗُﺮﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎ ْﺩ ﹸﻥ ﻓﻜﹸﻞ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 4503‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬


‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱡﺮَﺑﻴﱢﻊ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻣُﻌﻮﱢﺫ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻏﺪﺍ ﹶﺓ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺮﻯ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻔﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻓ ﹾﻠﻴُﺘ ﱠﻢ ﺑﻘﻴ ﹶﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺼ ْﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻨﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﻣﻪ ﺑﻌ ُﺪ ﻭﻧُﺼﻮﱢﻡ ﺻﺒﻴﺎﻧَﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳒﻌﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺒ ﹶﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﻬْﻦ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺑﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪُﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﻨﺎﻩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪1960‬‬ ‫( ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ َﺳﹶﻠﻤَﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻮﻉ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺚ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺼ ْﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ {‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ِ :‬ﺇﻥﱠ ﻣَﻦ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻓﻠُﻴِﺘﻢﱠ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻠﹾﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1924‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳُﻔﺮﺽ ﻗﻂﱡ ﺻﻮ ٌﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﲟﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ُﺣﻤَﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲰﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺣ ﱟﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﱪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﻳﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺅُﻛﻢ ؟ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷـﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ َﻳ ﹾﻜﺘُﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺻﻴﺎﻣَﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻴﺼﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻴﻔﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 2003‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﱠﺒﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ) ‪16992‬‬ ‫( ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳُﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻣُﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺼﻢ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ { ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 1‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﻣﻌﺎﺫﹰﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﶈﺪﱢﺛﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻘﻄ ٌﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﺮ ﱡﺩ ﺳﻨﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮﺩﱢﻩ ُﻳ َﺮﺩﱡ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﻨـﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺮﺽ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﺄﰐ ﺍﻵﻥ ﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﻛ ٌﺮ ﻷﻱ ﺻﻮ ٍﻡ ﻓﹸﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﻬﺎ ﳍﺎ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫‪21‬‬


‫ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻓﹸﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻓﹸﺮﺽ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻮﻣُﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﺸﻜﱢﻞ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻨﱠﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻻ ُﻧ ِﻘﺮﱡﻛﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﱢﺩ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺑﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﹰﺎ ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻀـﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻳﻔﻴـﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻼ ﲝﺜﺘﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﻥ ُﻭﺟِﺪﺕ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻻ ﳜﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ؟!‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻗﺮﻳﻨ ﹰﺔ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﹰﺓ ﺗﺼـﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻣـﺮ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ) :‬ﱂ َﻳ ﹾﻜﺘُﺐ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ( ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻭﱂ ﻳُﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻣُﻪ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻠﻴﺼﻢ ( ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻓﻮﺍﺿ ٌﺢ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻄﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻣ ٌﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ) ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ( ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳍﻢ ) ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻠﻴﺼﻢ ( ﻓﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻳﻌﻠﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻳُﺘﻘﺮﺏ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﳍﻢ ﲝﺪﻳﺜﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﱡﺑﻴﱢﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ َﺳﻠﹶﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻮﻉ ﻋﻨـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻔﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻓ ﹾﻠﻴُﺘ ﱠﻢ ﺑﻘﻴ ﹶﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﺼﻢ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺇ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫ﻣَﻦ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻓﻠﻴُﺘ ﱠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺼ ْﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺑـﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪22‬‬


‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻻ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻄﻮﻕ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻮﻕ ﻓﻮﺍﺿﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻳُﺮﺷﺪﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺘﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺣﲔ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺄﻣ ٍﺮ ﻭﺍﺟ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻳﺮﺷﺪﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺘﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺬِﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﻻﻟ ﹲﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺃﹸﳊﻘﺖ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻠﻨﺪﺏ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﻨﺎ ﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﺓ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﲣﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱂ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﻭﻗ ٍ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻧﺎﺻـﻌﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﲟﻨﻄﻮﻗﻪ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻣﺎﻟﻨﺎ ﻧﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 183‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ } ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒِﻠﻜﹸﻢ ﻟﻌﻠﱠﻜﻢ ﺗﺘﱠﻘﻮﻥ { ﺍﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﹸِﺘ َ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻛﹸﺘ َ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ } ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ { ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠـﻴﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻗـﺪ ﻛﺘـﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﳌﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺽ ﻗﺒـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻦ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺻﻴﺎ ٌﻡ ﻣﻔـﺮﻭ ٌ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻧﺎﺻﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻔﺮ‬ ‫‪23‬‬


‫ﺍﷲ ﳌﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺇِﳕﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻀﻌﺔ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﻟ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎ ٍﺀ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﺧﺬﹰﺍ ﻬﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﻴﻄﺮﺡ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺇِﻋﻤﺎ ﹰﻻ ﳍﺎ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﳐﺎﻟ ٌ‬ ‫ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻄﻘﺖ ﻋﺪ ﹸﺓ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺑﻔﺮﺽ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﳒﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻄﻖ ﺑﻔﺮﺽ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﹰﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺛﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ...‬ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﲟﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠـ ﱠﻲ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗَﻄﻮﱠﻉ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 1891‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺑُـﲏ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪ :‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩ ِﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻗﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲬ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻳﺘﺎ ِﺀ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊ ِﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮ ِﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 8‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺒﲎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺒﲎ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﱠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺫﺋﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ُﺑﺪﱠ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﻴﻴﺖ ﻧﻴ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﻳﻘﺎﻋِﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬

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‫ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺗﺒﻴﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚـﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻴﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻞ ﲡﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺗُﺠﺰِﺋ ُﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴ ﹲﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﹲﺓ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﺼـﺢ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻧﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺯُﻓﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﳎﺎﻫـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ؟ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺯﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﲡﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻝ – ﺃﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑﺓ – ﻭﻻ ﲡﺰﺉ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳُﺮﻭﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔـﺔ ﻭﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﻗﻮ ٍﻝ ﻟﻪ ؟ ﺃﻡ ﺗﺼ ﱡﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ؟‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ ﻧﺘﺒﲔ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺩﻋﻮﻧﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺯﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﺠﻤِﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ َﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻓﻼ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻟﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﻦ ﱂ ُﻳ ْ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1933‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ ] ﻭﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﺃﺧﱪﻫﻢ ﲟﺜﻠﻪ ﺳـﻮﺍﺀ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﱄ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﲟﺜﻠﻪ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻮﻩ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﺻﺤﱠﺤﺎ ﻭﻗﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ َﻣ ْﻌ َﻤ َﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱡﺑﻴﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋُﻴﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻳـﻮﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷَﻳﻠﻲ ﻭﻗﻔﻮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﹶﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﺭﻓﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﻭﻗﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ؟ ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺗﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﻮﻣـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺻـﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻳﻨﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤ ُ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﹸﻫﺪﻱ ﻟﻨﺎ َﺣْﻴ ٌ‬ ‫‪25‬‬


‫ﳊﻴْﺲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻛﻞ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2715‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻃﻌﺎ ٌﻡ ﻣﻦ ﲰﻦ ﻭﹶﺃﻗِﻂ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﲨﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳُﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﻷِﻗ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2330‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﱠﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﹸﻓﻄِﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻓﺮﺿ ُ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﺃﹸﻫﺪﻱ ﻟﻨﺎ َﺣْﻴ ٌ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ . ( 277/4‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﰊ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺣﱴ ﻳُﻈﻬﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣﻨـﺬ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻌﺎ ٍﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﺻﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ) ‪. ( 56/ 2‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺹ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ – ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﱴ ﺃﺻﺒﺤ َ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﺼﻢ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﺄﹶﻓﻄﺮ {‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺎ ﱂ َﺗ ﹾﻄ َﻌ ْﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺮ ْ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﻧ َ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ) ‪ ( 56/2‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ) ‪. ( 277/4‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ } ﺃﻥ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺑﺪﺍ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻓﺼـﺎﻡ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ) ‪ ( 56/2‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷـﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 7780‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﺎﻝ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪﺍ ﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻓﻠﻴﺼﻢ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﱪﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻔﺮﱠﺩ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﲑﺩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﹸﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻧﺎﺱ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﻧﺎ ٌ‬ ‫‪26‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺭﻓ ُﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﱠﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺪﱢﺛﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺗﺒﻴﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﻌﻤَﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺚ ﲣﺼﱢﺼﻪ ﻓﻴُﺤﻤَﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ َﺗ ِﺮ َﺩ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 2‬ﻳﺬﻛﺮﺍﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺪﻝ ﻛﻞﱡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﳊﻴَﻦ ﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓِﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇِﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﱠﺔ ﻣﺒﻴﱠﺘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﳚﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻘ ُﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪ .‬ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ُﻳ َﺮﺩﱡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺋﺐ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺒﻴﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺩﱞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺗﺒﻴﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ) ‪ ( 6 ، 5 ، 4‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇِﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻗﻮﺍ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﳍﻢ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﺩﻟ ﹰﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺣُﺠ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﺒﻨﱢﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪُﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﺛﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﱠﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻧﻮﺍﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒ ﹸﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ ﺫﺍﻙ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺗﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ُﺣﺬﹶﻳﻔﺔ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺯﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻬﻧﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑﺓ ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﳚﻴﺰﻭﻥ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﱠﺪﻩ‬ ‫‪27‬‬


‫ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻋﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺭﺩﱞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑﺓ ﻭﱂ ﻳُﺠﺰﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑﺓ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓﻮﺍﺿﺤﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺮﺍ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﺍ ﻣﻄﻠ ﹶﻘﻴْﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﺯﻣﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻴﻴ ٍﺪ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﻳُﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳُﻘﻴﱠﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸـﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺧﻼ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻴﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻘﻴﻴ ٍﺪ ﺯﻣﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫) ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ ( ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ) ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ( ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ َﻳ ِﺮ َﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻄﻪ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ﻳﺼﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ﺑﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻭﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻮﺍ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﲑﺓ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﺰِﺋﻪ ﻧﻴ ﹲﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﲡﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﺃﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ُﺗ ْ‬ ‫ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ؟ ﻓﺎﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﲡﺐ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻴ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﺉ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﹰﺓ ﺗُﺠﺰ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺇﻓﻄﺎ ٌﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼ ﱠﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻁ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻲ ﻗﻮﻝ ُﺯﻓﹶﺮ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﺼﺢ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺣـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻧﻴﱠﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃﺕ ﺭﺃﻱ ُﺯﻓﹶﺮ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺍﳍﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ] ﻳﺘﺄﺩﱠﻯ ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺴﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻳﺆﺩﻳﻪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ [ ﻭﻏﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻟ ُﺰﻓﹶﺮ ﻭﳌﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﻬﻧﻢ‬ ‫‪28‬‬


‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻴﺔ ؟ ﺃﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﺍ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﱠﺔ … { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 6689‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ؟ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻪ ) ‪ ( 1‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﱠﺎﺕ ‪ { ...‬؟ ﻓﻜﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻳُﺆﺩﱢﻳﻪ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻨﻪ ؟ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻨﻴﱠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ؟ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺤﻴﻒ ﺟﺴﻤﻪ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ – ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ – ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺗُﻘﺒﻞ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ [ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳋﻄﱠﺎﰊ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓـﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺷـﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻠﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻟﲔ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﺪﻟﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋـﺪ ٍﻝ ﰲ ﺭﺅﻳـﺔ ﻫـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻫـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮ ﹲﻝ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺣﺮﹰﺍ ﺫﻛﺮﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻝ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﺜﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻏﻴﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺧـﺎﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮ َﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﺤ ُﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﺟﺒﻮﺍ ﻟﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺷﻬﺎﺩ ﹶﺓ ﺷـﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻟﲔ ﺫﻛﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﺮﱠﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﲔ ﺃﻭ ﲨﺎﻋ ٍﺔ ﻛﺜﲑ ٍﺓ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﺫﻛﻮﺭﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﺪﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺎﻫ َﺪﻳْﻦ ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﺪﻟﲔ ﺣﺮﻳﱠﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﺣﺮﱠﺗﲔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ُﺭﺷْﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺯﻭﺍ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻦ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﲝﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﰊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﳍﻼ ﹶﻝ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳏﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﺒﺪﻩ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ؟‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﺼﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ ﻓﺄﺫﱢﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪( 1923‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2340‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﺇﱐ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ – ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴـﻦ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ { ...‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﳉﺪﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﻠ ِﺔ ﻗﻴﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﲑ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺧﻄﺐ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫} ﻋﻬﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ َﻧْﻨﺴُﻚ ﻟﻠﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻧﺮﻩ ﻭﺷﻬﺪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﺪ ٍﻝ ﻧﺴﻜﻨﺎ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﻬﺗﻤﺎ ‪ ...‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻓﻴﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﲏ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻬﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻣﺄ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺟﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻨﱯ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﻣﺄ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺪﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻣَﺮﻧﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2338‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻧْﻨﺴُﻚ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺒﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﳓ ﱡﺞ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻧْﻨﺴُﻚ ﻟﻠﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺕ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﱪ ُ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺗﺮﺍﺀﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﹶﱐ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪2342‬‬ ‫( ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻮﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻣﲑ ﻣﻜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺞ ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭَﻧﺪَﻋﻪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻋﺮﺍ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣ ٍﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﳊﺎﻥ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺪﻻﻥ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﺜﺒﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺸـﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺭﺩﱞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺎﻫ َﺪﻳْﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻭِﻗﻔﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺭﺑﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟ ٍﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﺸﻬﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﹶﺃ َﻫﻼﱠﻩ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 168/2‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ ]‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺇﻧﱠﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺒﻨﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻬﻧﻢ ﺣﺪﺛﻮﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﹸﻏﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻓ ُﻌﺪﱡﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺫﻭﺍ ﻋﺪ ٍﻝ ﻓﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﺍْﻧﺴُﻜﻮﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪( 167/2‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ } ( 19101‬ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺴﻜﻮﺍ ﳍﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﹸﻏﻢﱠ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻓﺄﲤﻮﺍ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ {‬

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‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺭﺟﻼﻥ ﺫﻭﺍ ﻋﺪ ٍﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪. ( 482/2‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ُﻋﻤَﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﱵ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ } ﺃﹸﻏﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻫﻼ ﹸﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺤﻨﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺭﻛﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﺸﻬﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﺃﻥ ﳜﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻴﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐَﺪ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1653‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ‬ ‫] ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ [ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﻋُﺪﻭﻝ ُﺳﻤﱡﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺴ ﱠﻤﻮْﺍ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ُﻳ َ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺷﻬﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻼ ِﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﺪﻫﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 972‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﻄﹶﻴﻌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺠﱠﺎﺝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﺘﺮﻙ ﺳﻨﺪﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﱳ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ) ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺫﻭﺍ ﻋﺪﻝ ﻓﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﺍﻧﺴﻜﻮﺍ ( ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺪﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓُﻴ َﺮﺩﱡ ﻣﺘﻨﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ] ﻣﺘﱠﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﺗﺎﻟﻒ [ ﻓُﻴ َﺮﺩﱡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﱠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺬﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓُﻴﺮَﺩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ‪. 5 ، 4 ، 1‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﺸﻬﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺃ َﻫﻼﱠﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺭﻛﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻬﺪﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪32‬‬


‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ( ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺷﻬﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻼ ِﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ( ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔـﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﳒﺪﻫﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻧﺴﻖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺃﻋﻴَـﺎ ٍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗـﺎﺋﻊ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺫِﻛ ٌﺮ ﻷﻱ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﻓ ﹰﺔ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﱠﻦ ﺷﺮﻃﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﻭﻃﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺃ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻛﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺼﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺼﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮ ٌﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻻ ﻟﻐ ﹰﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺭ ﹾﻛ ٌ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳُﻘﺒﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺩﱠﻋﻰ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻠﻴﺄﺗﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺭ ﱠﺩ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﻴـﺎﻥ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹶﻥ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻔﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﻥ ﺟﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﺳﻴﻘﺒﻠﻬﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﲑ ﺧﲑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﻟﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻮﻉ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻴﻴ ٍﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻁ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻷﺧـ ﹶﺬ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﳌﻦ ﻳﺮﻯ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻴﻴ ٍﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻓﻬﻤﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫ َﺪﻳْﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛـﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻌﻤِﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻮ َ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺒﺤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺣﲑ ٍﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﳍﻢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻨﻔﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻷﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﻛﺐ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣـﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻓﻴﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﻳ ُﺮﺩﱡ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﻛﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺷـﺎﺀ ﻣﻨـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﱠﻛﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﺮﺩ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ !!‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ (‬ ‫ﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳ ﹶﺔ ﻋﻤﻮ َﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳ ِﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﺮﱢﻕ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺷﺘﺮ ﹶ‬ ‫‪33‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﻡ ﻟﻠﺮﺅﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﻄﺮ ﻟﻠﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﳒﺪ ﳐﺼﱢﺼﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻌﻤﱢ ُﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺸـﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﳍﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﳍـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻛﺈﺛﺒﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻘﺒَﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ‬ ‫ﺹ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺹ ﺗﺴﺘﺜﲏ ﺍﻵﺧَﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧﺼﻮ َ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻮ ٌ‬ ‫ﻭﲦ ﹶﺔ ﻧﻘﻄ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﳍـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎ َﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﲏ ﻗﺒﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺭﺅﻳ ِﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺕ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻭﺍ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫ َﺪﻳْﻦ ﻟﻺِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺃﰊ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨـﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ﺭﺷـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳊﺮﱡ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒ ُﺪ ﻭﺍﻟـﺬﻛ ُﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺛﻨﺎﻳﺎ ﺻﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻴﻮ ُﻡ ﻓﻼ ﳏﻞ ﳍﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻼ ﻧُﺸ ِﻐﻞﹸ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻔﺴَﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺜﻰ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟ َﻌﺪْﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗُﻘﺒﻞ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻟﻠﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻻ ﻟﻸﻧﺜﻰ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﳘﺎ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗُﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺟﻠﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﲔ ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻳُﻘﺼَﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻌﻤﱠﻢ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻳُﻮﻛﱠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﱠﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻌﻤﱢﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺍﻬﺗﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻣـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻫﻼ ﹶﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻫﻼ ﹶﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﺷﺨ ٌ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ُﻭﻛﱢﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳُﻘﺒَﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻭ ُﺭﺩﱠﺕ ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹸﻞ ﲟﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ ﻓﻴﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻳﻠﺘﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ؟ ﻭﲦﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﺍﺋﻲ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﱠﻦ ُﻭﻛﱢﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹸﻞ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻡ ﻳﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻔﺔ ؟‬ ‫ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮ ﹲﻝ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ) ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﻩ ( ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳜﻔﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ – ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻔِﻄ ُﺮ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﺌﻼ ُﻳﺘﱠﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻮﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘ ﱡﺪ ِﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺗُﺤﻤﻞ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﻻﺣﻘﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻣﻘـﺪﱠﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﻭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ – ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻭﺳﺄﻟﺘﻬﺎ – ﺃﻱ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ – ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻓﻄـﺮ‬ ‫ﻳُﺨَﺘﻠﹶﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪َ :‬ﻷ ﹾﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺇ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﺖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺬﺍﻙ ﻣﻨﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 25458‬ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﺀ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻼﻓ ِﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻌﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪35‬‬


‫ﺷﻌﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺔ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﻣﺮ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﱢﻤﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺪﱢﺩ ﻭﻗﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺣﻖ ﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻻ ﺠﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻮﱠﻟﻮْﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻻ ﳛﻖ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻴﱢﺪ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻌﻠﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻻ ﳛﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﱢﺩ ﻣﱴ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺴﺎﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻊ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺭﺑﻌﻲ ) ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﺸﻬﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺇﻟﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﷲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺃﻫﻼﱠﻩ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ( ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﻗﻠﻴـﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻤﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ) ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺭﻛﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻬﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ( ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻼﳘﺎ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻷﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺎ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫– ﺃﻱ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ – ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺻﺎﻣﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺗﺎﳘﺎ ﺃﻣ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻـﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺑﻘﹸﻮﺍ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏـﻢ ﺃﻬﻧـﻢ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻛ ُ‬ ‫ﻫﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ – ﺃﻱ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ – ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳـﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻋـﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳛﻖ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺧﻄﺄ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ؟‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺋﻠﲔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﹸﻛﻠﱢﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻀﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﱢﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻓـﻪ‬ ‫ﲨﺎﻫﲑﻫﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧُﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ُﺳﺮَﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﳌﻦ ﺧﺼﱠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻼ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ) ﻓﺎﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ( ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﳌﻦ ﺧﺼﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﱢﻠ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺴ َ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ) ﻓﺄﻛﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ( ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧُ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮﻑ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺘﻴﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﻓﺎﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ( ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺩﱠﻋﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ُﺳﺮَﻳﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﹸﻏﻢﱠ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻓﺎﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1906‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺧﻄﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳌﻦ ﺧﺼﱠﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﳌﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺾ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﲟﻦ ﺧﺼﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﹲﺄ ﳏ ٌ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻳﻔﺴﱢﺮ ﺑﻌﻀُﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﻔﺴﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳُﺮﻳﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – } ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻏﹸﱢﺒ َﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻓﹶﺄ ﹾﻛﻤِﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1909‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ‪( 2514‬‬ ‫ﻟﻔﻆ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻓﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻤﻮﻩ ﻓﺄﹶﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﹸﻏﻢﱠ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻓﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ﻓﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺍﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ( ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ) ﺃﻛﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺷـﻌﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ( ) ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﲞﻄﺄ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳُـ َﺮﻳْﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ ﺣﱴ ﺗُﺤﺼَﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﺭﺑﺎﺑﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳜﻔﻰ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻗﻄ ُﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻭﺃﹶﺑ ُ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1906‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋـﺪﺓ ﺃﺳـﻄﺮ ﺑﻠﻔـﻆ } ﻻ‬ ‫‪37‬‬


‫ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﻩ ‪ { ...‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﺘﻒ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻻ ﺷﻚ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺒﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺑـﺪﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻮﺟِﺐ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹶﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﺷﺪﻭﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﱠﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺻﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﻬﱢﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﺎﺀ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺒﱢﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺮﱢﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻞ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﺕ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﱢﻡ ﻋﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻓﺎﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ( ﻗﺪ ﻓﺴﱠﺮﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﹰﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻫﻮ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺴﺒﻮﺍ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ :‬ﺿﻴﱢﻘﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﺪﱢﺭﻭﻩ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﳏﻞ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺭﺅﻳ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﻭﻱﱞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻃﺎﻭﻭﺱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ‪:‬‬ ‫) ﻓﺎﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻟﻪ ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺮﻭﺍ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﺭﺟﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪38‬‬


‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ) ﺍﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ( ﻟﻐ ﹰﺔ ﺿﻴﱢﻘﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ِﻟُﻴْﻨ ِﻔ ْﻖ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﷲ ﻧﻔﺴﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺁﺗﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻠﱢ ُ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ َﺳ َﻌ ٍﺔ ﻣﻦ َﺳ َﻌﺘِﻪ ﻭ َﻣ ْﻦ ﻗﹸ ِﺪ َﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺯﹸﻗ ُﻪ ﻓ ﹾﻠﻴُﻨ ِﻔ ْﻖ ﳑﺎ ﺁﺗﺎ ُﻩ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺴ ٍﺮ ُﻳﺴْﺮﹰﺍ { ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ } ﻭﹶﺃﻣﱠﺎ ﺇِﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋُ ْ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺠﻌ ﹸﻞ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻼﻩ ﹶﻓ ﹶﻘ َﺪ َﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺭﺯﻗﹶﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﺑﱢﻲ ﺃﹶﻫﺎَﻧ ِﻦ { ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 16‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ }:‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﹶﻗﺪَﺭﻭﺍ ﺍﷲ ﺣ ﱠﻖ ﹶﻗ ْﺪ ِﺭ ِﻩ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 91‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻌﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﳑﻠﻮﻛﹰﺎ ﻻ َﻳ ﹾﻘﺪِﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲ ٍﺀ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 75‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﷲ َﻣﹶﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺏﺍ ُ‬ ‫} ﺿﺮ َ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ } ‪ ...‬ﻻ ﻳ ﹾﻘﺪِﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲ ٍﺀ ﳑﺎ ﹶﻛﺴَﺒﻮﺍ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ ‪ 264‬ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﺴﱠﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﻴﻴﻖ ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟـﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺧ ﹲﺬ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﻄﻮ ٌ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﻢ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﺧﻄﹰﺄ ﳏﻀﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹸﻬﻢ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﻋﻜﺮﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ًّ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍ ُﻫﻮﻳﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﻬﻼﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳛـ ِ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺎ َﻭﺭْﺩﻱ ﻭﺟﻬﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭُﺅﻱ ﺑﺒﻠﺪ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟَﺒﻠﹶﺪﺍﻥ ﻓﺤﻜﻤُﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﻜ ُﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻠ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﻓﻮﺟﻬﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﱡﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺃﰊ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﻭﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻳﻦ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺎﱐ‬

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‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻐﻮﻱ‬‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ – ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﻛﺎﳊﺠﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﺧﺮﺍﺳﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﲣﺘﻠـﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﻛﺒﻐﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﻭﻗﺰﻭﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﲢـﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻗـﺎﻟﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻗﻮﺍ ﹰﻻ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻹﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭُﺅﻱ ﺑﺒﻠﺪ ﻟﺰﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﻵﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺠﺔ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻫﻲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻫﻲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻭُﺟﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﱠﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ) ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ( ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ) ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﺍ ( ) ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ ( ﻓﻴﻪ ﺿﻤ ٌﲑ ﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﲨ ٌﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻤﲑ ) ﺗﺮﻭﺍ (‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻤﲑ ) ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ ( ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻳﺔ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺗﻌ ﱡﻢ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻘﻴ ٍﺪ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻃﻪ ﻣﺄﻟﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﺧَﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺑﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﻬﻼﻝ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲟﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻛﹸﺮﻳﺐ } ﺃﻥ ﺃ ﱠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻓﻘﻀﻴﺖ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘُ ِﻬﻞﱠ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹸﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺜﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪﻣ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﲏ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﳍﻼ ﹶﻝ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺪﻣ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰒ ﹶﺫﻛﹶﺮ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﱴ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ؟ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎﻩ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﺭﺃﻳﺘَﻪ ؟ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻭﺭﺁﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﻭﺻﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻨﱠﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎﻩ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﻓﻼ ﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﻧﺼﻮﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻜﻤﱢﻞ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺮﺍﻩ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﻔﻲ‬

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‫ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2528‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺃﻫـﻞ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻓﻬﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗـﻮﻝ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍ ٌﻡ ﺁ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ؟ ( ‪ ) ،‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﹶﺃ َﻣﺮَﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ( ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺑﻠﺪﻫﻢ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻬ ٌﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺒﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺑﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻧﺮﺍﻩ ﺧﻄﹰﺄ ﻓِﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺬﻳﻦ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺪ ﲰﻊ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫) ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ( ﻓﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐـﻲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻯ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻓﺘﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﻓﺘﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻐﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﹸﺮﻳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻤﱢﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﲨﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺧﺎﻃﺊ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺣﺠﺘﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺴﺖ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﺎﻗﺶ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﺃﻭﺭ ْﺩﺗُـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1966‬ﻡ ﻣـﺎ ﻳﻠـﻲ ] ﻻ‬ ‫ِﻋﺒْﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪﺕ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻢ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ [ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻋﻠـﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺪﻳﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﲏ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻭﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻗﻒ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪41‬‬


‫ﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﻘﻮﱄ ] ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗ ﱠﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹸﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ُ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ [ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻬﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻣﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﲟـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﳎﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻧﻌ ْﺪ ﻧﺴﻤﻊ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﺇﻻ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺯﻟﻨﺎ ﻧـﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺼﺪِﺭ ﳎﺎﻣ ُﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ُﺗ ْ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﻬﺗﻢ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﻊ ‪ .‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ – ﻭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﳎﺎﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ – ﻣﻌﺰﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺴـﻠﻤﲔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﻬﺗﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﻡ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺗُﺼﺪﺭ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺗﺄﺧـﺬ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺻﺎﺩﺭ ٍﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻗﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﳚﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑـﺎﺩﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﳌﺼﺎﳊﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻐﺎﻳﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻣﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻣﻌﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻴﺰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳊﻜـﺎﻡ ﻳـﺄﻣﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﺮﱢﻋﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻘﻮﻥ ﻭﻳﻔﺘﻮﻥ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺮﺿﻲ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﳊﻜﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬

‫ﻼ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷُﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻧﺼﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺎﺗﲑ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻛ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺍﻬﺗﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎ ٍﺓ ﻟﺴـﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻻ ﺣﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻛﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﺎﻬﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺮﻯ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﻠـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ‬

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‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﺰﺍ ًﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﺗﻮﺣﱠﺪﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻭ ﹰﻻ ﰲ ﴰﺎﱄ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺩﻳﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﴰـﺎﱄ ﺇﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬

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‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ – ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﲰﻊ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﲰﻊ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ َﻳ ﹾﻠَﺘﺰِﻡ ﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻨﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺲ ﺇﻓﺘﺎﺀ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﱪ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗُﻌﺮَﻑ ﻓﻴﻬﻢ ﳎﺎﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﺙ ﺇﺳﻼﻣﻴ ٍﺔ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻓﻬﻤﻬﻢ ﻟﻺﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗ ﱠﻞ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﳎﺎﻣ ُﻊ ﲝﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺷﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻄﻠﻘﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺠﻤﱠﻌﻮﻥ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﲜﻤﻌﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﺪﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﲨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻼﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻼﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴَﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻠ ُﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﺭﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺒﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻠﱢﺪ‬ ‫ﺠ َﻤ َﻊ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺇﻓﺘﺎ ٍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻠﱢﺪ َﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﻼﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺘﱠﺒﻊ ﻋﻼﱠﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﻊ ﳎﻠ َ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺗﺼﺪﺭﻩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻟﺲ ﻭﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻣﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲝﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ ﺑﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﻛﺘـﺎﺏ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺑﺎﲰﻬﻢ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫‪43‬‬


‫ﺕ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻱﺀ ﻻ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﱢﺒﺎﻋﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪﻭ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻃﻐﺖ ﻭﻓﺸﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺗﻼﻣﻴـﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﳛﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻏﲑ ﻣَﻌﺰ ﱠﻭ ٍﺓ ﻷﺻﺤﺎﻬﺑﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭَﻳ ْﺪﻋُﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﲟﻮﺟﺒﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﳛﻞﱡ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻴﺘﻨﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﺸﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻔﻴﺖ ﺣﱴ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﲏ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑـﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻈ ٍﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﲏ ﺇﻗﺼﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹶﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﲟﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑﺴﺤﺮ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﲝﺎﺛﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻘﻮﳍﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﹸ ِﺧ ﹶﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﲣﺬﻭﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻱ ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪﱠﺳﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻗﺪﱠﺳﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻓﻀﻮﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺴـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺪ ﻓﹸﺘﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺭﺍﺣﻮﺍ ﻳﻄﺎﻟﺒﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺍﻬﺗﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺞ ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﻋﻴﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺳﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ُﺗ ْﺆﺧَﺬ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗُﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺮﻉ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـ ﹰﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﻬﻧﺎﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﳍﻼﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﳍﻼﻝ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﺘﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﻌﺪ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ِﺇﻧﱠﺎ ﺃﻣ ﹲﺔ ﺃﹸﻣﻴ ﹲﺔ ﻻ ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﻻ ﳓﺴِﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬

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‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1913‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻴﻤ ﱡﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﺒﻮﻥ ﻭﻻ ﳛﺴﺒﻮﻥ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺪﻳ ٍﺪ ﻟﻸﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺑـﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﻬﻧﺎﻳﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺩﻳﻨَﻜﻢ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﺍﻟﻴﻮ َﻡ ﺃﻛﻤﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺘﺎﺝ ﻷﻱ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﱃ ﻧِﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻱ ﻋﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﻃﺮﺍﺋﻘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻻ ِﲢﻞﱡ ﳏـﻞ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻃﺮﺍﺋﻘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﺤﻜ ٍﻢ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺷَﺮﻉ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚـﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘ ﹰﺔ ﺑﺪﻳﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶﺬ ﺍﳊﺴﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﱠﺘ َ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺋﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺼﱠﻞ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬

‫ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺈﲨﺎﻉ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺩﺧﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻟﱡﺪ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﺪ ﳚﻌﻞ‬

‫ﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺍﻣﻲ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻗﻴﱢﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻏﺮ ﱢ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﲢﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻮ ٍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎﺀ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻳُﻌﺘـﱪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎﺀ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﲔ ﻓﻴﺼﻮﻣﻮﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻌﺘﱪ ﻳﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎﺀ‬ ‫‪45‬‬


‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳ ﹶﺔ ﺷﻬ ِﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﻟﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺼﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻄﻠﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﺃﺣﺪُﳘﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﺑﻴﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﻮﺣﱢﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﻄـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺷﺎﻫ ٍﺪ ﻋﺪ ٍﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻘﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺑـﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺷـﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻬﻧﺎﻳﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﲔ ﻗﺎﺩﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﻴﹰﺎ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﺘﻌﺒﱠﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻮﻉ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻌﺒﱠﺪﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻧﺮﺍﻩ ﺻﻮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺻﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌ ﱠﻲ ﻓﺬﺍﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﳓﻦ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻧﺎﻩ ﹸﻗﺒِﻞ ﻣﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﹸﺃِﺛﺒْﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﺍﺋ ُﻊ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﹸﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﺗﱢﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻓﻬﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻧﺎﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻭﺍ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤـﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻋﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﺩ ؟ ﻭﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﻞ ﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﱂ ﳛﺪﱢﺩ ﻟﻠﺼﻼﺓ ﻃﺮﻳﻘ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴ ِﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺣﺪﱠﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﺭﻓﺾ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﺤﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﱠﺩ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﰲ ﻛـﺜﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ) ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ( ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﱠﺩ ﻟﻠﺤﺞ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﺴﲔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺍﳉﺪﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪46‬‬


‫ﻗﻴﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﲑ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺧﻄﺐ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻋﻬﺪ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫َﻧْﻨﺴُﻚ ﻟﻠﺮﺅﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻧﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪﺍ ﻋﺪ ٍﻝ ﻧﺴﻜﻨﺎ ﺑﺸﻬﺎﺩﻬﺗﻤﺎ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫) ‪ . ( 2338‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ ) ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺴﻚ ﻟﻠﺮﺅﻳﺔ ( ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ َﻧْﻨﺴُﻚ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﺞ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻗﺪ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﻛﻞﱡ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﲞﺼﻮﺻﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺇﻋﻼﻣُﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻷَﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﳒﺘﻬﺪ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷَﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻴﺖ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻗﺪ ﻓﺮﱠﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳊـﺞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺧﻠﻂ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﻌﻠﱠﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻋﱠﻠ ﹲﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘ ﹰﺔ ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﳛﺎﺳﺒﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﳜﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻧﻔﻄﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﺻﺒﻨﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﲔ ﺑﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺳﻠﻔﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﻫﻞ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ؟ [ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ ؟‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﳌﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺍﻫﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮﻱ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌ ﹰﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﳌﺎ ﻣﻀﺖ ﺗﺴـﻊ ﻭﻋﺸـﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻴﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﹶﺃ ُﻋﺪﱡﻫ ﱠﻦ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺑﺪﹶﺃ ﰊ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻚ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴ ٍﻊ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﹶﺃ ُﻋﺪﱡﻫ ﱠﻦ ؟‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺇﻧﻚ ﺃﻗﺴﻤ َ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺗﺴﻊ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2520‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﻧﱠﺎ ﺃﻣﱠﺔ ﺃ ﱢﻣﻴﱠﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﻻ ﳓﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1913‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﺎ ﺻُﻤﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺗﺴﻌﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﺻُﻤﻨﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 684‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪ ( 5245‬ﻣـﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ) ‪ ( 5441‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺻُﻤﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻋﻠ ﱟﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄ َﻣﺮَﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻳﻮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 251/ 4‬ﻭﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ َﺑﻜﹾﺮﺓ ﺭﺿـﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺷﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺮﺍ ﻋﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1912‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ‪ .‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﲎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ – ﺷﻬﺮﺍ ﻋﻴﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺼـﺎﻥ – ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺫﻭ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻧﻘﺺ ﺃﺣﺪُﳘﺎ ﱠﰎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻬﻮ ﲤﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧُﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻴﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟـﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫‪48‬‬


‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ) ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹸﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹸﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸـﺮ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠـﺔ ( ﻭﻗﻴـﻞ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋﺎ ٍﻡ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻷﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﱠﺎﰊ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻋﺪﺩﳘﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﺃﺟﺮُﳘﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﻭﺃﹸﺭﺟﱢﺤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪﱠﺭ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸـﻬﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻷﻋﻮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺛﻮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﺀﺍ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺏ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﻟﻸﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﻠﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻷﺟﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻧﻘـﺺ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻳﺆﰐ ﻓﻀـﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﻨﻌﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﱠﻯ ﺭﻛﲏ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍِﻓ َﺮ ﺍﻹِﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﲤﱠﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮﻱ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ‪ 29‬ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ ‪ 29‬ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭ ‪ % 53‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 29‬ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭ ‪ 12‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ‪ 44‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ 354‬ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭ‪ % 36‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻨﻘﺺ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﲝـﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹶﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﻬﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﺻﻼﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺮﰐ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﺼﻼﺓ ‪َ ،‬ﻋ ِﻘ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺗﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﱂ ﻳُﺮﻓﻊ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻔﹸﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺧﱠﺮ ﺍﷲ‬

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‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﺩﺍ َﺀ ﳘﺎ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺗﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴـﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﻀـﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺗﲔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻘﻄﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳُﺮﻓﻊ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺮﻯ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﻗﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﱢﻗ ﹶﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻘـﺐ ﺍﻧﺘـﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮﰐ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺎﻭ ﺭ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﱠﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺗُﻠﺘﻤﺲ ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ ﹲﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﺘُﺆﺧﺬ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﱠﻠ ﹲﺔ ﳍـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﻠﱠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺑﻀﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﲞﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ُﻧﻔِﺴﺖ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺳﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺮَﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻋﻮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ﻋﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﹸﻣﺮﺕ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺆﻣﺮ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻓُﺘ ْ‬ ‫ﻷﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻣُﺠ َﻤ ٌﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻭﺭﻳﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪،‬ﱂ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﻣﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪،‬ﻛﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻣُﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺳﺄﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻟﺴﺖ ﲝَﺮﻭﺭﻳﱠﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﲏ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺣَﺮﻭﺭﻳ ﹲﺔ ﺃﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻨﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓُﻨ ْﺆﻣَﺮ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻧُ ْﺆ َﻣﺮُ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 763‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬


‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﹶﺮﻭﺭﻳﱠ ﹸﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﰲ ﻗﺮﻳﺔ ﺣَﺮﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻗﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻓُﻨﺴِﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺃﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺼ ْﻢ ؟ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪1951‬‬ ‫ﺼﻞﱢ ﻭﱂ َﺗ ُ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﺿﺖ ﱂ ُﺗ َ‬ ‫( ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﳓﻴﺾ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1670‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪( 2318‬‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﳓﻴﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰒ ﻧﻄﻬُﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﻣﺮﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﻘﻌﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻳﺴﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺗﲔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﰒ ﻃﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﺘﺴﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺻﺤ ﹸﺔ ﺻﻮﻣﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺣُﻜﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺃﺣ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻳﲔ ﰲ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺻﻮﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﺘﺴﻼ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﺩﻣﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﻓﺘﺮﺗﺎ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭُﳘﺎ ﺣﺎﺋﻀﹰﺎ ﻭُﻧﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻏﺘﺴﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ُﻳ ْﺆﺫِﻥ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ ﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗـﺪ ﺃﻣﺮﳘـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻐﺴﻞ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻬﻧﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺗﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﹸ ْﺆ ِﺫﻥﹸ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺗﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻐﺘﺴﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻓـﻮﺭﹰﺍ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻐﺘﺴﻼﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻓﺎﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ْﺆﺫِﻥ ﺑﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺴﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺃﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﺣﻴﻀﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺴﻞ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ُﺟﻨُﺒﹰﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﻓﺼﻮﻣﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﻻ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻼ ٍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﻬﻮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻨـﻮﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﲨﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺇﲨﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻹﲨﺎﻉ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﺇﳚﺎ َ‬ ‫ﳉﻨُﺐ ﻣﻦ ﲨﺎﻉ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺎ َﻭﺭْﺩﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺰﺅُﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﹶﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻡ ﻓﺄﲨﻌﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ُﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ُﺟﻨُﺒﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ [ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴ َﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺑ ﱠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺃﺷﻬﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺣﺘﻼ ٍﻡ ﰒ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1931‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﹶﻴﺼﺒ ُﺢ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲨﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ‪ ( 2591‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺭﺿـﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳُﺼﺒﺢ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﲨﺎﻉ ﻻ ﻣﻦ ُﺣﻠﹸﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ { ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ‪ ( 1930‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺣﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻐﺘﺴﻞ ﻭﻳﺼﻮﻡ { ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻳﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻـﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻣﻮﱃ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺘﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺪﺭﻛﲏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓﺄﺻﻮ ُﻡ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﻛﲏ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺃﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ُﺟُﻨ ٌ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓﺄﺻﻮﻡ … { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2593‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ُﺟُﻨ ٌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻐﺘﺴﻞ ﻭﻳﺼﻮﻡ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ُﺟُﻨ ٌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1926-1925‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ُﺟﻨُﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺟِﻤﺎﻉ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﻨﺐ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳ ٍﺪ ﻓﻴﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﺩ ﻳُﺠﻤِﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺭﺩﱞ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼ ْﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﺌ ٍﺬ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻮﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﺼﻼ ِﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻼ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪُﻛﻢ ُﺟُﻨ ٌ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 8130‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺣﺪﱠﺛﺘﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﰒ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﺮ ﱠﺩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﺘﻴﺎﻩ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ ) ‪( 3500‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺼﻪ ‪ :‬ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻛـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﻘ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﺬﻛﺮﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ – ﻷﺑﻴﻪ – ﻓﺄﻧﻜﺮ ﺫﻟـﻚ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺩﺧﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺄﳍﻤﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻠﺘﺎﳘﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ُﺣﻠﹸﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻠﻘﻨﺎ ﺣﱴ ﺩﺧﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﺮﺩﺩ َ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ ‪ :‬ﻋﺰﻣ ُ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺠﺌﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ :‬ﺃﳘﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺘﺎﻩ ﻟﻚ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﳘﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭ ﱠﺩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ‬ ‫‪53‬‬


‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﺃﲰﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﺎﻟﺘﺎ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺟﻨﺒـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ُﺣﻠﹸﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2589‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﲰﻊ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﰒ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻐﺘﺴﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﰒ ﲰﻌﺘﻪ ﻧﺰﻉ ﻋـﻦ ﺫﻟـﻚ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪ ( 2940‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 494/2‬ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﱢﺐ ] ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺘﻴﺎﻩ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺟﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﻓﻼ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻟـﻪ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﺭﺟﻮﻉ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻓﺘﻴﺎﻩ ﻻ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺃﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺣﺠ ٍﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺷﺒﻬ ٍﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳌﻦ ﺧـﺎﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﰒ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻋﺬﺭ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﱢﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﲢﺬﱢﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺑﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻧﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫ ﺃﺗﺎﱐ ﺭﺟﻼﻥ ﻓﺄﺧﺬﺍ ﺑ َ‬ ‫ﻀْﺒ َﻌ ﱠﻲ ‪ ...‬ﻭﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ – ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺍﻧﻄﻠﻘﺎ ﰊ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﱠﻘﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺒﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻘﻘ ﹲﺔ ﺃﺷﺪﺍﻗﹸﻬﻢ ﺗﺴﻴﻞ ﺃﺷﺪﺍﻗﹸﻬﻢ ﺩﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﻠﱠ ِﺔ ﺻـﻮﻣﻬﻢ … { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ َﺗ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪ ( 3273‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‬

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‫ﻀﺒْﻊ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﻭﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟ ُﻌ ْﺮﻗﹸﻮﺏ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻆ ﺍﳌﻮﺗﱠﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟ َﻌﻘِﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺷﺪﺍﻕ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺧﺼ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻏﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻋﺬﺑﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ) ‪ . ( 9575/9‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻡ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 719‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ :‬ﻻ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳُﻘﺒَﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺳﻨﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳌﹸﺤﱠﻠﻰ ) ‪ ( 184/6‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ) ‪ ( 184/6‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ } ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻀﻪ ﻳﻮ ٌﻡ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ { ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 516/2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠ ﱟﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ } ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﱢﺪﹰﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻀﻪ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻃﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﺮﻭﺍﻥ } ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﹸِﺗ َﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷﻲ ﻗـﺪ ﺷـﺮﺏ ﺍﳋﻤـﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﻀﺮﺑﻪ ﲦﺎﻧﲔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺿﺮﺑﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﳉﺮﺃﺗـﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭِﻙ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻠﻰ ) ‪ ( 184/6‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺷﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺷﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺛﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻠﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻞ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﰒ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﳌﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﲟﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ؟‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻗﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﳚﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻇﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻓﻬﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻳﺒﻌﺪ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻧﲏ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻴ ُﺪ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺃﻋﺘﱪﻫﺎ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﻫﺎ ﺃﹶﻣﺎﺭﺍ ٍ‬

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‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ُﻳ ْﺆﻣَﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻃﺎﻗﻮﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺪﱠﻩ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑُﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺒ ِﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸ ِﺮ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﱠﻩ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﺛﻨﱵ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻌﺸ ِﺮ ﺳﻨﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋـﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﻦ ﺣُ ِﻤ ﹶﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻃﺎﻕ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺗﺒﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳُﺸﺮﻉ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻓﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ َﺑﻠﹶﻎ ﹸﻛﻠﱢﻒ ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﱂ ﻳُﻜﻠﱠﻒ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻃﹸﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮ ﹸ‬ ‫ﱄ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﲝﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﻭ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳُﺜﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻭﱄﱡ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﱄ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺻﺒﻴﱠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﳛﺜﱡﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻹﻛﺮﺍﻩ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺒﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ ﻓﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻌﻤﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺭﻓﺾ ﻓﻼ ﺷﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻟﻴﱢﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﱴ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ؟ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﱂ ﳛﺪﱢﺩ ﺳﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ ﱡﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻏﲑ ﳐﺼﱠﺼﺔ ﻭﻣﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﻴﱠﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﹸﻗﺪُﺭﺍﻬﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﱡﺑﻴﱢﻊ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻣﻌﻮﱢﺫ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻏﺪﺍ ﹶﺓ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺮﻯ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻔﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺘ ﱠﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬

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‫ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺼﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﻜﻨﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﻣﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻧُﺼﻮﱢﻡ ﺻﺒﻴﺎﻧَﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳒﻌﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺒ ﹶﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ِﻌ ْﻬ ِﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺑﻜﻰ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﻨﺎﻩ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1960‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﻨﺎﻩ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﺟﺒـﹰﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ ُﻳﹶﻠ ﱠﻬﻮْﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱡﻌﺐ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻑ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﻣﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﳝﺮﱢﻧﻮﻥ ﺻﺒﻴﺎﻬﻧﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ ﱡﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳُﺘﺼﻮﱠﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﳍﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﱡﻠﹶﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻑ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﹰﺎ‬ ‫– ﺃﻱ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﻨﺪ – ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ } ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ِﻟَﻨﺸْﻮﺍ ﹶﻥ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺒﻴﺎﻧُﻨﺎ ﺻﻴﺎ ٌﻡ ؟ ﻓﻀﺮﺑﻪ { ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻗﹸﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺸﻮﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﺻﺒﻴﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ؟ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﺗﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺮﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺑﱠﺨﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﺋ ﹰ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﻥ ؟ ﻓﺎﻷﺻﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻌﻮﱢﺩﻭﺍ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻴﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻛﺒﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ – ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲏ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺇﺧﻮ ِﺓ ﺑﲏ ﹸﻗﺸَﲑ – ﻗﺎﻝ } ‪...‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﺟﻠﺲ ﺃﺣ ﱢﺪﹾﺛ َ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺷﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮ َﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﳍﻤﺎ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪَﳘﺎ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2408‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ِ‬

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‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ } ( 2274‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﳌﺴـﺎﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤُﺒﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1668‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ َﻋﺪِﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻀـﻴﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳُﻄﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻳﻄﻌﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀﺗﺎ ﻗﻀﺘﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﺤﻖ [ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺤﺎﻙ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺎﻓﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿـﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻓﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻄﺮﺍ ﻭﻻ ﺇﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﲟﱰﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﻀﻲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﺕ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻄﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺗﻘﻀﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻭﻟﺪﻳﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻟﺪﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ُﻣﺪﱞ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣِﻦ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺗﻔﻄﺮﺍﻥ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ) ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ ...‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ( ) ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ...‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ( ﻓﻜﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﻭﻋﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﻳﺼـﺢ‬ ‫ﳊﺒَﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎﻋﺔ ﺭﺧﺼ ﹲﺔ ﻭﻋﺬ ٌﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﻣـﹰﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳍﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊﺒَﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﺨﺸﻰ ﻣﻌـﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﳊﺒْﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹶﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﺑﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﹸ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻹِﺭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﺨﺸﻰ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻷﺧ ﹸﺬ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼـﻴﺺ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳊﺒَﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺸﻴﺖ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺸﻴﺖ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻹِﺭﺿﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻋﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﳋﺸﻴ ﹸﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺢ ﳍﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻳُﺤﻤﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ] ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀﺗﺎ ﻗﻀﺘﺎ [ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﻟـﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿـﻊ ﻟـﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 206/2‬ﰲ ﺳﻨﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟُﺒﲑ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻷﻡ ﻭﻟ ٍﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺣُﺒﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻣُﺮﺿﻊ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﱠﻒ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ) ‪ ( 7556‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ) ‪ ( 7558‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿـﻊ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻄﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺗﻄﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 207/ 2‬ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﳌﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺰﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 7564‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹِﻃﻌـﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻣﺸﻜﻮﻙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﺮﻙ ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇِﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺻﺤﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻴﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻋﻄﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻜ ﱟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﲞﺼﻮﺻﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫‪59‬‬


‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺻﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻀﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺗﻔﻄﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺗﻄﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻻ ﻧﻠﺘﺰﻡ ﰲ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺍﺗﻨﺎ ﺇﻻ ﲟـﺎ ﺷـﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻐﻤَﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﺼﺢ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻐﻤَﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﱠﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻭﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭُﺟﺪ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﻓﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﺄﻓﺴﺪﻩ ﻭﺟﻮﺩُﻩ ﰲ ﺑﻌﻀـﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﳊﻴﺾ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﻣﱴ ﺃﹸﻏﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲨﻴ َﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﻠﻢ ُﻳ ِﻔ ْﻖ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺼ ﱠﺢ ﺻﻮﻣُﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ] ﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻐﻤَﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﺪﺗﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻄﺎﻭﻝ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﻮﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻳﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻹﻏﻤﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ُﺟﻦﱠ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﻓﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ُﺟﻦﱠ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﱂ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻹﻏﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ‬

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‫ﻋﺎﻗﻞ ﻓﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻓﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ [ ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﱠﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳُﻔﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺣﱴ ﳛﺘﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 4403‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺭُﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻼﺛ ٍﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺣﱴ ﳛﺘﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳَﻌﻘِﻞ { ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﻕ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺒﻴﱠﺔ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻳُﻔﻴﻖ ‪ .‬ﻓﻼ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻨﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﳍﻢ ﱂ‬ ‫ﳜﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺻﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﻜﻠﱠﻔﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻟﻸﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻣﻀﺎﻫﺎ ﳎﻨﻮﻧﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻞ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻐﻤَﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺇﻏﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴ ﹲﻞ ﻭﻬﻧﺎ ٌﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇِﻓﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻐﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻜﱠﻠﻔﹶﲔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﱠﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﹲﺓ ﺗﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌ ﹶﻔﻄﱢﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻠﺰﻣﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻘﺪﻫﺎ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺁﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﺢ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﱠﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻓﺘﺆﺧﺬ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﺈ ﹾﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻧﺺﱞ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺭﻓﻀﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺘﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﱠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﻬﺗﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻓﺎﻬﺗﻤﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺷﺨﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺴﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻪ ﺟﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻏﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﰒ ﺃﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﺣُﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﺴﻮﺍﺀ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﲑﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻭ َﺳﻄﹶﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﻃﻮﻳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺁ ِﺧﺮَﻩ ﺍﺣﺘُﺴﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻀﲑﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺯﻭﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻏﻤﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻓﻠﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻳُﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻓﺎﻗﺘﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻈﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻐﻤَﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﺗﻴﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻓﺎﻗﺘﻪ ؟‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﱠﻞ ﻭﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﺱ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﱢﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﻗﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻔﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﹾﻠُﻴ َ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻟ ِﺬﻛﹾﺮﻱ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 1569‬ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﺺﱞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻻ ﳒﺪ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻔﻞ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻳُﻘﻀَﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻐﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻠﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳُﻘﺒَﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃ ﱢ‬ ‫‪62‬‬


‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻼ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟُﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﹸﻏﻤ َﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺟُﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺃﹸﻏﻤ َﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﺄﻧﺲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲟﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﻓُﻴ ْﻐﺸَﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 235/ 4‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻏﻤﺎﺀ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻔﺴﺪﻩ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻏﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻘﺪ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻏﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺴﻚ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌ ﹶﻔﻄﱢﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﰒ ﻳﻘﻀﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ﺭﻛﻦ ﻭﺷﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺑﺪﻭﻬﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﻴﻖ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ٍﺓ ﻭﺍﺟﺒ ٍﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺃﹶﺳﻠ َﻢ ﺃﺗﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻤﺘﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﹶﺄﲤﱡﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﻴ ﹶﺔ ﻳـﻮﻣِﻜﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻀﻮﻩ { ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2447‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﹶﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ) ﺃﲤﱡﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻗﻀـﻮﻩ‬ ‫( ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻨﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺟُﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﻓﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﻗﻀﻰ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺧﻄﺄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻄﺆُﻩ ﺁﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﹰﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺛـﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﻣﺎ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺳﺪﻳﺪ ﺻﺎﺋﺐ ‪.‬‬

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‫ِﺣ ﱡﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻟﻴﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻟﻴﻞ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﳏﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻘﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷـﻖ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﺭﻓﻮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﻗﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻹﰒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻝ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﳊﻈﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻟﻴﺎﱄ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﺃﹶﻧﺘﻢ ﻟﺒﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺇِﱃ ﻧﺴﺎﺋِﻜﻢ ُﻫﻦﱠ ﻟﺒﺎ ٌ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﺃﹸ ِﺣﻞﱠ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﹶﻓ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﻋﻔﺎ ﻋﻨﻜﻢ ﻓﺎﻵﻥ ﺑﺎﺷِـﺮﻭﻫ ﱠﻦ‬ ‫ﺨﺘَﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﹶﺃْﻧ ﹸﻔﺴَﻜﻢ ﻓﺘﺎ َ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ َﺗ ْ‬ ‫ﳍ ﱠﻦ َﻋِﻠ َﻢ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻟﻜﻢ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 187‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺮﻓﹶﺚ ‪ :‬ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺐﺍُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍْﺑَﺘﻐُﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﹶﻛَﺘ َ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻭ ﹶﻏﺸَﻴﺎﻥﹸ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﲣﺘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺒﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﺎ ُ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻀﺮ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻓﻨﺎﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﱂ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﺘَﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﻣَﻪ ﺣﱴ ﳝﺴﻲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻ ْﺮ َﻣ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺣﻀﺮ ﺍﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻦ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻨﺪ ِﻙ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﹶﻧﻄﻠ ُﻖ ﻓﺄﹶﻃﻠﺐ ﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻣَﻪ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﻠﺒﺘﻪ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺗﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﺗﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺧﻴﺒ ﹰﺔ ﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﹸﻏﺸِﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺬﹸﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺇِﱃ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻟﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ) ﺃﹸ ِﺣﻞﱠ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎ ٍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﹶﻓ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺋِﻜﻢ ( ﻓﻔﺮﺣﻮﺍ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺣﹰﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺰﻟﺖ ) ﻭﻛﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ( { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1915‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺇِﺳﺤﻖ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺀ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﳌـﺎ ﻧـﺰﻝ ﺻـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎ َﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻛﻠﱠﻪ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺟﺎ ﹲﻝ ﳜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ‬

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‫ﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ – ﺍﻵﻳﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ )‬ ‫ﺨﺘَﺎﻧﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺃﹶﻧ ﹸﻔﺴَﻜﻢ ﻓﺘﺎ َ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ َﺗ ْ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ – َﻋِﻠ َﻢ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫‪ ( 4508‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ِﺫ ﹾﻛﺮُﻩُ – ﺃﹸ ِﺣﻞﱠ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎ ِﻡ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺇِﱃ ﻧﺴﺎﺋِﻜﻢ – ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﱠﹶﻓ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎ ُﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻧﺎﺳﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﺻـﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﻜﻮْﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻓ َ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﻋﻔـﺎ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﲣﹾﺘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃْﻧ ﹸﻔﺴَﻜﻢ ﻓﺘﺎ َ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ – َﻋِﻠ َﻢ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻂ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻜﻢ ﻓﺎﻵ ﹶﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺮﻭ ُﻫﻦﱠ – ﻳﻌﲏ ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻜﺤﻮﻫﻦ – ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒ َ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻮ ِﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ) ‪ ( 165/2‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎ ُﺀ ﺣﱴ ﻳُﻔﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺟﻊ ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﺄﻣﺴﻰ ﻓﻨﺎﻡ َﺣﺮُﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﰒ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻨﻊ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻧﺎﻣﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺍﺩﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﻗﺪ ﳕﺖ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﳕ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻐﺪﺍ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺄﺧﱪﻩ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﻋﻔﺎ ﻋﻨﻜﻢ ( { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺃﻧﻜﻢ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﲣﺘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻧ ﹸﻔﺴَﻜﻢ ﻓﺘﺎ َ‬ ‫) َﻋﻠِﻢ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 15888‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴـﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻻ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔِﻄ ُﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔِﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﱴ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ؟‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻭﰱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻟﻨﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺳﻔ ٍﺮ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻏﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺍﻧﺰ ﹾﻝ ﻓﺎ ْﺟ َﺪ ْ‬ ‫ﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺠ َﺪ َ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻟﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﱰﻝ ﻓ َ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻬﻧﺎﺭﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺰ ﹾﻝ ﻓﺎ ْﺟ َﺪ ْ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻓﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻬﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻬﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2559‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻟﻸﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﳉ ْﺪﺡُ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻠ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺟﺪﺡ ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﻮِﻳﻖ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﲑ – ﻭﺍﻟﻠﱭ ﻭﳓﻮﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻂ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌِﺠﺪَﺡ ‪ :‬ﺧﺸﺒﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺭﺃﺳﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻳُﺤﺮﱠﻙ ﺍﳋﻠﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺎﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺮﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1954‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬

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‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2558‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻗﺒـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺃﺩﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻏﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫} ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﲞﲑ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺠﱠﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔِﻄـﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1957‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻻ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﻟﻔِﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﻳﺆﺧﱢﺮﻭﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺠﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ُ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 9809‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺣﺴـﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻـﺤﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﺇِﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺃﻣﱵ ﻋﻠﻰ ُﺳﻨﱠﱵ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺑ ِﻔ ﹾﻄﺮِﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮ َﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3510‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫} ِﺇﻧﱠﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﺷ َﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﹸﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧُﻌﺠﱢﻞ ﻓِﻄﺮﻧﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻧﺆﺧﺮ ﺳﺤﻮﺭﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﹶﳝﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﴰﺎﺋﻠﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪ ( 1905‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ‪ ( 3053‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫} ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﺗﺄﺧ ُﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﻭﺗﺒﻜ ُﲑ ﺍﻟﻔِﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﺷﺎﺭ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺟـ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺻﺒﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻣﺼﱠﻨﻔِﻪ ) ‪. ( 7610‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺠ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻄﺄﹶﻫﻢ ﺳُﺤﻮﺭﹰﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 238/4‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‬

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‫ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﱠﻔﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ‬ ‫] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ‬ ‫ﱄ ﺃﻋﺠﻠﹸﻬﻢ ﻓِﻄﺮﹰﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 7240‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺇ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻴﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﺍ ﱞﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺇﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻕ ﻭﺇﺩﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﻏﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﻋﺪ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻺﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﻻ ﻣﱪﺭ ﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻛﻲ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻣﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ) ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺃﻣﱵ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳُﻨﱵ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻨﺘﻈـﺮ ﺑ ِﻔﻄﹾﺮﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮ َﻡ ( ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ َﺗﺴْﻮ ﱠﺩ ﺻﻔﺤ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺄ ﱡﺧ َﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻏﺮﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻊ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﲢﺖ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺫﺭﻳﻌـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺃﻋﺠ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺇِﻓﻄﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﺒﻜﲑ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﳑﺎ ﺃﹸﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺟـﺰﺀ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻋﺠﻠﹸﻬﻢ ﻓﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﱡ ُﺩ ﰲ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ْﺪ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﻭﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﺃﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺧﲑﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺮﺕ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺫﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﻥ ﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺮﺕ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳُﺆﺧﱠﺮ ﺭﻓـ ُﻊ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻘﺐ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﻳﺆﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺜﺒﺘﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺆﺧﱢﺮ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻟﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻋﺪﻩ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﳐﺎﻟ ٌ‬

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‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﱢﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻓﻴﺘﻼﹶﻓﻮْﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻬﺑﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﺣﻖ ﻭﺃﻭﱃ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﱢﺒﺎﻉ ﳑﺎ ﺟﺮﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺐ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳُﺴﺘﺤ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﱡﻃﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻮﺟـﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘـﻞ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺒﱠﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤ ُ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺒﱠﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﳊﺒﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ َﻳ ِﺮ ْﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﻌﻠﻴ ﹲﻞ ﳍـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻵﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﻃﹶﻬـﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﺐ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﰒ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﰒ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﺒﱡﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻃﺎﻋ ﹰﺔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻠﹸﻬﻢ ﺗﻘﺪ َﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ َﻭﻓﹾﺮ ﹰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻘﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺃﺑـﺪﺍﻬﻧﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﳍﻀﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺴﻬﱢﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﲝﺎﺙ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺪﱢﻡ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺆﺧﱢﺮ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﱢﻞ ﻟﻌﻠﱠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺳﻜﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠـﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗُﺒﺤﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺩﻻﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﺘﻨـﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟ ﹶﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﹶﻃﻬُﻮﺭ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2355‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ُﺭﻃﹶﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﲤﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺣﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭُﻃﹶﺒﺎ ٍ‬

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‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2356‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴـﻦ‬ ‫َﺣﺴَﻮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻳﺐ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺤﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﻭﺃﻗﺮﱠﻩ ﺍﻟـﺬﻫﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳊﺴْﻮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺢ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳊﺴْﻮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﹸﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﻂ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷَﺮﺑ ٍﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3504‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺗﻌﺠﻴﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺮﻍ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﻋﺎﺀﻩ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻃﺎﻋ ﹰﺔ ﷲ ﻭﺗﻌﺒﱡﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻱ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻓ ٍﻢ ﻋﺎﺑ ٍﺪ ﻟﺮﺑﻪ ﺻﺎﺑ ٍﺮ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻄﺶ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺤﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ ﺩﻋﺎﺀﻩ ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻘ َ‬ ‫ﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻤﺪ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳُﺨﻠ َ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ِﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻋﻘ َ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﺠﺎﺏ ﺑﺈِﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣُﻠﹶﻴﻜ ﹶﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓِﻄﺮ ِﻩ ﻟﺪﻋﻮ ﹰﺓ ﻻ ﺗُﺮ ﱡﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣُﻠﹶﻴﻜ ﹶﺔ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱐ ﺃﺳﺄﻟﻚ ﺑﺮﲪﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﺳﻌﺖ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﻔﺮ ﱄ {‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1753‬ﻭﺳـﻨﺪﻩ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊـﺎﻛﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﱢ ﹾﻛ ُﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﻥ ﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﺄﺛﻮﺭ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﱢﻛ ِﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻋﻴ ِﺔ ﺍﳌﺄﺛﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻘ َ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﺟ ُﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﻤﹸﺄ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻠﱠﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭ ُ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪ ( 3315‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫] ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗـﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺯﻗﻚ ﺃﻓﻄـﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﰒ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻟﻚ ﺻﻤ ُ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 511/ 2‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2358‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻫـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ - :‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪ . -‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻫﺮﺓ ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻫﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﻞ ﻃﻌﺎﻣَﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺍ ُﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﱰﻟﱠﺖ ﻋﻠـﻴﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ) ‪ ( 1773‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﻆ ﺛﺎ ٍﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ... } ( 240/4‬ﻭﺻﻠﱠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜـﺔ { ﻓﻴﺴـﺘﺤ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ] ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻟﻚ ﺻﻤﺖ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺯﻗﻚ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻫـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﻤﺄ ﻭﺍﺑﺘﻠﱠﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻭﻕ ﻭﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ [ ﰒ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﺃﻳﻀـﹰﺎ ﲟـﺎ ﺷـﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺠﺒﲏ ﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ] ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱐ ﺃﺳﺄﻟﻚ ﺑﺮﲪﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻌﺖ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﻔﺮ ﱄ [ ﻓﻴﻀﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻋﺎﺋﻪ ﺇِﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻄﱠﺮ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻣَﻦ ﻓﻄﱠﺮ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺎﻝ ﺛﻮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺛﻮﺍﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﱠﻞ ﺛﻮﺍﺑﲔ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳُﻀـﺎﻋﻔﹸﻪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﺛﻮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳَﻨﻘﹸ َ‬ ‫ﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺳﺒﻌَﻤﺎﺋ ِﺔ ﺿﻌ ٍ‬

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‫] ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ [ ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻋَﻒ ﺣﺮﺹ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﳉﻬَﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻮ ِﺓ ﺻﺎﺋ ٍﻢ ﻟﻴﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣَﻦ ﻓﻄﱠﺮ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺃﺟﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ َﻳْﻨﻘﹸﺺُ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﱠﺰ ﻏﺎﺯﻳﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻭ َﺧﹶﻠﻔﹶﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺃﺟﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨ ﹸﻘ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻱ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 17158‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ) ‪1703‬‬ ‫( ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪ ( 2064‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﱠﺰ ﻏﺎﺯﻳﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﱠﺰ ﺣﺎﺟﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ َﺧﹶﻠﻔﹶﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻄﱠﺮ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺃﺟﻮﺭِﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻳُْﻨَﺘ ﹶﻘ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﹸﺟﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ { ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺃﺗﺎﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘ ﱠﺮﺑْﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﺃﻛِﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﺻﻠﱠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜـﺔ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1748‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ) ‪782‬‬ ‫( ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺗﺼﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﺃﻛِﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫َﻳ ﹾﻔﺮُﻏﻮﺍ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺸﺒﻌﻮﺍ { ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ) ﺃﻓﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﻞ ﻃﻌﺎﻣَﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺑﺮﺍ ُﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻠﱠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ( ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳـﺔ‬ ‫) ﻭﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ( ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ) ﻭﺗﱰﱠﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜﺔ ( ﻓﺼﻼﺓ ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻄﱠﺮ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻀ ﹲﻞ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺤﺮﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﻮﺓ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﻟﻴﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻘـﲑﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺋﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺏ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺜﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﻦ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﹶﻗﻞﱠ ﺍﻷﻛ ﹸﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ} ﻣَﻦ ﺃﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻠﻴُﺘ ﱠﻢ ﺻﻮﻣَﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈِﳕﺎ ﺃﻃﻌﻤﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻘﺎﻩ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 6669‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2716‬ﻫﻮ } ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﺄﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺏ ﻓﻠُﻴِﺘﻢﱠ ﺻﻮﻣَﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈِﳕﺎ ﺃﻃﻌﻤﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻘﺎﻩ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3521‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴـﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺤﻪ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪1990‬‬ ‫( ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺁﺧ َﺮ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎ َﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ { ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ ﺃﻛﻠﺖ ﻭﺷﺮﺑﺖ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﻚ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺳﻘﺎﻙ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2398‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﻻﻬﺗﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺼ َﻌ ٍﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺛﹶﺮﻳﺪ ﻓﺄﻛﻠ ْ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹸﰐ ﺑ ﹶﻘ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ َﻋﺮْﻗﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻡ ﺇِﺳﺤﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﹶﺻﻴﱯ ﻣﻦ ﻫـﺬﺍ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻳﺪﻱ ﻻ ﺃﹸﻗﺪﱢﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺃﹸﺅﺧﱢﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﱐ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺩﺩ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ُ‬

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‫ﻚ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ‪ :‬ﺍﻵﻥ ﺑﻌـﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﹶﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ{‬ ‫ﺖ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﲤﱢﻲ ﺻﻮﻣَﻚ ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺯﻕ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻟﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 27609‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟ َﻌﺮْﻕ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳊ ٌﻢ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﺪﻝ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺏ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺿﹰﺎ ﻛﺼﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﺻﻼ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻊ ﺃﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺇﻻ ﻓﺘﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺏ ﻓﺴﺪ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻭﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻮﺭ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺗﺴﺤﱠﺮﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1923‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺪﱢﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﺴﺤﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻋﻄﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺩﺧﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗ َﺪﻋُﻮﻩ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2162‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻦ َﻣ ْﻌﺪِﻱ ﹶﻛﺮِﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﻐـﺪﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 17324‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻟﻠﻄﱪﺍﱐ ) ‪ ( 505‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫} ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﱄ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﱐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﺤﻮﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﲰﱠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ { ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ ﻳﺼﻠﱡﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺤﱢﺮﻳﻦ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3468‬ﺑﺴـﻨﺪ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ُﻧﻌَﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ِﻧ ْﻌ َﻢ ﺳَـﺤﻮ ُﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺆﻣ ِﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤ ُﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱢﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3475‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪978‬‬ ‫( ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ} ﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﺮ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺁﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺗﺴﺤﱠﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﻟﻮ ُﲜﺮْﻋ ٍﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3476‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺣﺴﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻨﻔ ٍﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 426/2‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺗﺴﺤﱠﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺣَﺴﻮ ﹰﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺴﺤَﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2550‬‬ ‫ﺼﻞﹸ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻛﻠﺔ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫} ﹶﻓ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺴﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻋﻄﺎﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘﻪ ﻳﺼﱠﻠﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻭﳓﻦ ﻧﺘﺴﺤﱠﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺒﺎﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﲢﺼﻞ َﺑﺮَﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﲜﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳُﻔﻀﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﱡﻃ ِ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻓﺼ ﹸﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀ ٍﻞ ﻟﻠﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺻﻼﺓ‬ ‫‪76‬‬


‫ﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻜِﺘ ِﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺤﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻜﻔﻰ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻓﻀـﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﱡـﺤﻮﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍِ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ) ‪ ( 11102‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺍﻟﺴﱠﺤﻮﺭ ﺃﻛﹸﻠ ُﻪ ﺑﺮﻛ ﹲﺔ ﻓﻼ َﺗﺪَﻋﻮﻩ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﳚـﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪُﻛﻢ ﺟُﺮﻋ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻭﻣﻼﺋﻜﺘـﻪ ﻳﺼـﻠﱡﻮﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﺴـﺤﱢﺮﻳﻦ {‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺤﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻮﺭ ﻟﻴﺤﺼﱢﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻮﺍﺟﺐ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ] ﺑﺎﺏ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺇﳚﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺻﻠﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳُﺬﻛﹶﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ [ ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻗﹸﺪﺍﻣﺔ ] ) ﺃﺣـﺪﻫﺎ (‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ [ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟـﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﺃﺩﻟ ﹲﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﳝﺘﺪ ﺣﱴ ﻃﻠـﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﺃﻭ ﻗﹸﻞ ﺣﱴ ُﻳ َﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺍﳌﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧُﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺟﻮﺍ ُﺯ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﻻ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺷﻜﱠﻚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺤﱢﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻡ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺷﻜﱠﻪ ﰲ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛـﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺎ ﱡﻙ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﺾ ‪ { ...‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ– ﰲ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﺍﻑ – ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫} ‪ ...‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫‪77‬‬


‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﺪﻳﻖ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺛﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ – ﺃﻱ ﺃﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎ ﱢﻙ – ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﱡﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺧﻄﺄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻸﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻮ ِﺩ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ‪ ...‬ﻭﻛﹸﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺠ ِﺮ ﰒ ﺃﲤﱡﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ َﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴ ِﻞ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 187‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻟﺖ ) ﻭﻛﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻮ ِﺩ ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ُﻳْﻨﺰَﻝ ) ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ( ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺟﺎ ﹲﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺃﺣﺪُﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺭﺟﻠﻪ ﺍﳋﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺰﻝ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻌ ُﺪ ) ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ( ﻓﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1917‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺾ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﳌﺎ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻟﺖ ) ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﲢﺖ ﻭِﺳﺎﺩﰐ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻋِﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺳﻮ َﺩ ﻭﺇﱃ ﻋﻘﺎ ٍﻝ ﺃﺑﻴ َ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻮ ِﺩ ( ﻋﻤﺪ ُ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻌﻠﺖ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﺘﺒﲔ ﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺪﻭ ُ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺬﻛﺮﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻮﺍ ُﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﻴﺎ ُ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1916‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 4510‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺃﳘـﺎ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻴﻄﺎﻥ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﻟﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺑﺼﺮﺕ ﺍﳋﻴﻄﲔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺳـﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ { ﻭﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 4509‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ } … ﺇﻥ ﻭﺳﺎﺩﻙ ﺇِﺫﻥ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮ ُﺩ ﲢﺖ ﻭِﺳﺎﺩﺗﻚ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﺍﻷﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺮﻳﺾ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﺭﺟﻼﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺪُﳘﺎ ﻳﻌﺠﱢﻞ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﺆﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻳﺆﺧﺮ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻌﺠﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪78‬‬


‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﱡﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺠﻞ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻮﺭ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴـﻌﻮﺩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻨﻊ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪( 2158‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻛﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1919/1918‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﺴﻠ ٌﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱢﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﲰﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪُﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺍ َﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹِﻧﺎﺀُ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻀﻌﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2350‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺮﱠﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ﺃﻋﺠـ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻄﺄﹶﻫﻢ ﺳُﺤﻮﺭﹰﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 238/4‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫} ﻻ ﳝﻨﻌ ﱠﻦ ﺃﺣﺪَﻛﻢ – ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ – ﺃﺫﺍ ﹸﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺤﻮﺭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ِﻟَﻴ ْﺮ ِﺟ َﻊ ﻗﺎِﺋ َﻤﻜﹸﻢ ﻭِﻟﻴَُﻨﱢﺒ َﻪ ﻧﺎِﺋ َﻤﻜﹸﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ – ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻭﻃﺄﻃﺄ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ – ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺯﻫﲑ ﺑﺴﺒﱠﺎﺑﺘﻴﻪ ﺇِﺣـﺪﺍﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺪﳘﺎ ﻋﻦ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﴰﺎﻟﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 621‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ َﺪ ﻓﺘﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻴـﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻟَﻴ ْﺮ ِﺟ َﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻤَﻜﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴُﻌﻄ َﻲ ﺍﳌﹸﺘﻬ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻬﺠ ُﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ِ :‬ﺇﻧﱠـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺸ َﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﹸﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧُﻌﺠﱢﻞ ﺇِﻓﻄﺎﺭَﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺆﺧﱢﺮ ﺳﺤﻮﺭﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﹶﳝﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﴰﺎﺋﻠﻨﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ) ‪ ( 2654‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪ .‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﻣـﱴ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ؟ [ ﺑﻨﺪ ‪ 6‬ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﺣ ﱠﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻚ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 7367‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﺸ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻜ َ‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺖ ﰲ ﺣِﺠﺮ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜ ٍﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﺪﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻠﻰ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﻞ ﻃﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﰒ ﺭﺟﻌﺖ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺮﺝ ﻓﺎﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﻞ ﻃﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ؟‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻵﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄْﺑِﻠﻐْﲏ‬ ‫ﻓﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﰒ ﺭﺟﻌﺖ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﲪ ُﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪َ :‬ﻫْﻴ َ‬ ‫ﺳَﺤﻮﺭﻱ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 166/2‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ) ‪ ( 166/2‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﲪ ﱠﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﰊ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﺋ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺴﺤﱠﺮ َ‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﳊﹸﺬﻳﻔﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﱂ ﺗﻄﻠﻊ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2152‬ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -13‬ﻋﻦ َﺳﻤُﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ُﺟْﻨﺪُﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻻ ﻳﻐﺮﱠﻧﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺤﻮﺭﻛﻢ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﻴﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﲑ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﲪﱠﺎﺩ ﺑﻴﺪﻳﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﻌﺘﺮِﺿـﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2546‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -14‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﺪﱠﺛﻪ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺗﺴﺤﱠﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﻢ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﺭ ﲬﺴﲔ‬ ‫‪80‬‬


‫ﺃﻭ ﺳﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺁﻳﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 575‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -15‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﺒﻼﻝ } ﺃﻧﺖ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻝ ﺗُﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺒ ُﺢ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺒﺢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺢ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺮِﺿﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺑﺴَﺤﻮﺭﻩ ﻓﺘﺴﺤﱠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺃﻣﱵ ﲞﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﱠﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺠﱠﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔِﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪. ( 21839‬‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 1‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ ) ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ( ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﺭﺩﱞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺤﱢﺮ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻴﱡﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ ، 2‬ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺪﻱ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺎﰎ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻔﺴﱢﺮﻳﻦ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺤﱢﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺳَﺤﻮﺭﻩ ﺣـﱴ ﻳﻨﻘﺸـﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛ ﱠﻞ ﳏﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺷﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋـﻦ ﺍﻷﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﱢﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺤﱢ ُﺮ ﺳُﺤﻮﺭﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﻠﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺑﺮﺑﻊ ﺳـﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻔﺮﻍ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺳَﺤﻮﺭﻩ ﻗﺒﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺠﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋ ﹶﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﺎﻋﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻳﺴﻬﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﻳﺴﻬﺮﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺒﻮﺍ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻤﺪﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻬﻢ ﻓﺄﻛﻠﻮﻩ ﰒ ﻧـﺎﻣﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺴﻮﺍ ﻗﹸﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻨﺔ ﻭﺇِﻥ ﻟﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﹸﺳﻮ ﹰﺓ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 4‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪. 9‬‬

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‫‪ -3‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻼ ﹰﻻ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺫﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓـﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺫﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳُﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﻭﻣﻸ ﺟﺎﻧﱯ ﺍﻷﻓﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﺮِﺿﹰﺎ ﳝﻨ ﹰﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﺮ ﹰﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪْﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـﻮﻱ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﺒﻠـﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻦ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻧﺆﺫﱢﻥ ﺃﺫﺍﻧﲔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻻ ﻧﺼﻠﱢﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺼﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺄﺫﺍﻥ ﺑﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻻ ﳝﻨﻌﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺳَﺤﻮﺭﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻨﻌﻨﺎ ﻣﻨـﻪ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺄﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻧﲔ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺤﱢﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻧﲔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﺤﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩﻟﱠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﰲ ] ‪ 5‬ﻭ ‪ 8‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪ 13‬ﻭ ‪ [ 15‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﻍ ﻣﻦ ﺳَﺤﻮﺭﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺪﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪. 14‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ‪ :‬ﺇِﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﲰﻊ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﰲ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻟﻘﻤ ﹲﺔ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﳋﺎﺋ ٍ‬ ‫ﳊﺪﱢﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺑ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺄﻛﻠﹾﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﹾﻴﺸﺮﺑْﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈِﻥ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻳُﻌﺠﱢﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺫﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺩ ﱠﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪. 6‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺇﻥ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺆﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﲤﺴﱡﻜﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻭﻃﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺜﻮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳُﻌﺮَﻑ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺄﻛﻠﻮﻥ ﺳَﺤﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟـﺎﺀ ﻓﻌـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﻠ َﻬﺪْﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ] ‪ 7‬ﻭ ‪ 10‬ﻭ ‪ [ 11‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 11‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗِﺴ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺴﺤﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺪﻭ ٌ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﻟ ﱡ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 15‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ) ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍﻝ ﺃﻣﱵ ﲞﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﺤﻮﺭ ﻭﻋﺠﱠﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻔِﻄﺮ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺑﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ . 12‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﱄ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘَﻨ ُﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﰲ ﻗﻮﳍﻤﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇِﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺤﱢﺮ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻠـﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺸـﻤﺲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﻃﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﻗﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳚﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻧ ّ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﺠ ٌﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻓ ٌﻖ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﱂ ﺗﻄﻠﻊ ( ﻭﳓﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺎﺭﱠﺓ ﺇِﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸـﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ِﳛﻞﱠ ﺑﻴﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ ) 3‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ( ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺫﺍﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺃﺣﺪُﳘﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟـﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻜ ُﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﻔﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ :‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﳌﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﱂ ﺗﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﻣﺸﻘ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑـﻦ ﺍﻟـﺰﺑﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻴﱢﺐ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺸﻮﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨـﺬﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺴ َﺮ ‪ { ...‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺑﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻴُ ْ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻠﹶﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﺴﺮُﳘﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ‪ ...‬ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿـﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺅﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻧﺘﺒﲔ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺩﻋﻮﻧﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺃﻥ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﻷﺳْﻠﻤﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﺃﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ؟ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﻴَﺮ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ –‬ ‫ﺍَ‬

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‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﺼﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﹶﺄ ﹾﻓﻄِﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1943‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣُﺮﺍﻭِﺡ ﻋﻦ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻤﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺡ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﺟ ُﺪ ﰊ ﻗﻮ ﹰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺟُﻨﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻼ ﺟُﻨـﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻓﺤﺴ ٌﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2629‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺍﻷَﺳﻠﻤﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﻠﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﹶﻇﻬْـ ٍﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﹸﻋﺎِﻟﺠُﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﹸﺃ ﹾﻛ ِﺮﻣُﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻪ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺻﺎﺩﻓﲏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ – ﻳﻌﲏ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺷﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻫﻮﻥ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﹸﺅﺧﱢﺮﻩ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ َﺩﻳْﻨﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻳﺎ ﲪـﺰﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﺌ َ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻓﺄﹶﺻﻮﻡُ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻈ ُﻢ ﻷﺟﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﹸﻓﻄﺮ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2403‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻤﻲ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ } ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ﹶﺃ ْﺳﺮُﺩُ ﺍﻟﺼﻮ َﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺄﺻﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2626‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻏﺰﻭﻧﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ َﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻣﻀﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﱠﺎ ﻣَﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻨﱠﺎ ﻣَﻦ ﺃﻓﻄـﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠـﻢ َﻳﻌِـﺐ‬ ‫ﺴ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ِﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﳌﻔﻄ ُﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2615‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ َﻳﻌِﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﳌﻔﻄ ُﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 1947‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺧﺮﺟﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺳﻔﺎﺭﻩ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺣﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎ‬ ‫‪87‬‬


‫ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺑ ِﻦ َﺭﻭَﺍﺣﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1945‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 8‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻗﺪ ﻇﹸﱢﻠ ﹶﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺳﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺯﺣﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1946‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪ ( 2260‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻓﺎﻗﺒﻠﻮﻫﺎ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ } ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ { ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1665‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1664‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 24079‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹶﻔ ِﺮ { ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ْﻣِﺒ ﱢﺮ ﺍﻣﺼِﻴﺎﻡُ ﰲ ﺍ ْﻣ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻛﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﻛﻌﺒﹰﺎ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﻫﻮ ﳝﲏ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ) ﺃﻡ ( ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺪﻝ ) ﺃﻝ ( ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 985‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄـﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 9‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻻ َﺗﻌِﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2609‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ) ‪ ( 2677‬ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ } ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﹸﻃﻌْﻤ ﹶﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺇﺫ ﺟﺎﺀﻩ ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹِﰒ ﻣﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺟﺒﺎ ِﻝ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 5392‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪88‬‬


‫‪ -11‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﻐﺰﻭ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﺪُ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻄـﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ َﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺍﳌﻔﻄ ُﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻗﻮ ﹰﺓ ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴ ٌﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ ﺿﻌﻔﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴ ٌﻦ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2618‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻀﺐ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﻋﻦ ﹶﻗ َﺰﻋَﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﹸﺪﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳﺎﻓﺮﻧﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﳓﻦ ﺻِﻴﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﱰﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﱰ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺩﻧﻮﰎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻭﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄ ُﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻟﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﺭﺧﺼ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺼﺒﱢﺤﻮ ﻋﺪﻭﱢﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄ ُﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﱰ ﹰﻻ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ُﻣ َ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻢ ﻓﺄﹶﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ َﻋﺰْﻣ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺘُﻨﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2624‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -13‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺻﺎﺣ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻨﱠﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻣﻨﱠﺎ ﺍ ﹸﳌﻔﹾﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﱰﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﱰ ﹰﻻ ﰲ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﺣﺎ ﱟﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮُﻧﺎ ِﻇ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺼﻮﱠﺍ ُﻡ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻀﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ َﺳ ﹶﻘﻮْﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﱠﺎ ﻣَﻦ ﻳﺘﱠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﹶﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﻟ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2622‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -14‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ُﺗ ْﺆﺗَﻰ ﺭُ َﺧﺼُﻪُ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ُﺗ ْﺆﺗَﻰ ﻋﺰﺍﺋ ُﻤ ُﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ ) ‪( 3568‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ‪ ( 2742‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﳛ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺗُﺆﺗﻰ ﺭُ َﺧﺼُﻪُ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺆﺗﻰ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺘُﻪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻀﻤْﺮﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﺪﻣ ُ‬ ‫‪ -15‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻷَﺧﺮﺝ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻐِﺪﺍﺀ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻔ ٍﺮ ﻓﺴﻠﱠﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺒ ُ‬ ‫‪89‬‬


‫ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﺎﻝ ﹸﺃ ْﺧِﺒﺮْﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2269‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ – ﺍﻟﻜﻌﱯ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2408‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺷـﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻟﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﳍﻤﺎ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪَﳘﺎ ‪ { ...‬ﻭﺣﺴﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪( 2274‬‬ ‫} ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺒﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ { ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻷﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﺧـﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﻛﱢﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻢ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻓﺄﹶﻓﻄﺮ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻫﻲ ﺭﺧﺼ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻬﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻼ ﺟُﻨﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺃ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺴ ٌﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻳﺎ ﲪﺰﺓ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) َﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺭُﺧﺼ ﹶﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺌ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﰒ ﻣﺜ ﹸﻞ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻗـﻮ ﹰﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈِﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺣﺴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺿﻌﻔﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﹶﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈِﻥ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺣﺴـﻦ (‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻤﺰﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻤﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺟﱠﻪ ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺘﻪ ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﺓ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺟـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﹶﺃﺟِﺪ ﰊ ﻗﻮ ﹰﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻓﻬﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺟُﻨﺎﺡ ؟ ( ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻔﻀﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺎﺀﻩ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ‪،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻭﺃﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺷﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻫﻮﻥ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺃ َﺅ ﱢﺧﺮَﻩ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪90‬‬


‫َﺩﻳْﻨﹰﺎ ( ﻓﺰﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺟﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺑﻘﻲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻫـﻮ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺃﺗﻰ ﲪﺰﺓ ﲝﺠﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺭﺍﻏﺒـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ) ﺇﱐ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﹶﺳ ُﺮ ُﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ( ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﺻُﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ( ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝﱡ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﳑﺎﺛﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻔﻄﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺩﺭﺟـ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﲡﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻠ ﱟﻲ ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺟﻮﺍ ُﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﻀـﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻷ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﱐ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﻳﺴﺮ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﹸﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ } ‪ ...‬ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﺴ َﺮ ‪ {...‬ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ُﺧﻴﱟﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻳﺴﺮﳘﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫)‪ ( 3560‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ُﺧﻴﱢﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺃﻳﺴﺮَﳘﺎ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ { ...‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﻭﳕﺎ ﺇﰒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺧ ﹸﺬ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺧ ﹶﺬ ﺑﺎ ﹶﳍﺪْﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﺜﻮﺭ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﻔﺴﱢﺮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫) ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ( ؟ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ؟ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ‪:‬‬

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‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻬ َﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻀﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﻔﺮ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺣﱴ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﳒﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟـﱪ ﻟﻐـ ﹰﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟ ﱢﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻮﺍ ٍﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﹶﺃِﺛ َﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ )‪2260‬‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳏﻤﻮ ﹲﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﰉ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫( ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻓﺎﻗﺒﻠﻮﻫﺎ { ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟِﺒ ﱡﺮ ﻫﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﹸﻓﺴﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺪﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺑِﺮﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ُﺗ ﹸﻘﺮﱢ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟِﺒ ﱡﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﻘﻪ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻨﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﹸﻓﺴﱢﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ِﺑ ﱡﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﹸﻓﺴﱢﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻼﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﳋﲑ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺎ ٍﻥ ﻳﺸﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﲑ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﱪ ﺧﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﲑ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺟﺎﺯﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﺿﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻣﺎ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺑﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺇﰒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻏﲑ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﻔﺮ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﺗﻜـﺮﱠﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ) ﺻُﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ( ﺃﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺒﺎﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤـﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺀ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻀﺎﻓﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫‪92‬‬


‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ ) 15‬ﺗﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﹸ ْﺧِﺒ ْﺮ َﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ( ...‬ﺃﻱ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﻳـﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺎﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﲨﻌﻨﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺇِﳘﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺮﱠﺭ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﲦﺔ ﺳﺆﺍ ﹲﻝ ﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 8‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻗﺒﻠﻮﻫﺎ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 10‬ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻹﰒ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ( ؟ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ؟‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻣ ٌﺮ ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﺘﱠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺿﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻐﻲ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺗﺪﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 8‬ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫) ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻓﺎﻗﺒﻠﻮﻫﺎ ( ﻭﻣﻌﻨـﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﺮﺿﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺑﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ‬ ‫ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹸﻞ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮ ُﻙ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 10‬ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﲢﺬﻳ ٌﺮ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﳌﻦ ﺑﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺼ ﱠﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻣُ ِ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺨﺖ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 10 ، 8‬ﻳﻌﻀﺪﺍﻥ ﻭﻳﱠﺘﺴِـﻘﺎﻥ ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺧﻴﱠﺮﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣـﺎ ﻓﻬﻤـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 5‬ﻓﻠﻢ َﻳﻌِﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﳌﻔﻄ ُﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 6‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳَﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻄـﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 9‬ﻻ َﺗ ِﻌ ْ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 11‬ﻓﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳚ ُﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻄـﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪93‬‬


‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ُﺗﺆْﺗﻰ ﺭُ َﺧﺼُﻪُ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ( ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 14‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﳛ ﱡ‬ ‫ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ُﺗﺆْﺗﻰ ﻋﺰﺍﺋ ُﻤ ُﻪ ( ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ) ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺆﺗَﻰ ﺭُ َﺧﺼُﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗُـ ْﺆﺗَﻰ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﳝﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﺴﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻴﺰﺓ ﻹﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺤﺐﱡ ﻛﺤ ﱢ‬ ‫ﻋﺰﺍﺋﻤُﻪ ( ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ُﺗ َ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺎﺿﺪ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻧ ٌﺪ ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺎﺭﱠﺓ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﻜﺘﺔ ﻻ ﺃﺭﺍﻫﺎ ﲣﻔﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﳜﻴﱢﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻳُﺪﺧﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﺣـﺪَﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻋـ ﱠﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﻭﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ﺑﺸﻜ ٍﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﳛ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﺧﺬ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﺬﺍﻙ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﱠﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻠﻔﻈﺔ ) ﳛﺐ ( ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﻧﻔﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭُﺿﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻣﻠﺘﺰﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺫﺍﻙ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘـﻰ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 7‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋ ٌﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﺣﺔ ( ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 9‬ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ( ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﺭ ﲟﻮﺟﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﺄﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻒ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺜﲔ‬ ‫‪ 13 ، 12‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪: 12‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﺫﻛﱠﺮﻫﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪94‬‬


‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﳍﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﱠﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﳍﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﹶﻬﻢ ﺣﺎ ﹸﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍ ٍﺩ ﻟﻠﻘﺘﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺬﻛﲑ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻷﺣـﻮﺍﻝ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺿﻌﻔﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻓﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻗﹸﺒﻴ ﹶﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺟﺰ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺟﺰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺈﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮﺝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺴِﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠـ ٌﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺎﻫﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪: 13‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻣ ٌﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﺧ ﹲﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺼﻮﱠﺍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺮ ﺍﺷﺘﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺣﱴ ﺳﻘﻂ ﺍﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻳﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺒﻴﱢﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺬﻛﱢﺮﹰﺍ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻘﺘﻀﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﻓﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻘﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻤ ﱠﺮ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﻮﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ) ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﻄـﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺮ ( ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻴﱢﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻧﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﻷﺧﺬﻩ ﺑﺮﺧﺼﻪ‬ ‫‪95‬‬


‫ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮﻳﻦ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺿﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ َﺳ ﹶﻘﻮْﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺫﺍﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ – ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﺟﺮ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺟﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺗـﺎ ﱟﻡ ﺗﻌﺎﺿـ ُﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺮ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺎﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺑﻮﺿﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺗﱠﺴﺎﻗﹸﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻀﺎﻓﺮُﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻛﺎﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻀ ﹸﻞ ﺃﺣ ُﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﻵﺧ َﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻔ ُ‬ ‫–‬

‫ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﻨﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺁﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪ ِﻡ ﺟﻮﺍ ِﺯ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮ ِﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟ ٍﺔ ﻭﺷﺒﻬﺎﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻤ ْﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ َﺳ ﹶﻔ ٍﺮ ﻓ ِﻌ ﱠﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﹸﺃﺧَﺮ ‪.{ ...‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 184‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎ َﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﻭﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﺪِﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜـﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻷَﺣﺪﺙ ﻓﺎﻷَﺣﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌ ِﻞ ﺭﺳﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1709‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻜ ِﺪﻳْﺪ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﹸﻛ َﺪﻳْﺪ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﲔ ﻣﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﹸﻗ َﺪﻳْﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺑُﺮُ ٍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ‪ 48‬ﻣﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺧـﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺍﻟ َﻐﻤِﻴ ِﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺩﻋـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﺣﱴ ﺑﻠﻎ ﹸﻛﺮﺍ َ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻓﺮﻓﻌﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰒ ﺷﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺑ ﹶﻘ َﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻌُﺼﺎ ﹸﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻌُﺼﺎ ﹸﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2610‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2263‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻓﺒﻠﻐﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺪ ﺷ ﱠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺑﻘﺪﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻓﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ‪ {...‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2611‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺑﻘﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺷ ﱠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﻌﻠ َ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻗﺪ ﻇﹸﱢﻠ ﹶﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺳﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺯِﺣﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1946‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻛﺎﳌﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪. ( 1666‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2284‬ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ِﺇِﺑ ٍﻞ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ – ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﻌْﱯ – ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﺗﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘُﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎﱐ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﱄ ﹸﺃﺧِﺬ ْ‬ ‫ﺃﹸﺩﻥ ﺃﹸ ْﺧِﺒ ْﺮ َﻙ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮ َﻡ ﻭﺷﻄ َﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2276‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 15‬ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻣﻌﲎ ِﻋﺪﱠﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺪﱠﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﹸﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﻛ ٌﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫) ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ﻓﻌﺪﱠﺓ ( ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﳐﺮﺝ ﺍﻷﻋ ﱢﻢ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺄﺕ ﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 2‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ) ﺧﺮﺝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﺎ َﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﻭﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻜﹶﺪﻳﺪ ﰒ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ( ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻻ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔ ٌﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 9‬ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪97‬‬


‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ) ﻓﻜﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻷَﺣﺪﺙ ﻓﺎﻷَﺣﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﻮ ﹲﻝ ُﻣ ْﺪ َﺭ ٌ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ) ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ( ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﻠ ٍﻢ‬ ‫ُﻣ ْﺪﺭَﺟ ﹰﺔ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 12‬ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ) ﰒ ﺭﺃﻳﺘُﻨﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ( ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪ ( 2035‬ﻋﻘﺐ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻳﺚ ) ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋُﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ( ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺸـﻚ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﺭَﺿ ﹲﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺳـﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﹸـﺪﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ) ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺓ ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻘﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﺗﺆﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﻓﻀﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻨﻌﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺑﻘﺪﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺃﹶﻣﺎﻣَﻬﻢ ﰒ ﺷﺮﺏ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺼﻮْﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﻋ َ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ) 10‬ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﰒ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ) ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ( ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﱠﻴﻨﱠﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﻻﻟﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻧﻌﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ) ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻛﺎﳌﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ ( ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺑﻮ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ٍﻭ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﱠﺘ ﹶﻔ ٌﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻔﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟـﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ) ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺷﻄﹶﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ( ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺑّﻴﻨﱠﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﻻﻟﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻧﻌﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲰﱠﻮﻫﺎ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺷﺒﻬﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧَﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻼ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺩﺍ ﹰﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺠﻬﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺬﹰﺍ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 7‬ﺍﳌﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ) ﻭﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ َﺭﻭَﺍﺣﺔ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ 12‬ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ﰒ ﺭﺃﻳﺘُﻨﺎ ﻧﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻌ َﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ( ﻭﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﻨﺎ ﺑﺼﺪﺩﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ) ﻓﻜﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷَﺣﺪﺙ ﻓﺎﻷَﺣﺪﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ( ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻬﺪ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻭﻳﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺩﺍ ﹰﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﻭﻳﺪﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺪ ُﺭ ﻣﺴﲑ ِﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﳛﲕ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻣﻜﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰒ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﰒ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌﺰَﱐ ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﺎﱐ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﺎﻕ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ‪ :‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻠـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧُﻘﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﳌﻦ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺟﻮﺍ ُﺯ ﺍﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ُﺑﺮُﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌـﲔ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ .‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺃﰊ َﺑﺼْـﺮ ﹶﺓ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﹸﻛﻠﹶﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺫﹸﻫ ٍﻞ ﺍﳊﻀﺮﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻋُﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟُﺒﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺭﻛﺒ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐِﻔﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﻔﻴﻨ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﹸﺴﻄﺎﻁ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻓﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﱠﺏ ﻏﺪﺍﺀﻩ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻗﺘـﺮﺏ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻦ ُﺳﻨﱠﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﻟﺴﺖ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺕ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ َﺑﺼْﺮﺓ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻏﺒ َ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ؟ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ) ‪ ( 1714‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪ ( 2040‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻟﺴﺖ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﹸﻛﻠﹶﻴﺐ ﺑﻦ ﺫﹸﻫ ٍﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻋُﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟُﺒﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺩِﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺳﻔﺮﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﻠﺘُﻪ ﻭﻟﺒﺲ ﺛﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺑﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﺄﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ‪ُ :‬ﺳﻨﱠﺔ ؟ ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ُﺭﺣﱢﻠ ْ‬ ‫ُﺳﻨﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﻛﺐ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 796‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ [ ﻭﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﹶﺪﻳﲏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﺟﺎﱐ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇِﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺭﻏﻢ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﻥ ِﺩﺣْﻴﺔ ﺑ َﻦ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺔ ُﻋﻘﹾﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻄﺎﻁ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻧﺎﺱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻣـﺮﹰﺍ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺮﻩ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻳ ُ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻇﻦ ﺃﱐ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺭﻏﺒﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ َﻫﺪْﻱ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﺻﺎﻣﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻗﺒﻀﲏ ﺇﻟﻴـﻚ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬

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‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2413‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﱯ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﹶﺪﻳﲏ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻼﺝ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺠـﻮﱠﺯ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ . ( 436/2‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﺮﻳﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﻳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻮﺕ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﺳﻨﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺍﶈﺪﱢﺛﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳜﺮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻻ َﻳ ﹾﻘﺼُﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2414‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻜﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻳﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻓﺮﺍﺳﺦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ 12‬ﻣﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻛﻠﱡﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﺘﺘﺮﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﱠﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻓﻴﺘﻘﻮﻯ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﱢﻳﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪﻩ ﺿﻌﻔﹰﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳜﺮﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﺛﲏ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺼﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺣ ﱢﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﱠﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﺴﻨﺎ ﺑﺼﺪﺩ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺮﱢﻡ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻻ ﳚﻴﺰﻩ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬

‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻳُﺮﺧﱠﺺ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑّﻴﻨﱠﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﹶﺄ ْﺧﺬﹸ ﺍﻟﺸﺨ ِ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺬﹸﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻧﺺﱞ ﺻﺤﻴ ٌﺢ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺴ ٌﻦ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 184‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻤ ْﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔ ٍﺮ ﻓ ِﻌ ﱠﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﹸ َﺧ َﺮ ‪ { ...‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﱂ ﻳُﻘﻴﱠﺪ ﲟﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋُﺬﺭ ﳚﻴﺰ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪101‬‬


‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﺪِﻳﺪ – ﻭﺍﻟ ِﻜﺪَﻳﺪ ﻋ ُ‬ ‫ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻣﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻛﹸﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟ َﻐﻤِﻴﻢ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍ ٍﺩ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﻋُﺴﻔﺎﻥ ﻳﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ – ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﻴﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺴﲔ ﻣﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ] ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ [ ﻓﻼ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﹰﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻫﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺃﻋﻴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻗﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﻻ ﻳُﺤﺘ ﱡﺞ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺮﺭ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺑُﻌ َﺪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻻ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺧﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﱂ ﺗﺄﺕ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﻄﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺳﻔﺮﻩ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻛـﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ َﻳ ِﺮ ْﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳔﻠﺺ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﳛﻖ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ ﺫﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺣﺎﺋﻞ ﳛﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﱂ ﳛﺪﱢﺩ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻛﻌﺬ ٍﺭ ﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻋﺬﺭ ﻟﻺﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻈﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺎﰊ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﺄﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋُـﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺳﻔ ٌﺮ ﻓﻼ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻭﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﲟﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻧﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻏ ُﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔ ُﺮ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻧﻴﺘُﻪ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﱠﺩﻭﺍ ﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻛﺄﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺑُﺮُ ٍﺩ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄﻭﺍ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻫﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﳍﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻋﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﺟﺎﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪102‬‬


‫ﺑﻘﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺳﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﻣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ؟ ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠـﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻔﺮﹰﺍ ﻳُﺒﺎﺡ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻄ ُﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﻠـﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼـﺮﻫﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﰲ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺡ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﺒﻠﺪﻩ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺿﻪ ﺗﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻣﻴﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮﹰﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ ﻭﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺑﻠـﺪﻩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻷﻛﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻉ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﳏﺘﺠﲔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﲣﺘﻠـﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﻀﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻏﻠﺐ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﰲ ﺣﻀ ٍﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺪَﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﺪِﻳﺪ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ . 2‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﰲ ﻛﹸﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻐَﻤﻴﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2608‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﺎﻡ ﺣﱴ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋُﺴْﻔﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺑﺈﻧﺎ ٍﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﺏ ﻓﺸﺮﺑﻪ ﻬﻧﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻟﲑﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻜﺔ ‪ { ...‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮ ُ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﳊﻀﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻏﻠـﺐ‬

‫ﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﻐﺮﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻟـﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳊﻀﺮ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﻷﻋﺠ ُ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺬ ٌﺭ ﻣﺒﻴ ٌﺢ ﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺃﻣ ٍﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤ ٌﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺣﻜ َﻢ ﺃ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻈ ٍﺮ ﰲ ﺗﻘﺪﱡﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗـﺄﺧﱡﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪103‬‬


‫ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻋﺘِﻪ ﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻷﺻ ِﻞ ﻭﻓﻮ ِﺯ ﺃﺣﺪِﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺭﻋ ِﺔ !! ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻬﻴﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻭﺃﺧ ﹶﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻸﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ !! ﻭﻏﻔﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻨﺎ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑـﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺽ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃ ﹶﺓ ﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﻲﺀ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻄﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ﻇﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻗﺪ ﻏﺮﺑﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻐﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﺼﺤﻮﺍﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺧﺎﻓﺘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻟﺪﻳﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮﺗﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻼ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻـﻴﺎ ٍﻡ ﻣﻔـﺮﻭﺽ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﱂ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻟﻴﻠﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ } ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﹸﻛﺘِﺐ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻓﻤـ ْﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ِﻣ ْﻦ ﹶﻗْﺒﻠِﻜﻢ ﻟﻌﱠﻠﻜﹸﻢ ﺗﺘﱠﻘﻮﻥ ‪ Ο‬ﺃﹶﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻌْﺪﻭﺩﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﹸِﺘ َ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔ ٍﺮ ﻓ ِﻌ ﱠﺪﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﹶﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﺃﹸ َﺧ َﺮ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳُﻄﻴﻘﹸﻮﻧﻪ ﻓِﺪﻳـ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌـﺎ ُﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺴْﻜﲔ ﻓﻤ ْﻦ ﺗﻄ ﱠﻮ َ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧ ٌﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺧ ٌﲑ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ { ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ 184 ، 183‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔ ٍﺮ‬ ‫‪106‬‬


‫ﻓ ِﻌ ﱠﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﹶﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﺃﹸ َﺧ َﺮ { ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻀﻴﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﻬﺗﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺷﺮﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﺍﳋﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ [ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ - 2‬ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻀﻴﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﻬﺗﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻓﺘـﺮﰐ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﻔ ٌﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﱂ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ‬ ‫] ﺃﲨﻊ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﳍﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﺍﻥ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺰﺋﹾﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ [ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻀﻴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺎﻣﺘﺎ ﱂ ُﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺳﺄﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻟﺴﺖ ﲝَﺮﻭﺭﻳ ٍﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﲏ ﺃﺳﺄﻝ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﺣَﺮﻭﺭﻳ ﹲﺔ ﺃﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻨﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻨُﺆﻣَﺮ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧُﺆﻣَﺮ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪( 763‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ [‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﳓﻴﺾ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ . ( 1670‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2318‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫} ‪ ...‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﳓﻴﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰒ ﻧﻄﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﻘﻀـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ { ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﰲ ﲝـﺚ ] ﺻـﻮﻡ ﺍﳊـﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ [ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ - 3‬ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﻲﺀ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹِﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﻤﱡﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﱠﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺇِﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻀـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﺭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ – ﺃﻱ ﺗﻘﻴﺄ ﺭﻏﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ -‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻌ ﱠﻤﺪْﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻴﺄ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﺭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ [ ﺫﻛـﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 219/4‬ﰒ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ) ﻣﻦ ﺫﺭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻓـﻼ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ( ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻤﱠﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣَﻦ ﻏﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲ ُﺀ ﻓﻘﺎﺀ ﺭﻏﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﺎﺀ ﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧُﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺀ ﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻠﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺗﺪﺣﻀﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﱂ ﺗﺮﺗﱢﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻧُﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ } ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺣﺪﱠﺛﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺖ ﹶﺛﻮْﺑﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺠﺪ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇِﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ﻓﻠﻘﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﺀ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺒﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻭَﺿﻮ َﺀ ُﻩ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2381‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬

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‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺘﺼـﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺢ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﺃﹸﰐ ﲟﺎ ٍﺀ ﻓﺘﻮﺿﺄ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 7548‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣﻦ ﹶﺫ َﺭ َﻋﻪُ‬ ‫ﺾ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪( 2380‬‬ ‫ﻗﻲ ٌﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻴﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺤﻪ ﻭﺃﻗﺮﱠﻩ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ [ ﻭﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ‪ ...‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﺭﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ) ﻗﺎﺀ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ( ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ) ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ( ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﺻﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻗﺎﺀ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﺎﺀ ﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﺍﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩﺗﻪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﻛﺪﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫ﺾ ( ﻭﻣِﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ) ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻴﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ) ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ( ﻭﻻ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﱠﺤﻮﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﱠﻨﻮﻩ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﻣﻌﻨـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﺻ ﱠﺢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻀﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﻟﻔ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻋﻤﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻏﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﺘﻘﻲﺀ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠـﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺗﺒﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﻲﺀ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ َﻳ ِﺮ ْﺩ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺫِﻛ ٌﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪109‬‬


‫‪ - 4‬ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ﻇﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻗﺪ ﻏﺮﺑﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﱪ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋِﺴﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻏﺮﺑﺖ ‪ُ ،‬ﻣﺴْﺘﺪﻟﱢﲔ ﲟﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﹸﺧﺮِﺟ ْ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻗﺪ ﻏﺎﺑﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻠﺒﺜﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻠﱠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺳﺤﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻃﺎﻟﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﲡﺎﻧﻔﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺇﰒ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎ ُ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 441-440/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 7395‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ } … ﻭﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻀﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﻭِﻟ َﻢ ؟ ﻓﻮﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﲡﻨﱠﻔﻨﺎ ﻹﰒ { ﻭﺍﻟﻌِﺴﺎﺱ ‪ :‬ﲨﻊ ﻋُـ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺡ ﻭﺍﻹِﻧﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺇﳚﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺭﺟﱠﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ] ﺇﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﹸﻏﻢﱠ ﻫﻼ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﻔﻄﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﺬﺍ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺃﻓﻄﺮﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻮ َﻡ ﻏﻴ ٍﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻃﻠﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ ﳍﺸﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﹸﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ؟‬ ‫ﻀﻮْﺍ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ؟ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ُ :‬ﺑﺪﱞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ َﻣ ْﻌﻤَﺮ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﻫﺸﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ﹶﺃﹶﻗ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1959‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1674‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫‪ ... } :‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺑِﺸﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﺸﱠﻴ ﹰﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮ َﻡ ﻏﻴ ٍﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻗﺪ ﻏﺎﺑﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺮﺏ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺳﻘﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔﺢ ﺍﳉﺒﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻧﺒﺎﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻧﻘﻀﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 217/4‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻡ ) ‪ ( 96/2‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻳﺴﲑ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ) ‪ ( 256/1‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ } ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻄ ُ‬ ‫‪110‬‬


‫ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺪﻧﺎ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﰲ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﻪ ) ‪ ( 7392‬ﻭﺯﺍﺩ } ﻧﻘﻀﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ ) ‪ ( 7394‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ِﺑﺸْﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﺃﲤﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻣﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﻀﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ َﻷﻥﱠ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺃ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ُﺑﺪﱞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ( ﻭ ) ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺑ ﱠﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ( ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﺺ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﹸﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻌﻤـﺮ‬ ‫) ﲰﻌﺖ ﻫﺸﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ﺃﹶﻗﻀﻮﺍ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ؟ ( ﻓﻼ ﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﻐﻴﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺷﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺸﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﹸﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻧـﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻀﻮْﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳُﺒﻄﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﳊﻜ ٍﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻫﻢ ﻗ َ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺆﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺛﺒﻮﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺷﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﳌﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻲ ﻣﺘﺸﻜﱢﻜﹰﺎ ﻧﻘﺪﱢﻡ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﳌﺎ ﻏﻤﺾ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺃ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫) ﻻ ﻧﺒﺎﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻧﻘﻀﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ( ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺃﲤﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻣﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰒ ﺍﻗﻀـﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻣـﹰﺎ (‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﻄﻮﻕ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﱂ ﻳُﻌﺮﻑ ﻟﻪ ﳐﺎﻟِﻒ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻪ ] ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﳛﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻫﺐ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﻳﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﺧﻮﻟﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﻣﻮﻥ [ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳ ﹸﺔ ﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﲔ ﺍﳌﺜﺒِﺘﲔ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ - 5‬ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻐﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﺼﺤﻮﺍﻥ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺢُ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﺴ ﱠﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻘ ُﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻐﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻠﻢ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﻧﻴ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﺼﺤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺴﻚ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﺪﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﻐﻤﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﱠﰎ ﲝ ﹸ‬ ‫] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ [ ﻓﻼ ﻧﻌﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ - 6‬ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﺗﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﲝﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺿﻊ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ [ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ - 7‬ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻠﻎ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺩﺧﻼ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﻜﱠﻠﻔِﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﺍﻹﻣﺴﺎ ُﻙ ﺑﻘﻴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﻟﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﱪﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺺﱞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﻠﻎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﳊﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻍ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﰲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﱯ ﻭﺍﺠﻤﻟﻨﻮﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴـ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﺪﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻁ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻮ ﱠﺟ ِ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺽ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺇِﲤﺎﻡ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﹶﻗﻄﹶﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻣَﻪ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﻟﺰﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺇﰒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻟﻐﲑ ﻋﺬﺭ ﻟﺰﻣﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﰒ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻜﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻳﺖ ﻋـﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳ ﹲﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ُﺩﻋﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻭﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌُﺮﺽ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻃﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﻬﻴﻨﺎﻩ ﻓﺄﻛﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺪﺭﺗﲏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﺑﻨ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌُﺮﺽ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻃﻌﺎ ٌﻡ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﻴﻨﺎﻩ ﻓﺄﻛﻠﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻗﻀﻴﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺁﺧـﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪـﺪ ) ‪ ( 26797‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3517‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﺃﺻﺒﺤ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺘﲔ ﻣﺘﻄﻮﱢﻋﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹸﻫﺪﻱ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻃﻌﺎ ٌﻡ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﻣﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ { ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻷﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 25607‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ }‬ ‫‪ ...‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﹶﺑﺪﻻ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺻﻨﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺗﺎﱐ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑُﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻭُﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪113‬‬


‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺩﻋﺎﻛﻢ ﺃﺧﻮﻛﻢ ﻭﺗﻜﻠﱠﻒ ﻟﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﹶﻓﻄـ ْﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺻُﻢ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 279/4‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﻭﺃﹶﻃﻴﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻭﻻ ُﺗْﺒﻄِﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺝ ‪ -‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﹶﻃﻴﻌﻮﺍ ﺍ َ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻋﻤﺎﻟﹶﻜﻢ { ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 33‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺑﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻟﻮﺍ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺎﻧﺊ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺷﺮﺏ ﺷـﺮﺍﺑﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻥ ﹶﺃ ُﺭﺩﱠ ﺳُ ْﺆ َﺭ َﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ﻟﺘﺸﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﺮﻫ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﺎﻗﻀﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻀﺎ ًﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻗﻀﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺌ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 27449‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺌ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺎﻧﺊ ﰲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ [ ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳـﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 728‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﺋ ُﻢ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﱢﻉ ﺃﻣ ُ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺪ ﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ) ﹶﺃ ﹾﻓﻄِﺮ‬ ‫ﺻ ْﻢ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭُ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﳒﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎ ُﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ) ﺍﻗﻀﻴﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ( ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﳋﻼﱠﻝ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻀﻌﻒ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ‪ ...‬ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻔﱠﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺭَﺩ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﹶﺣﺪﱠﺛﻚ ﻋﺮﻭ ﹸﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﱂ ﺃﲰﻊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ُﺟﺮَﻳﺞ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺳﺄﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺄﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﲰﻌﺖ ﰲ ﺧﻼﻓﺔ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ [ ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻘﻄ ٌﻊ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺎﻧﺊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ) ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻄﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺷﺌ ِ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ( ﻓﻀﻌﻴ ٌ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻗﻀﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺌ ِ‬ ‫‪114‬‬


‫ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺳِﻤﺎ َﻙ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﶈﺪﱢﺛﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳎﻬـﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺎﻧﺊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺮﺓ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺎﻧﺊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻫﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻧﺊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺮﻭﻥ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳُﻌﺮَﻑ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠـﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪ :‬ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴُﻄﺮﺡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ } ‪ ...‬ﻭﻻ ُﺗْﺒﻄِﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﹶﻋﻤﺎﻟﹶﻜﻢ { ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﱂ َﺗﺮِﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺤﻤَﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻳُﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺼﱢﺼﻪ ﻓُﻴ ْ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻴُﻌﻤﻞ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﺗُﺤﻤَﻞ ﺍﻵﻳ ﹸﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻹِﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﺴﱯ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻛﻢ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ؟ ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺻـﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺭﻳﻨﻴﻪ ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻟﻨﺎ َﺣْﻴ ٌ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻘﻠﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﹸﻫﺪ َ‬ ‫ﳊﻴْﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻛﻞ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2715‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﲰﻦ ﻭﻟﱭ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﻭﲤﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻱ ﻋﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳛﻞﱡ ﻷﺣ ٍﺪ َﻭﻗﹶﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺮﱢﻡ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻴﱢﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﺬﺭ ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ] ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﺇِﲤﺎﻡ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻋﺪ ُﻡ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺬﺭ [ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺗﺪﺣﻀﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﻗﹸﻄﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻧﺺﱞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻹِﻟﺰﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ﺍﺑﺘـﺪﺍ ًﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﻗﻀﺎ َﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺣﻜﻤَﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ) ﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﺻُﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ( ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﱠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﺸﻴﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ‬ ‫‪115‬‬


‫ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻹِﻟﺰﺍﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ] ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻻ ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ [ ﻻ ﻣﺴﻮﱢﻍ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣِﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺻﻴﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﻉ ﺟـﺎﺋ ٌﺰ ﻭﻣِـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﻃﺎﻭﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱡﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﱄ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺼﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳُﺼـﺎﻡ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺖ ﻻ ﻧﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻮ ٌﻡ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎ ٌﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺬ ٌﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑُﻩ ﻫﻞ ﻳُﻘﻀﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ؟ ﻭﻟﻠﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻗﻮﻻﻥ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﳘﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺐﱡ ﻟﻮﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳُﺴﺘ َ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻴﺖ ﺻﻮ ٌﻡ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺼﺢ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﱪﺃ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﻭﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺇِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻌﺘﻘﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﳏﻘﻘﻮ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫‪ ...‬ﺇﱁ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ ] :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﻭﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻻ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﻧﺬ ُﺭ ﺻﻴﺎ ٍﻡ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﹸ ﹾﻃ ِﻌ َﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﻘـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﱡﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1952‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 1023‬ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ } ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻣﻲ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺃﻓﺄﻗﻀﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻳ ُﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺃﺣﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻘﻀَﻰ ‪ {...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1953‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﺎ } ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻣﻲ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻧﺬﺭ ‪. { ...‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ُﺑﺮَﻳﺪﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺑﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺟﺎﻟﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻲ ﲜﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺟـﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﺃﺗﺘﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺗﺼﺪﱠﻗ ُ‬ ‫ﺙ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺄﺻﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮُ َﻙ ﻭﺭ ﱠﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﳌﲑﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﱂ ﲢ ﱠﺞ ﻗﻂ ﺃﻓﺄﺣ ﱡﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ُﺣﺠﱢﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2697‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ} ﺃﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺭﻛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺬﺭﺕ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﳒﱠﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺠﱠﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺼﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﺑﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺧﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 3308‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﺗﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻣﻲ ُﺗ ُﻮﻓﱢﻴﺖ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺬﺭ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻓُﺘ ُﻮﻓﱢﻴﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻀﻴﻪ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ِ :‬ﻟَﻴﺼُ ْﻢ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 2133‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ ‪ .‬ﺇِﻻ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺪﱢﺛﲔ ﺃﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺧﺘ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﱵ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﺃﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺗﻘﻀﻴﻨﻪ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻧﻌﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺤ ﱡﻖ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺣ ﱡﻖ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪. ( 712‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳ ٌﻦ ﺃﻛﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﻐﲏ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﻪ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻧﻌﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺣﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻘﻀَﻰ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﻡﱞ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ) ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ( ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﺎ ﱠﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﲣﺼﻴﺼُﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺘﺒﱠﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻳ ﹶﺔ ﺇﺷﺎﺭ ٍﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺘﱪﺓ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺃ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻛﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ( ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ( ﻫﻮ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﹲﻝ ﺿﻌﻴ ٌ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺟﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﺎﻣﱠﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺟﺎﺀﺍ ﺧﺎﺻﱠﲔ ﰲ ﺻـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨـﺬﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺮﻩ ﻭﺃﺑـﺮﺯﻩ ﺻـﻮ ُﻡ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻧﺴ ٍﺦ ﳍﻤﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻱ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ َﻳ ِﺮ ْﺩ ﺃ ﱡ‬ ‫‪118‬‬


‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻟﻔﻈﻬﻤﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻧﺺﱞ ﻳﻨﺴﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻮ ٌﻡ ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﻛﺼﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﰲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪،‬ﱂ‬ ‫ﺠ ْﺰ‬ ‫ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﻌﻤﻞ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﻳُﺆﺧﺬ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﱂ َﻳ ُ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲞﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﲢﺖ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﻓﻼ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺴﺦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﲝﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲞـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻜﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﰒ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﻢ‬ ‫ﹸﺃ ﹾﻃﻌِﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﺬﺭ ﻗﻀﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2401‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﱠﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﺼ ﱡﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻭُﻳﻄﻌَﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ . ( 257/4‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪ ( 2930‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻄﻌﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣُ ﱠﺪﹰﺍ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻨﻄﺔ { ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻠﻌﻲ ] ﻏﺮﻳ ٌ‬ ‫ﺴﻲﱟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺝ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻋُﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ُﻧ َ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺰﻝ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻣﺎﺕ ﱂ ﻳُﻄﻌَﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺻ ﱠﺢ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻀﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﹸﻃﻌﻢ ﻋﻨـﻪ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ . ( 7635‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻃﺄﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺩ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳُﺴﺄﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ؟ ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ) ‪. ( 256/1‬‬ ‫ﻫـ – ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻭﱂ ﻳَﺼ ﱠﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻮﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻ ﱠﺢ ﺃﹸﻃﻌِﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺻﺎﻉ ﺣﻨﻄﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 7/7‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﺻـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺑُﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪7644‬‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﹸﻃﻌِﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺻﺎ ٍ‬ ‫( ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯ ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺳُﺌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ُ :‬ﻳ ﹾﻄﻌَﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻟﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣـﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ) ‪. ( 7/7‬‬ ‫ﺡ – ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪( 1757‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴُﻄﻌَﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻜﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﻜ ٌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻻ ﻧﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻑ [‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺝ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺡ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼ ﱠﺢ ﺭﻓﻌُـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﺒﻮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕـﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺍﻫﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻓﻀـ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴ َﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺎﺭِﺽ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺛـﺎﺭ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻥ َﺗْﻨ َ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻧﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺷﺮﻳﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﺮﻙ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﱂ َﻳ ْﺮﻭِﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺨﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳎﺘﻤﻌَﲔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩَﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻹِﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ] ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﺻ ﱡﺢ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﺟﺎ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺩﻋﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻭﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻃﺮﻗﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮﻫﺎ ﱂ‬ ‫‪120‬‬


‫ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ [ ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ] ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ﻳﻀﻌﱢﻒ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ‪ [ ...‬ﻓﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻤﺪ ﺃﻣـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻃﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ) ‪ ( 6 ، 4 ، 2‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳُﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻳﻔﱵ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻌـﺎﺭﺽ ﺃﻗـﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺼ ٌ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 7 ، 5 ، 2 ، 1‬؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﺼﺪﱢﻕ ﻣُﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﻭﺍﻫﺎ ؟ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺑﻠﻐﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳُﺴﺄﻝ ‪ ( ...‬ﻭﱂ ﻳـﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺸـﺨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻠﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻧُﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻐﻲ ﻭﻳﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺼﺤﻴ ٍﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺟﺎﺯ ﻟﻮِﻟﻴﱢـﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻮِﻟﻴﱢﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﻌﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺟـﺎﺋﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳُﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻄﻌِﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﳐﲑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﺎ ﺟـﺎﺀ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺟﺎﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺯ ﻟﻮﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻄﻌِﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ] ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﺖ ﻧﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻏﲑﻩ [ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻃﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﺯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻘﻮ ٌ‬

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‫ﻭﻟﺴﺖ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠ ٍﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﻣـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻭﱠﻟﻮﻫﺎ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻳُﻄﻌِﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﺄﻭﻳـﻞ ﺑـﺎﻟﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺑﺎﻃﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻮ ﹲﻝ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞﱡ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﲝﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﲪﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜ ﱠﻦ ﺣﺼ َﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺁ ٍ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻻ ﲣﺼﱢﺼﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻴﱢـﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﺗﺄﺕ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻵﻣﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀـﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨـﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﳐﺼﱢﺼﺔ ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﻫﻲ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﺮﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺄﺕ ﳐﺼﱢﺼ ﹰﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜ ﱠﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺫِﻛﺮ ﻓﺮ ٍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺑﲔ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﻌﻤـﻮﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫] ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪َ ،‬ﺣ ْﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺣﱴ ﻳُﺠﻤَﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﺭ ٌ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻗﺎﻋﺪ ٍﺓ ﻋﺎﻣ ٍﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻌﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﳓﻮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ) ﻓﺪَﻳ ُﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺣ ﱡﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻘﻀَﻰ ( [ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲝﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻤُﻪ ﻭﺇﻃﻼﻗﹸﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻭﻣﱴ ﻳُﻘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ؟‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻣﻔﺮﱠﻗﹰﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻔﻀﻴ ٍﻞ ﻷﺣﺪِﳘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﱠﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻘﻀَﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﻋﻘ َ‬ ‫ﺠﺰِﻱ ٌﺀ ﻭﻻ ﺇﰒ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﹸﻗﺒَﻴ ﹶﻞ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ َﺳ ﹶﻔ ٍﺮ ﻓ ِﻌ ﱠﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﹶﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﺃﹸ َﺧ َﺮ ‪{...‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 184‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ } ﻓ ِﻌﺪﱠﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﹸﺃﺧَﺮ { ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻘﻴﱢﺪ ﻭﱂ ﲣﺼﱢﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﳐ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﱠﺪ ﻛﻴﻔﻤﺎ ﱠﰎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺟﺰﹶﺃ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺳﱠﻊ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻘﻴﻴ ٍﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪ :‬ﳚﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺗﺄﺧﲑﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﱡﻮﺍ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻌﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠ ﱟﻲ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼـﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺭ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻳﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺮﻩ ﻗﻀﺎ َﺀ ُﻩ ﰲ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻊ ﰲ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﱠﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻓﺈﳕﺎ‬

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‫ﺺ ﻋـﺎ ﱟﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎ ُﺀ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻘﻴﻴ َﺪ ﻣﻄﻠ ٍﻖ ﻭﻻ ﲣﺼﻴ َ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 258/4‬ﻋﻦ ﻛ ﱟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﻦ َﺧﺪِﻳﺞ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟ ِﻌﺪﱠﺓ ﻭﺻُﻢ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺷـﺌﺖ (‬ ‫ﺕ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ) ﹶﺃ ْﺣ ِ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎ ٍ‬ ‫) ﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻘﻀﺎﺋﻪ ﺑﺄﺳﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻀﻴﻪ ﻣﻔﺮﱠﻗﹰﺎ ( ) ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻠﻴﻔﺮﱢﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 428-447/2‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻭﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﻦ َﺧﺪِﻳﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋُﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋُﻤﲑ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻣُﺤﲑﻳﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 244-243/4‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﳏﲑﻳﺰ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 193 -192/2‬ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻧﻔﺴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺫ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻞ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺭﺍﻓ ٍﻊ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 259/4‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﹰﺎ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻔﺮﱢﻗﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﹰﺎ { ﻭ َﺭﻭَﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻔﺮﱢﻕ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 192/2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻣﻄﻠﻘـﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪ ( 2051‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻣﺎ ﻗﻀﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻗﹸﺒﺾ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﻭﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻃﱢﻼﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺇِﻗﺮﺍﺭِﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻮﻋ ٍﺪ ﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷـﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﺮﱢﻃﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪124‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﺄﺧﲑﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﺋﺪ ﹲﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﺤﱠﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺼ ﱡﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮﱄ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﺠﺎﺋﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﱢﺘﻪ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﹰﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟـﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﻣﱴ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﰲ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﱄﱡ ﻣَﻦ ﻫﻮ ؟ ﺇﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓَﺘ ِﺮﺩُ‬ ‫ﻭﻳُﺮﺍﺩ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺩ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻬﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻴﻊ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﺎﻥ ﹸﺃﺧَﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺍﻟ َﻌﺼَﺒﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﱄ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻗﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻻﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺥ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﱄ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﱢﺘﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺜﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﻹ ﹸﰒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﺑﻌﻔﻮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻌﻔ ﱢﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﻔﻮ ِﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻧﺎﻥ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﻀﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﺗـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻘﻂ ﲟـﺮﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺄﰒ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﺧﲑ ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﻣـﺲ‬ ‫ﺻﻴـﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡٌ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺽ ﻓﻼ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﳛﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤﺮُﻡ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺑﻞ ﻳُﻜﺮﻩ ﻛﺮﺍﻫ ﹰﺔ ﻭﻻ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ ‪ :‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺻ ﱠﺢ ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺣﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﲢﺮﳝﻪ ﳌﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻻ ﳌﻌﲎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺩﺍ ٍﺭ ﻣﻐﺼﻮﺑﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ ] ﻓﻠﻮ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﹶﻗﺪِﻡ ﺯﻭﺟُﻬـﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﻠﻪ ﺇِﻓﺴﺎ ُﺩ ﺻﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟ َﻐﻴْﺒﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ [ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺄﺫﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬـﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻣَﻦ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺃﹸﺣ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺄﺫﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫} ﻻ ﳛﻞﱡ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺯﻭﺟُﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺄﺫﻥ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺘﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫‪126‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 5195‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 5192‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺑﻌﻠﹸﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻫ ٌﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪( 1761‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﻳﻮﻣـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ { ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1721‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻭﺟُﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻫ ٌﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﹸﺪﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻬﻧﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼُﻤﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟﻬﻦ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1762‬ﺑﺴـﻨﺪ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ‪ ...‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2459‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻔﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ) ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ ( ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﻻ ﳛﻞ (‬ ‫ﺗﻌﲏ ﳛﺮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﻭﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ ( ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺇِﺫﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﻳُﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺩﻭﻥ ﳐﺼﱢﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ) ﻭﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ( ) ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺫﻧﻪ ( ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻻ ﳛﻞﱡ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺎ ﺻـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻓﻼ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩُﻋﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩُﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺷُﺮﻉ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﺃﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺑﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺻﺎﳊﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺩﻋﻮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﹶﻋﻠ َﻢ ﺻﺎﺣ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ } ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺩُﻋﻲ ﺃﺣﺪُﻛﻢ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺠﺐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﺼ ﱢﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻠَﻴ ﹾﻄﻌَﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺼﻞﱢ ‪ :‬ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﻮﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 3520‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓ ﹾﻠُﻴ َ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪ ( 10059‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ ْ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻋﻲ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻓ ﹾﻠُﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻠﻴﺄﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﱪﻛﺔ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩُﻋﻲ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﻘﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2702‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻡ ﺳُـﻠﹶﻴﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺗﺘﻪ ﺑﺘﻤ ٍﺮ ﻭﲰ ٍﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻋﻴﺪﻭﺍ ﲰﻨﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺳِﻘﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﲤﺮَﻛﻢ ﰲ ﻭِﻋﺎﺋﻪ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻓﺼﻠﻰ ﻏ َﲑ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﻷﻡ ُﺳﹶﻠﻴْﻢ ﻭﺃﻫ ِﻞ ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1982‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ .‬ﻭﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ُﺟﺤَﻴﻔﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺁﺧﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺳﻠﻤﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﺘﺒﺬﱢﻟـﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻚ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﻮﻙ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺃﺑـﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺷﺄﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﺼﻨﻊ ﻟﻪ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﺂ ِﻛ ٍﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ‬

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‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﱎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺫﻫﺐ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﱎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺍﻵﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻠﱠﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻂ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺫﻱ ﺣﻖ ﺣﻘﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻟﺮﺑﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻨﻔﺴﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﻷﻫﻠﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﹶﻋ ِ‬ ‫ﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺗﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1968‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣـﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄـﱪﺍﱐ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 176/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } … ﺇﻥ ﺃﺧﺎﻙ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺣﱠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺮﱠﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍ ﹾﻃﻌَﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻟُﺘ ﹾﻔﻄِﺮﻧﱠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣـﺎ ﺃﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺂ ِﻛ ٍﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ‪ { ...‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺘﺒﺬﱢﻟﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻻﺑﺴﺔ ﻟﺒﺎﺱ ﺍﻟَﺒﺬﹾﻟ ِﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻨ ِﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻐﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﺎﺭﻛ ﹲﺔ ﺛﻴﺎ َ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﱢﻉ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﲝﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﰲ ] ﻗﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ [ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺸـﺮﻭﻉ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻭﻗﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺣﻖ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﻋﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﳌﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﻟُﻴﺴْﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﺴﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺭﲪ ﹰﺔ ﻬﺑـﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇ ﹲﰒ ﻓﻴﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻣﺎ ﺧُﱢﻴ َﺮ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻦ ﺇﻻ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺃﻳﺴﺮﳘﺎ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻌ َﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 3560‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬

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‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻄﻮﱠﻉ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺨﺘﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺨﺘﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺠﺸﱢﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﻳـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﲢﺖ ﺫﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﻘﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻄﱢﻌﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﻤَﺤﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﱢﻘﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 19167‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧُﺘﻠِﻒ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺤﺎﰊ ﺃﻡ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺍﻋﺘﱪﺍﻩ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻭﻩ ﰲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳐﺘﹶﻠ ٌ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﹸﺤﺪﱢﺛﻮﻥ ﻳﺼ ﱡﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺿﻢﱠ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺫِﺭﻭﺓﹸ ﺳﻨﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺛﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺧﲑﻩ ﻋﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﻌﱢـﺪ‬ ‫ﻁ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺳﺒﻌﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ َﺑﻌﱠﺪ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻔﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 2840‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1718‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 572/4‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ‪ ( 2252‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺁﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣَﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﺧﻨﺪﻗﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴـﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ) ‪ ( 449‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳـﻂ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺈﺳـﻨﺎ ٍﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 1674‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺿـﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﹸﻟﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﻥ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺿـﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻮﻫﱠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳـﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺭﺍ ٍﻭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺪ ﹰﻻ ﺿﺎﺑﻄﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺔ ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺻﺪﻭﻗﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﳎﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﱠﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋُﻘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣَﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﺑﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺟﻬﻨﱠﻢ ﻣﺴﲑ ﹶﺓ ﻣﺎﺋ ِﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ . ( 2254‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 9684‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺴﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﺛﱠﻘﻮﻥ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎ ٍﺩ ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ‪ ( 9683‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ َﺑﻌﱠﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺟﻬَﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﲑ ﹶﺓ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﺤـﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻀ َﻤ ِﺮ { ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺼﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻔﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺍﳉﻮﺍ ِﺩ ﺍﳌﹸ ْ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺋ ِﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛ َ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﲤﺪﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﳋﻔﺘﻪ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺟﺮﻳﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺻﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﻓﻈﺎﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻛﻤـﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻴﱠﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺅُﻩ ﻭﻳﺼﺢ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬

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‫ﲢﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻗﺼ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ) ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗُﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻘﺮﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴـﺄﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﻞ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺢ ﻗﻄ ُﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺼ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﱴ ﺷﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﺬ ٍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻐ ِﲑ ﻋﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ [‬ ‫ﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻗﻮﻟﻨﺎ ] ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳـ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑ ﹲﺓ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻱ ﻋﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳛﻞﱡ ﻷﺣﺪ َﻭﻗﹶﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣَﻦ ﻳﺸﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺤﺮﱢﻡ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻴﱢﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﺬﺭ [ ﻓﲑﺍﺟِﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤ ﹶ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻳـﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺇِﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﻓ ﹾﻠُﻴﻀِﻒ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﳘﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻮ ُﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍ َﺀ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﲔ ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻳﻮ ُﻡ ﻋﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺱ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﺑﺈِﻓﺮﺍﺩﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﳌﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇِﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻋﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﹸﺧـﺎﻟﻔﻬﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪـﺪ ) ‪ ( 26750‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻛﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺎ ﺃﹸﺣ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻭ ُﺳﺌِﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺷﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳﺄﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻷﻫﻠﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻢ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺎﺀ ﻭﲬﻴﺲ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺻُﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2432‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻏﺮﻳﺐ [‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺧﻴﺜﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﻵﺧـﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 743‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺿﻌﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﺧـﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻛﻬﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺑُﺴﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴـﺒﺖ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻓُﺘﺮِﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺃﺣﺪُﻛﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻮ َﺩ ﻋﻨﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻟِﺤﺎ َﺀ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻓ ﹾﻠَﻴ ُﻤﺼﱠﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1726‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﺎﻩ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﺎﺫ [ ﻭﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2421‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﺧﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺁﺧـﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺥ [ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺿﻌﻔﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻨﻈ ُﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ُﻳ َﺮﺩﱡ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﺧﺬﻩ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪133‬‬


‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺃﻣﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﳑﻜ ٌﻦ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺳﻬ ﹲﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﻌﻤَﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﱢﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺇِﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻃﻠﺒُﻪ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﳑﱠﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﺃﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺼ ْﻢ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻻ َﻳ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪُﻛﻢ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2683‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2684‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﱡﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﺎ ٍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫} ﻻ ﲣَﺘﺼﱡﻮﺍ ﻟﻴﻠﹶﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﻘﻴﺎ ٍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ َﺗ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺻﻮ ٍﻡ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ﺃﺣﺪُﻛﻢ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺟﺎﺑﺮﹰﺍ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻧَﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ – ﺯﺍﺩ ﻏﲑ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ – ﻳﻌـﲏ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻔـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﻣﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1984‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﻮﻳﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺩﺧـﻞ‬ ‫ﺲ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻲ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﹶﻓﻄﺮﻱ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1986‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﺑﺸﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﹶﺻﻮﻡُ ﻳﻮ َﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﹸﻛﻠﱢﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻢ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪُﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪـﺪ ) ‪( 22300‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻏﹸ ﱠﺮ ِﺓ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﻗﻠﱠﻤﺎ ﻳُﻔﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌـﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪( 2368‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﺣﺴـﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻳﺐ [ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤـ ٌﺪ‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ َﻧﻬَﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒ ِﺔ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3609‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺭ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﹸﻟﺪَﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺇﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻋﻴﺪُﻛﻢ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌـﺪﻩ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 1069‬ﺑﺴﻨ ٍﺪ ﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔـﻆ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇِﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺻـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺼﻢ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋـﺎﻣﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟـﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﻮَﻳﺮِﻳﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓ ُ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺃﻥ َﻳﻌْﻠﻢ ﺇِﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺲ ؟ ( ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ) ﹶﺃﺻُﻤ ِ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻦ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺄﳍﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﻮﻱ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ) ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻲ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ ؟ ( ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﺮﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻣﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻬﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺇِﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺣـﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻓﻴُﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ‬ ‫‪135‬‬


‫ﻛﺎﻥ ُﻳ ﹾﻔﺮِﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺷﻚ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺴﺤﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇِﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﹶﺃ ْﻋﻤَﻠﻨﺎ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺯﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﻳﺼﺢ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳـﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳـﺒﻮﻉ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺇِﻓﺮﺍﺩﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻹِﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﺑﻌﺪﳘﺎ ﻣﻌﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻣﺎﻟﻨﺎ ﻧﺬﻫﺐ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻠﻘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺺ‬ ‫} ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﳜﺘ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ِﺩْﻳ َﻤ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﱡﻜﻢ ﻳُﻄﻴﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳُﻄﻴﻖ ؟ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1987‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺩﳝﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺻ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﳑﻦ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺇِﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺴ ٌﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺳﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﳍﻢ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﻬﺑﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻋـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺇِﻓﺮﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﹸـﺰَﱐ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳُﻜﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﳌﻦ ﺃﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻭﺩﻱ ‪ :‬ﻟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﱰﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻟﻠﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﱠﻴﻨﱠﺎ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻉ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻴﺴﱠﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻻ ﳝ ﱡﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳُﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻏﲑ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻘﻴﻖ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ ﻛﻠﱠﻪ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺘُﻪ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﱠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﻩ ﻛﻠﱠﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻟﺴﺒﻴﻠﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2718‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳـﺄﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺭﻩ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬ ٍﺮ ﻗﻂ ﺃﻛﺜ َﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2722‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﺎ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﻂ ﻏ َﲑ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2724‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 765‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻒ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﻩ ﲝﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﻭﺗـﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ﻭﺗﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺽ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﱄ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﹶﺃ َﺣ ﱡ‬ ‫} ﹶﺃ َﺣ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻼ ﹸﺓ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺎﻡ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺛﻠﺜﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﺎﻡ ﺳﺪﺳﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 3420‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﹸﺃ ْﺧﺒِﺮ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻗﻠﺘُﻪ ﺑﺄﰊ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﺃﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻷﺻﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻷﻗﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺸ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻢ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﻗﻢ ﻭﱎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 1976‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳ ٍﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴ ٍﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1980‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻻ ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺷﻄ ُﺮ ﺍﻟـﺪﻫﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻷﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 6867‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ} ‪ ...‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻻ َﺗ ِﺰ ْﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -3‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﹶﻧﻜﺤﲏ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻣﺮﺃ ﹰﺓ ﺫﺍﺕ َﺣﺴَﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻫﺪ ﹶﻛﱠﻨﺘَـ ُﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺴﺄﳍﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻘﻮﻝ ‪ِ :‬ﻧ ْﻌ َﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟ ٍﻞ ﱂ ﻳﻄﺄ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﺷﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﺘﱢﺶ ﻟﻨﺎ ﹶﻛﻨَﻔﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﺗﻴﻨﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻃﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛ َﺮ ﻟﻠﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﹶﲏ ﺑـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻘﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﻌ ُﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﲣﺘﻢ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠـﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﻭﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺒﻊ ﻟﻴﺎ ٍﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺘﲏ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﺿـﻌﻔ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺧﺼ ﹶﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺫﺍﻙ ﺃﱐ ﻛﱪ ُ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 5052‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 6477‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻻ ﹶﺃﻧْﺤﺎﺵُ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﰊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺟﻌﻠ ُ‬ ‫} ‪ ...‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺩﺧﻠ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ‪ { ...‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻭﱂ ُﻳ ﹶﻔﺘﱢﺶ ﻟﻨﺎ ﹶﻛﻨَﻔﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟ ﹶﻜﻨَﻒ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺖﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲨﺎﻉ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﺴﱢﺮﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ﺟﻌﻠـ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺧﺼ ﹶﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ( ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﳓﺎﺵُ ﳍﺎ ( ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻓﻠﻴﺘﲏ ﻗﺒﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﱪ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺻﺎﺭ ﳚﺪ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻤﲎ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﹶﻗِﺒ ﹶﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺽ ﺃﺧ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2729‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻄـﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ – ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ – َﻷ ﹾﻥ ﺃﻛﻮ ﹸﻥ ﻗﺒﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﱄ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐﺇ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﺣ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﰲ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﻓﻮﻗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ‬ ‫‪139‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﱄ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ – ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣ ﱢﺪ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺋﻪ ﺃﻛﺜ ُﺮ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜ َﺮ ﺃﺟﺮﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﺎﻗﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻟﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒﺔ ﻋﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺖ ﲟﲎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﻮﻃﹰﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺍﻑ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺷﻮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﺸـﺮﻳﻦ ﺷـﻮﻃﹰﺎ ﺃﻓﻀـﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻧﻔﺘﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻐﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﱠﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻐُﻠﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺒﺘﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪْﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻭﻧﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﻛﻠﻴ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒـﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ] ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺒَﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻓﻀﻠﹸﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺒﻄﺖ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻓﻀﻠﹸﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﳓ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺻﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﳓ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻻ ﺃﺟﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺢ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ[‪.‬‬ ‫ﳛﻞﱡ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬ ‫–‬

‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﳑﺎ ُﺷﺮِﻉ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ﺻﻴﺎ َﻡ ﺛﻼﺛ ِﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷـﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣَﻦ ﺻﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻜﺄﳕﺎ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺑ ِﺬ ﹾﻛﺮِﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﳊ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ﻓﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺩﺍﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﻜﺄﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺷﻬ َﺮ ﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻐﺴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﺍﻬﻧﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﺍﺿﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳـﺎﻭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻀـﻐﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻘﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺤﺮﺹ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻟـﻴﺠﲏ ﺧﲑﻫـﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺧﲑﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬

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‫ﺙ ﻻ ﹶﺃ َﺩﻋُﻬُﻦﱠ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﻭﺻﺎﱐ ﺧﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺜﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻮﺕ ‪ :‬ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺻﻼ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﻀﺤﻰ ﻭﻧﻮ ٌﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺗﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1178‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺷـﻬ ُﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺛﻼﺛ ﹸﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2408‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﱄ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﺒِﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻟﻚ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ﻋﺸ َﺮ‬ ‫ﺤْ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ‪ ...‬ﻭﺇ ﱠﻥ ِﺑ َ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈِﺫ ﹾﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻـﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻟـﺪﻫﺮ ﻛﻠﱢـﻪ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1975‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﹸﺃ ْﺧﺒِﺮ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻗﻠﺘُﻪ ﺑﺄﰊ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﺃﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻷﺻﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻷﻗﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺸ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻢ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﻗﻢ ﻭﱎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ {...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1976‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺻﻴﺎ ٌﻡ ﺣﺴ ٌﻦ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹸﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2411‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ َﺷﻴْﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﺗﺼﺪﻳ َﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻠﻪ ﻋﺸ ُﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪. ( 1708‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴـﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪141‬‬


‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﹸﻗﺮﱠﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ – ﻗﹸﺮﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺇِﻳﺎﺱ – ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ :‬ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﺇِﻓﻄـﺎﺭﻩ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪـﺪ ) ‪( 16357‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﺇِﻓﻄﺎﺭﻩ ( ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳُﻜﺘﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺃﻳﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸﺨﱠﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰊ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻳُﺬﻫﱭ َﻭ َﺣ َﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 23458‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1057‬ﺑﻠﻔﻈﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2385‬ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﺃﻻ ﺃﹸﺧﱪﻛﻢ ﲟﺎ ﻳُ ﹾﺬ ِﻫﺐُ َﻭ َﺣ َﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ؟ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ { ﻭﺟﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺮ ﻷﻬﻧﻢ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪َ :‬ﻭ َﺣ َﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ِﻏﺸﱠﻪ ﻭﻭﺳﺎﻭﺳَﻪ ﻭﺣﻘﺪَﻩ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺒﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴـﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﺃﺭﺑ َﻊ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﲬ َ‬ ‫ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﺎ ُﻡ ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺫﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺜ ٌﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺴﻨﱠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﻴﱠﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺇﳕـﺎ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟ ُﻐﺮﱢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﲔ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈِﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺼﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ِ‬ ‫‪142‬‬


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‫ﺲ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﰲ ﻳـﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺛـﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﺑ َﻊ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﲬ َ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻬﺑﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﺗَﺤﺮﱢﻱ ﺻﻴﺎ ِﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻔﻀﻴ ٍﻞ ﻹِﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﺧﻄﹰﺄ ﺃﻛ َﱪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﻩ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻐﲑ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﺮﺃﺕ ﻓﻘﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳊﺎﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟ ُﻐﺮﱢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳊﺎﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﰲ ﻳـﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﺍﻟ ُﻐ ﱢﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳊﺎﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒِﻴ ِ‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ‬‫ﺙ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﺃﺭﺑ َﻊ ﻋﺸْـﺮ ﹶﺓ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒِﻴﺾ ﺻﺒﻴﺤﺔ ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2420‬ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﲬ َ‬ ‫ﺸﻌَﺐ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ﱡ‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻠﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺴﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬‫ﺲ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫ ﱠﻦ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﺃﺭﺑ َﻊ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﲬ َ‬ ‫ﺾ ‪ :‬ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒِﻴ َ‬ ‫ﻛﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2449‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﹶﺃ َﻣﺮَﻧﺎ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺼـﻮﻡ‬‫ﺲ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﺃﺭﺑ َﻊ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻭﲬ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒِﻴﺾ ‪ :‬ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2423‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﰊ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬‫ﺐ ﻗﺪ ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻓﻮﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺴﻚ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﺭﻧ ٍ‬ ‫‪143‬‬


‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻠﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟـﻨﱯ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﳝﻨﻌﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸـﻬﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﺼﻢ ﺍﻟ ُﻐﺮﱠ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2421‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﻗﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2428‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } …‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ { ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺑ َﻊ ﻋﺸْﺮ ﹶﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲬ َ‬ ‫ﺙ ﺍﻟﺒِﻴﺾ ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﻼ ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﻟﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ) ﻓﺼﻢ ﺍﻟ ُﻐﺮﱠ ( ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺭﻭﺍﻳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳊﺎﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2414‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪( 5643‬‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ :‬ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳـﺄﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﲬﻴﺲ ﻭﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2419‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻭﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻠﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ . ( 2365‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺎﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﺘُﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ؟‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﻫَُﻨْﻴ َﺪ ﹶﺓ ﺍﳋﹸﺰﺍﻋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﹸﺃﻣﱢﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺩﺧﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﳍﺎ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2452‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣـﺎﻡ ﺃﲪـﺪ‬

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‫) ‪ ( 27013‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﳍﺎ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺯﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 2699‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺙ ﻋﺸْﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﺭﺑ َﻊ ﻋﺸْﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ :‬ﺛﻼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺸﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻓﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﺲﻋ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﲬ َ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺭﺩﱞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨـﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻯ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2744‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺫﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸ ﹶﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺯﻭ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﳍﺎ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻳُﺤﻤَﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﺷﺘُﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﺷﺘُﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺼﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺘﻬﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺻﻔﹰﺎ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﹶﺄ ﹾﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﻨﱠﻰ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻭﺑﺄﻳﺔ ﻛﻴﻔﻴـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﺈﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧـﺪﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﲔ ﻷﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺗُﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻ َﻤﻴْﻦ ﻣﺘﻬﺎ ِﺟ َﺮﻳْﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺇﻻ ﳌﺘﺨﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﺧﺎﺻ ﹰﺔ ﻭُﻟﺪ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﹸﺃْﻧﺰِﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁ ﹸﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺤﺮﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﻌﺮَﺽ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻟﹸﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺑﻪ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﲔ ﻛﻲ ﳛﻈﻰ‬ ‫ﲟﻐﻔﺮﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻯ ﺻﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 745‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝـﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳـ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2186‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ} ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺤﺮﻯ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﻥ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺽ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳُﺌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩ ﺗُﻌﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2436‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ) ‪ ( 1752‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﹶﻗﺘَﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﹸﺃْﻧﺰِﻝ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2750‬‬ ‫ﺳُﺌﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﻟﺪ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3642‬ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪( 2117‬‬

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‫ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﳓﻦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻧﱯ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮ ٌﻡ ﺃﻣﻮﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﻳﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮ ٌﻡ ﻭﻟﺪ ُ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛـﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻧﻚ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻳَﻐﻔِﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺘﻬﺎ ِﺟﺮَﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺩﻋﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1740‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 2092‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺗُﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻳﻮ َﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻓﻴُﻐﻔﹶﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﳌﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺮﻙ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳌﺘﻬﺎ ِﺟ َﺮﻳْﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ُ :‬ﺭﺩﱡﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎ { ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 6544‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﳉﻨـﺔ ﻛـ ﱠﻞ ﺍﺛـﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻆ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3644‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺗُﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﲬﻴﺲ ﻭﺗُﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﲬﻴﺲ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 6547‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ }‬ ‫ﺗُﻌﺮَﺽ ﺃﻋﻤﺎ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﲨﻌﺔ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻓﻴُﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻋﺒـﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﺇﻻ ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ َﺷﺤْﻨﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﺮُﻛﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﻛﹸﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺣﱴ ﻳَﻔﻴﺌﺎ {‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﺭﻛﹸﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﹶﺃﺧﱢﺮﻭﺍ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳُﻨﺪﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺮﻍ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﻴـﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻄـﺮ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺄﻧﻒ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﻮﻡ ﺳﺘ ﹶﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﻋﺎ ٍﻡ ﻓﻜﺄﳕﺎ ﺻﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺷـﻬﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﺴﺘﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺳﺘ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷـﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺻـﻴﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﺄﳕﺎ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺴـﺘﱢﺔ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺻﻮﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺳﺘ ٍﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﱠﻳ ِﺔ ﺳﺘ ٍﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻳﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﹶﺃْﺗَﺒﻌَﻪ ﺳﺘﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2758‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1060‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺷـﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺳﺘ ِﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﺑﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺳﻨﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2873‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ } ( 1715‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻠﻪ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ { ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿـﺢ‬ ‫ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭﻣﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺮﺍﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ] ﺇﻧﻪ – ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ -‬ﱂ ﻳﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﻠﻐﲏ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣ ٍﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﺮﻫﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﳜﺎﻓﻮﻥ ﺑﺪﻋﺘﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳُﻠﺤِﻖ ﺑﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻔﺎﺀ ﻟﻮ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﺧﺼ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﹶﺃﻭْﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﱐ ﻷﻋﺠﺐ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﳑﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻹِﻣﺎﻣﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺻـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﻟﺔ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﳊﻘﻮﺍ ﺑﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﺍﻫـﺔ‬ ‫‪148‬‬


‫ﺻﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻇﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺟﻮﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍ ﹲﻝ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻓـﻼ‬ ‫ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻭﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻔـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﳍﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻹِﻣﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻠﲔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﳊﺮُﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﺍ ﹸ‬

‫ﳊﺮُﻡ ﻫﻲ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ﻭﺭﺟﺐ ﻭﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﺫﻭ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣـﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺑﺎﳊﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣُﺠﻴﺒ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻫﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﺗﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻼ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻴﺘُﻚ ﻋﺎ َﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﺎﱄ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺟﺴﻤﻚ ﻧﺎﺣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﻠﺘﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣَﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺬﱢﺏ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻭﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﻌـﺪﻩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ . ( 1741‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2428‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻢ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻡ ﻭﺍﺗـﺮﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻡ ﻭﺍﺗﺮﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻡ ﻭﺍﺗﺮﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫} ‪ ...‬ﺻﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻓﻀﻤﱠﻬﺎ ﰒ ﺃﺭﺳﻠﻬﺎ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 20589‬ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ} ‪ ...‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻡ ﻭﺃ ﹾﻓﻄِﺮ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﺟﺪ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻭﺇﱐ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺰﻳﺪﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬

‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳُﻠﻐﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻳُﺒﻄﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺑﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺑﻴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ ُﻐﺮﱢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒِﻴﺾ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳـﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻻﺛـﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻨﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫‪149‬‬


‫ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺁﺗﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻨﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ﺃﻓﻀـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺧﺎﺻ ﹰﺔ ﻳﻮ ُﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻣُﻪ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫} ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2755‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠـﻢ ﺍﻟﻜـﺒﲑ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1695/2‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ُﺟْﻨﺪُﺏ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﺮﻓﻌﻪ } ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺳُﺌﻞ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ؟ ﻭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2756‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳﺄﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﺮﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﲰﻌﺘُﻪ ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ :‬ﺃ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﺄﻣﺮﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨ َ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻢ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻮ ٌﻡ ﺗﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮ ٍﻡ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 738‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ [ ﻭﺃﻗ ﱠﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭﻱ ﲢﺴـﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻟﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 1335‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﱠﻲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﺑﺸﻬ ٍﺮ ﺃﺻﻮﻣُﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺼﻢ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﷲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﻨ َ‬

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‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺗﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﹶﻗﺘَﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﻋﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴ ﹶﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒَﻠ ﹶﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2809‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ َﺷﻴْﺒﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﻔﺼ ٍﻞ ﻻﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺎ ٍﻥ ﻭﲝ ٍ‬

‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺗﺴ ٍﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻓﻀ ﹸﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﻫ َﺪ ﳚﻮﺩ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ } ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻔ ْ‬ ‫ﺴ ِﺮ ‪ { Ο‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺸ ٍﺮ ‪ Ο‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﱠﻔ ِﻊ ﻭﺍﻟ َﻮْﺗ ِﺮ ‪ Ο‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴ ِﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺠ ِﺮ ‪ Ο‬ﻭﻟﻴﺎ ٍﻝ َﻋ ْ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 14565‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ﺍﳌﻨـﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗـﺎﻝ } ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺗﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﻊ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ { ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﲢﺚﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺁﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﱀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺣ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻻ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺧﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1727‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴـﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪ ( 1777‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ) ‪ ( 4398‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﹶﻗﺘَﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪151‬‬


‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻫَُﻨْﻴ َﺪ ﹶﺓ ﺑ ِﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺗﺴﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻭﻳﻮ َﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺛﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻭﲬﻴﺴـﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪. ( 2417‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 26991‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻋﻦ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﺑ ٌﻊ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ َﻳ َﺪﻋُﻬ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻛﻌﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺓ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2437‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺗﺴﻊ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﺛـﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻗﻂ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2789‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻧﻔﻲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺣﺠ ﹲﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺮ ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺝ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺭﺟﺐ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣﺮﱠﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﺐ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺭﺟ ٌ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺪﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﻫﻴـﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳُﻠﺘَﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﺟﺐ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1743‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﳊﺮﱢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ َﺧﺮَﺷﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔ ٌﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺭﺟﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺭﺟﺐ ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺮﺏ ﺃﻛ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﺐ ؟ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺷﻬ ٌﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳُﻌﻈﱢﻤﻪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺗُـﺮﻙ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫‪152‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪ . ( 7632‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﻠﺔ ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ [ ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﺇﺫﻥ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﱂ ُﻳِﺘﻢﱠ ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺟـﺐ ﻭﺷـﻌﺒﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪ ( 9418‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﱠﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ [ ﻭﻛﺜﲑ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩ – ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﰲ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻌﺪﺓ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﳊﺮُﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻌﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﳛﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻌـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺴﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻃﺒﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺳﻨ ﹰﺔ ﻗﺒﻠـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻨ ﹰﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺧﲑ ﻋﻤﻴﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺑﻪ ‪،‬ﱂ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﳊﺠﱠﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣَﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺣﺎﺟﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﲔ ‪ :‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﳌﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﻣﺜﻠﹸﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺜﻤـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﹶﻗﺘَﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﱄ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﻥ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟ ﱢﺬﻛﹾﺮ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺭﺿـﻲ‬

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‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺣُﺠﺎﺝ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ] ﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻴﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺝ ﲟﻜﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻻ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ [ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺭﺟ ﹲﻞ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ؟ ﻓﻐﻀﺐ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ – ...‬ﻭﺫﻛـﺮ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ – ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺛﻼ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺣﺘﺴﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺣﺘﺴﺐ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2746‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 22958‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻬﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﺘﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠـﻢ‬ ‫} ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻏﹸﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺫﻧ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ) ‪ ( 5923/6‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟـﺎﻝ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻌﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻬﻧﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪ ( 2843‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﺎﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺪﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺷﻚ ﻧﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﳓﻦ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﱭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﺸﺮﺑﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2635‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟ ٌ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑ ﹶﻘ ْﻌ ٍ‬ ‫‪154‬‬


‫ﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺛﺎﻥ ﳌﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2632‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ... } ( 1988‬ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻠ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﱭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﲑﻩ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻓﺸﺮﺑﻪ { ﻭﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﻌْﺐ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺇﻧﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺪﺡ ﻟ ٍ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺷﻜﱡﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻗﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺮﺏ ﻣﻨـﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲝِﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1989‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺭﺙ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﺧﺖ ﺃﻣﱢﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﱢﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﺤﹶﻠﺐُ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲝِﻼﺏ ‪ :‬ﺍﳊِﻼﺏ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺀ ﻳُ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺭﻭﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﺭﺳﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻲ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻭﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ] ﰲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﺴﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺑﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺸﺒﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜـﻮﻥ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺘﺎ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣُﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﱭ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨـﺪﳘﺎ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓُﻨﺴِﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺡ ﻭﺑﻌﺜﺘُﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺧﱪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﱃ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪. ( 2845‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳُﺌﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ؟ ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 5080‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟـﻨﱯ‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ َﻧﺠِﻴﺢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳُﺌﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺣﺠﺠ ُ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺁ ُﻣ ُﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪( 748‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜـﱪﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ َﻧﺠِﻴﺢ ﺍﲰﻪ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻜﻲ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺛﻘﻴﻒ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺩﻋﺎ ﺃﺧﺎﻩ ﻋﺒﻴ َﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﺃﺋﻤ ﹲﺔ ﻳُﻘﺘَﺪﻯ ﺑﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﺎ ﲝِﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻳُﻘﺘَﺪﻯ ﺑﻜـﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺏ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﺮﺏ – ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﲕ ﻣﺮﺓ – ﺃﻫ ﹸﻞ ﺑﻴ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 3239‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪( 9182‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ } ‪ ...‬ﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ...‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﱡﻮﻥ ﺑﻜﻢ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺫﻛﺮﺍ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﺍﺛﻨـﺘﲔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﳊﺎﺝ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ﺑﻌﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ﺑﻌﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ) ﻬﻧﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ( ﻭﱂ َﻳ ِﺮ ْﺩ‬ ‫ﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺜﺒﺖ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﺴ ٌﺦ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿ ﹲﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺧﻼ ٌ‬ ‫ﲞﻼﻓﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ُﺗﹶﺜﺒﱢﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹶﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻌﺎﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺒﻖ ﺣﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺮﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻴﱢ ُﻦ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘ َ‬ ‫ﺤﺮِﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻣَﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑ ﹶﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﺪﻉ ﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﻟﺴﻨﺘﲔ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ؟! ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﱴ ﻳﺪﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺻﺤﺎﺑﺘﻪ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ؟! ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺇﻻ ﳌﻦ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﺎﻟﻔﻄ ُﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﻼ ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﳊﺎﺝ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﰲ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺝ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺪﻭﺏ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻣﱰﻟ ٍﺔ ﺗﻠﻲ ﻣﱰﻟﺔ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻓﻴﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺗﻜﻔﲑ ﺳﻨ ٍﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠ ٍﺔ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﰲ ﺃﻧـﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﲑ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻭﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺤﺮﺹ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻟﻴﻤﺤﻮ ﺁﺛﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺫﻧﻮﺑﻪ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫُﺠﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﺼـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺸﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﻜﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺫﺍﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘـﺪﻳﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﳚﺪ ﺑﻘﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻳﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻳﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﹶﻗﺘَﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺻﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻘﺒَﻠﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪ ( 2809‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1738‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﺇﱐ ﺃﺣﺘﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ ( 749‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ‪ ...‬ﻭﲝﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﰊ ﻗﺘـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻷﰊ ﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﲡﺪﻭﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬

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‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ } ‪ ...‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺣﺘﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻯ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻓﻀﱠﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌـﲏ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 2006‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﷲ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫـﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﻠﱠﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺗﺎﺳﻮﻋﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗـﺎﻝ } ﺃﻣـﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪( 752‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨـﻬﺎ } ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪. ( 1051‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﳘﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻻﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻮﻗﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻟﺌﻦ ﺑﻘﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻷﺻﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ – ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺑﻜﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌـﲏ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ { -‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2667‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳌﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2666‬ﻭﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺗﻌ ﱢﻈﻤُﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺒ ﹸﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻮﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻞ – ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ – ﺻﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺄ ِ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﻫﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﰲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻤﻪ‬ ‫‪158‬‬


‫ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1736‬ﻣﺒﻴﱢﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﺔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻷﺻﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪـﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ } ﻟﺌﻦ ﺑﻘﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺋﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﳐﺎﻓ ﹶﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻮﺗﻪ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ { ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﺍﻟﺼـﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﹰﺎ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﻜﹶﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﻓﺎﻋ ُﺪ ْﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹶﺻﺒ ْﺢ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2664‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﳓـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺬﻧﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ – ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ – ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺩ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻀﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺮ ﱢﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺭﺩ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻧﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﰲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮ ٌﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺷﺮﻋﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻣﻨﺬﺋ ٍﺬ ﻳﻔﱵ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻓﺘﺎ ُﺀ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ) ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻫﻼﻝ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ﻓﺎ ْﻋ ُﺪ ْﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹶﺻِﺒ ْﺢ ﻳﻮ َﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ (‬ ‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ ﻓﻨﺤﻦ ﲨﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺜﱠﺒ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺃﻡ ﻫﻲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻧﺒﻮﻱ ؟ ﻓﺴﺄﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ؟ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ؟ ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ) ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ( ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ) ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺼـﻴﺎﻣﻪ (‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺑﻨﻌﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻹﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺁ ٍ‬

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‫ﺃﻭ ) ﺷﺮﻉ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ( ﻟﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻋﻤﻠﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻛﻠﱠﻬـﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺽ ﻭﺧﻼﻑ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺯﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﺭ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﹰﺎ – ﺃﻱ ﳐﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻮﺗﻪ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ –‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﻌﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺻـ ﹶﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍ َﻷﻭْﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺚﱡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻬـﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻳﻮ ٌﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳُﺼﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻳﻮ ٌﻡ ﻓﺘﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔـﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 2154‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ﻓﺎﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺗﺎﺳﻮﻋﺎﺀ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻟﺬﺍﺗـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻻ ﲢﺼﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﱢﻱ ﻓﻬﻤَﻨﺎ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻀﻢﱡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻊ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ُﻳ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻬﺗﻨﺄ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻨﺸﺮﺡ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﳔﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺽ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻮ ٌﻡ ﺻﺎﱀ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻮ ُﻡ ﳒﱠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺑﲏ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﺼﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣ ﱡﻖ ﲟﻮﺳﻰ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﻣـﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 2004‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺧﻴﱪ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﱠﺨﺬﻭﻧﻪ ﻋﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻭُﻳﻠِﺒﺴﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺎ َﺀ ﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ُﺣِﻠﻴﱠﻬﻢ ﻭﺷﺎ َﺭﺗَﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪160‬‬


‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻮﻣﻮﻩ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ . ( 2661‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 2005‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫} ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﺗﻌﺪﱡﻩ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﻮﺩ ﻋﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻮﻣﻮﻩ ﺃﻧﺘﻢ {‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺷﺎﺭﻬﺗﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻫﻴﺄﻬﺗﻢ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺷﺮﻉ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺻـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭﺍﺀ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﳒﱠﻰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻧﺒﻴﱠﻪ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﻋﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺷﻜﺮﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻨﺎ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳُﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺍ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜ َﺮ ﳑﺎ ﺻﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻨﺪﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻄﻮﻋﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟ ﹶﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺼﻞﹸ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ َﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪ ( 2496‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﻄـﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﺃﺭﻩ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬ ٍﺮ ﻗﻂﱡ ﺃﻛﺜ َﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷـﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﱠـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2722‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ﺷﻌﺒﺎ ﹸﻥ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﺼﻠﻪ ﺑﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2666‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ - 4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺴﺮُﺩُ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎ َﻡ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺻﺎﻣﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻔﻄﺮ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺧﻼ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻚ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺻﻤﺘَﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ؟‬ ‫ﻚ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﻥ ﺗُﻌﺮَﺽ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺫﺍِﻧ َ‬ ‫ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﻭﺃﹸﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻌﺮَﺽ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﹶﻟ ْﻢ ﹶﺃ َﺭ َﻙ ﺗﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬ ٍﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺫﺍﻙ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻳﻐﻔﹸﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺟﺐ ﻭﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺮﻓﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻳُﺮﻓﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎ ﹸﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﻓﺄﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 22096‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 514/2‬ﻗﺴﻤﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻓﻘـﻂ ﺑﻠﻔـﻆ }‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻚ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺻﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸـﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺫﺍﻙ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻳﻐﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺟﺐ ﻭﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻓـﻊ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺣﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳُﺮﻓﻊ ﱄ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ َﻳ ْﻌَﺘ ْﺪ ُﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺼﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻴـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻊ ﲟﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﻼ ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﺣﱴ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1651‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪162‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺪﺍﺭُﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻓﻠﻢ َﻳ ْﺮ ِﻭ ِﻩ ﻏﲑُﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﲝﺠﺔ ﻭﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﺍﻙ ﱂ ﻳﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﺘﻮﱠﻗﻮْﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ :‬ﺻﺎﱀ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯُﺭﻋﺔ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﻜﺮﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺀ ﺻﻴﺎ َﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺛﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﳐﺘﻠﹶﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﻤﺎ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺴﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺭﺍ ٍﻭ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻜ َﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﺮ ﱡﺩ ﻭﻋﺪ ُﻡ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺣﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺼﻔﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺑﺴﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ] ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻜﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ [ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳُﺸﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ؟ ﻭﺳﻴﺄﰐ ﻣﺰﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﲝﺚ ﰲ ] ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ [ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ [ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻭﳘﺎ ﻳﺸﻜﻼﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸـﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﻳُﺸﻜﱢﻞ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻋﺪﺍ ٍﺩ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫} ﺻُﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻚ ﺃﺟﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻـﻢ ﻳـﻮﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻚ ﺃﺟﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﻟﻚ ﺃﺟﺮ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﻟﻚ ﺃﺟﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2742‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺫﹸﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺻـﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻠﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻮُﻫﺎ ﻟﻴ ٌ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﹶﺃ َﺩ ٍﻡ َﺣ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹶﻟﻘﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻴﲏ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻣَﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹸﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲬﺴﹰﺎ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺳﺒﻌﹰﺎ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻌﹰﺎ ؟‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ؟ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺷ ﹾﻄ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1980‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻷَﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻟﻐـ ﹰﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﱄ ﻣﺮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻤﻴﻬﲏ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ :‬ﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﹸﺧﱪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻷﺻﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎ َﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺸ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ؟ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻗﻠﺘُﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻢ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱎ ﻭﻗﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﻌﺸﺮ ﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪164‬‬


‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ :‬ﻷَﻥ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺒﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﱄ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2729‬‬ ‫ﺐﺇﱠ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﺣ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2397‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑـﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﲏ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺩ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺑﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃ ُﺩﻟﱡﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ :‬ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳـﺎﻡ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻢ ﻋﺸﺮﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻﻢ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ) ﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ) ﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ( ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺸﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﲜﻤﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﳔﻠﺺ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﲬﺴﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﲬﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺃﻣﺮُﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩُﻩ ﲦﺎﻧﻴ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺘﺎﺭ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻚ ﻣﺎ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﳋـﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺒﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺿﻌﻒ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﱠﻚ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻌﲏ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮ َﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻮ َﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ ؟‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻠﱠﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻠﻮ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻏﺒﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺠﺐ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺘﻤﱡﻮﺍ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻮﻙ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻼﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻠـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﺼﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺮﻫﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺠﱠﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ﺑﺼﻴﺎ ٍﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﳌﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ [ ...‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺎﳉﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻋﻼﺟﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﹰﺎ ﺟﻠﻴﹰﺎ ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – } ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻏﹸﱢﺒ َﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﹶﻛﻤﻠﻮﺍ ِﻋﺪﱠﺓ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1909‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2516‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ} ‪ ...‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻏﹸـ ﱠﻢ ﻋﻠـﻴﻜﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻗﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ { ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1906‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﹸﻏﻢﱠ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﹶﻛﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ { ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ ﹸﻏﺒﱢـ َﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ ٍﺓ ﹶﻏِﺒ َﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺧﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻢ } ﻻ َﺗ ﹶﻘﺪﱠﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻪ ﺃﺣـﺪﻛﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﻏﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﺄﲤﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺗﺴﻊ ﻭﻋﺸـﺮﻭﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ (2327‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2129‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻨﻜﻢ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﺳﺤﺎﺏ ﻓﺄﹶﻛﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﻘﺒﺎ ﹰﻻ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑـﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ) ‪ ( 2671‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺻﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﻴـﻨﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻏﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿَﺒﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﺄﹶﻛﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻮﺍ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺑﺼﻮ ِﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻘﺮَﻇﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺩﺧﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﱡﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺃ َﺳﻠﱢﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎ ﺑﻄﻌـﺎﻡ ﻓﺄﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻳﻮ َﻡ َﻳ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺼﻨﻊ ُﺳﱠﻨ ﹲﺔ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠـﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳـﻂ )‬ ‫‪ . ( 9039‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻻ‬ ‫َﺗ ﹶﻘﺪﱠﻣﻮﺍ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﺇﻻ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺻﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺼﻤﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2518‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼِﻠﱠﻴ ٍﺔ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺻِﻠﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺯﻓﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﱠﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺎﺳﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺸﺎ ٍﺓ َﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﻠﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﺤﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸـﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺼﻰ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ) ‪ ( 424/1‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺴَﻨ ٌﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺫﻟـﻚ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﱪ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﻰ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ( ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﻟﻌﻤﱠﺎﺭ ﻭﻻ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻳﺪﻻﱠﻥ ﺇﺿﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻬﻧﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﻣﻄﻠﻮ َ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻟﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻬﻧﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﺸﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻛﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺻـﻴﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﳛﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ‪ -‬ﺣﺮﺍ ٌﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻳﻨﺘﻔـﻲ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺇِﺩﺧﺎﻟﹶﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﹰﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣـﺮﺍﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻫﹰﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴُـﻨﱠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ – ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻗﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﺢ – ﻗﺎﻝ } ‪ ...‬ﻭﺳﺄﻟﺘﻬﺎ – ﺃﻱ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ – ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﺨﺘﹶﻠﻒُ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﹸﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺐﺇﱠ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻷَﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﺖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞﱡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺬﺍﻙ ﻣﻨﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 25458‬ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﻼ ﻳُﺆﺧﺬ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺟﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﳊﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫـﺐ‬ ‫ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺒَﺮ ‪ :‬ﻭﳑﻦ ُﺭﻭِﻱ ﻋﻨـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺍﻫ ﹸﺔ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻋﻤﱠﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺎﺳﺮ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﱠﺎﺭ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺎﺳﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ] ﻛﺮﻩ ﻓﻼﻥ [ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻳﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﲟﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺝ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﻨﺘﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻤﱠﺎﺭ‬ ‫) ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺼﻰ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻـﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﻛﺮﻫﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ [ ...‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﺮﻫﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﲢﺮﱘ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻧﻌﲏ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺻﻴﺎ َﻡ ﲨﻴ ِﻊ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳛﺮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺘﺄﰐ ﻻﺣﻘﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﳌﻦ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﻮﱢﺕ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻀﺮﱠﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻮﱠﺕ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻓﻤﻜﺮﻭﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻤﻮﻉ ﺃﲰـﺎﺀ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻒ ﳑﻦ ﺻﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﺒـﺪ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺃﹸﻣﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﱢﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﺭﺟﻮﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﳓﻮﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺻﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻛﺮﺍﻫ ﹶﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺐﱞ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺮ ٌﺭ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻮﱢﺕ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﱄ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺠﻤَﺖ‬ ‫} ﺇﻧﻚ ﻟﺘﺼﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫ َﺮ ﻭﺗﻘﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴ ﹶﻞ ؟ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ َﻫ َ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻭَﻧ ِﻔﻬَﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻻ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1979‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺠﻤﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻏـﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺧﻠﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻬﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻔﻬﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻋﻴﺖ ﻭﺳﺌﻤﺖ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ... } ( 1977‬ﻻ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺑﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺗﲔ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺫﹸﻛﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻮﻣﻲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺸﻮُﻫﺎ ﻟﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻠﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺻـﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﹶﺃﺩَﻡ َﺣ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻟﻘﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻴﲏ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻔﻴﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹸﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲬﺴﹰﺎ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺳﺒﻌﹰﺎ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻌﹰﺎ ؟‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪170‬‬


‫ﺻ ْﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﹶﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣـﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻄ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ُ ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1980‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲝﺚ ] ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪ [ ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ [ ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺣـﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ) ‪ ( 1975‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ } ‪ ...‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺪ ﻗﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻢ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺰﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2729‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﻟﻴﺘﲏ ﻗﺒﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﺻﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﻃﻴﻖ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪. { ...‬‬ ‫ﺸﺨﱠﲑ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺑﺪ ﻓﻼ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1705‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺿﻴﱢﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﻬﻨ ُﻢ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺒﺾ ﻛﻔﱠﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪19951‬‬ ‫} ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ُ‬ ‫( ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺼﲔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻓﻼﻧﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻬﻧﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻫ َﺮ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3582‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻـﺤﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﹶﻫﱯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻓﻌﻼﻩ ﺑﺎﻟ ﱢﺪﺭﱠﺓ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺒﺎﱐ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺑﻠﻎ ﻋﻤ َﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﹸﻛ ﹾﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛ ﹾﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻫﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ . ( 492/2‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺤﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺇِﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪171‬‬


‫ﺴﺮُﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ } ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﳝﻮﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ‪ :‬ﻭﺳﺮﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪( 301/4‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻮﺏ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﻨﺎ‬ ‫َﻧ ُﻌﺪﱡ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻓﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ . ( 301/4‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﱀ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻭﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﹶﺰﺍﺭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺯُﺭﻋﺔ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﱠﻘﻪ ﻧﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﰲ ﺫﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻔﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻻ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ( ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺛﺎﻥ ) ﻻ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺑﺪ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ( ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺛﺎﻥ ) ﻓﺼـﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ َﺗ ِﺰ ْﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ( ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ) ﻻ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ (‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺑﺪ ﻓﻼ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺿﻴﱢﻘﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻻ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ (‬ ‫) ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ ‪ 6‬ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻓﻌﻼﻩ ﺑﺎﻟ ﱢﺪ ﱠﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻫﺮ ( ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ ‪ 7‬ﻳﻘـﻮﻝ ) ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ...‬ﻭﺳﺮﺩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪( ...‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ؟‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺣﻜﻢ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔﻈﻪ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻗﺮﻧﱠﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺭﺟﱠﺤﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻱ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻳﻔﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌـﲎ ﺍﻟﻨﻔـﻲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ ﻳﻌـﲏ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﺎ ﳓﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻔﱠﻴ ٍﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺗﺸﺮﻳ ٌﻊ ﺧﺎﺭ ٌ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﻔﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ) ﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ( ﺗﺄﻛـﺪ‬ ‫‪172‬‬


‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻻ ﳛﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻧﻔﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﱂ ُﻳ ِﻘﺮﱠﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﻔﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳ ﹶﺔ ) ﻓﺼﻢ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺰﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ( ‪ ،‬ﻓِﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺿﻔﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻌﺎﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨـﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺮﻳﻨـ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻶﺧﺮ ﺩﺍﻟ ﹰﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺣﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻔﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺼﻴﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺰﺍ ٍﺀ ﺇﻻ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻟﺘﺪﻝﱡ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻻ ﻟﺒﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻏﻤﻮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻳﻌﺎﻗﺒﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌ ٍﻞ ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳏﺮﱠﻣﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ‪. 6‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ‪ 7‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﺴﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺑﺎﻹﻛﺜﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺗﺘﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺻﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﻻ ُﺣ ْﺮﻣَـ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﺻﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﺑﲑ ﻇﺎﻫﺮُﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻮﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺪ ﱠﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋ ﱢﻢ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺐ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻉ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻧﺎﺳﺦ ﳍﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻌﺎﺭِﺽ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﺪﻟﲔ ﲝﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤـﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻤﻲ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ } ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﱐ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺄﺻﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2626‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﻔﺮ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ‬ ‫] ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ [ ﻭﺑﺎﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺴﺮﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ) ‪ ( 301‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻌﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻭﺍ ﺳﺮﺩ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻔﺴﱢﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﻭﻗﻌﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻌﺎﺭِﺽ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲣﺼﱢﺺ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ُﺗ َﺮﺩﱡ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻠﺘَﻔ ُ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺻﺤﺎﺑ ٍﺔ ﳓﻦ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﲔ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﺖ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪﻭ ﻛﻮﻬﻧﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻋﻦ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺩﺍ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺩﺍ ﱞﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﻤﺰﺓ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﻴﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻌﺎﻡ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲪﺰﺓ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟـﺪﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ) ﺃﻓﺄﺻﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ؟ ( ﻷﻧﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﲝﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻟﻮ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﲪﺰ ﹶﺓ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﻗﺮﱠﻩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺃﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ) ﺻﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ (‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﻔﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻄـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻴﺒﻪ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﱠﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺻﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺌﺖ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺌﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻛﺜﺎﺭ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺗﺘﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻻ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝﱡ ﺩﻻﻟ ﹰﺔ ﻣﺆﻛﺪ ﹰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕـﺎ ﻳﻌـﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻹِﻛﺜﺎ َﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺗﺘﺎﺑﻌَﻪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﹸﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ (22096‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻳﺴﺮ ُﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳُﻘﺎﻝ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫‪ { ...‬ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ [ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻌﺒﺎﻥ [ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ) ﻳﺴﺮ ُﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﻳُﻘﺎﻝ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ( ...‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﲨﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮ َﺩ ﻭﺍﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ‬ ‫‪174‬‬


‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﺩ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋ َﻢ ﳌﺎ ﺟﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﻤ ُﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﲰﺎﻩ ] ﺑﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ [ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﲢﺘﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺷﻘﻴﻖ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳﺄﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺻـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ ﻛـﺎﻣ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ { ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺫﻛ ٌﺮ ﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻛﺜﺎ َﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻳﻔﺴﱢﺮ ﺑﻌﻀُﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻮﻥ ﺻـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﱠﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺐ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻮﱢﺕ ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻻ ﻳُﺘﺼﻮﱠﺭ ﲢﻘﱡﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻀﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻕ ﺃﻣﺮﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻼﻥ ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺑ ﱠﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺇﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ؟ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﺠﻤﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻔِﻬﺖ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ( ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺮﱠﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻠـﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﻧﻔﻮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻟﻴﺴﺎ ﺿﺮﺭﹰﺍ ؟! ﻓـﺈﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﺮﱢﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻠﺜﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻪ ﺃﺣـﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺿﻔﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻪ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ؟‬ ‫ﺃﰊ ﹶﻗﺘَﺎﺩﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻐﻀﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﺭﺿﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ – ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ – ﺭﺿﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺭﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﻳﻨﹰﺎ ) ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ( ﻭﲟﺤﻤﺪ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺑﺒﻴﻌﺘﻨﺎ ﺑﻴﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺑﺪ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﻭﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻳﻮﻡ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ؟ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪. ( 22904‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫‪175‬‬


‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﻭﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺛﻠﺜﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ) ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ؟ ( ﻛﺴـﺆﺍ ٍﻝ‬ ‫ﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻝ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺗُﺪﺣَﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻜﺎﺭ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻠﻎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ [ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻉ [ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﹸﺧﺒِﺮ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﻷﺻﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﻷﻗﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺸ ُ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺘُﻪ ﺑﺄﰊ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﺃﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 1976‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣَﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳُﻠﺤِـ ُﻖ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ !!‬ ‫ﻭﳛﻀﺮﱐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 5063‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺟﺎﺀ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺭﻫـﻂ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﻮﺕ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﺄﻟﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﹸﺧﱪﻭﺍ ﻛﺄﻧﱠﻬﻢ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﱡﻮﻫﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﳓﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ؟ ﻗﺪ ﻏﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﱠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﺄﻧﺎ ﺃﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺘﺰﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻓﻼ ﺃﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﷲ ﺇﱐ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻗﻠﺘﻢ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﺍ ؟ ﺃﻣَﺎ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﺸﺎﻛﻢ ﷲ ﻭﺃﺗﻘﺎﻛﻢ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﲏ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﹸﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﺭﻗﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﺰﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺐ ﻋﻦ ُﺳﻨﱠﱵ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻣﲏ { ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﺄﻬﻧﻢ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﱡﻮﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺭﹶﺃﻭْﻫﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ‪ .‬ﺃﻟـﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺑﻪ ؟! ﺃﻣﺎ ﲰﻌـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﳌﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﳌﻦ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﻭﳌﻦ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫ َﺮ ) ﻣﻦ ﺭﻏﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻨﱵ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻣﲏ ؟ ( ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺧﻄﺄ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻨﻮﺍ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻛﺮﺍﻫ ﹶﺔ ﲢﺮ ٍﱘ ﻻ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﱰﻳﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳊﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻣﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻔﻘﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﳋﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻄـﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻻ ﻳُﻌﻠﻢ ﳍﻢ ﳐﺎﻟِﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﺯﻫﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﻥ ﻬﻧﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻓﻄﺮﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺗﺄﻛﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ُﻧﺴُـﻜِﻜﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪( 1990‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻬﻧﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻣﲔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2676‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2672‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻬﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1991‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ‪ ...‬ﻭﻻ ﺻـﻮﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1995‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬

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‫ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 11368‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻭﻻ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3599‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﻴﺪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫} ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 2673‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ) ﻬﻧﻰ (‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻬﻧ ٌﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﹸﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ) ﻻ ﺻﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ( ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻫﻮ ﳎـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻬﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳُﻌﻠﹶﻢ ﺇِﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻬﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﺟﺎﺯﻣﹰﺎ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻬﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﳊﻜﹾﻤﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻱﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﱢﺩ ﻭﺗﻌﻴﱢﻦ ﺃ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻨﺒﺤ ﹾ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻬﻧ ٌﻲ ﺟـﺎﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 1199‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻔـﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪{...‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪930‬‬ ‫( ﺗﻔﺴﱢﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ } ‪ ...‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻻ ﳛﻞﱡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪...‬‬ ‫{ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻓﺴﱠﺮﺕ ﺭﻭﺍﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ( ﺑﻠﻔﻈﺔ ) ﻻ ﳛﻞ (‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ ) ﻻ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ( ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﹶﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺗُﻔﺴﱠﺮ ﺑـ ) ﻻ ﳛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ( ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﰲ ﲝـﺚ ] ﺍﻟﻘﻨـﻮﺕ [ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ] ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ [ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﲢﺮﱘ‬ ‫ﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺘﱢﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ْﺪ َ‬

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‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻭﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺃﺻﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴـﺚ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺐ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﺬ ٍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ ٍﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻀﺎ ٍﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺴﺒ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺑﻼ ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻋﻮﻧﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺸ ﹶﺔ ﺍ ﹸﳍﺬﹶﱄ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ} ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸـﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻳـﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻧَُﺒْﻴ َ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2677‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤـﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪـﺪ )‬ ‫‪ ( 20997‬ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ } ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﻭ ِﺫ ﹾﻛ ِﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟـ ﱠﻞ { ﻭﺃﻳـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ َﺗﻌْﻘﺐ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﺿﺤﻰ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺜـﻪ‬ ‫ﳊﺪَﺛﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺎﺩﻯ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣِﲎ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺑ َﻦ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭ َ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2679‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺄﱐ ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻐﻠﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺄﻳﺎﻡ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2901‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺩﻋﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﰊ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﲰﻌﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ‬

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‫) ‪ ( 2148‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻠﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ) ‪ ( 2914‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﻭﺻﻼﺓ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻨﱠﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﻣﺮﱐ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣِﲎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﻓﻼ ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ . ( 1456‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ) ‪ (1067‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻓﻼ ﺻﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﹸﻡ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻗﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﳓﻦ ﲟﲎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺱ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪـﺪ ) ‪( 824‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺃﺣـ ٌﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺎﺗﱠﺒ َﻊ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻳﺎ ُﻡ ﻃﹸ ْﻌ ٍﻢ ﻭﺷُﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺷﺮﻳﻖ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ } ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺑﻨﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻨ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻤـﺎﺀ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺞ ﲟﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺭﻗﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺍﺣﻠﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑ َﺮ ْﺣِﻠ ِﻪ ﻓﻨﺎﺩﻯ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﳊـﺎﻛﻢ ) ‪ ( 250/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄـﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ُﻣﺮﱠﺓ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺎﱐﺀ } ﺃﻧﻪ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺮﱠﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ‪ :‬ﻛـﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﺈﻓﻄﺎﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻨـﻬﺎﻧﺎ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2418‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻘﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻳﻮ ُﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻓ ﹶﺔ ﻭﻳﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺮ ﻭﺃﻳﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻴﺪُﻧﺎ ﺃﻫ ﹶﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷـﺮﺏ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2419‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪180‬‬


‫‪ -10‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺜﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﺗﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﹸﰐ ﺑﻄﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﻭﺗﻨﺤﱠﻰ ﺍﺑ ٌﻦ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﺩﻥ ﻓﺎ ﹾﻃ َﻌ ْﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻃﹸ ْﻌ ٍﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤ َ‬ ‫ﻭ ِﺫ ﹾﻛ ٍﺮ ؟ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ . ( 4970‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻳـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ) ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ( ﻭﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ) ﺍﻟ ﱢﺬﻛﹾﺮ ( ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻔﺖ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻳـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺻﻼ ٍﺓ ﻭ ِﺫ ﹾﻛ ٍﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻛ ٍﻞ ﻭﺷﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﻂ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﳎﺮﺩ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﱂ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺿﺎﻓﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ) ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺄﻳﺎﻡ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ( ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺟﺎﺀ ) ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻨﱠﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ( ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻓـﻼ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ( ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻮﻗﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ) ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ( ‪ ) ،‬ﻭﻳﻨﻬﺎﻧﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ( ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬ ‫) ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻨﱠﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺪ ( ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ) ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻮﻣ ﱠﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ( ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺍ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻛﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﻮ ﻬﻧﻲ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ) ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﻔﻄﺮ ( ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻨﺎ ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﻬﻧﻲ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻭﳚﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﹰﺍ ﻣﻘﺒﻮ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪181‬‬


‫ﺑﺎﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﻗ ﹾﻄ ِﻊ ﺻﻴﺎﻣِﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺮﺩﺩ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻣـﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻻﺑﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﺪ ﹰﻻ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳـﺄﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﻨﻬﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷـﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ – ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ – ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﻗﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﺑﻞ ﻭﺃﺩﻟـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻬﻧﻲ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ﺩﺍ ﱞﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﺷﺎ ﹰﺓ ﻳﺬﲝﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳚﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ْﺪ َ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﲦﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ؟ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴ َﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪْﻱ ﻓﻤ ْﻦ ﱂ ﳚـ ْﺪ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﲤﱠﺘ َﻊ ﺑﺎﻟ ُﻌﻤْﺮ ِﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊ ﱢﺞ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍ ْﺳَﺘْﻴ َ‬ ‫ﺸ َﺮﹲﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠ ﹲﺔ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ ‪196‬‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺛﻼﺛ ِﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊ ﱢﺞ ﻭ َﺳﺒْﻌ ٍﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ َﺭ َﺟ ْﻌُﺘ ْﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ َﻋ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﳍﺪْﻱ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺓ ﺗُﺬﺑَﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻻ } ﱂ ﻳُﺮﺧﱠﺺ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺼ ْﻤ َﻦ ﺇﻻ ﳌﻦ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺍﳍﹶـﺪْﻱ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1998-1997‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ‬ ‫ﻳُ َ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ } ﻓﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 25/5‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ } ﻓﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳـﻮ ٌﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ ْﺮﻭِﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻮ ُﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺻﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﲎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ) ‪ ( 247/2‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﳌﻦ ﲤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ‬ ‫ﳚﺪ َﻫﺪْﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﲎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1999‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻓﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪182‬‬


‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻓﻤﻦ ﲤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺞ ( ﺇﱃ ) ﻭﺳـﺒﻌ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺟﻌﺘﻢ ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺘﱢﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻫﺪﻳﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻓﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ) ‪. ( 248/2‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ } ﻓﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ { ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ‪ 6 ، 4 ، 3‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳُﺆﺩﱠﻯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳُﺆﺩﱠﻯ ﺁ ِﺧﺮُﻩ ﻳﻮ َﻡ ﻋﺮﻓـﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻮﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﳌﻦ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺼ ْﻤ َﻦ ﺇﻻ ﳌﻦ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪْﻱ (‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ) ﱂ ﻳُﺮﺧﱠﺺ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻳُ َ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﱴ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﻗﺪ ﹸﻗﻴﱢﺪﺕ ﲟﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺼﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬ ‫) ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺻﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﲎ ( ﻭﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ) ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻫﺪﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﲎ ( ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻗﻮﺍ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﲑ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﻜـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺗﱢﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﺡ ﻭﺗﻔﺴﱢﺮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺼﺢ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺃﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻻﻬﺗﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺎﺑﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺿﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ] ﻭﻗـﺪ ﻓﺎﺗـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺘﱢﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳚﺪ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ْﺪ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ [ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﻣﺼﻴﺒﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﻓﻮﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳐﻄﺌـﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪183‬‬


‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﱡﺩ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻻ ﺗﺪﻝﱡ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﲎ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﳑﺎ ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﻮِﺻﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮِﺻﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﲪـﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻮِﺻﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﺤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻬﻧﺎ ٍﺭ ﻭﻟﻴ ٍﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻜﻰ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪ :‬ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻮِﺻﺎﻝ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﳏﻈﻮﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺮﱠﻣﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺃﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﻭﺃﺧﺖ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﺍﺀ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳊﻜـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺑ ﱠﺪ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻬﻧﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮِﺻﺎﻝ ﺭﲪ ﹰﺔ ﳍﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﻟﺴﺖ ﻛﻬﻴﺌﺘﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﻳﻄﻌﻤﲏ ﺭﰊ‬ ‫ﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1964‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻘ ِ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﻟﺴﺖ ﻛﻬﻴﺌﺘﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﹸﺃ ﹾﻃﻌَـﻢ ﻭﺃﹸﺳـﻘﹶﻰ {‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2563‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﱠﻨﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﻟﺴﺘﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻳﻄﻌﻤﲏ ﺭﰊ ﻭﻳﺴﻘﻴﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻛﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻄﻴﻘﻮﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2567‬‬ ‫ﺃﹶﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪ ( 2071‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ} ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﳍﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ) ‪ (1704‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ} ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ‪...‬‬ ‫{‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻻ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻠﻮﺍ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﹸﺃ ﹾﻃﻌَﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻟﺴﺖ ﻛﺄﺣ ٍﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻃﻌَﻢ ﻭﺃﹸﺳﻘﹶﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇِﱐ ﺃﹶﺑﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﹸﺃ ْﺳﻘﹶﻰ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1961‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﺮﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻮِﺻﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻠ ﹰﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺸﲑ – ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺻﻴﱠﺔ – ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺃﺭﺩ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻨﻌﲏ ﺑﺸﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ‪ { ...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 22301‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒ ُﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﻴﺪ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﱠﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺴﺤَﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻓﻨﻬﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻧﻚ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﻇﻞﱡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﰊ ﻳﻄﻌﻤﲏ ﻭﻳﺴﻘﻴﲏ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ُﺧﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪ ( 2072‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺫﺭ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺗﺎﻩ ﺟﱪﻳﻞ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ﻗﺪ ﹶﻗﺒِﻞ ﻭِﺻﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻻ ﳛﻞﱡ ﻷﺣ ٍﺪ ﺑﻌﺪﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻭﺃﲤﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ( ﻭﻻ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺮﱐ ﺑـﺎﻟﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪ . ( 3162‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪185‬‬


‫ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﻭﱂ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ [ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺣﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ َﺳﻤُ َﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺑ ِﻦ ُﺟْﻨﺪُﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻬﻧﺎﻧﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺰﳝﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 1024‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺴﺤَﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 700‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 7752‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺤ ٍﺮ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ٍﺮ ﺇﱃ َﺳ َ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ َﺳ َ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫} ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳛﺮﻣﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﺑﻘﺎ ًﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺇﻧﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﹸﻭﺍﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﰊ ﻳﻄﻌﻤﲏ ﻭﻳﺴﻘﻴﲏ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2374‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟـﺮﺯﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺤﺢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﲰﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺴﺤَﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫} ﻻ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻠﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﱡﻜﻢ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻳَﺴﻘﻴﲏ {‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﻟﺴﺖ ﻛﻬﻴﺌﺘﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱐ ﺃﺑﻴﺖ ﱄ ُﻣ ﹾﻄ ِﻌ ٌﻢ ﻳُﻄﻌﻤﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1963‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ] ﻭﺭﻭﻳﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻣُﺴْﻨﺪﹰﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﺲ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﻠـﻬﻢ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ [ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ] ﻭﻬﻧﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﲪ ﹰﺔ ﳍﻢ ﻭﺇﺑﻘﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻣﺎ ُﻳ ﹾﻜﺮَﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﱡﻖ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻬﻧﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻞ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫‪186‬‬


‫ﺖ ﻳﻄﻌﻤﲏ ﺭﰊ ﻭﻳﺴﻘﻴﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﺑـﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻳﱡﻜﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻲ ؟ ﺇﱐ ﹶﺃﺑِﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺻﻞ ﻬﺑﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰒ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺗﺄﺧﱠﺮ ﺍﳍـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﺰﺩﺗﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﳌﻨ ﱢﻜ ِﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺣﲔ ﺃﺑﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻮﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2566‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﳌﺴـﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2570‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﺰﳝﺔ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﺍﻙ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺧﺬ ﺭﺟﺎ ﹲﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻠﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻝ ﺭﺟﺎ ٍﻝ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻠﻮﻥ ؟ ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﻟﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻲ ﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻟﻮ ﲤﺎ ﱠﺩ ﱄ ﺍﻟﺸﻬ ُﺮ ﻟﻮﺍﺻﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﱢﻘﻮﻥ ﺗﻌ ﱡﻤﻘﹶﻬﻢ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪﻳﻦ ‪ 8 ، 7‬ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺤﺘﺞﱡ ﻬﺑﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻅ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ) ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ( ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ ‪، 10 ، 5 ، 2 ، 1‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻟﻔﺎ ٍ‬ ‫‪ 12‬ﻭ ) ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ( ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ 3‬ﻭ ) ﻻ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻠﻮﺍ ( ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ‪. 11 ، 4‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻟﻔﺎﻇﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺭﺩﱞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻭﺇﺑﺎﺣﺘـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠـﻢ ﺗﺒـﻖ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻨﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﳊﻜﹾﻤﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲢﺪﱢﺩ ﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﳍﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ ( ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ) ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻳﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻳـﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ( ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺸﺪﱢﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻗﺮﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻬﻧ ٌﻲ ﺟـﺎﺯﻡ ‪ .‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺎﻗﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺻـﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃَﺑﻮْﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺭﻓﻀﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻨﻜﻴ ﹲﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﲔ ﹶﺃَﺑﻮْﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺩﺍ ﹰﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻬﻧﻲ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ﻳﻔﻴـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ﳌﺎ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻧﻜﱠﻞ‬ ‫ﻬﺑﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻳﺪﻝﱡ ﻟﻔﻈﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻬﻧﻲ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪187‬‬


‫ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺗﺆﻛﱢﺪ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﺻﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﺪﻉ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﱢﻘﻮﻥ ﺗﻌ ﱡﻤﻘﹶﻬﻢ ( ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ) ﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﷲ ﻟﻮ ﲤﺎ ﱠﺩ ﱄ ﺍﻟﺸﻬ ُﺮ ﻟﻮﺍﺻﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﻢ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﱢﻘﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﻮﺻﺎ ٍﻝ ﻃﻮﻳ ٍﻞ ﻛﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻳﻠﺘﺰﻣﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻭَﻳﺪَﻋﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻮﻋﱡﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻗﺮﻳﻨ ﹲﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺻﻔﹸﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌ ﱡﻤ ِﻖ ﻗﺮﻳﻨ ﹲﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴ ﹲﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻬﻧﻲ ﲢﺮﱘ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻬﻧﻲ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻈﺎﻫﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻤﱡﻖ ﻓﻸﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﱡﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﻈﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ – ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻫﻠﹶﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻄﱢﻌﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﳍﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 6784‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻨﻄﱢﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻄﱡﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﱡﻖ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﳐﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺡ ﻭﺻـﺎﺣﺐ ﺃﺳـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻨﻄﱡﻊ ﻟﻐ ﹰﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﱡﻖ ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻄﱢﻌﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻫﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﱢﻘﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﱡﻖ ﺣﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻳﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺼﺢ ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ َﺗ ِﺮ َﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ َﺗ ِﺮ ْﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﱂ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺻ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺩ ﹰﺓ ﺷﺮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻓﻌﻠﹸﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ َﻳ ِﺮ َﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﺍﺻﻠﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﺗﻮﻗﻔﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻧﻔﻌﻞ ﻧﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺒﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﲑ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ؟‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺟﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ) ﺇﱐ ﻟﺴﺖ ﻛﻬﻴﺌﺘﻜﻢ ( ‪ ) ،‬ﺇﻧﻜﻢ ﻟﺴﺘﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺜﻠﻲ (‬ ‫) ﻟﺴﺖ ﻛﺄﺣ ٍﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ( ‪ ) ،‬ﻟﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻲ ( ‪ ) ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﱡﻜﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻲ ؟ ( ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﻎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﱠﻋﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘ ﱠ‬ ‫‪188‬‬


‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﱂ ﻳُﺸﺮﻉ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺷُﺮﻉ ﻟﻪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻟﻜ ﱢﻞ ﻋﺎﱂ ﻭﻓﻘﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﺒﻴﱢﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺭﲪـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﱂ ﳛ ﱢﺮﻣْﻬﻤﺎ ﺇﺑﻘﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ( ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻭُﺟﺪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺖ ﰲ ﺣﻘﱢﻪ ﻋﻠ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ؟ ﺃﺟﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﲪﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﺸـﺔ‬ ‫ﰊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺻﺤﺎ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻺﺑﻘـﺎﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺹ ﺻﺮﳛ ﹲﺔ ﲢﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﺗﺮﺩ ﻧﺼﻮ ٌ‬ ‫ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ﻓﻴُﺘﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻟﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ‪ :‬ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻷﻧـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﱠﻴﻨﱠﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﻤﱡﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻹﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﱠﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺪﻉ ﻣﺎ ﻇﻨﱠﺘﻪ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻇﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ) ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﱂ ﳛﺮﻣﻬﻤﺎ ( ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻـﻠﺔ ( ﻳﻌﺘـﱪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ ﳚﺐ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻭﱂ ﳛﺮﻣﻬﻤﺎ ( ﻫﻮ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎ ٌﺩ ﻭﻓﻬ ٌﻢ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻟﺴﻨﺎ ﲟﻠﺰﻣﲔ ﺑﺎﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﰊ ﻭﻻ ﺑﻔﻬﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺟـﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺷَﺮﻉ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮِﺻﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﲣﺼﻴ ٌ‬ ‫ﳝﻠﻚ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻃﺒﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺮﱠﻡ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧـﺮﺝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻـﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺠ ْﺰ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﺤﺮ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻭﱂ ُﻳ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﳜﺼﱢﺺ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺑﻘﻲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄ ﱠﻭﻟﹸﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻻ ﺗﻮﺍﺻﻠﻮﺍ ( ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺴﺤَﺮ ( ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻘـﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫) ﻓﺄﻳﱡﻜﻢ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻠﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺑﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺴ ُﺦ ﺃﺣﺪُﳘﺎ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻮﻋﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﱠﺤﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺣُﺮﻣ ﹰﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻭﻃﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻳـﻮﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﺷ ﱡﺪ ﺣﺮﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﱢﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻉ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﻣ ِﺮ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲤﺎ ٍﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺼﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﺎﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﺯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻈﻬﻮﺭﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬

‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﻭﻻ ﻟُﻨﻔﹶﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﱵ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ‬ ‫ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻻﻣﺮﺃ ٍﺓ ﺣﺎﺋ ٍ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﺃﺣﻜﺎ ٌﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ [ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮ ُﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﻄﻮﱡﻋﹰﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻡ ﺗﻄﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺈﺫ ٍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﲢﺖ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ] ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﻉ – ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎ ٌﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ [ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃ – ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪192‬‬


‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﻈﱢﻬﺎﺭ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﻛﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻛﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﺧـﱵ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﱢﻬﺎ ُﺭ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻧ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻛﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻤﱵ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﻈﻬﺮ ﺧﺎﻟﱵ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﳛﺮﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺤﺮﱢﻡ ﲨﺎﻉ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺎﺭ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﳌﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﺟﺰﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻭﻫﺰﺍ ٍﻝ ﺃﻃﻌﻢ ﺳﺘﲔ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﺟﺒ ﹰﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﳌﺮﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻴﺨﻮﺧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﲡﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﲨﺎﻉ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺒـﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻻ ﲢﻞ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﲡﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﲨـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﲢﻞﱡ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﲢﻞﱡ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﲡـﺐ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺎﻣﻊ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﲏ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻬﺗـﺎ ﳐﺘﺼـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﱢﻬﺎﺭ ﻫﻲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳُﻈﺎﻫِﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ِﻣْﻨﻜﹸﻢ ِﻣ ْﻦ ﻧِﺴﺎِﺋ ِﻬ ْﻢ ﻣﺎ ُﻫﻦﱠ ﺃﹸﻣﱠﻬﺎِﺗ ِﻬ ْﻢ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﹸﺃﻣﱠﻬﺎُﺗﻬُﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻼﺋِﻲ َﻭﹶﻟ ْﺪَﻧﻬُ ْﻢ ﻭِﺇﻧﱠﻬﻢ ﹶﻟَﻴﻘﹸﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﻣُْﻨﻜﹶـﺮﹰﺍ‬ ‫ِﻣ َﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ْﻮ ِﻝ َﻭﺯُﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﷲ ﹶﻟ َﻌﻔﹸﻮﱞ ﹶﻏﻔﹸﻮ ٌﺭ ‪ Ο‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳُﻈﺎﻫِﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧِﺴﺎﺋِﻬﻢ ﰒ ﻳﻌﻮﺩﻭﻥ ِﻟﻤَـﺎ‬ ‫ﷲ ﲟﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻠﻮ ﹶﻥ ﺧﺒ ٌﲑ ‪ Ο‬ﻓ َﻤ ْﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﺘﺤﺮﻳ ُﺮ َﺭﹶﻗَﺒ ٍﺔ ِﻣ ْﻦ ﹶﻗْﺒ ِﻞ ﺃﻥ َﻳﺘَﻤﺎﺳﱠﺎ ﺫﻟﻜﻢ ﺗُﻮﻋَﻈﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻣِﺴـﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﲔ ِﻣ ْﻦ ﹶﻗﺒْﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺳﱠﺎ ﹶﻓ َﻤ ْﻦ ﻟﹶﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻄ ْﻊ ﻓﺈِﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﺳﺘ َ‬ ‫ﳚ ْﺪ ﻓﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳ ِﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃﻟﻴ ٌﻢ { ﺳـﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺎﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻭﻟﻠﻜﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﺬﺍ ٌ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟِﻪ ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺣﺪﻭ ُﺩ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ِﻟﺘُﺆﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﺑﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪. 4 ، 3 ، 2‬‬

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‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﺧﻄﹰﺄ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﹰﺎ ﺑﺮﻳﺌﺔ ﺧﻄﹰﺄ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻋِﺘ ُﻖ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻓ ُﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﻳ ٍﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺪﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻠﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺍﳍـﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﻴﺪ ﱂ ﻳﻌﻮﺩﻭﺍ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﶈﺼﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺌﺔ ﺧﻄﹰﺄ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﻗﻠﺘﻪ ﺩﻓ ُﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺔ ﻷﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺽ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻌﻪ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻌﺬ ِﺭ ﺍﳌﺮ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﱢﻔﺎﺱ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺃ ﹰﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻴﱢﺐ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻗﻮﻟﹶﻬﻢ ﺇِﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﰒ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺬ ٍﺭ ﻛﻤﺮﺽ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳُﺘ ﱡﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻭﻳﻌﺘ ﱡﺪ ﲟﺎ ﻣﻀﻰ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﻃﺄ ) ‪ ] ( 254/1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﳛﲕ ‪ :‬ﻭﲰﻌﺖ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﺣﺴ ُﻦ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﲰﻌﺖ ﻓﻴﻤﻦ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﰲ ﻗﺘ ِﻞ ﺧﻄٍﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻈﺎﻫُ ٍﺮ ﻓﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻳﻐﻠﺒﻪ ﻭﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺻ ﱠﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺿﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺧﱢﺮ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺎﺿﺖ ﺑﲔ ﻇﻬﺮﻱ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻬُﺮﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺆﺧﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﺒﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺎﻣﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻷﺣ ٍﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺷـﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘـﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻴﻀ ٍﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻴﻔﻄﺮ [ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﺧﻄﹰﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﻲ ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻭﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳌﹸﺆﻣ ٍﻦ ﺃ ﹾﻥ َﻳ ﹾﻘﺘُ ﹶﻞ ُﻣ ْﺆﻣِﻨﹰﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺧَﻄﹰﺄ َﻭ َﻣ ْﻦ ﹶﻗَﺘ ﹶﻞ ﻣﺆﻣﻨﹰﺎ ﺧَﻄﹰﺄ ﻓﺘﺤﺮﻳـ ُﺮ‬ ‫ﺼﺪﱠﻗﻮﺍ ﻓﺈِﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮ ٍﻡ ﻋﺪ ﱟﻭ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺆﻣ ٌﻦ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﱠﻤ ﹲﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠِﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ َﻳ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺒ ٍﺔ ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ٍﺔ ﻭ ِﺩَﻳ ﹲﺔ ُﻣ َ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻓ ِﺪَﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻣﺴﻠﱠﻤ ﹲﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﹶﻫِﻠ ِﻪ ﻭﲢﺮﻳ ُﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺮﻳ ُﺮ ﺭﻗﺒ ٍﺔ ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ٍﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮ ٍﻡ ﺑﻴﻨﻜﻢ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻴﺜﺎ ٌ‬

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‫ﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﺣﻜﻴﻤﹰﺎ { ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﲔ ﺗﻮﺑ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺒ ٍﺔ ﻓﻤﻦ ﱂ ﳚ ْﺪ ﻓﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳ ِﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌ ِ‬ ‫‪ 92‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻣَﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺎﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓِﺈ ﹾﻥ ﻭﺍﹶﻗ َﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ﺃﻥ ُﻳﻌْﺘﻖ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻳُﺤﺮﱢﺭ ﻋﺒﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ﱢﺮ ﱢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻮﺟﱠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺠ ٍﺰ ﺃﻃﻌﻢ ﺳـﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﳌﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﻫﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﳛَﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻫﻠﻜ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘ ْﻖ ﺭﻗﺒ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﹶﺟﺪُﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﺼﻢ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻕ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺧﺬﻩ ﻓﺘﺼﺪﱠﻕ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﹶﻃﻌ ْﻢ ﺳﺘﲔ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﹶﺟﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﹸﰐ ﺑ َﻌ َﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻣـﲏ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﹶﺃﻋَﻠﻰ ﻏ ِﲑ ﺃﻫﻠﻲ ؟ ﻓﻮﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻃﹸﻨَُﺒ ِﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨ ِﺔ ﺃﺣـﻮ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺤﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺣﱴ ﺑﺪﺕ ﺃﻧﻴﺎﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺧﺬﻩ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 6164‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﹸﻃﻨُﱯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻃﺮﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟ َﻌﺮَﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟ ﱢﺰﻧْﺒﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﲬﺴ ﹶﺔ ﻋﺸ َﺮ ﺻﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻌﺘﻖ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳُﻄﻌﻢ ﺳﺘﲔ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2599‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ( ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺧﺎﺻﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ) ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﲟﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺳﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺇِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺳﺘﲔ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻃﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ) ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ (‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻻ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﺎ ُﻡ ﻬﻧ ٍﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻟﻌﺬ ٍﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻄﻌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻋﺎﻣﺪﹰﺍ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﻤـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﻮ ﹲﻝ ﺷﺎﺫ ﻻ ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﳛﻞﱡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﺭِﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻧِﺪ ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﺎ ُﻡ ﻬﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﺩﻗﻴﻘـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻬﻧﻲ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﱂ ﻳُﺤﺪﱢﺩ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺼـﻮﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺪ ﻋﺸﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻃﺒﻌـﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻠﺤﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﻡ ﻛﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺣﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﺣﻜﻤﹰﺎ ﺇﻥ ﲣﻠﻠﻪ ﻋﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﻴﺾ ﻋﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ﻋﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺠﺰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺬﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋُﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﺣﱴ ﻧﻔﺮﱢﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﻻ ﺗﻠﻐﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻭُﺟﺪﺕ ﰲ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺠﺰِﺋﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻭ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫‪196‬‬


‫ﺻ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺬﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻋﺬﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺧﺎ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳُﻌﺠِﺰ ﺻﺎﺣﺒَﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﱂ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺃﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻬﺬﺍ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺎﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﱠﺓ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ؟‬ ‫ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﰲ ﻳـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﺰﻣﺘﻪ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﹲﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹲﺓ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻔﱠﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻁ ُﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻜﻔﲑﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻟﺰﻣﺘﻪ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻭﻁﺀ ﳏﺮﱠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﰲ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﺀ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫـﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻭﻃِﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻛﻔﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻔﱢﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻌﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻜﺤﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺃﺻﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻋﻨـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﻔﱠﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲡﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﲡـﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺧﺮﻕ ﺣﺮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﲜﻤﺎﻋﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻉ ﺛﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲨﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﻟﺰﻣﺘﻪ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﰲ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﺛﺎﻥ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳُﻔﻄﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻠﺰﻣﻪ ﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ ﹲﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻟﺰﻣﺘﻪ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫‪197‬‬


‫ﻭﻻ ﺗُﺪﻣَﺞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳُﻔﺴِﺪ ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻻ ﻳُﻔﺴِﺪ ﺻﻮ َﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻷﺩﱠﻯ ﺇِﻓﺴﺎ ُﺩ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺇِﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻛﻠﱢﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇِﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻛ ﱢﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﻨﺴﺤﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﺴﺪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻓﺎﺣﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻏﲑ ﻓﺎﺳﺪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻭﺃﻓﺴﺪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺣﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻧﻈـﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻛﻔﱠﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻭ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻻ ﲡﺐ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺧﺮﻕ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﲡﺐ ﰲ ﺧﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻟﻘﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺇﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﺑﻴﺤ ﹶﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺘﱢﻊ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ْﺪ َ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﳊ َﺞ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ‪ :‬ﺣ ﱡﺞ ﺍﻹِﻓﺮﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻮﻱ ﺍﳊﺎ ﱡ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﳊ َﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻘﺘﺮَﻧﻴْﻦ ‪،‬‬ ‫ُﻳ ْﺪﺧِﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺞ ﺍﻟﻘِﺮﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻮﻱ ﺍﳊﺎ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﱡﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻮﻱ ﺍﳊﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻳﻬﺎ ﻳُﺤﻞﱡ ﺇﺣﺮﺍﻣَﻪ ﻭﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ ْﺮﻭِﻳﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻓﻴُﺤﺮﻡ ﻧﺎﻭﻳﹰﺎ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﺘﱢﻊ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺟﺪﻩ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﲦﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ْﺪ َ‬ ‫ﻳﺬﺑﺢ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ْﺪ َ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﺛﻼﺛ ﹰﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺞ ﻭﺳﺒﻌ ﹰﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻠﺪﻩ ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪198‬‬


‫ﺴ َﺮ ﻣِـﻦ ﺍﳍﹶـﺪْﻱ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺼﺮْﰎ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍ ْﺳَﺘْﻴ َ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻓِﺈ ﹾﻥ ﹸﺃ ْﺣ ِ‬ ‫ﳊ ﱠﺞ ﻭﺍﻟ ُﻌﻤْﺮ ﹶﺓ ِ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻭﹶﺃﲤﱡﻮﺍ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺭﹾﺃﺳِـ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﱠﻪ ﻓ َﻤ ْﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺃﹶﺫ ً‬ ‫ﲢﻠِﻘﻮﺍ ﺭُﺅﻭﺳَﻜﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺒﻠ ﹸﻎ ﺍ ﹶﳍ ْﺪﻱُ َﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﺴ َﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ ﻓﺈِﺫﺍ ﹶﺃ ِﻣﻨْﺘﻢ ﻓﻤﻦ ﲤﱠﺘ َﻊ ﺑﺎﻟ ُﻌﻤْﺮ ِﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊ ﱢﺞ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﺳْﺘْﻴ َ‬ ‫ﻓ ِﻔﺪْﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎ ٍﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻗ ٍﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧُﺴُ ٍ‬ ‫ﺸ َﺮﹲﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠ ﹲﺔ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍ ﹶﳍﺪْﻱ ﻓﻤﻦ ﱂ ﳚ ْﺪ ﻓﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺛﻼﺛ ِﺔ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊ ِﺞ ﻭﺳﺒﻌ ٍﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ َﺭ َﺟﻌْﺘﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ َﻋ َ‬ ‫ﺏ{‬ ‫ﷲ ﺷﺪﻳ ُﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘـﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍ َ‬ ‫ﳌﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺃﹶﻫﹸﻠ ُﻪ ﺣﺎﺿِﺮﻱ ﺍﳌﺴﺠ ِﺪ ﺍﳊﺮﺍ ِﻡ ﻭﺍﺗﻘﻮﺍ ﺍ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 196‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍ ﹶﳍﺪْﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﱡﻨﺴُﻚ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺫﺑﺢ ﺷﺎﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﲤﺘﱠﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺞ – ﻓﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺑﻄﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ – ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ... :‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﱂ ﳚﺪ َﻫﺪْﻳﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺼ ْﻢ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺒﻌ ﹰﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺭﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ {...‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1691‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻣﺰﻳ ُﺪ ﲝ ٍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ] ﺻﻮﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻖ [ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﶈﺮﱠﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ [ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻧﺚ ﰲ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺴﻮَﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺚ ﰲ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻄﻌﻢ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﻛﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜ ُ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ َﺣَﻨ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻳُﻌﺘ َﻖ ﺭﻗﺒ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻭﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﺻﻞ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﳊﻠﹾﻒ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺰ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﳊ ﹾﻠﻒُ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﳛﻞ ﺍﳊﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﱯ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻷﺏ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮﻑ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺄﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﹶ‬ ‫ﺷﻲﺀ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻻ ﻏﲑ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺷﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻒ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﺎﻁ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ ) ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ( ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ ﹶﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱠ ْﻐ ِﻮ ﰲ ﹶﺃﻳْﻤﺎِﻧ ﹸﻜ ْﻢ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳُﺆﺍﺧـ ﹸﺬﻛﹸﻢ ﲟـﺎ ﻋﻘﱠـﺪﰎ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻻ ﻳُﺆﺍﺧ ﹸﺬﻛﹸﻢ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻂ ﻣﺎ ُﺗ ﹾﻄﻌِﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﹶﻫﻠﻴﻜﹸﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻛِﺴـﻮﺗُﻬﻢ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﹶﻭ َﺳ ِ‬ ‫ﺸ َﺮ ِﺓ ﻣﺴﺎﻛ َ‬ ‫ﺍ َﻷﻳْﻤﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻓﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭُﺗ ُﻪ ﺇِﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ َﻋ َ‬ ‫ﲢﺮﻳ ُﺮ ﺭﻗﺒ ٍﺔ ﻓ َﻤ ْﻦ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻓﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺛﻼﺛ ِﺔ ﹶﺃﻳﱠﺎ ٍﻡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭُﺓ ﹶﺃﻳْﻤﺎﻧِﻜﻢ ﺇِﺫﺍ َﺣﹶﻠﻔﹾـﺘﻢ ﻭﺍ ْﺣﻔﹶﻈـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﹶﺃﻳْﻤﺎﻧَﻜﻢ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻳُﺒﱢﻴ ُﻦ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺁﻳﺎﺗِﻪ ﻟﻌﻠﻜﻢ ﺗﺸﻜﺮﻭﻥ { ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 89‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺐ ﳛﻠﻒ ﺑﺄﺑﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻻ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻳﻨﻬﺎﻛﻢ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻠﻔﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﲑ ﰲ ﺭﻛ ٍ‬ ‫ﺖ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 6646‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺃﻭ ﻟِﻴﺼﻤ ْ‬ ‫ﺑﺂﺑﺎﺋﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺤﻠ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ ‪. ( ...‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻻ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﺂﺑﺎﺋﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﺄﻣﻬﺎﺗﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﻷﻧﺪﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲢﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺎﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲢﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﺑﺎﷲ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﻮﻥ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 3248‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗـﺎﻝ } ﻣَـﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳝﲔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﲎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 3261‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ) ‪ } ( 1570‬ﻣَـﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳝﲔ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻼ ﺣﻨﺚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ { ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ) ‪ ( 2340‬ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫} ﻣﻦ ﺣﻠﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳝﲔ ﰒ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺑﺎﳋﻴﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻓﻌـﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷـﺎﺀ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻌﻞ { ﻭﻟﻴﻌﺬﺭﱐ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺧﺮﺟﺖ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻋﻼﻗ ﹶﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﳍﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﻧﺚ ﰲ ﻧﺬﺭﻩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻧﺚ ﰲ ﳝﻴﻨﻪ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻛﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﻧﺚ ﰲ ﻧﺬﺭﻩ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﻛﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ ﻫﻲ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ُﻋﻘﹾﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫} ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 4253‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻧﺬﺭﺕ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺧ ٍ‬ ‫ﲢ ﱠﺞ ﺣﺎﻓﻴ ﹰﺔ ﻏﻴَﺮ ﳐﺘﻤِﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ُ :‬ﻣﺮُﻭﻫﺎ ﻓﻠﹾﺘﺨﺘﻤ ْﺮ ﻭﻟﹾﺘﺮﻛﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺼُﻢ ﺛﻼﺛ ﹶﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 3293‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ [ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻻ ﲢﺘـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﹸﻟﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺫﺭ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻧﺬﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑ ﹰﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻠﻴﻠ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻲ ﺑﻨﺬﺭﻩ ﻭﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺬﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺃﹸﻓﺮ َﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﺣﺒﺒ ُ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﲝﺜﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﺼ ﹰ‬

‫ﺤﺮِﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﲑ ﳏﺪﱠﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻗﺎﺗ ِﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴ ِﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻡٌ ﻏ ُ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ) ‪ ( 57/7‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ) ﺃﻭ َﻋ ْﺪﻝﹸ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺤﺮِﻡ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴ ُﺪ ﺣُ ِﻜ َﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻇﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﳓـﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻣﹰﺎ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺘﻞ ﺍﹾﻟ ُﻤ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺎﹲﺓ ﺗُﺬﺑﺢ ﲟﻜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻓﺈﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻛﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﻓﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪201‬‬


‫ﻼ ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮَﻩ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻘﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺃﻃﻌﻢ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺻﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﹶﻗﺘَﻞ ﹶﺃْﻳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺶ ﺃﻭ ﳓﻮَﻩ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ َﺑﺪَﻧ ٌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻧﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲪﺎ َﺭ ﻭﺣ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﻃﻌﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ُﻣﺪﱞ ﻣُـﺪﱞ ﻳُﺸـﺒﻌﻬﻢ {‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟَﺒﺪَﻧﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ َﺳﻤُﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮ ﻳُﺬﺑﺢ ﲟﻜﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻳـﺎﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳُﻘﺪﱠﺭ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﻳُﻘﻮﱠﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﻴ ُﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻮﻝ ﺣﻴﹰﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ُﻣﺪﱟ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺍ ﹸﳌﺪﱠ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﻡ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﰲ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ ِﺓ ﻣَﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻞ ﺣﻴـﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﳊﺪَﺃﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﺍﺳﻖ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺤﺮِﻡ ﺇﻥ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍ ﹸﳌ ْ‬ ‫ﺼْﻴ َﺪ ﻭﺃﹶﻧﺘﻢ ُﺣ ُﺮ ٌﻡ ﻭﻣَﻦ ﹶﻗَﺘﻠﹶﻪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺘ َﻌﻤﱢﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻳﺎ ﺃﹶﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻻ َﺗ ﹾﻘﺘُﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﹸﻢُ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻭﺍ َﻋ ْﺪ ٍﻝ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ َﻫﺪْﻳﹰﺎ ﺑﺎِﻟ ﹶﻎ ﺍﻟﻜﻌﺒ ِﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ ﹲﺓ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺰَﺍ ٌﺀ ﻣﺜ ﹸﻞ ﻣﺎ ﹶﻗَﺘ ﹶﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱠﻨ َﻌ ِﻢ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﻓَ‬ ‫ﷲ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻓﻴﻨﺘﻘ ُﻢ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻋﻤﺎ َﺳﹶﻠ َ‬ ‫ﻕ َﻭﺑَﺎ ﹶﻝ ﺃﻣ ِﺮ ِﻩ ﻋﻔﺎ ﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻛﲔ ﺃﻭ َﻋ ْﺪﻝﹸ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺻﻴﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻟﻴﺬﻭ َ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻋﺰﻳ ٌﺰ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻡ { ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 95‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺍ ُ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ – ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ‪ -‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻓﻮﺍﺳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺟُﻨﺎﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﹶـَﺘﹶﻠﻬُ ﱠﻦ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﲬ ُ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﲬ ٌ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﻟﻌَﻘﻮﺭ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2873‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭ ﹸﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﳊﺪَﺃ ﹸﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﹶﻗْﺘِﻠ ِﻬ ﱠﻦ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﺝ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﳊ َﺪﻳﱠﺎ ‪ :‬ﻃﺎﺋ ٌﺮ ﺟﺎﺭﺡ ﻣﺸﻬﻮ ٌﺭ ﲞﻄ ِ‬ ‫ﳊ َﺪﺃﹶﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫‪ .‬ﻭﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2862‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﲬﺲ ﻓﻮﺍﺳﻖ‬ ‫ﳊ َﺪﻳﱠﺎ { ﻓﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﳊﺮَﻡ ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻷﺑﻘﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺭ ﻭﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻳُﻘﺘﻠﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳊِﻞ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺮﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺕ ﺑﺎﻟ ِﻔﺪْﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ – ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳓﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﻮﺍﻩ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﻣُﻮﺟِﺒﺎ ُ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﻌﺠ ُﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟ ُﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ُﻳ ْﻌﺠِﺰﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺮﺟﻰ ﺑُﺮﺅُﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻛﹸِﺘ َ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ َﺳ ﹶﻔ ٍﺮ ﻓ ِﻌ ﱠﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ﻟﻌﱠﻠﻜﹸﻢ ﺗﺘﱠﻘﻮﻥ ‪ Ο‬ﺃﹶﻳﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﹶﺃﻳﱠﺎ ٍﻡ ﺃﹸ َﺧ َﺮ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ُﻳﻄِﻴﻘﹸﻮﻧﻪ ِﻓﺪْﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣِﺴﻜﲔ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﻄﻮﱠﻉ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧـ ٌﲑ ﻟـﻪ ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺧ ٌﲑ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺇِﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ { ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ‪ 183‬ﻭ ‪ 184‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ِﻓ ْﺪﻳَﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 184‬ﻫﻞ ﻧُﺴﺨﺖ ﺃﻡ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺗُﻨﺴﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ َﺳﻠﹶﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﺍ َﻷﻛﹾﻮﻉ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﳌﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ) ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳُﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ( ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﻔﺘﺪﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺣﱴ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻨﺴﺨﺘﻬﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 4507‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺮﺃ ) ِﻓﺪْﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 4506‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 39‬ﺑﺎﺏ ] ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ [ ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻧﺰﻝ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺸ ﱠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣَﻦ ﺃﻃﻌﻢ ﻛ ﱠﻞ‬

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‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ُﺭﺧﱢﺺ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻨﺴﺨﺘﻬﺎ ) ﻭﹶﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺧﲑ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻢ ( ﻓﺄﹸﻣﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ} ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ{‬ ‫ﺴﻠﹶﻤ ﹸﺔ ﺑﻴﱠﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻓ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮ ٌ‬ ‫ﺼﻤْﻪ { ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺃﻬﺑﻢ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺨﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫} ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ...‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻓ ﹾﻠَﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻴﱠﻨﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫} ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺧ ٌﲑ ﻟﻜﻢ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ُﻳ ﹶﻄﻮﱠﻗﻮﻧﻪ ﻓِﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﲟﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﻄﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 4505‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2638‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻗﺎﻝ ) ُﻳﻄِﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ( ﻳُﻜﻠﱠﻔﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺪﻳﺔ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ) ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﻄﻮﱠﻉ ( ﻓـﺰﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ ) ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧﲑ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺧﲑ ﻟﻜﻢ ( ﻻ ﻳُﺮﺧﱠﺺ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻔﻰ { ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ] ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻳ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻹِﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ } ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺪﻳﺔ ﻃﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﹶﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﲔ { ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ ﺃﻭ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺇﻥ ﳘﺎ ﻋﺠﺰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻃﻌﻤﺎ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻄـﺮﺍﻩ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ ﻓﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ) ‪134/2‬‬ ‫( ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ – ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻫﺮﻱ – ﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﷲ ) ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺼﱢﻴﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪204‬‬


‫ﺷﺎﺀ ﺍﻓﺘﺪﻯ ﳑﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻳﺾ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﻳُﻄﻴﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻓﻌﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﹸﺧﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻄﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻄـﺶ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﱢﻴﺐ ) ‪ ( 137/2‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ] ﰲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ِﺫ ﹾﻛﺮُﻩ ) ﻓﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﱪ ﻭﻋﺠﺰ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﱞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻨﻄﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺣﱴ ﳝﻀﻲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ [ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺪ ﳓﺎ ﻣﻨﺤ ًﻰ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﹰﺎ ﻋﻤﻦ ﺳﺒﻘﻮﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺪ ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﻛـﱪﻭﺍ (‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ( ﻓﻜﹶﺄﻥﱠ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺬﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ ) ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﱪﻭﺍ ﻓﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻭﲨﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﻻ ﺃﻧﻨﺎ ﻻ ﳒـﺪ ﻣﺴـﺘﻨﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﳊﺬﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﻻ ﻳُﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺬﱡﺭ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﹾﻥ ﺗﻌﺬﱠﺭ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘﲔ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﳉﺄﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺬﱠﺭ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺬﱡﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺧﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ َﺗ ْﺮ ُﺟﻤَﺎ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭ َﺣْﺒ ِﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺪﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺘﻤﺴـﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺘﲔ ﳏﻜﻤﺘﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻧﺴﺦ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﳊﺬﻑ ﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﱢﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻠﺠَﺄ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﳊﺬﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺮﺩﱡﺩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ } ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌـﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴـﻜﲔ {‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﻜ َﻤ ﹲﺔ ﻏ ُﲑ ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺧﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻞ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣُ ْ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ } ﻳﺎ ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ‬ ‫‪205‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ﻟﻌﻠﻜﻢ ﺗﺘﻘﻮﻥ { ﻓﻘﻮﳍﺎ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳُﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭُﻭﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻻ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻛﹸﺘﺐ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻗﺪ ﻓﹸﺮﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﻣﻨﺎﻫِﺾ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﺭِﺽ ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﱢﺣﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﻔﺮﻭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﺮ ﱡﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺜـﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﻯ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺗﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ } ﺷﻬ ُﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﹸﻧﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁ ﹸﻥ ﻫﺪ ً‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﹸﺪﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺎﻥ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻬ َﺮ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺼُﻤﻪ { ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻴﱢﻨﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﱢﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ } ﻓﻤﻦ ﺷﻬﺪ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻓﻠﻴﺼﻤﻪ { ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻟﻶﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﻃﺒﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﱠﺴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈ ُﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻭﻻ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﱢﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﻟﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻭﱂ ﺗﺄﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺬﻛﺮﺕ ُﻋﺬﹾﺭ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻭ ُﻋﺬﹾﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﱠﻨﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ } ﻓﻌ ﱠﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﹶﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﹸ َﺧ َﺮ { ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ } ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳُﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ِﻓﺪْﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ { ﻓﻌﻄﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ﲝﺮﻑ ﺍﻟـﻮﺍﻭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌـﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺍﻭ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻷَﻋﺬﺍ ُﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﹸﺒﻴﺤ ﹸﺔ ﻟﻺِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻼ ﻋﻄﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﻭﺑﻠﻮﻍ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺎﺫﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﱂ ُﺗﺪْﺧﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻌ ﱠﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺃﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﱐ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﺇﺩﺧﺎ ﹶﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻨ ِﻔ ِﺬ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫‪206‬‬


‫ﺍﻷﻋﺬﺍﺭ ﺑﻌﻄﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﺘﻀﺖ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺇِﺩﺧﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺗﱠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻌـﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ } ﻓﺪْﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ { ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭﻳﻦ ﺍ َﻷﻭﱠﻟﲔ‬ ‫} ﻓﻌﺪﱠﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﹸﺃﺧَﺮ { ﻭﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻧﻔﺖ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟـﺚ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﺖ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺟﺮﻯ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻧﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ ﲟﺎ ﺳﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﳝﺔ } ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ { ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻔﺴﱢﺮ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﲏ ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻧﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻛﻠﱡﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻢ ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺐ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟـﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻔﺴﱠـﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺌﺖ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺆﻭﱠﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﻔﺬﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺷﻜﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺱ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﺇﲤﺎﻣَﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺒﺬﻝ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﻮﺷﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﲤﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﺬﺭ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺜﻨﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴـﺘﺜﻨﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻳﺸﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻬﺑـﻢ ﺃﻗﺼـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﺖ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺠﺰﻭﻥ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺬﻝ ﻃﺎﻗﺘﻬﻢ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻣﺎ ٍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻮﻧﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻫـﻮ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺗﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﱪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻴﻮﺥ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﱢﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻜﺘـﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﻜـﺮﱘ ﻓﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ) ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 97‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻠﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ( ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ } ) ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ( ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻔﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻧﻪ ) ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﺴـﻜ ٍ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﻄﻮﻉ ﺧﲑﹰﺍ ( ﻓﺄﹶﻃﻌﻢ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ) ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧ ٌﲑ ﻟﻪ ( ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻨﺴـﻮﺧ ﹰﺔ ‪. { ...‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻓﺴﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ ) ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ( ﺑـ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴ ٌﲑ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻧﺎ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻞ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﹶﺑﻘﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻭﻧﻔﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺴ ٍﺦ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻄﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﳔﺮﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﻔﺪﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎ ِﻋَﻨﻴْﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻳﻔﻄﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻳﻄﻌﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﺍﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﺠﺰﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳُﺮﺟَﻰ ﺷـﻔﺎﺅُﻩ ﺃﳊﻘﻨـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ‪ ...‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻔﺮ ﻓﻌ ﱠﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹸﺃﺧَﺮ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 184‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﻘﻀﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻻ ﻳُﺮﺟﻰ ﺷﻔﺎﺅُﻩ ﺃﳊﻘﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺸ ﱡﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﻳﻄﻌﻢ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳـﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻄـﺮﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺘﺠﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﲝﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪. 3‬‬

‫ﺺ ﳝﻮﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﺸﺨ ُ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻳُﺨﻴﱠﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﱡﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻄﻌـﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺑﺪﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻓﺎﺗﻪ ﺻﻴﺎﻣُﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﱄ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧُﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒـﺎﺱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺟﻮﺍ ُﺯ ﺍ ِﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ َﻳ ِﺮ ْﺩ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻳﻌﲏ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺗﱢﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﱢﰎ ﲝﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ] ﻗﻀـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻴﺖ [ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ [ ﻓﲑﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪208‬‬


‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ﳚﺎﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﻌﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳُﻄﻌﻢ ﺳﺘﲔ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺪﹰﺍ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﹶﺃﻣﱠﺎ ِﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻻ ﺇﰒ ‪ .‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ] ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﳎﺎﻫﺪ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻼ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ [ ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ) ‪ ( 7375‬ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ] ﻟﻮ َﻭﻃِﻲ َﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ ﹸﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗَـﻪ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ [ ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ) ‪ ( 7376‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ] ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫[ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳُﻮﺟِﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﲟﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻴﺚ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻭﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻭﺟﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﹶﺃﻋْﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻘﻴﻬﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻧﺎﺳﻴﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺟﺒﲑ ﻭﺇﺑـﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺈﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺸﻜ ٍﻞ ﻣﻄﻠ ٍﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺷﺎﺫ ﻻ ﻳُﻠﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﳌﻌﺎﺭﺿﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﻣﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﳛﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﳚﺎﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﺘﻖ ﺭﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇِﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺳﺘﲔ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ؟ ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺃﺻ ﱢﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻻ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﲡﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻷَﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭ ﹲﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴـﺔ ﻗـﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﲡﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻜﺮﻫﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻛﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻏﲑ ُﻣ ﹾﻜﺮَﻫﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲡﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻹِﻋﻔﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﲟﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﺇﻬﻧﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻹﻋﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫‪209‬‬


‫ﺺ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳜﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﱠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﰒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨ ﱡ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﻃﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺬﻛﺮُﻫ ﱠﻦ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻗﺎﻋﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠ ﹶﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺴﺘﺜﲎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺣُ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺝ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻹِﻛﺮﺍﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟ ﹸﺔ ﺩﻓﻌَﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈِﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﹶﺃ ْﻋﹶﻠﻤَﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴـﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘُﻜﺮﻫﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﹸﻜﺮَﻩ ﻻ ﺇﰒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ ﻻ ﻋﻘﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺗُﻌﺘِﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻗﺒ ﹰﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﱢﻣﻪ ﻟﺴﺘﲔ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﺟﺒﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻗﺪ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻣﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇِﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻌﻴﱠﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺟﺰﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭ ﹶﺓ ﺗﺴﻘﻂ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﻮﺟِﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻮ ﺇِﻳﻼﺝُ ﺍﻟﺬﱠﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺇِﻧﺰﺍ ﹲﻝ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﲡﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻹِﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲨﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺰﺍ ﹸﻝ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺍﻋﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬

‫ﻻ ﻓِﺪﻳ ﹶﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﱠﺮ ﻗﻀﺎ َﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻟﻐﲑ ﻋﺬ ٍﺭ ﺣﱴ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎ ﹸﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﻗﻀﺎ ُﺀ ﺃﻳﺎ ٍﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺣﱴ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺨ ٍ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻤﻪ ‪ :‬ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌﺰَﱐ ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤـﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻜ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ] ‪ ...‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻓﺮﱠﻁ ﺣﱴ ﺟـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻮﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇِﻃﻌﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻣﺮﺳ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳُﻄﻌِﻢ [ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﱠﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﺣﱴ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻧ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﱠﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ] ﻭﺟﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﳍﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﳐﺎﻟﻔﹰﺎ [ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻳﱠﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﱂ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺭُﻭﻳﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﺭﺩﱡﻫﺎ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺗﱢﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻣَﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻢ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺣﱴ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺻﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﺧِﺮ ﻭﺃﻃﻌﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻂ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺍﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﱠﻴﻨﱠﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳُﻄﻌِﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻃﻴﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺼ ﱠﺢ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺣﱴ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﻘﻀﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﺼ ﱠﺢ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻄﻌِـﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﲡﺪﻭﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﺑﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍ ُﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭُﻭﻳﺖ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔِﺪﻳﺔ ُﻣﺪﱞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻬﻧﺎ ُﻣﺪﱠﺍﻥ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻣﺪﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺻﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻋﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪211‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣَﻦ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻪ ﺍﻟ ِﻜَﺒﺮُ ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ُﻣﺪﱞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻤﺢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪. ( 208/2‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﻀﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻄﻌﻢ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣِﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ . ( 253/4‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻨﻄﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺃﻃﻌﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣُ ّﺪﹰﺍ ﻣُ ّﺪﹰﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 204/2‬ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ) ‪ ( 254/4‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻗﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ُﻣﺪﱞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻨﻄﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ) ‪ ( 7629‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ُﻣﺪﱞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻨﻄﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ُﻣﺪﱞ ﻭﺍﺣ ٌﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺭﺑﻊ ﺻﺎﻉ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ } ﻗﺮﺃ ) ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻄﻴﻘﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ ( ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻄﻌﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺻﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻨﻄﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪. ( 207/2‬‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺼ َ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺻﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ُﻣﺪﱠﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻨﻄﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻗﻴﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﻥ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﺘﺪﻱ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳُﻄﻌﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﹶﻃﻌﻤﻮﺍ ﻋﲏ ﻣﺴﻜﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺻﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪ { ...‬ﻧﺴـﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ ) ‪ ( 4953‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﺕ [ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺬﻟﺖ ﻭﺳﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻓﻠﻢ ﺃﺟﺪﻩ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺻﺎﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻣﺪﺍﺩ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﻬﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻷﺣﻨﺎﻑ ﻗـﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺻﺎﻉ ُﺑﺮﱟ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﺳﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪ :‬ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺍ ﹸﳌﺪﱡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺭﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻉ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﱂ ﳛﺪﱢﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ ﻣﻨـﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﱂ ﳛﺪﺩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳُﻄ َﻌﻢُ ﺍﳌﺴﻜ ُ‬ ‫ﲔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﺁﺭﺍﺅﻫﻢ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﻁ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺇﻃﻌﺎ ِﻡ ﻣﺴﻜ ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﻮﺍ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﱠﺮﺕ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﻬﺗﹸﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻑ ﻭﺃﺣﻮﺍ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﻌﺎﺵ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﻭﺃﺛﺮ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳُﻘﺪﱠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌُﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻜﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﲔ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺳﺒﻘﻮﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﻓﺪﻳ ﹲﺔ ﻃﻌﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ { ﻭﻧﺪﻉ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺪﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳُﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻜﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﺒﺬﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻹﻃﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻜﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻭﺃﹶﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌ ﱢﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣ ِﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻜﲔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﱠﺒﻊ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻫﻦ ﺗﻘﺪ ُﱘ ﻭﺟﺒﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﻳﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ) ‪ ( 1602‬ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﲬﺴ ﹸﺔ ﺃﺭﻃـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ ] ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﺯ ﻓﻼ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﹶﻋﻠﻤﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎ َ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻋﺎِﻟﻤُﻬﻢ ﻭﺟﺎ ِﻫﻠﹸﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺒﺎﻉ ﰲ ﺃﺳﻮﺍﻗﻬﻢ ﻭﳛﻤ ﹸﻞ ﻋﻠﻤَﻪ ﻗـﺮ ﹲﻥ ﻋـﻦ ﻗـﺮ ٍﻥ )‬ ‫ﻭﺛﻠ ﹲ‬ ‫‪ ( 1603‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﻘﻮﺏ – ﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ – ﺯﻣﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻛﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺴﺮﻧﺎ ﻣـﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ [ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ) ‪ ( 1623‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ] ﻓﻘﺪ ﻓ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹸﳌﺪﱡ ُﺭُﺑﻌُﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﻃـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻤﺘُﻚ ﲬﺴ ﹸﺔ ﺃﺭﻃﺎ ٍﻝ ﻭﺛﻠ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﻠﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺮﻃﻠﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻭﺯﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺩﺭﻫﻢ ﻭﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﳘﹰﺎ ‪. [ ...‬‬

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‫ﻭﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺪ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ 543‬ﻏﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻉ ‪175،2‬ﻏﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﲔ ﻭﻣﺎﺋ ﹰﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳُﻔﻄﱢـ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋـﻢ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﻄ ُﻊ ﻧﻴﱠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺪﺋﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺋﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﹸﻄﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻴـﺔ ﻗﹸﻄـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪214‬‬


‫ﺏ ﻋﻤْﺪﹰﺍ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻷﻛ ﹸﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮ ُ‬ ‫ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﱃ َﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﺍﳉﺎﻫﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺾ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎ ُ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﳊﻴ ُ‬

‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺳﺒﻖ ﲝﺜﻪ ﰲ ﻓﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ – ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ [ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻟﻘﻲ ُﺀ ﻋﻤْﺪﹰﺍ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﻤﱡﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ : -‬ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻤﱠـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺭﻗﻢ ﻭﻣﺎﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﺭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ – ﺃﻱ ﻗﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻌ ﱢﻤ ٍﺪ – ﻻ ﻳﺒﻄﻞ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﺍﻹﲨﺎﻉ – ﻭﻳﻌﲏ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺇﲨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﺭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﲨﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﺪﱠﺛﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺛﻮْﺑﺎ ﹶﻥ ﻣﻮﱃ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﻣﺴـﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﺀ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﺀ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻَﺒْﺒﺖُ ﻟﻪ ﻭَﺿﻮ َﺀ ﻩ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪2381‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺻﺪﻕ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ َ‬ ‫( ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻗﺎﻻ ‪ :‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺢ ﺷـﻲﺀ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ َﻣﻨْﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﺇِﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺩﺍﺀ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ﻭﺃﹸﰐ ﲟﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﻮﺿﺄ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 7548‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ }‬ ‫ﺾ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﹶﺫﺭَﻋ ُﻪ ﻗﻲ ٌﺀ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﹾـَﻴ ﹾﻘ ِ‬ ‫)‪ ( 2380‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ‬ ‫] ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ [ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ‪ .‬ﺃﹶﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﳏﻔﻮﻇﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺫﺍ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪( 3117‬‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺇﺫﺍ ﺫﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ َﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻲ ُﺀ ﻓﻼ ﺇﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﻴﺄ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ { ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻗﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﹶﺫﺭَﻉ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻏﻠﺐ ﻭﺳﺒﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ } ﲰﻊ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﺀ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺇﳕﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺮِﺝ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻮﻟِﺞ ﻭﻳُﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺃﺻﺢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻋﻜﺮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ُﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳑﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ ‪ { ...‬ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺑـﺎﺏ ] ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣﻦ ﺫﺭﻋﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲ ُﺀ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ . ( 219/4‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ) ‪ 48‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ( ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻲ ُﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼ ُﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒـﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ . ( 1016‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﺃﺣﺪَﳘﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﺎﻫﺮُﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤ ﹸﺔ [ ﻭﺿـﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺁﺧـﺮﻭﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﱠﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 183/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋـﺪﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻔﻈﻪ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ) ﻗﺎﺀ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ( ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻩ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ) ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺾ ( ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ( ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ) ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺗﻌﻤﱡﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﺑﻠﻔﻈﺘﲔ ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻴﺄ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺷﻜﱠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﰲ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻟﻪ ﻛﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺒﻮﻟﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻴﺄ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺗﻌﻤﱠﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺟﺪ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﻴُﻌ َﻤﻞﹸ ﻬﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳُﻘﺎﻝ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺗﻌ ﱡﻤ َﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ُﻣ ﹶﻔﻄﱢﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿﻴْﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻮﻻﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﻭﺍﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭ َ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻓﺈﻧﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻗﺎﻝ ) ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻘﻴﱠﺄ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ( ) ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺾ ( ﺃﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻤﱠﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﺑﻄﻞ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻠﻴﻘ ِ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ) ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﺀ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ (‬ ‫) ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ( ﻭﺭ ﱠﺟ َﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﹾﻨﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ) ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫) ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﺀ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ( ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﱂ ﺗﻔﺮﱢﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﱠﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﱠـﺪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﻻ ﻧﻨﻜﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﻏ َﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﱠﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﲣﺼﱢﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻲ َﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﱠﺪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻣﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﱢﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘُﺆﺧ ﹸﺬ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﱢﺼ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠ ِﺔ ﺑﺄ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻌ ﱠﻤ َﺪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻭﺗُﺤﻤَﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﱢﺺ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻧﺄﰐ ﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑـﺎﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻄﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﰲ ﻬﺗﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ – ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯُﺭﻋﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﻮﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻏﺮﺍﺋﺐ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﶈﻤﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻮ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺛﱠﻘﻪ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎﻫﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺓ – ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺭﲟﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﻒ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ – ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﻭﺻﺤﺢ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ –‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﺃﹶﺣ َﺪ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻮ ﹲﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺘﲔ ﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺴﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﱢﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳـﺰ ﱂ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﻓﻆ [ ﻓﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹِﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺻﺢ ﻣﻦ ﻏـﲑﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻴﱠﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺪﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﻳُﻜﺘَﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻖ ‪ :‬ﻳُﻜﺘَﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺤﺘ ﱡﺞ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺎﱀ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺹ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﺮ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﺍﳋﺎ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ) ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ( ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﱠﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﱠﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺨﺼﱢﺼﻪ ﺑـﺎﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻌ ﱠﻤ َﺪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ َﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﱠﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻄﱢﺮﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺪ ﲝﺚ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ] ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﻲﺀ ﻋﻤﺪﹰﺍ [ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ‬ ‫] ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ [ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻉ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺍﳉﻤﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﲝﺚ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ] ِ‬ ‫ﺣﻞﱡ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﰲ ﻟﻴﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ [ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ –‬ ‫‪218‬‬


‫ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ [ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ] ﺻﻴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ [ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍﺕ [ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ] ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﳚﺎﻣﻊ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﻬﻧﺎﺭ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ [ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ] ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺍﺕ [ ﻓﻴُﺮ َﺟﻊُ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻁ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺿ َﻊ ﻣﺎﺩﹲﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ﻭﺗُﺴﺘﻨﺸَﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﱡﺸﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱡﺸﻮﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﻮ َ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﻮﻁ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳُﺴﺘﻨﺸﻖ ﺍﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﺪﻭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻧﺒﻮﻱ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﺏ ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬﱢﻛﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺍﶈﺪﱢﺛﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳ ٍ‬ ‫ﺻﺒْﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻗﻠﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻟﻘﻴﻂ ﺑﻦ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﹶﺳﺒﻎ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮ َﺀ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻕ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 407‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮﻩ ﺃﻡ ﻫﻮ ﻣُﻔﻄﱢﺮ ؟‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ] ( 1934‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﱠﻌﻮﻁ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺼـﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﺘﺤﻞ [ ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻣﻮﺻﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷـﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺼِﺒ ِﺮ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 462/2‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻌﻘﺎﻉ ﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ – ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ‪ -‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ﺑﺎﻟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﺳﹰﺎ [ ﻭﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ] ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ﻟﻠﺼـﺎﺋﻢ [ ﻭﺫﻫـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻁ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻭﻳﻮﺟِﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺸﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﺼﺪ ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﰲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻗﻮﻟﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳُﻔﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺎﺳﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳُﻔﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪219‬‬


‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺻﱪﺓ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇِﺩﺭﺍﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺑـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺗُﺪ ِﺧ ﹶﻞ ﻣﺎﺩ ﹰﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻟﺘَﺪﺧُﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﱡﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰ ٌﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧـﻒ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻴﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇِﺩﺭﺍﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﲢﺮﱡﺯﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﱠﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺮﺩ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻧﺒﻮﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺩﺧﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻫﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛِﺴﺮﺓ ؟ ﻓﺄﺗﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﻘﹸ ْﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻫﻞ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺑﻄﲏ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ؟ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺝ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳَﻌﻠﻰ ) ‪ . ( 4954/8‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻌﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣـﻦ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ [ ﻓﻔﻴﻪ ﺭﺍ ٍﻭ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺪﻋ ﱠﻮ ِﺓ ﺳـﻠﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻴﻠ ِﺔ ﺑﻜ ِﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻭﺍﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﳎﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺗُﻌﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﺒﻖ ﺇﻻ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪( 7518‬‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ﳑﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ { ﻭﻭﺟـﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷـﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪( 467/2‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻳﺮﻭﻳﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳑﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ { ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺛﺮﺍﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﺛﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻳـﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻤﺠﻤﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻭﻳﺒﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻼﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺼﺪﺍ ﺍﳉﻤﺠﻤﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫‪220‬‬


‫ﻭﻗﺼﺪﻩ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺼﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﺠﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺇ ﱠﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻ ﹰﻻ ﻬﺑﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺛﺮﻳﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻈﻨﱡﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﻌﻮﻁ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺇﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ‬ ‫ﻷﺟﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻖ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﱠﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻘﻴﲏ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ – ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﱠﻌﻮﻁ ﻭﻛ ﱠﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺸﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﺃﻱ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺐ ﲝﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﳌﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺟﺴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻧﺰﻭﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﱰﻭﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺗُﻄﻠِﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺷﺮﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﱰﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺃﻛ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﻊ ﺟﺴﻤﹰﺎ ﺻﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻛﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﺋ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺮﺑﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻠﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻧﻪ ﳌﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺷ ﱠﺬ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻐﺬﻳﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻐ ﱟﺬ ﻛﺤﺼﺎ ٍﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻔﻨﺔ ﺗﺮﺍﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻛﻠﱡـﻪ ﺩﻓﻌـ ﹰﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺧﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻟﻠﻘﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺤﺒﺔ ﺍﳊﻤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺠﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺠ َﻤ ٌﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻟﻴﺤﺘﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺤﻖ ﺣﺒ ﹶﺔ ﺍﳊﻤﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺤﻮﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﰲ ﺟﻮﻓﻪ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺑﺒﻠﻌﻪ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻌﻪ ﺣﻴﻠﺘﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﻥ ﺟﺴﻤﹰﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺟﺴﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺩﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺤﻮﻗﹰﺎ ﻓﺒﻠﻌﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸﻘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪221‬‬


‫ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳ ِﺔ ﺣﺎﻟ ٍﺔ ﺩﺧﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻌ ﹲﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮ َﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺟﺴ ٌﻢ ﳏﺴﻮﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺟﺴ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﳏﺴﻮﺱ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻟﻌﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺋﺢ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﻬﺔ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺋﺢ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺗﻌ ﱡﻤﺪ ﴰﱢﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ) ‪( 4449‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ) ‪ ( 614‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳُﺌﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﻳﻘﺒﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﳛﺎﻧ ﹲﺔ ﻳﺸﻤﱡﻬﺎ { ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺗﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺸ ﱢﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﳛﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺷ ﱠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﳛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﺃﻭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺟﺴﻢ ﳏﺴﻮﺱ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻣُﺬﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻄﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﰒ ﺗﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺤﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺎﺩ ﹰﺓ ﳏﺴﻮﺳﺔ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﺎﻥ ﺍ ُﻷﻭْﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺏ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺴﱠﻌﻮﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻎ ﻳُﺴﺤَﻖ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻨﺸﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺩﺧﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺧﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﱡﻮﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ ‪ -‬ﲞﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭﲞﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ ‪ -‬ﲞﱠﺎﺥ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺮﺑْﻮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﹶﺃﺟْﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺟﺴﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﱠﻌﻮﻁ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻛﻠﱡﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﺣﺒﺔ ﲪﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺒﺔ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ ﺗُﺴﺤَﻖ ﻓﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺩﺧـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠﺎﻳﺮ ﻭﻏﻼﻳﲔ ﻭﻧﺮﺟﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺸﻜﱠﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﹶﺃﺟْﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺟﺴﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﻄِﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﻜﻮﺗﲔ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺗﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺑـ ) ﺍﻟِﺒ ﹾﻠﺒِﻠﺔ ( ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻴﺎﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟـﺮﻯ ﺗﺒﺨﲑﻫـﺎ‬ ‫‪222‬‬


‫ﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﲞﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭﲞﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻌﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻭﺩﻭﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﻼ ﻳﺼـﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻗﻪ ﻭﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﲝﺎ ٍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﲞﱠﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻪ ﻭﻭﺍﻗﻌـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ ﻳﻨﺒﻌﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻛﺮﺫﺍﺫ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻳﱰﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺴ ٌﻢ ﻣﻨﻪ ﳜﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻌﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻓﻄﱠﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺩﺧﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺫﺍﺫ ﺃﻭ ﲞﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﺟﺴﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻻﺳـﺘﻌﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺑﻔﻌ ٍﻞ ﺇﺭﺍﺩ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺧﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸﻖ ﻋﺎﻣﺪﹰﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﻌِﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺵ ﲞﱠﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺀ ﻳﻐﻠﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻕ ﲞﺎﺭﳘﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﺝ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺭ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻪ ﻟﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺟﻮﻓﻪ ﻓﻜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻪ ﺇِﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﺟﺮﺍ ٍﻡ ﻭﺃﺟﺴﺎ ٍﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓُﻴ ﹾﻔﻄِﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺭﺍﺩ ٍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ُﻳ ﹾﻔﻄِﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳـﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻻ ﳛﺎﺳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌ ٍﻞ ﻻ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺟﻠﺲ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﺪﺧﱢﻦ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮ َ‬ ‫ﻋﻮ ِﺩ ﲞﱡﻮ ٍﺭ ﻣﺸﺘﻌ ٍﻞ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺻﺪﺭﻩ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻗﺼﺪ ﻭﻻ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻈﻞﱡ‬ ‫ﺸﺒَﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﺒﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻤﱠﺎﻡ ﻣﺸﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﺑﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻮ ﺭﻃﺒﹰﺎ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﲞﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺭﻏﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻗﺼﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻـ ﹰﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﺻﻒ ﺍﳋﻤﺎﺳﻴﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺩﺧﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺈﺭﺍﺩ ٍﺓ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻗﺼ ٍﺪ ﺃﺷﻴﺎ َﺀ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻁ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺃ ﱠﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍﻩ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﺛﺮﻱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﺷﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ) ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ( ‪ ) ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ( ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ) ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ ( ﻓﻬـﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺟﻮﻓﻪ ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ) ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ ﳑﺎ ﺩﺧﻞ (‬ ‫‪223‬‬


‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﻑ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﱠﻌﻮﻁ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕٌ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎ ًﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻴﺎﻧُﻪ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﲨﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﺴﺄﻟﺘﻨﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺃ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻚ ) ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﺎ ٍﺭ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻮﻧﻪ ( ﰲ ﺟﺴﺪ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺮﱠﺍﺡ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺳﻠ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﺿﻊ ﺷﺒﻜ ٍﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻔ ٍﺦ ﻟﻔـﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﺤﺺ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺣﺎﻻﺗﻪ ﻳُﻨﻈﹶﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺃﹸﺩﺧِﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻥ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﹸﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳉﻠﺪ ﻓﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﻌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻳﻔﻄﱢـﺮ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺃﹸﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳉﻠﺪ ﻓﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻧﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﱂ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻠﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺝ ﺑﺎﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺖ ﺍﳊﺼﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻧﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﺼﻞ ﰲ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻼ ُ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﱠﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﱠﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻣﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼ ُ‬ ‫ﻓﺪﺧﻮﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺟﺴ ِﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮﻩ ﲝﺎ ٍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﲑ ﰲ ﹶﺫﻛﹶﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺣﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻄﲑ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﲑ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻞ‬

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‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ﻭﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺳﻠﻚ ) ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻈﺎﺭ ( ﰲ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺬﻛﹶﺮ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺘﲔ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﲑ ﻟﺮﺣﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓِﺈﻥﱠ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻣﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﳊﻘﹾﻨ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻓﻀﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﳊﻘﹶﻦ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻨﻔﺬ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﻌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻈﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻠﻴﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳊﻘﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺟﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻣﻄﺎﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﻠﺪ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻄﱯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍ ﱠﺩ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻢ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺴﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﺎ ٍ‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺝ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻳُﻨﻈﹶﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺩ َﻡ ﺣﻴ ٍ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ ﺩﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺎﺿﺔ – ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ِﻋ ْﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻄﻮﻉ – ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺧﺮﻭ ُ‬ ‫ﻋﻀ ٍﻮ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻴﻤ ﱡﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈِﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣﺔ [ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫] ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ [ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴـﻮﺍﺋﻞ ﻛـﺎﻹِﻓﺮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹِﻓﺮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺳﻠﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﺜﻮﻱ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺻ ﹶﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻵﻣﱠﺔ‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﺍﳉﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﻣﱠﺔ – ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺄﻣﻮﻣﺔ ‪ : -‬ﻭﻧﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﳉﺮ َ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺻ ﹶﻞ ﺇﱃ ﹸﺃﻡﱢ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﻠﺪﺓ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﲢﻴﻂ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻵﻣﺔ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢـﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮ َ‬ ‫ﻓﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺴﻢ ﰲ ﲡﻮﻳﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﺠﻤﺔ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﲝـﺎ ٍﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﻓﻴُﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻲ ﱂ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃ ﱟ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬

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‫ﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻁ‬ ‫‪ -10‬ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺪﻳ ُﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺨﺪﱢﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻌ ﹲﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﲝﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﱡﻌﻮﻁ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -11‬ﺷ ﱡﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻳُﻨﻈﹶﺮ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸ ﱡﻖ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻖ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﻤﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺯﺭﻉ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺭﻱ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺿﺮﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺩﺧﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻣﻮﺍ ﱠﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﲝﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﻭﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺇِﻛﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪ -12‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳ ُﺮ ﺃ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﱠﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﻘ ُﻦ ﻣﻮﺍ ﱠﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ َﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺇﻋﻄﺎ ُﺀ ﻣﺎﺩ ٍﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺝ ) ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻧﺔ ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺣﻴﻨﺌ ٍﺬ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻉ ﺃﺟﺴﺎ ٍﻡ ﺻﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺑـﺪﻝ‬ ‫‪ -13‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺒﺘﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﻟ َﻮ ِﺭﻛﹶﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺭ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﻭﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﻣﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -14‬ﺇﺑﺮ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﲝﺎ ٍﻝ ﺳﻮﺍ ٌﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﺝ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺪﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺪﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍ ٌﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎﺗﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺼ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﹰﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺴﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺇﱃ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻱ ﺷـﻲﺀ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇِﻥ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻳ ِﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺻﻠﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺎﺋﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺍ ٍﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺍﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺜﻮﺭ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﳒﻴﺰ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺇﺑـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻧﻌﺘﱪﻫﺎ ُﻣْﺒﻄِﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﻡ ؟ ﺃﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻛﺘﻠﻚ ؟‬ ‫ﺤﻈﹶﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﺃﻱ ﻳُﺤﻈﹶﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺔ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ُﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺇﻃﻼ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﺕ ﻧﺺﱞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍ ﹸﳌ َﻐﺬﱢﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺻﻐﲑ ٍﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺼﻰ ﻳُﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﻏﺬﺍﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺎﻟﻌﱪﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻨ ِﺔ ﺗﺮﺍﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺒﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳـﺔ ﺑـﺎﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻻ ﺷﺮﺑﹰﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻡ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳉﻠﺪ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻛ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﱐ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻲ ﱠﲤﺖ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺃﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳍﻀﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﳌـﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻡ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺇﺑﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﺗُ ْﻐ َﺮﺯُ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻠﺪ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳـﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻔ ﱢﻄ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﹸﺓ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪228‬‬


‫ﻭﻧﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻼﻣﺴ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺟ ِﺔ ﻭﻣﻀﺎﺟﻌﺘَﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻳﻼﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲨﺎﻉ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﺮﺧﺺ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﻭﱂ ُﻳ َﺮﺧﱢﺼﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺴﹶﻠ َﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻮﻣُﻪ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﹸﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﺷ ﱡﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺏ ﳐﺎﻓ ﹶﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻻ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﺗُﻨ ِﻘﺺُ ﺍﻷَﺟﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺃﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻠﻚ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻘﺒﱢﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺴﹶﻠ َﻢ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻮﻣُﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺄﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ َﺗﺮَﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻟَﻴ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻫﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻟـﻚ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﱠﻞ ﻓﹶﺄﻧْﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻆ – ﺃﻱ ﲢﺮﻙ ﹶﺫ ﹶﻛﺮُﻩ – ﻭﱂ ﻳُﻤ ِﺬ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻄﻞ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﻭﻗﻀﻰ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ُﺷْﺒﺮُﻣﺔ ﺃﺣ ُﺪ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﺔ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺗُﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺑﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠ ﹶﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﹶﺓ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﺳـﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﺮﱠﻕ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻓﻜﺮﻫﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺏ ﻭﺃﺑﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﱠﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠ ﹸﺔ ﺷﻬﻮَﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺣﻘﱢﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺻﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻧﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻻ ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴ ﹶﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮ َ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘـﺒﱢﻠﲏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2384‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤـﺎﻭﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 3038‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﹶﺃﻫْﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻘﺒﱢﻠﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺒﱠﻠﲏ { ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺾ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﰒ ﺿﺤﻜﺖ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1928‬ﻭﻣﺴـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻘﺒﱢ ﹸﻞ ﺑﻌ َ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﻔﺼﺔ ﻭﺃﻡ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﺟﻲ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ -3‬ﻭﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﺒﱢﻞ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻳﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻣﻠ ﹸﻜﻜﹸﻢ ِﻹ ْﺭِﺑ ِﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2576‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ِﻹﺭْﺑﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻟﻌﻀﻮﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻟﻔﻆ ‪َ :‬ﻷ َﺭِﺑ ِﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﳊﺎﺟﺘﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﺒﱢﻞ ﰲ ﺭﻣﻀـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2584‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﺒﱢﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻧﺴﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺖ ﻟﻌﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄـﻮﱡﻉ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟـﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3545‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺑﻨﺖ ﻃﻠﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺝ {‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﳚﻌﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺛﻮﺑﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﻟﻔﹶـ ْﺮ َ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 24818‬ﺑﺴﻨﺪ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﳛﻞﱡ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛـﻞﱡ‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﻕ } ﺳﺄﻟ ُ‬ ‫ﻉ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ) ‪ ( 7439‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﻲﺀ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳉﻤﺎ َ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 95/2‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺳﺄﻟﺖ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﳛﺮﻡ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﰐ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻓﺮﺟُﻬﺎ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -8‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 3224‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﻨﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛِﻘﺎﺕ [ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻣﻮﻗﻮﻓﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺤﱠﺢ ﻭﻗﻔﹶﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻘﺒﱢﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺳﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ – ﻷ ﱢﻡ َﺳﻠﹶﻤﺔ – ؟‬ ‫‪230‬‬


‫ﻓﺄ ْﺧَﺒﺮَﺗﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺪ ﻏﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻚ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻣَـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﺇِﱐ ﻷﺗﻘﺎﻛﻢ ﷲ ﻭﺃﺧﺸﺎﻛﻢ ﻟﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 2588‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺒﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ‪ 7‬ﺣﺪﻳﺜﲔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ؟ ﺇﻧﻪ ﳌﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳚـﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲞﻼﻓﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﳚﻮﺯ ﳍﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻘﺒﱢﻼ ﻭﻳُﻘﺒﱠﻼ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺻﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﱡﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳛﻞ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺣـ ﱢﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻳﻼﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﺃ ﱡﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﻤ َﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻤ ْ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺒﱢﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳜﺸﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺣﺮﺍﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻـﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﻓﻴُﻐﻔﹶﺮ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺟﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺑﻨﻔﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﺗﻘﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺸﻰ ﷲ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﻡ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﱢﺮﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﺯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ !! ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻫﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ !! ﻭﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺟﺪﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻗﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ) ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﹶﻣﻠ ﹸﻜﻜﹸﻢ ِﻹ ْﺭﺑِﻪ (‬ ‫ﻼ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻦ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﺧ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ِﺇﺭْﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﱡﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﻮﺗﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻫَﲔ ﲝﻘﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻫﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻭﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻴﺨﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﱠﻠﻮﺍ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺷﻬﻮﺗﻪ‬

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‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻗﺒﱠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮﺟﻮﺍ ﲝﻜﻢ ﲢﺮﱘ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﲜﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﻌﻀﺪ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﺠﺌﺖ‬ ‫ﺸﺖُ ﻓﻘﺒﱠﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺸَ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } َﻫ َ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻣﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ؟‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺻﻨﻌ ُ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻮ ﻣﻀﻤﻀ َ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻗﺒﱠﻠﺖ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﺃﻳ َ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ؟ ﻗﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻀ ﱡﺮ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3544‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺤـﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻧﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻔﻪ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﻨﺎ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺭﺳـﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺷﺎﺏ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺃﹸﻗﺒﱢﻞ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ؟ ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﹸﻗﺒﱢﻞ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻓﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻀُﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺖ ِﻟ َﻢ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻀُﻜﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳝﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﻋﻠﻤ ُ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 6739‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻟﻪ ﺷﻴ ٌﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﺮﺧﱠﺺ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﺗﺎﻩ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺴﺄﻟﻪ ﻓﻨﻬﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭ ﱠﺧ َ‬ ‫ﻬﻧﺎﻩ ﺷﺎﺏ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2387‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﻣﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ – ﺑﻨﺖ ﺳﻌﺪ – ﻣﻮﻻﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ُﺳﺌِﻞ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﺒﱠﻞ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗَﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 28177‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﱢﻞ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ؟ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﱄ ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺄﻧُﻚ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃ َﻭ ﻟﺴ َ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻴﺪﻩ ﻻ ﺃﹸﻗﺒﱢﻞ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 1018‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪232‬‬


‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﱢﺐ ] ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻬﻧﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ [ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷـﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 476/2‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻ َﻌﻴْﺮ ﺍﻟ ُﻌﺬﹾﺭﻱ ‪ -‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺛﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺑﻦ ُ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ -‬ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﻣﺴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﻭﺃﺩﺭﻙ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ َ‬ ‫ﻳﻨ َﻬﻮْﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﲣﻮﱡﻓﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺗﻘﺮﱠﺏ ﻷﻛﺜ َﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻳْﻨ َﻬﻮْﻥ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻆ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻷﺣـﺪ {‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻬﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔ ِ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 24069‬ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﳍﺆﻻﺀ ﻭﻟﻐﲑﻫﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﻜـﺮﻩ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﳐﺘﹶﻠ ٌ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﺧﺬﹸﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳍﻴﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫ﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺗﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺴﱠﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻀُﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﹾﻨﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳊﺪﻳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﳛﲕ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﹶﺪﻳْﲏ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺒﺲ ﻻ ُﻳ ْﺪﺭَﻯ ﻣَﻦ ﻫﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﱯ ﺇﻧﻪ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ﻻ ﻳُﻌﺮﻑ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ] ﺭﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﳎﻬﻮ ﹲﻝ ﻻ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ [ ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺻﲑﻱ ﰲ ﺯﻭﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪ :‬ﺇِﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ُﺟﺒَﲑ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻀﻨﱢﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﺑﲑﻱ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺃﰊ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﹶﺪﻳﲏ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ] ﻻ ﻧﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻪ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﲞﻼﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ [ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ] ﺗﻔﺮﱠﺩ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺰﺓ [ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻭﻏﲑﳘﺎ ‪ .‬ﰒ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺑﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻧﻘﻄـﺎﻉ ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹶﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﱢﺐ ﻭﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻓﻼ ﺣُ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋـﹰﺎ‬ ‫‪233‬‬


‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹶﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿـﻌ ٍ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﺣُ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺘـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻀﻤﻀﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ ‪ ،‬ﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻀﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻬﻧﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻔﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻔﻮﺍ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻀﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺴﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﲢﺮﱡﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺴﱢﻒ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺬﻝ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺟﻬ ٍﺪ ﻟﺮﺩﱢﻩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﱢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ) ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳝﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ( ﻫﻮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ) ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻣﻠﻜﹸﻜﻢ ِﻹ ْﺭﺑِﻪ ( ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺗﲔ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻻ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﱡﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺧﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﱂ ﳜﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺄﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﲢﺮﱡ ُﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﳛﺮﱢﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﲢﺮﱡﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍ َﻷ َﻋ ﱠﻢ ﺍ َﻷ ﹾﻏﹶﻠ َ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﳏﻈﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣُﻌﺎﺭَﺽ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑـﺎﳉﻮﺍﺯ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻀﺪ ﺩﻋﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺑﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﳝـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ﳏﻈﻮﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻧﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﲔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻹﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺨﺼﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇِﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺮﺩﻭ ٌﺩ ﲨﻠ ﹰﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﺼﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻕ ﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟِﻪ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇِﳊﺎ َ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳُﻮﺟ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺯﻭﺍﺟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻒ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻘ ﹾﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻـﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﻳﻘﺒﻠﲏ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ ( ‪ ) ،‬ﻓﻘﻠﺖ ‪ :‬ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻭﺃﻧـﺎ‬ ‫‪234‬‬


‫ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺒﻠﲏ ( ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻳﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ) ﻣﺎ ﳛﻞﱡ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗـﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ؟ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ( ﻓﺪﻋﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺩﻋﻮﻯ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻚ ِﺇ ْﺭﺑَـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﺯ ‪ ،‬ﺇِﺫ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺮﱠﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺁ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻻ ﳝﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻟﻮﺟﺐ ﲢﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺒﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻼﻝ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺣﺮﱠﻛﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺣﻼ ﹲﻝ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺣﺮﱠﻛﺖ ﺷﻬﻮﺗﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﳌﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻞ ﻳُﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ؟ ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﲨﻬﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﲏ ﺑﻔﻌ ٍﻞ ﻣﻘﺼﻮ ٍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳُﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﲏ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺴﺪ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺗﻪ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻔﻜﱠﺮ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ َﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻼ ُﻡ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﳌﲏ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﱠﻞ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻄﻞ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻐﲏ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻗﺒﱠﻞ ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻄﻞ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ﺑﻼ‬ ‫ﻆ ﻭﱂ ﻳُ ْﻤ ِﺬ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺑﻄﻞ ﺻـﻮﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻑ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﱠﻞ ﻓﹶﺄْﻧ َﻌ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻀﻰ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺑـﺎﺏ ﺃﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻋﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻣﺬﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﺍﳌﺬﻱ ﺑﻄﻞ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ !! ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺇِﻧـﺰﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﲏ ﺑﻔﻌ ٍﻞ ﻣﻘﺼﻮ ٍﺩ ﻭﻏ ِﲑ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﱂ ﺗﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻻ ﻣـﻦ ﺳـﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺣﱴ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ )‪ ( 7452‬ﻋﻦ ﺣﺬﻳﻔﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ) ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻣﱠﻞ َﺧ ﹾﻠ َﻖ ﺍﻣﺮﺃ ٍﺓ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ( ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺿﻌﱠﻒ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺇِﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿـﺎﻓ ﹰﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳـﺚ ﻛﻠـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺣﺾ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻠﲔ ﺑﺒﻄﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﲏ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻗﺎﺳﻮﺍ ﺇﻧـﺰﺍ ﹶﻝ‬ ‫‪235‬‬


‫ﺍﳌﲏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﺃﻋ ﹶﻄﻮْﻩ ﺣﻜﻤَﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺸﻤﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ] ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳُﻤﲏ ﻓﻴُﻔﻄﺮ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺧﻼﻑ ﻧﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﳌﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳝﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﱪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﻧﺰﻝ ﲟﺒﺎﺷـﺮ ٍﺓ ﺃﺷـﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺰﺍﻝ ﲜﻤﺎﻉ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺝ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻣﺖ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﲏ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣ ﹸﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﺠَﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ‬ ‫ﺤﺠَﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍ ِﳌ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺷﻖ ﺟﻠﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﺑﺂﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺍ ِﳌ ْ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﻓﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻭﹶﻓﻮَﺭﺍﻧـﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟـﺐ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲟ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺤﻴْﻨ ﹶﺔ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ُﺑ َ‬ ‫ﻂ ﺭﺃﺳﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪( 2886‬‬ ‫ﺤ ِﺮ ٌﻡ َﻭ َﺳ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻢ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣِﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑ ﹸﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻫﻞ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ؟‬ ‫ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺳﲑﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﻫُﻮﻳـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﻭﺩﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ‬

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‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ َﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﺟ َﻢ ﻭﺍﶈﺘﺠ َﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺟﺒﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﱠﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺷﺎ ﹲﺫ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﱢﺐ ﻭﻋُﺮﻭﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻋﺒـﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ﻭﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤـﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑـﺪ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2367‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺷﺪﱠﺍﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺸ َﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺧﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﺟ ٍﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻘﻴﻊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳛﺘﺠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺁ ِﺧ ﹲﺬ ﺑﻴﺪﻱ ﻟﺜﻤﺎ ﹶﻥ َﻋ ْ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ ﻭﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪ ( 2369‬ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ ﻣﺎﺟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3534‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻛﻨﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻴﻊ ﺯﻣﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ‪. { ...‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺪﻳﺞ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫} ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ ﻭﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ) ‪ ( 3535‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﻛﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍ ﹶﳌﺪِﻳﲏ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﳊـﺎﻛﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ [ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﺪﱠﺍﺩ ﺑﻦ ﺃﻭﺱ ﺃﺻـ ﱡﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻳُﺮﻭﻯ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺇﺳﻨﺎ ٌﺩ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺛﻮﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪237‬‬


‫ﻭﺷﺪﱠﺍﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻗﺪﺍﻣﺔ ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﺣ َﺪ ﻋﺸـ َﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺤﺮِﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1938‬ﻭﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 1943‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺍﺣـﺘﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺤ ِﺮ ٌﻡ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋ ٌﻢ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺒُﻨﺎﱐ ﻗﺎﻝ } ُﺳﺌِﻞ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ :‬ﺃﻛﻨـﺘﻢ ﺗﻜﺮﻫـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ؟ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻻ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ – ﺯﺍﺩ ﺷﺒﱠﺎﺑﺔ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ُﺷﻌْﺒﺔ ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1939‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘـﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 268/4‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻋﻦ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻟﺒُﻨﺎﱐ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺟﻌﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺮﻫ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ ﱠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﻫﺬﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺧﱠﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻌ ُﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻧﺲ ﳛﺘﺠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ] ﻛﻠﻬﻢ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﺔ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘـﻲ ُﺀ ﻭﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣـﺔﹸ ﻭﺍﻻﺣـﺘﻼ ُﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒـﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 1016‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ) ‪ ( 183/2‬ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﺪﺭﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻣ ﱠﺮ ﰲ ﲝﺚ ] ﺍﻟﻘﻲﺀ [ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺒﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ) ‪( 3224‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 1012‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﰲ ﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ﻭﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺻﺤﺤﻪ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻓﺼﺤﱠﺢ ﻭﻗﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪238‬‬


‫ﺇﻥ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﻒ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳَﺤﺘﺠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﻡ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻄﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺩﱞ ﳍﺎ ﻭﺇِﺑﻄﺎ ﹲﻝ ﳍـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﳍﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ ﻭﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﻐﺘﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺻﻮﻣﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ .‬ﺣﱴ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺈﻓﻄﺎﺭﳘﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺟﺮُﳘﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﱠﺿﺎ ﻟﻠﻔِﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ ﻓﻠﻀﻌﻔﻪ ﲞﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻓﺮﲟﺎ ﳊﻘﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﻓﺄﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺟﻮﻓﹶﻪ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺿ ﱠﻢ ﺷـﻔﺘﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﺇﱃ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻬﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻓﺎﻟﺮ ﱡﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﺻﺢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﻐﺘﺎﺑﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ) ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ ﻭﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ ( ﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺃﺣﻮﺍ ٍﻝ ﻋﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻳُﺘﺼﻮﱠﺭ‬

‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻮ ُﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻗﺪ ﺧﻠﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺫِﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺃﺗﻮَﺍ‬ ‫ﻬﺑﺎ ؟ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﰲ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻧﻮﻋﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺃﹸ ﱢﻭ ﹶﻝ ﺻﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇِﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺃﻓﻄﺮﺍ ﻷﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻳﻐﺘﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳚﺮﻱ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳُﺆﻭﱠﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺟﺮُﳘﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﱠﺎﰊ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻬﻧﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺭﺍﺡ ﻳُﻔﺴﱢـﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﳊﻮﻕ ﻣﺸﻘﺔ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟـﺪﻡ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻑ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺮ ﱡﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻻ ﻳُﺒﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺘ َﻤﻠﹶﺔ !! ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻏﲑ ﳏﺘﻤَﻠﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻀﺔ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺤﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ؟!‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺇِﻥ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﻔـﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﺒﻮﺍ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪239‬‬


‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻫﻢ ﻗﺮﺃﻭﻫﺎ ﺃﻭﱠﻟﻮﻫﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻘﻮﳍﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤﺮِﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺫﺍﻫ ٌ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺎﻓ ٌﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ !! ﺃﻱ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺣﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﻄﺮﹰﺍ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺻﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ! ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺭﺩﱡﻭﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻴﻮﻬﻧﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻠﻬﻤﺎ !‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻧﺎﲡ ﹲﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﻮﺹ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭَﻳﺪَﻋﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺼﱢﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳـﺨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﳛﺘـﺎﺟﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﻬـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻗﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗُﻮﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻛﻠﱠﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﺟ ُﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﳌﺼـﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧ ﱡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﺒﻴﺢ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﱠﻣﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺭﺳﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﰲ ﻗـﺮﺍﺀﺍﰐ ﻟﻜﺘـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻔﻘﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻟﺘﻀﺎﺀﻟﺖ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻭﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﻤﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﳓﻦ ﺑﺼﺪﺩﻩ ﺍﻵﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻬﻤﻨﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻠﱢﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﻬﺑﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺋ ٍﺬ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺑﻠﻔﻈﺔ ) ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ( ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻔﻈﺔ‬ ‫) ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ( ﻻ َﺗ ِﺮﺩُ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ ﻭﻻ َﺗ ِﺮﺩُ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ًﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﰲ ﺫﺍﻬﺗﺎ ﺗـﺪﻝ‬ ‫‪240‬‬


‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﺮﺧﱠﺼﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺴﺦ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﺪﺍﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺯﻣﺎ ﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ – ﺃﻱ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﻜﺔ ‪ -‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺈِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺇﺫﻥ ؟ ﻓﻨﺠﻴﺒﻪ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺻﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺼﺤﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﺮِﻣﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ‬ ‫ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﻜﺔ ﺑﻌﺎﻣﲔ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺎﻣﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻧﺎﺳﺨﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﺮ ﱢﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻳﺜﺒﱢﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻹِﻓﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﶈﺘﺠِﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻣﻨـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻟﻘﺎﺋ ٍﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ – ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳُﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﺔ ﻭﻳﻌﻨﻮﻥ ﻬﺑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳُﻨﺴَﺦ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻝ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻋﺪﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱘ – ﺑﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺨﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﺇِﻋﻤﺎ ﹸﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹸﻝ ﻣﻦ ﱠﰒ ﺑﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲝﺮﻣﺘﻬﺎ ؟ ﻓﻨﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮ ﹲﻝ ﻷﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬

‫ﻼ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﹰﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺠﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﶈﺠﻮﻡ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﻢ ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻧﻜﺮﻩ‬

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‫ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﺛﻨﲔ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ؟ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﺸﻚ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﻷﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﺸﻚ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺍﺣﺘﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻓﺮﺓ ﺩﻣﻪ ﻭﹶﻓﻮَﺭﺍﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮ ِﺓ‬

‫ﺿﻐﻄﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺤﻘﻪ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ﰲ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﺠﺎﻡ ﻹﺯﺍﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻹﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﺗُﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺒـﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻔﹰﺎ ُﻳ ﹾﻠﺠِﻲ ُﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ؟‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ‬

‫ﺤﻜﹶﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺛﺎﺑﺘﹰﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳊﻜ ُﻢ ُﻣ ْ‬ ‫ﺥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻷ ﱠﻥ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻣﻨﺴﻮ ٌ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺽ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎ ِﺭ ٌ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣ ِﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺝ ﺍﻟﺪ ِﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒـﺪﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﺇﺧﺮﺍ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﱠﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﱪﻉ ﺑﺎﻟـﺪﻡ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - 2‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳉِﺮﺍﺡ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻁ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺷِﺠﺎ ٍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠ ﹶﺔ ﺳﻘﻮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺣﺎﺩﺙ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﻧﺎ ٍﺭ ﰲ ﻋﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺐ ﰲ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫‪ - 3‬ﺇﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻏﺴﻴﻞ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻜﻠﹶﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ ﻟﻴﺼ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺨﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊِﺠﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻌ ﹲﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺠﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪242‬‬


‫‪ - 4‬ﺇﻥ ﺳﺤﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺑﺈﺑﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻓﺤﺺ ﻃﱯ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﱪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺟـﺎﺋﺰ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻖ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻔﺮﺩﻫﺎ َﻋﹶﻠﻘﹶﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ‬ ‫‪ – 5‬ﺇﻥ ﻣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ ﻛﻌﻼﺝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺗُﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﻣ ﱢ‬ ‫ﻓﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟـﺪﻭﺍﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹِﺧﺮﺍﺝ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎ ﹸﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻻ ﻳُﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺃﻡ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺮﺍﻡ ُﻣْﺒ ِﻄ ﹲﻞ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﻡ ؟ ﻓﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﻳُﺒﻄﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﺑﻦ ُﺷﱪُﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻠﻰ ﻭﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤِﺮ ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺮﺍﻫـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺳﻔﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ِ :‬ﺇﻻﱠ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺤ ﹸﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻓﻴﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺛﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺷﻬﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﲝﺎ ٍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻭﺃﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺃﻭﰱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻖ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻗﻔﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﺒﻴﺎ ِﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﲝﺎ ٍﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﻳُﺮﻭ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ‬

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‫ﺚ ﻭﺍﺣ ٌﺪ ﺻﺤﻴ ٌﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴ ٌﻦ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺘﻪ ﺣﺪﻳ ﹲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻬﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﺟﺎﺯﻣﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻬﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺟﺎﺯﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳُﺮﻭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﻦ ﳚﻴﺰﻩ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﱂ ﺗُﺪﺭﺟْﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻼ ﹸﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﺃ ﱡ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺒﻄﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺪﻝﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﲡﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨ ﹶﻜ َﺮﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺼـﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻌﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺒﺪ ﺑﻦ َﻫﻮْﺫﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺪﱢﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺎ ِﻹﹾﺛﻤِﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﱠﺡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ‪ِ :‬ﻟَﻴﱠﺘ ِﻘ ِﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫) ‪ . ( 2377‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ) ‪ ( 1734‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺑﺎﻹﲦِﺪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳚﻠﻮ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﻭﻳُﻨﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ { ﻭﺍ ِﻹﹾﺛﻤِﺪ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﺠ ٌﺮ ﺃﺳﻮ ُﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺤﻞ ﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻳُﺴﺤَﻖ ﻭﻳُﻌﻤَﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻭﱠﺡ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﻄﻴﱠﺐ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭ ٌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻜﺘﺤﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﲦِﺪ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ) ‪ ( 939/1‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﻣِﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﻭﻗﺪ ُﻭﺛﱢﻘﺎ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻛﺜﲑ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﻴﺪﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺸﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﻭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫} ﺍﻛﺘﺤﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪(1678‬‬ ‫ﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻋَﺪ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻗﺎﻝ ] ﻗﺎﻝ ﱄ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨ ﹶﻜ ٌﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻞ [ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺠﺎﺝ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ُﺷﱪُﻣﺔ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺈﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻞ ﻟﻠﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺴﻘﻂ ﺑﺴﻘﻮﻃِﻪ ﻗﻮﻟﹸﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤ ﱡﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻱ َﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫‪244‬‬


‫ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﻴﺪ ﺍﷲ ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻜﹶﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﺑﻨـﻪ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻔﻪ ﻟﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ :‬ﺫﺍﻫـ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻱ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻭﺛﱠﻘﻪ ﻧﺎﺱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺧﻴﺜﻤﺔ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻫﻮ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺧﻮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﺃﹸﺣﺪﱢﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﹶﺪﻳﲏ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺃﻛﺘﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯُﺭﻋﺔ ‪ِ :‬ﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻟﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ :‬ﻳُﻜﺘﺐ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﺤﺘ ﱡﺞ ﺑﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ :‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ‪ :‬ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ‪ .‬ﻭﺿ ﱠﻌﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﻮﺯﺟﺎﱐ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻫﻲ ﺍﳊـﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻓﻬـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻓﺎﻟﺰﺑﻴﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺎﻫﻴﻞ ﺷﻴﻮﺥ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﲟﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺎﺑَﻊ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُـﺮ ﱡﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒـﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻼ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺮﻭﻱ ﻏﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻨﻜﹶﺮﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺸﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﻛﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺇِﻃﻼﻗﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻞ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻓﻄﱠﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺃﺟﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭ ﱡﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺤﻖ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻜﺤﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﲦِﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻭُﺿﻊ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺿـﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻗﻼﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮﻣﺘﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﺤﻞ ﺃﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﲞﺼﻮﺹ ﻗﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻏﺴﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺘﻬﺎﻓﺖ ﻻ ﻳُ ْﺆَﺑﻪُ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳُﻠﺘﻔﹶﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻭﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻗﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺫﻥ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺴﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﻒ ﻓﻴُﻨﻈﹶﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻭﺷﺮﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻓﺒﺼﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﻧﻒ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﺫﻥ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﹰﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﱢﻮﺍﻙ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﱠﺴﻮﱡﻙ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻭ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺁ ِﺧﺮَﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻗﹸﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻮﺍﺯﻩ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺮﺍﻫﺘﻪ ﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﳌﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﱠﺴﻮﱡﻙ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻓﺮﺷﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﳊﻜﹶﻢ ﻭﺇﺳﺤﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺠﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﺯ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻦ ﳎﺎﻫـﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﻋﺮﻭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻝ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﻮﱢﺯﻭﻥ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺭﺑﻴﻌﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺎﻙ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ -‬ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﺴﺪﱠﺩ ‪ -‬ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﹶﺃ ُﻋﺪﱡ ﻭﻻ ﺃﹸﺣﺼﻲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ) ‪( 2364‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ‬ ‫‪246‬‬


‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒ ﱠﺰﺍﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ] ﻭﻳُﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻙ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﺎﻙ ﺃﻭ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺁﺧِﺮﻩ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺒﻠﻊ ﺭﻳﻘﻪ ‪. [ ...‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﻣُﺠﺎﻟِﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣِﻦ ﺧﲑ ﺧﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﱢﻮﺍ ُﻙ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1677‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍ َﺭﻗﹸﻄﲏ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﱢﻮﺍﻙ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻟﻮﻻ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺷ ﱠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﱵ ‪ -‬ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺷﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ -‬ﻷﻣﺮﺗُﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 887‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﲪـﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺿﻌﱠﻔﻪ ﻧﺎﺱ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣﺴﱠﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﹰﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤﺮﱢﻱ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑـﻪ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺷﺪ ﹸﺓ ﺍﻟﱠﺘ َ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﳎﺎﻟﺪ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﻳﻀـﻌﱢﻔﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻬﺪﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻳُﺤﺘ ﱡﺞ‬ ‫ﲝﺪﻳﺜﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺎﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺻﻼﺓ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﺎﻡ ﱂ ﳜﺼﱠﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻄﻠﻖ ﱂ ﻳﻘﻴﱠـﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼـﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺘﻨﺎ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ] ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﻟﻮﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺷﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﱵ ﻷﻣﺮﺗُﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺿﻮﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭُﻭﻱ ﳓﻮﻩ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ‪. [ ...‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﻭﺯﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﳜ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ ﻭﻣﺴﻨﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺣﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﱠﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﻫﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺄﺗﻨﺎ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳋﻠﹸﻮﻑ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻐﻴﱡﺮ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ -‬ﺗُﻜﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺅُﻫﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫‪247‬‬


‫ﳋﻠﹸﻮﻑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺃﻃﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘُﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﱢﻮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺮﺍﻫﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺑﻘﺎﺅُﻩ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻜﺮﻩ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴُﻨﺪ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺘﻪ ﻭﺟﻔﺎﻓﻪ ﻭﻗﻮﳍﻢ ﺑﻜﺮﺍﻫﺘﻪ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﻃﺒﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻮﻝ ﻻ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻻ ﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﱢﻮﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺎﻑ ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺣ ٌﺪ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺒﺘﻞﱡ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﱡﻌﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺴﱢﻮﺍﻙ ﺭﻃﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻃﻌﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﱢﻮﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳊﺎﻻﻥ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻆ ﻣﺎ ﲡﻤﱠﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﳑﺎ ﲢﻠﱠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺑﻠﻌِﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﲔ ﻳُﻮﺟﺐ ﻟﻔ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﻳُﻌﻔﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﲑ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱡﺯ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺇِﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺄﻛﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺄﻛﻮﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻁ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺑﻠﻌﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻠﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﺘﺤﻠﱢﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻠﻤﺎ ﻧُﺪﺧِﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺘﺤﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔﹲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻠﱠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﱢﻮﺍﻙ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﻠﱠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﻀﻐﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﳝﻀﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻔﻆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﰲ ﻓﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ ﻣﺘﺤﻠﱢﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﺤﻠﱢﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﺤﻠﱠﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ﻓﻼ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﻣﻀﻐﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﳑﻦ ﺭُﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﲜﻮﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﻌﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﱯ ﻭﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺭﺑﺎﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ . ( 453/2‬ﻓﻤﻀﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ ﺭﺧﱠﺺ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﲢﻠﱠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﺎﺯﺩﺭﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ َﻳﺘَﺤﱠﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ‬

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‫ﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ﻣﻀﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ) ‪ ( 269/4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﺯﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﻚ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪454/2‬‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﳝﻀﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠ َ‬ ‫( ﻭﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﲔ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﻛﺮﻫﻮﺍ ﻣﻀﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺑﺎﳉﻮﺍﺯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺃﺭ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺣﺮﱠﻡ ﻣﻀﻎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻊ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻣـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺁ ٍ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣُﺴَﺘﻨَﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺮﺍﻫﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺮ ﱡﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ ﺩﻟﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﻬﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﱡﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﻬﺑﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺣﺎ ﹲﻝ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔﹲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺩﺧﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺃ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﱠﺴﻮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺍﻥ ﻭﻳﺪﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻥ ﺑﻠﻊ ﻣﺎ ﲢﻠﱠﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﳑـﺎ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱡ ُﺯ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱡﺯ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻓﻼ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺈﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺗﺬﻭﱡﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﳊـﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺣﻔﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﻠﺒﻴﺴﻬﺎ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ َﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳُ ﹾﻔ ِﻄﺮُ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ ُﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻥ ﺗﺴﺮﱠﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﺷﻲ ٌﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻓﻤﻪ ﻭَﺑﹶﻠ َﻌﻪُ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻬﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺧﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﺯﺩﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﲑﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻔﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﲑ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﱡﺯ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﲡﻤﻊ ﰲ ﻓﻤﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺷﻜﻠﺖ ﺟﺴﻤﹰﺎ ﻳُﺒﻠﻊ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺟﺴﻤﹰﺎ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻊ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﲜﺮﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺣﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻃﺮﺣﻪ ﻭﻟﻔﻈﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻠﻌﻪ ﺃﻓﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﺑﻠﻊ ﺣﺒﺔ ﻋﺪﺱ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ‪ :‬ﺃﲨﻌﻮﺍ ‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﺘﻠﻌﻪ ﳑﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ ﳑﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬

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‫ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻧﻪ ﳊ ٌﻢ ﻓﺄﻛﻠﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻤﱢﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻼ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﻔـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ﱠﻥ ﺗﻌ ﱡﻤ َﺪ ﺃﻛ ِﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤ ِﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟ ِﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺳﻨﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻣﻜﻦ ﻟﻔ ﹸﻈ ُﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻀﻌﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﻳﺾ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﻠﻄﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺣَﺒ ٍﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺬﻭﺏ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺝ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺑﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﻌﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺒﺔ ﺩﻓﻌ ﹰﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺑﻠﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻟﺘُﺸﺮﺏ ﻛﻌﻼﺝ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻌﻴﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻧﺰﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻌﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﱠﰎ ﺑﻠﻌُـﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﹾﻴﺤﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺤﺬﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ُﻳ ﹾﻔﻄِﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﻮ ﹸﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻭ ِﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒ ِﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻬ ﹸﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻨﺒﻞ ‪ :‬ﻭﻣَﻦ َﺳِﻠ َﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ؟ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺻﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹِﻓﻄـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﳏﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺃﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﳜﻄﺐ ) ﻻ ﲨﻌﺔ ﻟﻚ ( ﻭﱂ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪ ﱠﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻭﺧﻄﻴ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺎﱐ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺳﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑـﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻋﺎﺋﺸﺔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻭﺟ ُﻪ ﺍﳊﻖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﻳَـ َﺪ ْ‬ ‫ﻗﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﱡﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﷲ ﺣﺎﺟ ﹲﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻥ َﻳﺪَﻉ ﻃﻌﺎﻣَﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺑَﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨـﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1903‬ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ) ‪ ( 1689‬ﺑﻠﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻗﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﳉﻬ ﹶﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤ ﹶﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻼ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﷲ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻉ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺑﻪ {‪.‬‬ ‫} ﻣﻦ ﱂ َﻳ َﺪ ْ‬

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‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﳋﻨَﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﻓﻼ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﷲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻉ ﻃﻌﺎﻣَﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺑَﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄـﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ‬ ‫} ﻣَﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺪﻉ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑ ) ‪ ( 472‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻂ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘـﺎﺕ [ ﻭﰲ‬ ‫ﺶ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺤ ُ‬ ‫ﳋﻨَﺎ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟ ﹸﻔ ْ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ [ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺠ َﻬ ﹾﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇِﻥ ﺍﻣﺮ ٌﺅ ﻗﺎﺗﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺎﲤﻪ ﻓﻠﹾﻴﻘ ﹾﻞ ﺇِﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ‪.{ ...‬‬ ‫ﺚ ﻭﻻ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ُﺟﻨﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ َﻳ ْﺮﹸﻓ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 1894‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻓـﻼ‬ ‫ﳋﻨَﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺎﺭ ﻗﺒـﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻓﺚ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﻜﻼﻡ ﻓﺎﺣﺶ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻭﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺎ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺲ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺳﺒﱠﻚ ﺃﺣ ٌﺪ ﻓﻘﻞ ﺇﱐ ﺻﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﺎﹾﺟﻠ ْ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 3246‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻋﺒﻴﺪﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺡ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ُﺟﻨﱠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳜ ِﺮﻗﹾﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﺎﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ‬ ‫) ‪ ( 1733‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﺳـﻂ ) ‪ ( 4533‬ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺮﻗﹸﻪُ ؟‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺮ ﹾﻗ ُﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﻭﰈ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ُﺟﻨﱠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ َﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻏِﻴﺒ ٍﺔ { ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺑﻜﺬ ٍ‬ ‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻇﻞ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﳊﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ . ( 423/2‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑـﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ًّ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ) ‪ ( 2107‬ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ } ‪ ...‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻇ ﱠﻞ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ؟ … { ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺷﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺿـﻌﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﺪ ﻭﳛﲕ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻴﻪ ُﺷﻌْﺒﺔ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ﻓﺎﺣﺸﹰﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺘﺮﻙ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻻ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺘﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪﻭ ﻛﻮﻧَﻪ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﺼـﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﺮﺷﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﱡﻑ ﺣﻴﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﱠﺴﺎ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻟﻴﺴﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻬ ﹸﻞ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻳﻔﻄﱢﺮﺍﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ) ‪ ( 5 ، 2 ، 1‬ﻭﺑﺪﻣﺞ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ) ‪( 2 ، 1‬‬ ‫ﳋﻨَﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﻼ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﷲ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻉ ﻃﻌﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛ ﱞﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻴﱠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﹾﻨﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻋﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻴﱠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﻴﱢﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻴﱠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ :‬ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻴﱠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻋﺒﱢﺮ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﳊﺪﻳﺜﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺭﺍﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ َﻣ ْﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ‪ -‬ﺑﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ ﻭﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨـﻬﻴﱠﺎﺕ‬‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻴﱠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻳﻨﻌﻘـﺪ ﺑﺘـﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺗﺮ ُﻙ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﻴﱠﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﺑﲔ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺗـﺮﻙ ﺍﻟـﺰﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮ ُﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ﻳُﻮﺟﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﳎﺮﺩ ﻣﻨـﻬﻴﱠﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺟﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺘﻨـﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪252‬‬


‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﳔﺮﺝ ﺑﺎﳊﻜﻢ ‪ :‬ﹶﺃﻥﱠ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺭ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻻ ﻳُﺴﻘﻂ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻄﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳏﻈﻮ ٌﺭ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﻄﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﶈﻈﻮﺭﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ُﺟﻨﱠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳜﺮﻗﻬﺎ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﻨﱠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺬﺏ ﳜﺮِﻗﺎﻬﻧﺎ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺧﺮﻕ ﺍ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻭﺃﹶﺫﻯ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﹶﻥ ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜـﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻧﻘ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲏ ﺗﻠﻔﹶﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺇﳊﺎ َ‬ ‫ﻳُﻠﺤﻘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﻡ ﻧﻘﺼﹰﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳُﻠﺤﻖ ﺍﳋﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺱ ﻧﻘﺼﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﺫﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼـﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﱃ ﺣ ﱢﺪ ﺍﻹﺑﻄﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧُﺴﺐ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﹸﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻄﱢﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﹸﺿﻴﻒ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ِﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ ﹶﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﹸﻛﺮ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺗُﻨﻘِﺺ‬ ‫ﺤﺒِﻄﻪ ﻛﻠﱠﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭِﺇﻥﱠ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋ َﻢ ﻟﻴﺨﺴ ُﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻭﺛﻮﺍﺑَﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ُﺗ ْ‬ ‫ﺹ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺛﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ) ﻓﻠﻴﺲ ﷲ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﻳـﺪﻉ ﻃﻌﺎﻣـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮﺍﺑﻪ ( ؟ ﻓﺎﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻬﻧ ُﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺋﻢ ﻬﻧﻴﹰﺎ ﺷـﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺬﻳﺮُﻩ ﲢﺬﻳﺮﹰﺍ ﻗﻮﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﻟﻐِﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺫﹸﻛﺮ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺔ ﻟﻄﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺪﺭﻛﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺘﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﻬﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺟ َﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﻠ ٌﻢ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺼﻴ ٍﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳚﲏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍ َ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺧﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺘﻨﺒﻪ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳ ِﺔ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ َﻳﺠْﲏ ﺛﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﺟﺮَﻫﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﲜﲏ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺌﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻠﻐﻲ ﺑﻔﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﳛﺬﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﺪ ﺇﲦﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﻣﻮﺳ َﻢ ﺃﺟ ٍﺮ ﻭﺛﻮﺍ ٍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻮﺳﻢ ﺣﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺟﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻮﺳ ُﻢ ﺍﻷﺟ ِﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍ ِ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷـﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻀ ﹸﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﻣ ﹰﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺧﺎﺻ ﹰﺔ ﻋﺪ ٌﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣَﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻏﹸﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 37‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻔﻆ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ( 1780‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ } ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳُﺮﻏﱢﺐ ﰲ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣِﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﻣﺮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺰﳝﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻏﹸﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻮﰲ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬

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‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ { ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 2009‬ﻫﻜـﺬﺍ } ‪...‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ ‪ -‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻮﻑ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌـﺎﱃ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻓـﺮﺽ ﺻـﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﻣَﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺻﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻣﻪ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﻮﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻭﺳﻨﻨ ُ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻮ ِﻡ ﻭﻟﺪﺗﻪ ﺃﻣﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ) ‪ ( 2210‬ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻣَﻦ ﺻﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻏﹸﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴـﺎﺑﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﹸﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱠﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ) ‪ ( 2014‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴـﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺲ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﺩﺧﻞ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺣﻀﺮﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹲﺔ ﺧ ٌﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣَﻦ ُﺣ ِﺮﻣَﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺮَﻡ ﺧﲑَﻫﺎ ﺇﻻ ﳏﺮﻭ ٌﻡ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﻣﺎﺟـﺔ ) ‪. ( 1644‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ُﺣﺮِﻡ ﺍﳋ َﲑ ﻛﻠﱠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ُﻳ ْ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺃﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ) ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻏﹸﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﱠﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ( ﻫﻮ ﺑﻴﺎ ﹲﻥ ﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻔـﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ؟ ﺇﻥ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺧﻄﱠﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻥ ﺫﻧﻮﺑﻪ ﻟﺘﻮِﺑﻘﹸﻪُ ﻭﺗﺪﺧﻠﹸﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺃﻣ ﱢ‬ ‫ﳌﻜﻔﱢﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻧﻮﺏ ﻭﻏﻔﺮﺍﻬﻧﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻨﺠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻧﻌﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻟﻴﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﺫﻧﻮﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﻜﻔﱢﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻳﻐﺴﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﻌﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳉﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ) ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﹰﺎ ﻏﹸﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ( ﺑﺘﻘﻴﻴﺪ ﻗﻴـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﳝﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﱂ ﳚﻲﺀ ﺍﻷﻣ ُﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎ ُﻡ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴُﻌﻠِﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﲔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺭﻳﺎ ًﺀ ﻭﲰﻌ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻩ ﻭﻇﻴﻔ ﹰﺔ ﻛﺤﺎ ِﻝ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺐ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻩ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺻُﻮﺭﻳﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳ ُﺆﻣﱡﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﺑﺘﻐﺎ َﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺗ ِ‬ ‫‪255‬‬


‫ﻧﻘﺮﹰﺍ ﻛﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻔﺮﻏﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﻮﺍﻬﺗﻢ ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﳍﻢ ﻏﻔﺮﺍ ﹶﻥ ﺫﻧﻮﺑِﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻈ ﱡﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻭﺃﻣﺜﺎﻟﹸﻬﻢ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﻳﻨﻄﺒـﻖ ﻋﻠـﻴﻬﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻛﺼﻴﺎﻣﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ) ﺇﳝﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺑﹰﺎ ( ﺃﻱ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﻬﻢ ﺇﳝﺎﻬﻧﻢ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﱠﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﳏﺘﺴﺒﲔ ﺭﺍﻏﺒﲔ ﰲ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻕ ﻭﺇﺧﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻏﺒ ٍﺔ ﻭﺻﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺘﻨﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﻮﻥ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻓﺈﻬﻧﺎ ﺣﺎﲰﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺺ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﺎﻟﻴَﻪ ﺑﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺧ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﻓﻀﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﺎﻟﻴﻪ ﻬﺑﺎ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﲔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻛﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟَﲔ ﻟﻔﻀﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﳋﲑﻫﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻲ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻠﻮﺍﻬﺗﻢ ﻭﺩﻋﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﻭﺻﺪﻗﺎﻬﺗﻢ ﻭﺻﻨﻮﻑ ﺍﳋﲑ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﺰﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪ ٌﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺁﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﺎﺕ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺬﺭِﻳﻦ ‪O‬‬ ‫ﲔ ‪ِ O‬ﺇﻧﱠﺎ ﺃﻧَﺰﻟﻨﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻟﻴﻠ ٍﺔ ﻣُﺒﺎﺭَﻛ ٍﺔ ﺇﻧﱠﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣُْﻨ ِ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﳌﹸﺒ ِ‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ } ﺣﻢ ‪ O‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳُ ﹾﻔ َﺮﻕُ ﻛﻞﱡ ﺃﻣ ٍﺮ ﻋﻈﻴ ٍﻢ ‪ O‬ﹶﺃﻣْﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪِﻧﺎ ِﺇﻧﱠﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻣُﺮﺳِﻠﲔ ‪ O‬ﺭﲪ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﱢﻚ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻴ ُﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴ ُﻢ ‪ { O‬ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ ﱡ‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ } ِﺇﻧﱠﺎ ﹶﺃﻧْﺰﻟﻨﺎﻩ ﰲ ﻟﻴﻠ ِﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ْﺪ ِﺭ ‪ O‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺃﹶﺩﺭﺍ َﻙ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘ ْﺪ ِﺭ ‪ O‬ﻟﻴﻠ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﹶـﺪْﺭ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺈِﺫ ِﻥ ﺭﺑﱢﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛ ﱢﻞ ﺃﻣ ٍﺮ ‪ O‬ﺳﻼ ٌﻡ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺷﻬ ٍﺮ ‪َ O‬ﺗَﻨ ﱠﺰﻝﹸ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜ ﹸﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭ ُ‬ ‫ﺧ ٌﲑ ﻣﻦ ﹶﺃﹾﻟ ِ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻘﺪْﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﳋﻤ ُ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﻣﻄﻠ ِﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺠ ِﺮ ‪ { O‬ﺍﻵﻳﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ } ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳُ ﹾﻔ َﺮﻕُ ﻛﻞﱡ ﺃﻣ ٍﺮ ﺣﻜﻴ ٍﻢ {‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﻜ ٍﻢ ﻋﻈﻴ ٍﻢ ﻳُﻘﻀَﻰ ﻭﻳﻘﺮﱠﺭ ﰲ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻣ ٍﺮ ﻣُ ْ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺑﻨﺎ ﻋ ﱠﺰ ﻭﺟ ﱠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻀ ﹲﻞ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻣﱰﻟ ﹲﺔ ﻋﻠﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻓﻔﻀﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻧﺰﻟﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻀﻠﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺷﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﻳﻮﻣﹰﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺇِﺫﻥ ﺧـ ٌﲑ‬ ‫‪256‬‬


‫ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻳﻮ ٍﻡ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺗﱰﱡ ِﻝ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻜ ِﺔ ﻭﺟﱪﻳـﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻣ ٍﺮ ﺃﺑﺮﻣﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺳﻼﻡ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﺭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ‪ .‬ﻭﳍﺬﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ) ﻣﻦ ﺣُ ِﺮﻣَﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺣُ ِﺮ َﻡ ﺍﳋ َﲑ ﻛﻠﻪ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺤ َﺮﻡُ ﺧ َﲑﻫَﺎ ﺇﻻ ﳏﺮﻭ ٌﻡ ( ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﻻ ﲢﺮﻣﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺩﻣﻨﺎ ﺃﺣﻴﺎ ًﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺗﻨﺎ ﺑﻔﻀﻠﻚ ﺧﲑَﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻳُ ْ‬ ‫ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺁﻣﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 25898‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﺟﺔ ﻋـﻦ ﻋﺎﺋﺸـﺔ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻝ ؟ ﻗـﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﻘـﻮﻟﲔ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ } ﻳﺎ ﻧﱯ ﺍﷲ ﺇ ﹾﻥ ﻭﺍﻓﻘ ُ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﻧﻚ ﻋﻔﻮﱞ ﲢﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻮ ﻓﺎﻋﻒ ﻋﲏ { ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣﺬﻱ ] ﻫﺬﺍ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫[‪.‬‬

‫ﻑ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺻﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﹲﺓ ﻟﻠﻴﻠ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ َﺳﻤْﺤ ﹲﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺃﻭﺻﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﻉ ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺘَﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻀﺎ َﺀ ﺗﺘﺮﻗﺮﻕ ﻻ ﺷُﻌﺎ َ‬ ‫ﹶﻃ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ﹲﺔ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺭﹲﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﹲﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺗﻄﻠﻊ ﺻﺒﻴ َ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﲣﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺐ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺳﺎﺟﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﺋﻔـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺻﺎﻑ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻦ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻟﻴﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺘَﻬﺎ ﺻﻔﻴﻘ ﹰﺔ ﲪﺮﺍ َﺀ {‬ ‫ﺤ ﹲﺔ ﹶﻃ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ﹲﺔ ﻻ ﺣﺎ ﱠﺭﹲﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﹲﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﴰﺴُﻬﺎ ﺻﺒﻴ َ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ } ﻟﻴﻠ ﹲﺔ َﺳ ْﻤ َ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﻟﺴﻲ ) ‪ ( 2680‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪ ( 2192‬ﺑﻠﻔـﻆ }‬ ‫ﺲ ﻳﻮﻣَﻬﺎ ﲪﺮﺍ َﺀ ﺿﻌﻴﻔ ﹰﺔ { ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪ :‬ﺻﻔﻴﻘﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻠ ﹲﺔ ﹶﻃﻠﹾﻘ ﹲﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺣﺎﺭ ﹲﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﹲﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﻤ ُ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﻓﺴﱠﺮﻬﺗﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴ ﹸﺔ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻋﻦ ﺯﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﻴﺶ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﲰﻌﺖ ﺃﹸﺑﱠﻴﹰﺎ – ﺑﻦ ﻛﻌﺐ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﻟﻴﻠ ﹸﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻫﻲ ﺳﺒ ٌﻊ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹲﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳـﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺗﻄﻠﻊ ﺑﻴﻀﺎ َﺀ َﺗ َﺮ ﹾﻗ َﺮﻕُ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ) ‪ ( 489/2‬ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﻭﺃﲪﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ) ‪ ... } ( 2777‬ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻵﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﱪﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻄﻠﻊ ﻳﻮﻣﺌ ٍﺬ ﻻ ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﳍﺎ { ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻦ ﻋُﺒﺎﺩ ﹶﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻣﺖ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗـﺎﻝ }‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﻗﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣَﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﻬﻦ ﺍﺑﺘﻐﺎ َﺀ ِﺣﺴْﺒِﺘ ِﻬ ﱠﻦ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻳﻐﻔﺮ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻧﺒﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺗﺮ ‪ :‬ﺗﺴﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺒﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﹶﻣﺎﺭ ﹶﺓ ﻟﻴﻠ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺻﺎﻓﻴ ﹲﺔ َﺑﻠﹾﺠ ﹲﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄ ﱠﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﺮﹰﺍ ﺳﺎﻃﻌﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻛﻨ ﹲﺔ ﺳﺎﺟﻴ ﹲﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻟﻜﻮﻛﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳُﺮﻣَﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺤﺘَﻬﺎ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﺷﻌﺎ ٌ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺃﹶﻣﺎﺭﻬﺗﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺻﺒﻴ َ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺭ ﻭﻻ ﳛﻞ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﻳﻮﻣﺌ ٍﺬ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﲪﺪ ) ‪ ( 23145‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺛﻘﺎﺕ [ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻠﺠﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﺳﺎﺟﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻗﻮﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻤﺮ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻮﺏ ﻗﺮﺻَﻬﺎ ﺷﻌﺎ ٌ‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﰒ ﻧﺴﻴﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﻠﺘـﻬﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ } ﺇﱐ ﻛﻨﺖ ﹸﺃﺭِﻳ ُ‬ ‫ﺠ ﹲﺔ ﻻ ﺣﺎﺭﹲﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ﹲﺓ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧُﺰﳝﺔ ) ‪. ( 2190‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﹶﻃ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻘ ﹲﺔ َﺑ ﹾﻠ َ‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ َﺳﻤُ َﺮ ﹶﺓ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫} ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺴﻮﺍ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻳﺘُﻬﺎ ﹶﻓُﻨﺴﱢﻴﺘُﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻄ ٍﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻳﺢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﻄﺮ ﻭﺭﻳﺢ { ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺰﱠﺍﺭ ) ‪ ( 1031‬ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﺍﱐ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ) ‪ ( 1962/2‬ﺑﻠﻔﻈﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺯﺍﺩ } ﻭﺭﻋﺪ { ﻭﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻨﺒﻞ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ] ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ [ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﺗﻪ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍ ٍﻝ ﺳﻘﻴﻤ ٍﺔ ﻫﺰﻳﻠ ٍﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ] ﻻ ﻳُﺮﺳَـ ﹸﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺻﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺤ َﺪﺙﹸ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺀ [ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ] ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﻻ ﻳُ ْ‬ ‫‪258‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺗﺴﻘﻂ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﰒ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﺴﺠﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ [ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﱪﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ] ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﳌﺎﳊﺔ ﺗﻌﺬﺏ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ [ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻬﻘﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺼ ﱡﺢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇِﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟ ﹶﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻒ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺎﱄ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺜﻠﹶﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﻫﺎﺩﺋﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻗﺔ ﻛﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻤـﺮ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗُﺮﻯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ُﺷ ُﻬ ٌ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺭﻳﺎﺡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺃﻋﺎﺻ َﲑ ﻭﻻ ﺛﻮﺭﺍ ﹶﻥ ﻏﺒﺎ ٍﺭ ﻭﻻ ﺿﺒﺎ َ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮﺱ ﻭﻬﺗﺪﺃ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﻃﺮ ﺭﲪ ﹰﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻴﺎﺯ ُﻙ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹲﺔ ﺗﺮﺗﺎ ُ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﻌُﺒﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﱂ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ) ﻭﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹸﺔ ﻣﻄ ٍﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻳ ٍﺢ ( ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﻴﺜﻤﻲ ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻭﺻ ٍ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﱐ ﱂ ﺃﻃﻤﺌﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺑﻌﻀُـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ] ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺛﲏ ﺃﰊ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺳِﻤﺎﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﲰﺮﺓ [‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ :‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﰎ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺒﺎﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﰲ ﻬﺗﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﱠﻘﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﲞﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺇﺫﻥ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ ﲰﺎﻙ ‪ -‬ﺑﻦ ﺣﺮﺏ ‪ -‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﲪﺪ ‪ :‬ﻣﻀﻄﺮﺏ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻌﱢﻔﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﺎﺭ ‪ :‬ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻐﻠﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳜﺘﻠﻔﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜـﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ِﺣﺒﱠﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻌﱢﻔﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﻙ ‪ :‬ﺳِﻤﺎﻙ ﺿﻌﻴ ٌ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﳜﻄﺊ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺭﲟﺎ ﹸﻟﻘﱢﻦ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺄﺻﻞ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺣﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳُﻠﻘﱠﻦ ﻓﻴﺘﻠﻘﻦ ‪ .‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﻛ ﱠﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺑ ُﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻬﺗﺬﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺬﻳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻗ ﱠﻞ ﺛﻨﺎﺀﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﳌﻤﺎ ﺷﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻭﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺍﻩ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﱠﺴﺎﺋﻲ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺄﺻﻞ ﱂ ﻳﻜـﻦ‬ ‫‪259‬‬


‫ﺣﺠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳ ٍﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮ ٍﺓ ﻟﻠﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻒ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻓُﻴ َﺮﺩﱡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳُﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﻮﺻ ُ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﰲ ﺻﺒﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﺑﺄﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﺸﺮﻕ ﻻ ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﲪﺮﺍﺀ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﻀﺎ َﺀ ﺗﺘﺮﻗﺮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻭﺻﻔﹰﺎ ﳍﺎ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﹶﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘـﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﺍﻣﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻗﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷَﻣﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﺗﺸﺮﻕ ﲪﺮﺍ َﺀ ﺿﻌﻴﻔ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻛﺤﺎﳍﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺪﱃ ﻟﻠﻐﺮﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺃﺷﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺆﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻮ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻣﺎ ﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺭﻃﻮﺑ ٍﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎ ِﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃ ﱠﻥ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺷﻌﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ﺁ ٍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ﳛﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺃﺷﻌﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺐ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﺒﺎ ٍ‬ ‫ﺳُﺤُ ٍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺎﻟ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺃﹶﻣﺎﺭ ﹰﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸـﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺻﺒﻴﺤ ﹶﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﹸﻬﺎ ﻛﺤﺎﻟِﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﺒﻴﺤ ﹶﺔ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘُﻬﺎ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻗﹸﻬﺎ ﻭﺷﻌﺎﻋُﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺷﻴﺎ َﺀ ﺗﻄﺮﺃ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺲ ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﺻﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺗُﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻤ َ‬ ‫ﺲ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﻠﻤُﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﺎﻓﺮُﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﺔ ﻟﻴﻠ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻷﺣ ﱠ‬ ‫ﲣﺮﺝ ﺻﺒﻴ َ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺾ ﻟﻠﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﻭﻣﻨﺎ ِﻫ ٌ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳ ُﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌ ﱡﻲ ﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺎ ِﻫ ٌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻬﺑﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﻨﺘﺒﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻖ ﲝﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳒﺪﻩ ﻣﺴﻄﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟ ُﻌﺒﱠﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺝ ﺃﻧـﻮﺍ ٍﺭ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎ ِﺀ ﻳُﻔﺘَﺢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺮﻭ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨ ِﺔ ﻟﻴﻠ ِﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﱠﺤﻘﱡ ِﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺅﻳ ِﺔ ﺑﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻃﻌ ٍﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻐﻤ ُﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﻗﺔ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻗﻠـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ُﻌﺒﱠﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻫﺎﺩ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺘﻬﻢ ﻳﺪﻟﱡﻮﻧﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧ ﱟ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮ ِﺭ ﻭﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻬﺗﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮ ٌ‬ ‫ﺺ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺇِﺫﻥ ﺃﹸﻣﻮ ٌﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟ ﹲﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫ ُﺪ ﲢﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻧ ﱠ‬ ‫‪260‬‬


‫ﳊﺼﻠﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ ﻭﺷﺎﻋﺖ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻢ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﳑﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳُﻨﻘﹶﻞ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻯ ﻳﺮﻭﻬﻧﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷَﺩﻫﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻬﻧﻢ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﹶﺳﻨﺪﻭﺍ ﺣﺼﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﻮ ِﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺭُﺅ ً‬ ‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻳُﻔﺘﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﺮﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻧﻮﺍ ٌﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻣﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺑﺎ َ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻥ ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ‪ :‬ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﺎﻧﻴ ﹲﺔ ﺳﺎﻃﻌ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻸﺕ َﺟَﻨﺒَﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻤﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠ ﹶﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﻠ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺩﻟ ﹰﺔ ﺷﺮﻋﻴ ﹰﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻭﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺣـﺪﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﺮﱐ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ ﻛﺬﺍ ﻭﻛـﺬﺍ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠ ﱠﻲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴ ﹸﺬ ﺃﻣ ِﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻨﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻌﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪﻭﻥ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻻ ﺯﺍﻝ ﻳﻔﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﺬ ﻭﻻ ﻬﻧﺎﻳﺔ ﳍﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﹸﺃ ْﺣﺒُﻮﻟ ﹲﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺎﺑﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺖ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺩﻳﻨﻜﻢ ‪ { ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻳﺔ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ‪ ...‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﻤﻠ ُ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻫﻠﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻬﺑﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴـﻤﻌﻮﻬﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﻨﺎﻣﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺄ ﱠﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﻼ ﺷﻚ ﻛﻔ ٌﺮ ﻻ ﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﺇﻥ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻡ ﺣﻖﱞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻃ ﹲﺔ ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭ َﻣ ْﻦ ِﻣ ْﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸـﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ؟ ﻭﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﻨﺎ ﺣﺼﻮ ﹶﻝ ﻋﻠﻤِﻨﺎ ﻬﺑـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﻭُﺟﺪﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻉ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻟﹸﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﲡﺐ ﻃﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻭﻳﺼ ﹸﻘﻠﹸﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺑﺸﺎﺋ ُﺮ ﻭﺃﹶﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕُ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻌﺪﻭ ﻛﻮﻧَﻬﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳُ ﹶﻄ ْﻤِﺌﻦُ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻮ َ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻻ ﻫـﻢ‬ ‫ﷲ ﻻ ﺧﻮ ٌ‬ ‫ﺧ ٍﲑ ﺧﺎﺻ ﹲﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ } ﺃﻻ ﺇ ﱠﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺎ َﺀ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫‪261‬‬


‫ﳛﺰﻧﻮﻥ ‪ Ο‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺁﻣﻨﻮﺍ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﱠﻘﻮ ﹶﻥ ‪ Ο‬ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺒُﺸﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻴﺎ ِﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ِﺓ ﻻ ﺗﺒﺪﻳ ﹶﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎ ِ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍﷲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮ ُﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻴ ُﻢ ‪ { Ο‬ﺍﻵﻳﺎﺕ ‪ 64 ، 63 ، 62‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﻳﻮﻧﺲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒُﺸﺮﻯ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﳊﺔ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺗُﺮﻯ ﻟﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﻠ ﹸﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﱴ ﻫﻲ ؟‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﰲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ] ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﰲ ﻟﻴﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﻘـﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺼﱠﻞ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺬﺍﻫﺒﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻛﺜ ُﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﳉ ﱡﺪ ﰲ ﻃﻠﺒﻬﻤﺎ [‬ ‫ﻧﻈ ُﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻛﺘﺎ ﰲ ﺇِﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﻘﻊ ﺍ ِ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻗﻮ ﹰﻻ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﺫﻛﺮ ﺃﺑﺮﺯَﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺮَﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗـﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﱢﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﻄﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻱ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ‪ :‬ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﳑﻜﻨﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮ ﹲﻝ ﻣﺸﻬﻮ ٌﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ ‪...‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ‪ :‬ﺃﻬﻧﺎ ﳐﺘﺼ ﹲﺔ ﺑﺮﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﳑﻜﻨ ﹲﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻟﻴﺎﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺷﻴﺒﺔ ﺑﺈﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻨﻪ ‪ ...‬ﻭﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺬﺭ ﻭﺍﶈﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺟﱠﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻜﻲ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺎﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﺎﻩ ﺍﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺐ ﺭﻭﺍﻳ ﹰﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﰲ