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Tuesday 3 August, 2010

SUPPORTING THE PROMOTERS OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION

kilimokwanza@guardian.co.tz

d n a e r e h w e l b a l Data of land avai pose r u p t a h w r o f e l suitab a h 0 0 0 , 0 0 2 y l r a e n Core deposits of ned land to w o t n e m n r e v o g from r o f e l b a l i a v a k c to s f o e r o c e t u t i t s n co s r o t s e v n i o t n o i t a alloc g n i e b d n a l d e l l o r t Privately con t i t i s o p e d o t y d a e r e l p o e p y b d e l i a v a s r o t s e v n i h t i w e and negotiat


EDITORIAL

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Cassava set to graduate from food to cash crop Now a project by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is working with farmers and the private sector to transform cassava from a food security crop to a cash crop.The project also aims to transform cassava farming from subsistence to commercial so as to improve the income of resource poor farmers

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T is widely believed that two of the biggest obstacles to investment in Tanzania are problems with access to land, despite its abundance, and low skills by the nationals. By extension, as shown elsewhere in this supplement, many believe that Kilimo Kwanza is unlikely to succeed unless land is legally held and its proprietorship is registered and recog-

nised. But roundabout 70 per cent of the land in Tanzania is yet to be surveyed, while most of the 44 million hectares of arable land requires enhanced water supply to become adequately productive – and this has just proved impossible to ensure. This remains the not so bright scenario a whole year since the launch of the much-touted national agricultural initiative popularly known as Kilimo Kwanza. But we are told everything is now set for the country to have a national Land Bank, most likely operated by the Tanzania Investment Centre, what with the government having compiled the initial stock of land to stand as ‘deposits’. These have already been delivered to the centre for allocation to investors ready and willing to swim on. We are further told 13 of the country’s regions have banked 174,065 hectares in 98 different parcels, six look completely unimpressed, two are understood to have compiled the land at their disposal but have not yet transferred it to the investment centre for use in the land bank and five have so far not taken part in the exercise. Just for the record: President Jakaya Kikwete launched Kilimo Kwanza last year with specific instructions to all regional administrations to compile and avail the data necessary for the setting up of the land bank. The move is seen as the first step towards the systematic allocation of land for investors to boost the commercialisation of agriculture throughout the country. It is stressed that the idea is modernise the country’s agricultural sector while taking into account the concerns of the local communities currently subsisting on land. Put differently, the development is not expected to lead to needless displacement of peasant subsistence farmers by large-scale commercial agricultural investors. Indeed, as explained by the TIC, what will happen is that the bank will keep data on land that wananchi will declare as available for them to negotiate with intending investors and the investment centre will then facilitate the surveying and documentation of the said land. In other words, contrary to widespread rumours, TIC will not grab land from anybody for allocation to investors – be it Tanzanians or foreigners.

Fact: It is illegal for foreigners to buy land outright in Tanzania. They can only own land through a local partner and, with the birth of the Land Bank, TIC would stand as the local partner. Yet, mainly because of hard economic times, many poor indigenous land owners find themselves forced to sell land to any bidder coming their way. No wonder observers underline the need for the birth of the Land Bank to so empower wananchi as to enable them to use their land more productively and, in situations where they feel like selling it, having the likes of TIC stepping in with guidance as to how to go about it. Experts describe land as one of the most important factors in economic development, adding that it ought to be managed well enough if it is to improve land use practices. They rightly argue that having vacant and abandoned land impedes the ability of communities and nations to sustain their operations, while also discouraging property ownership, depressing the value of property, attracting crime and creating health hazards. A 2004 study by the Kirwan Institute for Study of Race & Ethnicity at Ohio State University shows that land bank programmes serve as economic and community development tools that help revitalise disadvantaged communities by supporting schools, improving tax revenues and expanding housing opportunities. Thus, having in place the likes of the planned Land Bank is hugely likely add value to land and whatever activities such land will ultimately host if properly developed. TIC Executive Director Emmanuel ole Naiko believes that the critical factors to bring about a revolution in Tanzanian agriculture include embracing scientific methods of farming, the use of irrigation, mechanisation and the processing of farm produce. This is essentially what Kilimo Kwanza is all about. As we mark the first anniversary of the initiative’s launch, we should take time to gauge how its objectives can be achieved with as little disturbance to our people as possible. After all, it is meant as a tool for their very liberation.

Wallace Mauggo Editor

Artwork & Design: KN Mayunga: changetz@yahoo.com

Land bank ready to start operating

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Why land is not optimally used in Tanzania

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A year after the launch of Kilimo Kwanza, all is now set for the operation of the long-awaited land bank. A team of technocrats from the Prime Minister’s Office has compiled the initial stock of land that constitutes the ‘deposits’ in the bank and late last month delivered to the Tanzania Investment Centre for allocation to intending investors

OILED, fried or dried and pounded into a flour to make ugali (stiff porridge). These are the most common ways that cassava is used in Tanzania as in many other countries in Africa. However the hardy root is perceived as a crop for the poor and when they can afford it, many people quickly shift to maize and wheat products. Thus the crop is not taken seriously and its potential to contribute towards diversifying rural economies and reducing poverty has not been properly harnessed. Now a project by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is working with farmers and the private sector to transform cassava from a food security crop to a cash crop. The project also aims to transform cassava farming from subsistence to commercial so as to improve the income of resource poor farmers. Under the first phase of the project dubbed, ‘Small-scale Cassava Processing and Vertical Integration Project in East and Southern Africa,’ IITA introduced simple processing technologies that are releasing the potential of cassava as a commercial crop in the region. Production of high quality cassava flour (HQCF) and cassava starch were some of the technologies that the initiative introduced that are transforming the face of the crop in the region. High quality white or cream cassava flour is devoid of any odor, sour taste, and contaminants and most importantly, it has low cyanide levels that are way below the limits set by international standards. The flour has a wide range of uses at home and in bakery industries as a substitute for wheat. On its own or mixed with the wheat, it is used to make cakes, doughnuts, bread, biscuits and other products. The technology was first developed by IITA under the ‘Cassava for Bread Project’ in Nigeria about 14 years ago. It became so popular with bakers, noodle and confectionery manufacturers that it is now part and parcel of the manufacturing process. Bakeries mix their wheat flour with 10 percent unfermented cassava flour for

Cassava set to graduate from food to cash crop

bread and cakes and as high as 35 percent for biscuits. Some caterers are also now making cakes and doughnuts from pure cassava flour. Cassava starch on the other hands also has diverse uses in the brewery, textile, paper, plywood and other industries. It can be used as a stabilizer in making ice-cream, flavoring agents in foods, making custard, baby food, sausages and other processed meats. It also makes good gelatinized starch adhesives such as glue and dextrin for postage stamps, envelope flaps, wall paper, corrugated cardboard cartons, and other packing materials. These technologies can save developing countries precious foreign exchange by reducing importation of industrial raw materials including wheat. At the same time creating income for poor farmers, small-scale processors and creating employment in the rural areas. To introduce and promote these technologies, the project’s first phase trained farmers organized in groups to produce the high quality flour and starch. Farmers were also trained on entrepreneurship and business skills and provided with simple processing machines such as graters, pressers and chippers. They were also linked up with potential industrial users who were excited and welcomed the products as more affordable alternatives to expensive wheat and starch imports. In Tanzania for instance, the bakeries were very keen to use the high quality flour to make biscuits and other products and their demand is overwhelming to the few small scale processors trained by the project. Some bakeries and confectionery factories were asking the processors to supply them with 10 tons of the flour on a weekly basis, this according to Dr Adebayo Abass,

Coordinator of the project and IITA’s Cassava Value Chain specialist. The same applies to starch. Some industrial processors were keen to use cassava starch instead of costly imported starch and they require 10 to 15 tons to meet their monthly requirements; another demand that the existing small-scale processors cannot meet. The opportunities these two technologies have to improve the livelihoods of resource poor rural farmers are grossly under-utilized. One of the groups that benefited under the first phase of the project is the Sululu farmers group from Bungu A village in Rufiji district, Pwani region. The members were trained on processing of high quality cassava flour and chips; and on entrepreneurship skills including book keeping, quality maintenance and assurance and packaging. They were then supplied with equipment: a chipper, a grater and a milling machine. The group is now supplying high quality cassava flour to a local matchbox industry, a bakery and supermarkets. According to the group’s chair, Musa Omar, the project has made a big difference in their lives and those of their neighboring farmers. The income from the new processing technologies has enabled all the group members to improve their houses previously made of mud and grass huts to iron roof and brick ones. Those with children in secondary and college levels are able to comfortably pay their school fees. ‘We have even managed to buy bicycles for ourselves and for our children to ride to school,’ he says. The group was able to get a government loan of 10 million TSH to buy a vehicle to facilitate its work. It has also started a credit facility that also helps neighboring farmers who are not members

BODI YA PAMBA TANZANIA

THE shortage of resources and ready markets for produce are some of the reasons behind poor land use methods by farmers in the country. Speaking to Kilimo Kwanza at different locations, farmers claimed that this restricts them to farming for domestic use and not for business.

Irrigation enhances sugar cane farming at Kagera Sugar Factory

POLICY

By Special Correspondent, Dar

inside

Kilimo Kwanza: One year later

The Guardian KILIMO KWANZA

Tuesday 3 August, 2010

NaneNane 2010

Kauli mbiu: Kilimo Kwanza, Mapinduzi ya Kijani, Uhakika wa Chakula na Kipato.

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INVESTMENT in state-of-theart centre pivot irrigation systems has enabled the Kagera Sugar company to produce more sugar and of a higher quality. The centre pivot irrigation system that covers all plantations has enabled the factory to increase total yield per hectare from 50 T/Ha to an average of 102 T/ Ha.

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To have your organisation promoted in Kilimo Kwanza, Call: 0787 571308, 0655 571308 0754 571308

Mwenyekiti wa Barazala la Wakurugenzi kwa niaba ya Menejimenti na Wafanyakazi wa Bodi ya Pamba anawapongeza wakulima wote wa pamba nchini kwa kusherehekea Sikukuu ya Wakulima Nane Nane. Pamoja na salamu hizi, wakulima wa pamba nchini mnakumbushwa kuzingatia kanuni za kilimo bora cha pamba ili kuongeza tija, huu ukiwa ni mkakati wa kutekeleza sera ya Serikali ya KILIMO KWANZA na kujikwamua na umasikini. Kanuni muhimu za kuzingatiwa kwa wakati huu ni pamoja na; 1. Kuvuna mapema na kutenga pamba katika madaraja ya A na B 2. Kutotumia mifuko ya sandarusi

kuvunia na kuhifadhia pamba; na 3. Kutoweka maji, mchanga, magadi, mbolea ya chumvichumvi au kitu chochote kwenye pamba kwa lengo la kuongeza uzito. 4. Kung’oa na kuchoma moto masalia yote ya pamba ifikapo tarehe 15 Septemba ili kupunguza kuzaliana kwa wadudu katika masalia hayo. Aidha, wafanyabiashara wa pamba mnakumbushwa kutumia mizani sahihi zisizowaibia wakulima. Matumizi ya mizani mibovu ni kosa la jinai. Timiza wajibu wako, nunua pamba iliyotengwa katika madaraja ya A na B na isiyo na uchafu au takataka zozote.

MUNGU IBARIKI TANZANIA PAMBA NI DHAHABU NYEUPE Pamba House, Garden Avenue, S.L.P 9161, DAR ES SALAAM Simu: +255 22 2122564, 2128347, Faksi: +255 22 2112894 Barua pepe: tclb@tancotton.co.tz Tovuti: www.tancotton.co.tz

of the group. The success of Sululu group has motivated the District Council to establish 3 other processing centers. Sululu group has been training the new groups on cassava processing. One such group is Kikundi cha Wakulima was Mahogany (Kiwamumi), a farmers group that started in 2007 with 25 members. The group’s membership has since increased to 75. Other groups trained under the first phase of the initiative in Tanzania included Juhudi, Jaribu, and Tumeweza Vijana. One entrepreneur who has also gained tremendously from the introduction of the technologies is Mr. Peter Chisawilo, the managing director, Intermech Engineering. He initially collaborated with IITA and other Tanzania research centers and universities to locally fabricate cassava processing machines during the pilot phase of this project. Today, he continues to locally produce the machines. He has a ready market as the small scale processing centres have grown from the initial six pilot sites where IITA tested the technologies to more than 100 in the country, all privately owned. He also exports the machines to other countries in the region such as Rwanda, Burundi and Zambia where the demand is also increasing. He won the Tanzania Engineering Society Award in recognition of his work in production of the processing equipment. Dr Abass said the first phase of the project successfully introduced to rural smallholder farmers and low income groups, the technologies for transforming cassava into high value storable products and demonstrated to the industries the suitability of cassava as a raw material. This in turn led to the stimulation of the huge but unexploited market opportunity

for cassava. He notes that the two technologies – unfermented high quality flour and starch - now need to be scaled up from small scale to medium scale processing to meet the increasing demand from industrial processors. Scaling-up processing will increase demand for cassava in turn motivating farmers to increase their production as demonstrated in Nigeria. The processing technology was tested fifteen years ago at smallscale in only three of the 36 states of Nigeria. Today, 27 states have moved to medium-scale processing. This has also seen cassava production increase from 36 to 40 million tons per year within five years. Today Nigeria is the leading world producer of cassava. Realizing a significant drop in the agriculture sector, once a major foreign exchange earner and resource reservoir; President of Nigeria in 2002, Olusegun Obasanjo, set up the Presidential Initiative on Cassava. Under this initiative, strategies were set in motion to achieve, on annual basis, US $ 5 billion from cassava over 5 years. The strategies focused on simultaneously improving the farm productivity by introducing high yielding disease resistant varieties to farmers who were also trained on good agronomic practices; promotion of private sector participation in the production, value addition, commercialization, agro-enterprise development, and export and import substitution. According to Dr Abass, a lot of research has gone into increasing cassava production to increase food security, such as the development of high yielding and disease resistant varieties. However, it is now time for the technology to move from just increasing production to encompass the entire value

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chain to ensure farmers in East Africa are able to gain from the increase in production. Or else it might lead to a glut in the market accompanied by a drop in the prices and a loss to the farmers. Secondly, for value addition to be successful, it must also go hand in hand with identification of markets for the processed products. This will stimulate and encourage the farmers to increase production and process their crops leading to increased incomes, employment and a reduction in rural poverty. “Farmers or processors must be linked to industrial processors or importers of semi-processed industrial raw materials. For instance, when introducing technologies for starch production, be it from cassava or potatoes, it is necessary to identify potential industrial users of starch,” says Dr Abass. To facilitate the scaling up of the processing from small-scale to medium-scale, the second phase of the project which is funded by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) will introduce a twostep processing of cassava. At the villagelevel, small-scale processors will purchase fresh cassava roots from farmers and extract water to form semi-dry grits. These will then be sold to town-level processors for mechanical drying and milling into high quality cassava flour for end users. The semi-dry grits are easier to transport to the town-level processors and have a longer shelf life. Mechanical drying of the grits will enable small-scale farmers to avoid major constraints associated with sun-drying. Phase I identified this as a major bottle-neck of cassava processing as it limits cassava processing during the rainy season and affects the products quality and quantity. The project is being implemented jointly with the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC). Dr Nicholas Mulinge, Director of the Food Science and Nutrition Department says the initiative is vital as it is important to change the traditional way of processing cassava and make it into a cash crop to improve the livelihoods of small-scale farmers and processors. Dr Abass says the project is encouraging interested entrepreneurs to join in and take advantage of the highly profitable yet unexploited market opportunities of high quality cassava flour and starch in East Africa to fight rural poverty.

COMMUNITY BANK ASSOCIATION

Vision of CBA The vision of CBA is ‘To be a leading and preferred provider of resources for development as well as an advocate of community banks in Tanzania.’

sociation is nine, which include all operating Community Banks and Cooperative Banks in Tanzania, and these are: • Dar es Salaam Community Bank (DCB) in Dar es Salaam Region • Mufindi Community Bank (MuCoBa) in Iringa Region • Mbinga Community Bank (MCB) in Ruvuma Region • Kilimanjaro Co operative bank (KCB) in Kilimanjaro Region • Uchumi Commercial Bank (UCB) in Kilimanjaro Region • Mwanga Rural Community Bank (MRCB) Kilimanjaro Region • Kagera Farmers Co operative Bank (KFCB) in Kagera Region • Njombe community bank, Iringa (starts operations on 29th March, 2010) • Tandahimba Community Bank (TaCoBa) in Mtwara Region (not operational)

Membership Status The current number of members of community banks as-

Services that the Association offers to its Members and promot-

Back ground The Community Banks Association was founded by Tanzania Gatsby Trust (TGT) in liaison with all Community Banks in year 2005. The Association was registered under the Societies Ordinance of 1954 (rule 5) with Registration number SO 14198 issued on 1st day of February 2006. Mission Statement of CBA CBA mission is ‘To mobilize resources so as to maximize value and economically empower Community Banks in Tanzania by offering financial and non financial resources efficiently and effectively for mutual benefit of all parties.’

ers of Community Banks • Build capacity to Banks staff and clients • Create a network between existing Community Banks and organize exchange programs for broader benefits in and outside the country • Review policy documents and other operating systems on behalf of Community Banks • Advocate and lobby for a well balanced conducive operational environment to relevant authorities • Reduce set up costs for new community banks projects (support with feasibility studies, business plan preparation, preparation of necessary documents needed by the Bank of Tanzania, recruit senior staff of the banks, acquire bank software on behalf of the banks, and other services needed by the banks) • Integrate newly established Community Banks into an established network of Community Banks

Mbezi, Kawe Road, P.O. Box 8695, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Tel: +255 22 2123245, Fax: +255 22 211 2899, Mobile:+255 755 439 533, Email: info@ cba.or.tz, Website: www.cba.or.tz

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Tuesday 3 August, 2010

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The Guardian KILIMO KWANZA


The Guardian KILIMO KWANZA

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Tuesday 3 August, 2010

COVER STORY

The Guardian KILIMO KWANZA

Tuesday 3 August, 2010

COVER STORY

Land bank ready to start operating All but three regions have contributed stock to the Land Bank and it is ready to start issuing land to large scale commercial agricultural investors. The development is drawing unprecedented support from academia and political opposition, as it is likely to reduce friction in land acquisition by investors and speed up modernisation of the sector while providing employment to labour that is otherwise wasting away in susbistance farming in rural areas.

Why land is not optimally used in Tanzania By Angel Navuri

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Jaston Binala and Hilda Msemo year after the launch of Kilimo Kwanza, all is now set for the operation of the long-awaited land bank. A team of technocrats from the Prime Minister’s Office has compiled the initial stock of land that constitutes the ‘deposits’ in the bank and late last month delivered to the Tanzania Investment Centre for allocation to intending investors. The move has been praised by economists, academics and even opposition politicians as a step in the right direction. For a start, 13 of the country’s regional administrations have banked174,065 hectares in 98 different parcels. However, three regions have so far failed to cooperate with the exercise and have despite reminders, not registered even a single hectare of land as available for the land bank. Two regions have compiled the available land but have not yet transferred it to the investment centre for use in the land bank. The three regions that have so far not taken part in the exercise have been named as Pwani, Shinyanga and Dodoma. The two that have compiled but not yet transferred the land are Kigoma and Tabora. President Jakaya Kikwete had at the launch of the green revolution initiative last year tasked the Prime Minister’s Office to compile the information. He also required all regional administrations to compile and avail the data necessary for the setting up of the land bank, a first step towards systematic allocation of land for investors to boost the commercialisation of agriculture countrywide. The Executive Director of Tanzania Investment Centre, Emmanuel ole Naiko, disclosed in an exclusive interview with The Guardian Kilimo Kwanza that a highly dedicated team led by PMO’s Permanent Secretary Maimuna Tarishi has submitted a comprehensive report that now makes it possible for TIC to operate the Land Bank. “The PS and her team have done a commendable job and for the first time we have a fair picture of the situation of land that can be made available for commercial agriculture in an orderly manner that will help modernise the sector and at the same time take care of the concerns of the local communities that are currently subsisting on land,” he said. There have been concerns over the displacement of peasant subsistence farmers by large-scale commercial agricultural investors in different parts of the country. These have arisen out of unclear proprietorship of land in many parts, amidst confusion where some investors have paid off occupants and failing to access the land. “The famous Village Land Act of 1999 requires that they negotiate directly with the villagers and many an investor have done so with adverse results,” explained the TIC chief executive. “An investor meets with a hundred vil-

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PMO’s Permanent Secretary Maimuna Tarishi, lauded for commendable job

Executive Director of Tanzania Investment Centre, Emmanuel ole Naiko, keen on large scale farmers

President Jakaya Kikwete, unitiated move lagers today, pays heavily in the form of ‘posho’ (allowances) and returns the next day only to find another one hundred villagers, different ones, demanding payment and on and on,” he added. This has been one of the major setbacks to intending agricultural investors who have found the system frustrating. Matters are not helped by suspicions that the land bank is a plot by government to grab land from the villagers and give it to foreigners. But as ole Naiko clarifies that the land bank will comprise first of all data on who has what land, where and suitable for what purpose. Secondly, it will have government land which the state will make available and this will consist of the core stock that TIC can allocate to intending investors. Thirdly, that bank will keep data on land that

wananchi will declare as available for them to negotiate with intending investors. The investment centre will then facilitate the surveying and documentation of the said land. “Therefore TIC is not taking land from anybody to give to foreigners as rumours have had it,” said the investment chief. A prominent opposition politician, Zitto Zuberi Kabwe, incumbent member of parliament for Kigoma North (CHADEMA), says the concept of the implementation of the land bank will be very good for this country in that it will reduce problems in the villages. Although Tanzania does not permit the freehold proprietorship of land by foreigner, poverty had made it possible for the poor to sell land to foreigners outright, contravening the nation’s policy in which foreigners

are not allowed to buy land outright. What happens in Tanzania is that foreigners access the land through what is called a ‘derivative right,’ Zitto Kabwe said. The derivative right permits a foreigner to own land though a local partner. Through the land bank, TIC is to have a list of free tracts of land where investors may put their money without conflict, using the investment centre as the local partner. The concept of the land bank is also welcome among members of the intellectual community. “The land bank is long overdue,” Dr. Marceline Chijoriga, Dean at the University of Dar es Salaam Business School told The Guardian Kilimo Kwanza. “We should have started it yesterday.” Explaining the stand, she said the bank will weed out ‘land speculators’, although she

sounded a warning to the TIC: the investment centre should only provide land to serious investors who should be identified after careful scrutiny. She said one way to identify serious investors will be to give them time frames in which to see something done on the land. In May, The Guardian Kilimo Kwanza disclosed that 70 per cent of the land in Tanzania is unsurveyed. The country has 44 million hectares of land suitable for agriculture but most of it requires enhanced water supply to become adequately productive. The Property and Business Formalisation Programme/ Mukurabita coordinator Ladislaus Salema said then that the government’s capacity to survey and document all the land in the country is very low, partly because there has not been

enough demand for land titles by Tanzanians to make the developing of that capacity a priority. But, according to the Mukurabita chief, Kilimo Kwanza cannot succeed until land is legally held and its proprietorship registered and recognised. A report compiled after research by the Tanzania National Business Council in 2002 found that two of biggest obstacles to investment in the country are access to land despite its abundance and low skills by the nationals. The situation, according to ole Naiko, has not improved very much. The completion of the draft by the PMO is therefore a big step to address the land availability problem. He warned that those regions that have not availed data as required may not get enough private investments in the coming

years and will have only their leaders to blame for the missed opportunities. The centre views its role in the matter as facilitating the availing of land to largescale farmers, who are the ones capable of bringing about modernisation, employment and also providing a market for smallholders who would act as out-growers. They regard as unacceptable the current situation where 80 per cent of the population is ‘locked up’ in agriculture. “My job is to promote large scale commercial agriculture; there are others to address the smallholders,” says the TIC boss. Currently, most farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture, which is becoming increasingly unreliable because of climate change. But there are also external factors like markets for agricultural produce and the subsidies in Western countries that

make it harder for farmers in developing countries to compete. Such subsidies enable a cow in Europe enjoy subsidies of two dollars a day, four times many what many people in Africa live on per day. One country whose agriculture model TIC officials view as worth emulating is Vietnam, which in a short five to eight years has transformed from economic insignificance to the world’s third largest producer of rice. At 329,569 square kilometres, Viet Nam is just a third of Tanzania large territory which is about one million square kilometres. Although the country that recently emerged from decades of instability is already an emerging manufacturing power and now a big oil exporter, they have also put a lot of emphasis on commercial agriculture, which has seen them become a top rice exporter, in addition to comfortably

supporting a population of nearly 80 million. TIC believe that the critical factors to liberate Tanzanian agriculture from its backward state to start the journey towards modernity can best be resolved by participation of large scale operators. These factors include embracing of scientific methods of farming, the use of irrigation, mechanisation and primary value-addition to, or processing of farm produce. Today, the mechanisation levels on the land in Tanzania woefully low, standing at less than half of what they were in the seventies. The whole country is currently being farmed by a mere 8,000 ageing tractors, compared to the 17,000 well serviced ones that were operational over thirty years ago, when the population was a third of what it is today. To make any significant impact to-

wards mechanised agriculture, ministry of agriculture experts told The Guardian that at least 4,500 tractors need to be imported en masse as a matter of urgency, and then an additional 1,800 added every year as a minimum. TIC believes this can only be achieved sustainably by efforts of largescale private farmers. The government has in pursuance of mechanizing land use over time removed taxes on agricultural machinery like tractors and power tillers. As a result, a reasonable, new tractor can be purchased by the final user for as low as Tsh37 million, while a power tiller goes for Shs6 million. Last financial year, the government injected sh50 billion in a tractor importation drive. Reliable provision of water to irrigate the farmlands has been identified as anoth-

er pre-requisite for the agricultural transformation of Tanzania. The perpetual shortage of food is experienced while the country has massive tracts of unutilized fertile land sitting on huge water reserves. Besides large and small fresh water lakes, there are large and small rivers and massive underground water reservoirs that are relatively shallow and can be accessed by minimal drilling. Water can be found at a mere ten to fifteen metres’ depth in many parts of Tanzania. In March, Finance Minister Mustapha Mkulo told The Guardian Kilimo Kwanza that over the next three financial years, the government is going to fund the irrigation of seven million hectares. Indeed, during the current new budget, the minister allocated sh800 million to every district for setting up irrigation systems.

THE shortage of resources and ready markets for produce are some of the reasons behind poor land use methods by farmers in the country. Speaking to Kilimo Kwanza at different locations, farmers claimed that this restricts them to farming for domestic use and not for business. Many of the farmers who were observed cultivating tracts of less than one hectare each, also blamed lack of product diversification between different districts as hindering access to local markets. “This is less than one hectare,” said 65 year-old Ali Hassan, indicating a patch of rice paddy that he was weeding in Turiani. “The whole farm is 3 hectares but I don’t have the equipment to cultivate all of it,” he added. Hassan said that he farms for domestic use but sells extra produce to help him pay for school fees and other needs. He urged the government to waiver taxes on imported agricultural equipment so that they are available at a reasonable price (the government scrapped the remaining taxes on agriculture in the last budget – Editor). Accompanied by her three children, the youngest of which she carried on her back as she weeded her rice farm, Marcsecia Martin would love to hire extra labour to assist her. She however lacks the resources for this. “What I earn from selling my produce is little compared to what l may have to pay the laborers. I have to work alone with the help of a few relatives,’ she lamented. The government is providing power tillers and tractors that are now available to farmers at reduced prices. However many ordinary farmers in the country cannot afford to buy or hire the equipment. With this in mind, the District Commissioner for Bahi, Betty Mkwasa said that the money allocated to her district for agriculture was used to purchase tools and equipment that farmers can purchase or hire at more affordable prices. “We decided to provide them with hoes that are cheaper and hope that these will assist them to cultivate larger areas, “she said. She added that the hoes are lend-able between the farmers themselves. Diplomats and other experts have often raised concern on land utilization in the country and also on the expected free movement of labour and people between member states of the East Africa Common market (EAC.) Tanzanian Members of Parliament recently raised concern that the free movement will increase job insecurity and land grabbing in the country. The General Manager of Mtibwa Sugar Estates, Gregory Swart termed land utilization as a serious issue but urged the government to tackle the issue of land ownership so that the farmers can benefit more. He said that there are some conflicts between communities and companies concerning land right and that investors often suffer the most. According to a research done by Dr Abraham Temu of the College of Engineering and Technology at the University of Dar es Salaam, conflicts of interest between investors and local communities could end if the government plays a pro-active role in creating more awareness to the local community on land use. Temu’s research indicates that majority of the local people have been signing onesided contracts, without considering the growth trends of local populations and land use increase. The current land use policy authorizes villagers to enter into land deals with investors for not more than 50 hectares per investor. Government authorization is required for swathes larger than that. A few months ago the Prime Minister Mizengo Pinda said that the government is allocating funds to enable farmers practice modern farming methods.


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Wizara ya Kilimo, Chakula na Ushirika

Utekelezaji wa KILIMO KWANZA kupitia ASDP mafanikio hayo ni pamoja na yafuatayo:-

Mnamo tarehe 3 Agosti 2009 Serikali ilizindua kaulimbiu ya KILIMO KWANZA ikiwa ni azma maalum ya kitaifa ya kuongeza kasi ya kuleta Mapinduzi ya Kilimo nchini. Kaulimbiu ya KILIMO KWANZA siyo mbadala wa Programu ya Kuendeleza Sekta ya Kilimo yaani Agricultural Sector Development Progaramme – ASDP; bali ni kichocheo cha kusukuma kwa kasi zaidi utekelezaji wa programu ya ASDP.

KILIMO CHA UMWAGILIAJI

Labda tujikumbushe kuwa hatua zinazoendelea kuchukuliwa ni kutokana na umuhimu wa sekta ya kilimo katika uchumi na maendeleo ya Tanzania. Hii ni kutokana na ukweli kuwa, Kilimo kinatoa ajira kwa watanzania zaidi ya asilimia 70 na kinachangia wastani wa asilimia 95 ya chakula kinachohitajika nchini. Aidha, sekta ya kilimo inachangia asilimia 26 ya pato la Taifa.

Wastani wa uzalishaji wa mpunga katika skimu za umwagiliaji umeongekeka kutoka tani 1.8 kwa hekta hadi tani 6.0 kwa hekta. Tija katika uzalishaji wa zao la mahindi kwa wakulima wanaoshiriki utaratibu wa ruzuku ya pembejeo kama vile mbegu na mbolea umeongezeka; kwa mfano mahindi ya siha kutoka tani 0.7 kwa hekta mwaka 2006/2007 hadi tani 4.5 kwa hekta mwaka 2009/2010.

Ni kutokana na umuhimu huo serikali ilibuni Programu ya Kunedeleza Sekta ya Kilimo, ambayo ilianza kutekelezwa Julai 2006, ikihusisha Wizara za Sekta ya Kilimo ambazo ni Kilimo Chakula na Ushirika; Maendeleo ya Mifugo na Uvuvi; Maji na Umwagiliaji; na Ofisi ya Waziri Mkuu Tawala za Mikoa na Serikali za Mitaa. Aidha utekelezaji wa ASDP katika Halmashauri za Wilaya unafanyika kupitia Mipango ya Maendeleo ya Kilimo ya Wilaya yaani District Agricultural Development Plans-DADPS. Hivyo kaulimbiu ya KILIMO KWANZA imechochea zaidi kufikiwa kwa malengo ya ASDP ambayo ni:Mosi, Kuwawezesha wakulima na wafugaji kupata elimu, teknolojia, miundombinu na masoko ya uhakika ili kuongeza uzalishaji, mapato, faida na tija. Pili, Kujenga mazingira bora ya kisera na kisheria ili kuongeza uwekezaji wa sekta binafsi katika Kilimo. Ni dhahiri kuwa katika kipindi cha miaka minne ya utekelezaji wa ASDP, kumekuwa na mafanikio makubwa katika sekta ya Kilimo. Miongoni mwa

Kuongezeka kwa eneo la umwagiliaji kutoka hekta 264,388 mwaka 2006 hadi hekta 331,490 mwaka 2009/2010, ambapo jumla ya kaya 200,000 zimenufaika na ongezeko hilo. TIJA YA UZALISHAJI WA MAZAO YA KILIMO IMEONGEZEKA

MIUNDONBINU INAENDELEA KUIMARIKA Mafanikio mengine ya ASDP ni pamoja na kuboreshwa kwa miundombinu ya masoko na maghala ya kuhifadhi mazao vijijini. Jumla ya maghala ya kuhifadhi mazao 493, masoko 96 majosho 271 yamejengwa, majosho 187 yalikarabatiwa, malambo 194 yalijengwa, na 78 yalikarabatiwa. Kilomita 469 za barabara za vijijini (feeder roads) zimejengwa. Ujenzi wa miundombinu hiyo umewezesha wakulima kuwa na uhakika wa soko na kupunguza gharama za kusafirisha mazao na hivyo kuongeza tija. VITUO VYA WANYAMAKAZI NA TAALUMA VIMEJENGWA Jumla ya vituo 55 vya wanayamakazi na Vituo 166 vya Taaluma vya Kata (Ward Agricutural Resource Centres- WARCs) vimejengwa. MATUMIZI YA ZANA BORA ZA KILIMO YAMEONGEZEKA Matrekta makubwa 81, matrekta madogo 2,154 na plau

1,321 zilinunuliwa kwa lengo la kuongeza tija. Aidha, jumla ya machine 1,852 za kusindika mazao zilinunuliwa zikiwemo mashine 78 za kukaushia kahawa, 64 kukamua mbegu za mafuta, 8 za kukamua matunda na 1,095 za kusaga na kukoboa. Mashine hizo zimewezesha kuongezeka kwa ubora na bei ya mazao hayo. Aidha, katika kipindi cha mwaka 2005/06 hadi 2009/2010 jumla ya matrekta makubwa 2,364 na matrekta madogo ya mkono (power tillers) 3,214 yaliingizwa na kuuzwa na makampuni binafsi. Aidha katika mwaka 2009/2010 jumla ya matrekta makubwa 627 na matrekta madogo 2,219 yaliingizwa kwa ajili ya kusambazwa kwa wakulima MIKOPO YA PEMBEJEO IMEONGEZEKA Serikali imeendelea kuongeza uwezo wake wa kutoa Mikopo ya pembejeo za kilimo na zana bora kupitia Mfuko wa Pembejeo. Kwa mfano katika mwaka 2009/2010, jumla ya shilingi bilioni 7.5 zilitumika kutoa mikopo ya pembejeo za kilimo na mifugo. Hadi mwezi Mei 2010, mikopo iliyotolewa ilijumuisha matrekta makubwa mapya 155, matrekta madogo 50, na pembejeo mbalimbali za kilimo na mifugo yenye thamani ya shilingi bilioni 2.2. HUDUMA ZA UGANI ZINAENDELEA KUBORESHWA Huduma za ugani zimeboreshwa zaidi kutokana na kupatikana kwa vitendea kazi. Jumla ya magari 100, pikipiki 1,612 baiskeli 3,389 zimenunuliwa ili kuboresha utoaji wa huduma za ugani. Aidha, jumla ya wakulima 761,452 walipata mafunzo ya kanuni za Kilimo bora kupitia mashamba darasa. UTAFITI WA KILIMO Aina mpya za mbegu za mazao zimeendelea kugunduliwa na taasisi za utafiti na kuidhinishwa kwa matumizi ya wakulima. Kwa mfano katika mwaka 2009/2010 aina mpya 25 za mbegu za mazao ziliidhinishwa. Mbegu hizo ni pamoja na aina nne za mahindi ambazo zina sifa

za kustahimili ugonjwa wa milia (maize streak, na ukungu (grey leaf spot), zinatoa mavuno kati ya tani 8-10 kwa hekta na kukomaa mapema. Mpunga aina tano kwa ajili ya maeneo yenye mwinuko (upland rice) ambazo zinatoa mavuno kati ya tani 3-4 kwa hekta na kukomaa mapema. Karanga aina tano na ufuta aina moja. Mbegu hizo zinatoa mavuno ya wastani wa tani 1.0 – 1.5 kwa hekta na kiwango cha mafuta zaidi ya asilimia 51 ukilinganisha na mbegu zilizokuwepo. Muhogo aina 8 za mbegu mpya ambazo zinastahimili magonjwa ya batobato kali (cassava masaic disease) na michirizi ya kahawia (cassava brown streak). Aina hizo mpya za muhogo zinatoa mavuno kati ya tani 17-23 kwa hekta. Miwa aina mbili za mbegu bora zenye uwezo wa kutoa mavuno kati ya tani 80 hadi 120 kwa hekta na zinaukinzani dhidi ya ugonjwa wa “smut”. UZALISHAJI MBEGU BORA Jumla ya tani 48.2 za mbegu mama (Breeders Seeds) na tani 38.9 za mbegu ya msingi (foundation seeds) za mazao ya chakula na biashara zilizalishwa na Wakala wa Mbegu za Kilimo (Agricultural Seed Agency – ASA). UPATIKANAJI PEMBEJEO (MBOLEA NA MBEGU BORA) UMEONGEZEKA Katika mwaka wa 2009/2010, upatianaji wa pembejeo za kilimo hususan mbolea na mbegu bora umeongezeka; Jumla ya tani 302,000 ya mbolea zilipatikana, ikiwa ni asilimia 79 ya mahitaji mbayo ni tani 385,000. • Jumla ya tani 150,000 za mbolea zilitolewa kwa ruzuku na kuwafikia wakulima 1,500,000 mwaka 2009/2010 ikilinganishwa na wakulima 735,000 mwaka 2008/2009. • Upatikanaji wa mbegu bora ulifikia tani 16,148 sawa na asilimia 53.7 ya mahitaji ya tani 30,000. • Jumla ya tani 6,894.3 ya mbegu bora zimezalishwa hapa nchini.

• Katika utaratibu wa ruzuku jumla ya tani 15,150 ya mbegu za mpunga na mahindi, mbegu tani 290 za matama, na tani 85.4 za alizeti zilitolewa kwa ruzuku na kuwafikia wakulima 121,011. • Uzalishaji mbegu bora katika mashamba ya ASA ulikuwa tani 918 za za mbegu za nafaka, mikunde na mafuta. UZALISHAJI MICHE BORA UMEONGEZEKA Kumekuwa na ongezeko kubwa la uzalishaji wa miche bora ya maembe, chai na kahawa ambayo imesambazwa kwa wakulima kwa utaratibu wa ruzuku; kwa mfano mwaka 2009/2010 uzalishaji ulikuwa kama ifuatavyo: • Miche bora ya maembe 200,000 ilizalishwa na ASA katika bustani ya Mpiji. • Miche bora ya chai 11,500,000 ilizalishwa na Wakala wa Wakulima Wadogo wa Chai (Tanzania Smallholder Tea Growers Agency – TSHTGA) kwa utaratibu wa ruzuku. • Miche bora ya kahawa 10,400,000 ilizalishwa mwaka 2009/2010 kwa utaratibu wa ruzuku na Taasisi ya Utafiti wa Kahawa – Tanzania Coffee Research Institute – TaCRI; na kusambazwa kwa wakulima. MADAWA YA PAMBA NA KOROSHO Serikali imeweka utaratibu wa ruzuku kwenye madawa ya kuuliwa wadudu kwenye mazao ya pamba na korosho; kwa mfano katika mwaka wa 2009/2010 kiwango cha ruzuku kwenye madawa ulikuwa kama ifuatavyo:• Jumla ya tani 148 na lita 153,395 za madawa ya kororhso zilisambazwa kwa wakulima kwa utaratibu wa ruzuku. • Jumla ya madawa na mbegu za pamba tani 15,375 zilitolewa kwa utaratibu wa ruzuku na kuwanufaisha wakulima 576,710 katika msimu wa mwaka 2009/2010. UTEKELEZAJI WA CAADP KUPITIA ASDP Utekelezaji wa ASDP umeendelea kupata msukumo kufuatia hatua ya hivi karibuni ya Tanzania kuwa miongoni mwa nchi 11

barani Afrika zilizoridhia mkataba wa Programu Kabambe ya Kuendeleza Kilimo barani Afrika yaani Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme – CAADP. Utiaji saini wa Mkataba huo ulifanyika jijini Dar es Salaam tarehe 8 Julai 2010. Kupitia CAADP rasilimali zaidi zitapatikana kwa lengo la kutekeleza na kufikia malengo ya ASDP na hivyo kutimiza azma ya KILIMO KWANZA. SEKTA BINAFSI INAHAMASIKA KUWEKEZA KATIKA KILIMO Kwa sehemu kubwa Kaulimbiu ya KILIMO KWANZA imesaidia sana kuhamasisha sekta binafsi kushiriki kikamilifu na kuongeza uwekezaji katika Kilimo. Kwa msukumo huo ni dhahiri kuwa lengo la pili la ASDP linahusu uwekaji wa mazingira mazuri kuwezesha sekta binafsi kuongeza uwekezaji katika Kilimo litatekelezwa kwa haraka zaidi. MWISHO Bila shaka umefuatilia na kuelimika vya kutosha kuhusu utekelezaji wa Kaulimbiu ya KILIMO KWANZA kupitia programu ya Kuendeleza Sekta ya Kilimo yaani ASDP kwa kushirikiana na progrmu zingine za Serikali. Cha kuzingatia hapa ni kuwa kaulimbiu ya KILIMO KWANZA inatoa mwelekeo kwa sekta zote kuweka mipango itakayosaidia kilimo kukua kwa haraka. Moja ya hatua zinazochukuliwa na serikali ni kwa kutekeleza ASDP na kuongeza rasilimali kupitia CAADP. Aidha, mikopo katika kilimo inatarajia kuongezeka kupitia Benki ya Rasilimali na kwa kuanzisha Benki ya Kilimo. Haya yote yanalenga kuboresha mazingira ya uwekezaji na ushiriki mkubwa wa sekta binafsi katika kilimo.

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Utekelezaji wa KILIMO KWANZA kupitia ASDP

Hii ni kutokana na ukweli kwamba, kilimo bado ni muhimili katika uchumi wa nchi yetu na pia katika kuondoa umaskini. Hivyo, sharti kipatiwe msukumo unaostahili ili kiweze kukua kwa kasi na kuwezesha kutimizwa kwa dhamira ya kuleta mapinduzi ya kijani hapa nchini.


The Guardian KILIMO KWANZA

8

IRRIGATION

Irrigation enhances sugar cane farming at Kagera Sugar Factory

By Bhoke Msama NVESTMENT in state-of-the-art centre pivot irrigation systems has enabled the Kagera Sugar company to produce more sugar and of a higher quality. The centre pivot irrigation system that covers all plantations has enabled the factory to increase total yield per hectare from 50 T/Ha to an average of 102 T/ Ha. The harvesting of cane has also increased from an initial 200,000 tonnes in the 2004/2005 season to 435,000 tonnes by 2008/2009. The factory now produces over 50,000 tonnes of sugar per year. Production has doubled by over 40,000 tons in the 2008/2009 season when compared to the year 2004/2005. Total cultivated area under cane has also increased from 5000 hectares in 2004 to 9000 hectares by 2008/2009. Acreage is expected to reach 12,500 hectares by 2014. According to current figures, out of the estimated 10million hectares under sugar cultivation, less than 2 million hectares are under irrigation of one form. By taking advantage of its proximity to the Kagera River and investing in irrigation, the factory is avoiding sugar cultivation that is dependent on rainfall. Located around Lake Victoria, Kagera is part of Tanzania which characterized by fertile land and receives rainfall throughout the year, thus making it favorable land for agriculture. However sugarcane cultivation is seasonal, forcing the factory to find new ways of cultivation to meet local and export demands. Learning from the drought of 2005 that severely affected the agricultural sector in the country, Kagera Sugar underwent a massive rehabilitation program. This included significant additional investments to rehabilitate the factory by increasing area under cultivation, and installation of state of art centre pivot irrigation equipment covering hectares of land. During the Kagera war between Tanzania and Uganda 31 years ago, the

The irrigation pump station at its completion stage

factory was bombed and totally destroyed. Coupled with insufficient production of only 8000 tonnes per year, poor technology and a general failure to meet basic sugar quality standards, it led to the natural collapse of the factory. In 1995 the government through its policy of privatization privatized the then run down and loss making factory. After a stiff bidding war by investors, the government’s final decision to award the running of the company to local investors in 2001

was based on the fine track record and performance of the company. Kagera sugar is located in a strategic geographical location in the North West of Tanzania with ease of access to three East African countries of Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. All are net importers of Kagera sugar. Recently the factory received an award of recognition by EAC countries as one of the main suppliers of sugar in the East Africa market. Other export markets now

targeted are Congo DRC and Southern Sudan. The increase in EAC member states and benefits of the EAC common market are expected to give Kagera Sugar a strategic entry advantage within the region. Presently the company exports up to 25% of its produce and sells the remainder within the country. Domestic demand is estimated at 420,000 metric tonnes per annum, mostly within the Lake Zone which is Tanzania’s largest market segment.

Utilizing by-products of sugar production, the factory also produces 3.4 mega watts of electricity for factory use, sharing it with the immediate community around the factory. Although what is produced by the factory does not fully cover existing needs, it has reduced dependency on national grid electricity. The company also has a permanent staff force of 2000 workers with a further 2000 unskilled labour utilized at cultivation and harvest time. This generates income

within the community. During cultivation the company builds camps to accommodate the unskilled labour. The company also contributes to social responsibility by building health centers and providing expertise and medicine, building schools, roads and investing in residential housing. The biggest challenge faced by the company is failure by local producers to meet domestic market demands. This gives the government authority to import sugar resulting in price fluctuations. For example in 2009/2010 over USD 60million was spent on sugar importation to offset the local production deficits. Other challenges include rehabilitating factory capacity and expanding the total area under plantation. Building new capacity and equipment on limited budgets also pose a big challenge. Furthermore the expectation of increased plantation area under irrigation means that cane output will soon exceed the factory’s crushing capacity. The company now desires to de-bottleneck the factory by investing in equipment that will increase cane crushing capacity to 200TCH or 1million tons of cane annually. There are also plans to employ more skilled professionals, to modernize the irrigation system and to build a bigger power generation station. However one of the main constraints of industrial development in Tanzania is the shortage of financial resources and trained personnel. Large investors require sound financial services to maximize production and profits. The company therefore calls on the government to increase support and subsidies on agriculture inputs. A need to increase higher education institutions with the aim of increasing available expertise in the agriculture sector also exists. Kagera Sugar appreciates the government’s focus on agriculture as key economic development sector in Tanzania through Kilimo Kwanza. The company believes that these efforts will increase both individual and national income, and contribute towards improving the quality of life for everyone.

Price for the package Special Oer Nane Nane Week, one set: Tsh 5,000,000/= 5 Sets or More Tsh 4,750,000/=

Extras Irrigation Pump, Rain gun and suction and Delivery Pipes Tsh 850,000/= Reaper for harvesting paddy Tsh 860,000/=

T RAC TO R S LI M I T E D A G RI TA N  P.O. Box 212, Mazimbu Road (Former Heavy Plant Yard), Morogoro, Tanzania. Tel: Mr mwapili: +255-784-421606, Mr Nsekela: +255-786-150213, Fax: +255-27-6246882 Email: jlane@pptl.biz, Mwapili@pptl.biz, mohamed_nsekela@yahoo.com Website: www.pptl.biz/tractorsltd

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Tuesday 3 August, 2010


Kilimo Kwanza-Issue 18  

This week in Kilimo Kwanza, Jaston Binala and Hilda Msemo wrote a cover story on the land bank in Tanzania that is ready to begin operating....

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