Miller Lite Plans Book Professor Bonnie B. Reece Fall 2009
Angel Chiohh Tabia Chui Claire Harold Kimberly Lennex Gabby Park Stephanie Ting
Whatâ€™s your confidence factor?
Table of Contents Page 4
Situation Analysis Company, consumer insight, product, market, competition, demand, distribution channel, product life cycle, skills & resources, environmental climate.
Problems and Opportunities
Marketing and Communication Objectives Target profile, intended effects, time frame.
Budget Advertising, sales promotions, other marketing communications.
Other Marketing Communications
Situation Analysis Introduction
Miller Lite is a brand of light beer that claims to not skimp on great taste because
of its low-calorie and low-carbohydrate. It is slightly more healthy than darker, heavier beers, and has a smooth, simple flavor due to its “Triple Hops Brewing” process, as well as a handful of packaging innovations that are theoretically taste-preserving. However, the caliber of its taste is not nearly as high as its positioning would suggest, and instead of it being perceived as a great light beer overall, it is said to remind consumers of lowclass reality television stars like Poison’s front man Bret Michaels (Appendix IV). Though it takes great taste to have a great beer, consumers do not believe that Miller Lite has that, especially in comparison with tastier competitors Bud Light and Coors Light. Since changing the product is beyond the scope of our efforts, we plan to market Miller Lite’s other attributes to compensate. If Miller Lite is repositioned, the brand will have the opportunity to flourish. Sales Trends
Between 2003 and 2008 domestic beer sales grew 26%, while imports grew 63%.
Although the taste of imported beer is gaining popularity among beer drinkers, 42% of Americans reported to still prefer domestic beer, even in light of these statistics (Mintel). Between 2003 and 2008 there was an 11% volume increase in the sale of light beer, primarily between the three market leaders: Bud Light, Coors Light, and Miller Lite. Miller Lite began suffering market share loss to Coors Light in 2005 when the Coors Light brand was positioned as the “World’s Most Refreshing Beer,” rendering temperature and taste as important factors in selling light beer. Coors Light even developed packaging that changes color when it’s cold, thus creating consistency between their physical product and what they believe is important for great tasting light beer.
Light beer consumption by state from 2001-2008 revealed that many Midwestern
states consumed the largest quantities per gallon case, and the numbers increased significantly over the 7-year period (Beer Handbook 2009, 62). Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio were the top three, with consumption increasing by an average of approximately 21%. Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio all also had the largest consumption per 31-gallon barrel, with numbers increasing by an average of approximately 14% (Beer Handbook 2009, 63). By 2008, the CDI of light beer reached well over 100 in most of the Midwest, and the top three major metropolitan areas to consume light beer from 2007-2008 were Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, and Detroit, MI. 4
From 2003-2007, the top three leading light beer brands—Bud Light, Coors Light,
and Miller Lite—saw fairly steady sales increases (per 2.25-gallon cases, and per 31-gallon barrels). In 2006, Miller Lite’s sales grew even despite the competitive pricing of Bud Light (St. Louis Business Journal). However, shortly thereafter, Miller Lite began to see a slight sales drop. Between 2007 and 2008, Bud Light, Coors Light, and Miller Lite saw sales fluctuate by 0.2%, 3%, and -3.4%, respectively. In 2007, Miller Brewing controlled 20% of total beer volume sold, which was the last time sales increase before they began to dwindle more steadily. Increases in aluminum costs and increased competition from imported beer companies—with more emphasis on the latter—contributed to a 17% drop in Miller Lite sales in 2007. Miller Lite’s drinkers began shifting to imported and craft beers much more heavily than did drinkers of Bud Light and Coors Light, so naturally, Miller took quite a serious hit (Associated Press).
In June of 2008, Miller Brewing and Molson Coors merged to form MillerCoors,
keeping Miller Lite and Coors Light competing brands. Miller Lite still watched sales trickle downward—a 1.6% drop pre-merger in the first quarter, and a 7.5% drop post-merger, between October and December of that year—and saw a 1% offset due to increases in Coors Light volume sales (The Business Journal of Milwaukee, 2008 & 2009). Although the merger caused Miller-Coors to hold a strong 30% share of the US beer market, sales of Miller Lite continue to fall today (1.3% sales decline in the third quarter of 2009) (Sterrett). However, all hope is not lost for the Miller Lite brand; though it is the one brand that “has been a major drag on [the Miller Coors brewery] performance” according to MillerCoors CMO Andy England, Miller Lite’s “base velocity”—a measure that omits discounted packages and only tracks how full-priced sales are doing—indicates that sales are starting to improve (Mullman 2009). Also, consumers’ interest in craft and imported beers has declined, offering a glimmer of home for domestic beers like Miller Lite (Kesmodel). Consumer Description
Miller Lite, like Bud Light and Coors Light, currently targets white male sports fans
between the ages of about 21 to 34, and has been since the brand’s rise to fame. This demographic presumably uses the brand on a fairly regular basis (a few times a week, typically while watching sporting events in their homes or at a tailgate), and drinks beer for leisure, not to become intoxicated. Miller Lite drinkers enjoy the beer because its taste is smooth, however the smoothness is often attributed to its flavor being bland and uninteresting. Those who do drink Miller Lite over Bud Light and Coors Light typically report that they would not buy the brand themselves, but if it were offered to them at a social event, they would drink it because of its availability.
Miller’s current ad campaigns evoke a very high-caliber light beer with amazing
taste, showing the final buzzer of a sporting event as the beer is being poured. The brand’s 5
past campaigns were similar in style, often including their ever-popular “Great Taste… Less Filling!” tagline, which was ranked by Advertising Age as the 8th-best advertising campaign in history (Wikipedia). Imagery used in Miller Lite advertisements in the mid1990s—when the brand started competing more heavily due to its loss of market share to Bud Light—used humor tactics in order to combat Bud’s often highly comical ad campaigns. They included comedic saloon fights, fictitious extreme sports (“Weiner Dog Drag Racing”, “Sumo High Dive”), and used the tagline, “If you can combine great taste with less filling, you can combine anything” (Wikipedia). By 1996 they had established a “Life is Good” campaign, where people having fun instantly began having more fun when they started drinking Miller Lite. In the new millennium, the brand began using the celebrity endorsement tactic, including such personalities as Jerome Bettis, Burt Reynolds, and Eddie Griffin in their series of “Man Laws” ads. There was, and still is, a very clear, wellestablished image of masculinity in Miller Lite’s ads, and though their current ad campaign style has shifted away from the humorous angle, their target audience—and primary consumer base—remains the same.
Miller Lite’s future campaign efforts will revert back to the more humorous approach
with which they found success in the past, are said to be eHarmony-style ads that show people confessing their love for Miller Lite (Mullman 2009). Test ads have already been run which have drawn a much more positive response than the current sports-centered Miller Lite advertisements. However, it is still questionable whether the ultimate focus really should be on great taste, especially when there are better-tasting light and microbrew domestic beers out there—for around the same price—than Miller Lite.
In terms of consumer statistics, Miller Lite maintains a 30% share of the light beer
market as a whole, with 31% male light beer drinkers and 30% female light beer drinkers. Forty percent of Miller Lite drinkers are between the ages of 21 and 24, and 33% are between the ages of 25 and 34. Twenty-four percent earn less than $25,000 annually, but most Miller Lite drinkers are more affluent, falling in an annual income bracket of approximately $50,000 - $99,000 (31% earning between $50,000 and $74,000, and 34% earning between $75,000 and $99,000) (Mintel). Competition
“Light beer continues to be the strongest performer in the beer industry” (Beer
Handbook 2009, 60). Not only does light beer dominate over half of the domestic beer sales in America, but also its market share jumped from 40.6% to 51.8% between 1998 and 2008. However, competition between the three market forerunners Bud Light, Miller Lite, and Coors Light has been rigorously developing since the mid-1990s, when Bud Light officially overtook Miller Lite and Coors Light as the best-selling Light beer. Today, 6
the Bud Light brand accounts for 37.5% of the light beer category, and remains the most advertised beer brand in America (Beer Handbook 2009, 60). Miller Lite remains behind Bud Light, growing at a significantly slower rate (13.1% since 1998 compared to Bud Light’s 61.8% growth), and it even lags behind Coors Light, who has grown 28% since 1998 (Beer Handbook 2009, 60). It is estimated that the light beer category as a whole will grow 2% by 2014. Bud Light: Budweiser Light was introduced in 1982, and focused on the heritage of Budweiser and its advantages over Miller Lite. The ad campaign featured a Clydesdale horse and used the tagline, “Bring out your best”. For the first three years, Budweiser Light outsold Miller Lite, and in 1984 when Budweiser Light changed its name to Bud Light, they began to forge ahead even more. In 1987 Bud Light split its ad campaigns to target two consumer groups: general consumers and those under 25 years old who were considered heavy users of beer. The campaign targeted toward the latter audience featured Spuds MacKenzie, the notorious party animal who attracted beautiful women. Today, Bud Light outshines Coors Light and Miller Lite drastically, rendering Coors Light Miller Lite’s primary direct rival worth competing against (Beer Handbook 2009).
Anheuser-Busch maintains an average of 17% more total market drinkers. In the
last year, Anheuser-Busch has used a personalized touch to their marketing, using beer cans that coordinate with universities around the United States. This has resulted in an extremely controversial battle between some universities and Anheuser-Busch because it is believed to encourage underage and binge drinking. Though we plan to target collegeaged women in our campaign for Miller Lite, we plan to exercise caution in doing so, so that the Miller Lite brand equity is not damaged in this way. Coors Light: Coors Light was the fastest growing light beer in 2008, surpassing Miller Lite albeit by significantly less than Bud Light. Their revenue increased by 3.6% in that year, and Coors Light maintains 31% of the total light beer drinkers today (Mintel). Their marketing campaigns often showcase extreme outdoor winter sports, such as snowboarding and skiing; their goal is to illustrate Coors Light as a beer that is cool and refreshing, contrary to Bud Light and Miller Lite which both focus on great taste. Coors Light has had innovative packaging designs within the last couple of years, which includes the recently introduced temperature-sensitive cans that change color when cold enough to drink. This found significantly more success than did Miller Lite’s Taste Protector Cap, for it was actually something people could see working. Though we plan to introduce a new packaging advantage in our campaign, it will not diminish Miller Lite’s perceived quality further. 7
Secondary competitors: Mainstream brands such as MGD (Miller Genuine Draft) 64, Keystone Light, Budweiser Select, Select 55, Natural Light, Busch Light, Corona Light and Michelob Ultra are also Miller Lite’s competitors in the light beer category, as well as less mainstream brands such as Rolling Rock, Sam Adams Light, Heineken Light, and Sapporo Light.
From evaluating our competition, we can conclude that the benefits of using Miller
Lite are the same as those of Bud Light and Coors Light (a less filling, low-calorie beer), but that Bud Light and Coors Light are positioning their brands much better than Miller Lite. Bud Light’s ads are enjoyable and humorous, and show off the beer’s “drinkability”, which matches up pretty well with how customers perceive the brand. Coors Light’s ads focus on athleticism and portray the beer as what customers perceive it to be: cool and refreshing. Miller Lite, though unique in that its brewing process is slightly more sophisticated, advertises great taste and fails to deliver. Contrary to what Miller Lite CMO Andy England believes, the Miller Lite brand is in need of repositioning. Product Life Cycle
Since its birth in 1973, Miller Lite has branded itself as a great-tasting beer for less—
less calories, carbohydrates, and money—and the brand found success with this approach throughout most of the Introduction and Growth stages of its life cycle. However, today, Miller Lite is well into the Maturity stage, having seen sales fluctuate and ultimately steadily decline since Anheuser-Busch firmly established itself as the market leader in the early 1990s. The Miller Lite brand has since abandoned focusing on the healthful approach to advertising (less carbohydrates and calories), for that is believed to be the angle of the MGD 64 brand, and has for over a decade focused solely on great taste. The brand seems to realize that it has reached full maturity in the light beer market, however they firmly believe that repositioning is not the answer; their answer is to come up with innovative ways to grow the brand while still focusing on great taste, for they believe that that is what light-beer-drinkers value most (Mullman 2009). In our research, however, we found that the perceived quality of Miller Lite’s taste does not match up with the great taste portrayed in the ad campaigns; we feel that repositioning Miller Lite as simply a beer with a tough image will get it out of the slump that plagues the Maturity stage. Channel of Distribution
Miller Lite, Bud Light, and Coors Light are widely available, and thus have an
intensive level of distribution. Because they are mass-produced and are the top three market leaders in the US domestic beer market, they can be purchased countrywide 8
at big box retailers (e.g. Wal-Mart or Meijer), convenience stores (e.g. Walgreens, CVS, or Rite-Aid), and specialty liquor/beer & wine outlets (e.g. Ann Arbor’s Beer Depot or Strickland’s). One of the biggest factors affecting distribution of beer would be a stateor county-wide law that prohibits beer sales in certain outlets. For example, dry counties prohibit the sale of beer or any other alcoholic beverages in major grocery stores, and they can only be sold in specialty beer/liquor/wine stores. Finally, and most obviously, while the brands are widely available, only consumers above the age of 21 can purchase them. Skills and resources
Miller Lite’s superior technological skills range from brewing innovations to
packaging ideas. In recent ad campaigns, the beer is portrayed as superior to other beers due to the Triple Hops Brewing process that only Miller Lite uses. This process requires adding hops at three different times in the brewing process, so that the pilsner taste of Miller Lite is strong and balanced. The perceived quality of this process is that it is not as superior as Miller Lite depicts it in their advertisements, but it is still a differentiating quality that Miller Lite possesses in comparison to other brands (namely Bud Light and Coors Light).
Miller Lite’s bottle packaging was altered earlier this year to further distinguish
the brand from its competition, which included a “Taste-Protector Cap” that is meant to do just what it implies (Mullman 2009). They are also planning to introduce a “Taste Activating Bottle” in the near future, which has a “grooved neck that’s intended to aerate the beer as it’s poured, which, in theory, unlocks its aromas and flavors” (Mullman 2009). The question of whether consumers will perceive these innovations as beneficial and of whether the move is strong enough to persuade non-Miller Lite-drinkers to purchase Miller Lite is another story.
Miller Lite’s resources include revenue from all parent company brands whose
parent company is MillerCoors. However, the brand itself is the least successful in all the MillerCoors brands, so it still must be able to sustain itself even if its parent company is flourishing (Mullman 2009). In terms of advertising/public relations resources, Miller Lite spent $100 million on its most recent campaign, and thus still has ample means to save its brand via these two gateways, despite its declining sales (Mullman 2009). Miller Lite CMO Andy England claims that the brand has the marketing knowledge it needs to succeed, which will hopefully be illustrated by their upcoming eHarmony-style ad campaign (Mullman 2009). Environmental Trends Social Trends: Miller Lite is currently trying to make their brand more environmentally 9
friendly by making 100% recyclable 12- and 16-ounce bottles with wide openings and re-sealable closures. The brand has also begun selling 9-packs instead of 6-packs, thus saving money on cardboard packaging and offering consumers a greater value. Economic Trends: The poor state of the economy has recently increased innovation in packaging to attract more impulse buyers (OneSource), and has also propelled sales for low-cost light beers (Kesmodel). The increase in sales is due more to brand switching rather than current consumers buying more, and even though Miller Lite’s sales are still down, price reductions or coupons could be a great way for Miller Lite to use the poor economy as an advantage and push forward. Regulatory Issues: Regulations by which Miller Lite must abide include not marketing to people under the age of 21. All Miller Lite advertisements must include the statement, “Please drink responsibly,” as well as the following Surgeon General’s warning: “GOVERNMENT WARNING: (1) According to the Surgeon general, women should not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects. (2) Consumption of alcoholic beverages impairs your ability to drive a car or operate machinery, and may cause health problems.” Promoting safe drinking habits is necessary for Miller Lite—or any beer manufacturer—to maintain a respectable reputation.
According to data gathered from 2007-2008 Mintel reports on beer-drinking habits,
28% of people who drink beer consume light beer. Miller Lite has a 30% share of the light beer market overall, 31% being male Miller Lite drinkers and 30% being female. Mintel also shows that 25% of the people aged 21-24 who drink beer consume light beer. Of the entire beer drinking population, households earning more than $25,000 annually purchase the greatest quantity of light beer; those who reside in the Midwest region of the United States are among those who purchase the highest amount of light beer (Figure 100— asking “Do you drink?” in the context of the category of beer). Most Miller Lite drinkers are from households earning $60,000 or more (Figure 100).
The typical consumers of light beer are males from the ages of 21-34 years old and
who come from the Midwest Region of the United States (Mintel). As such, Miller Lite is currently branded toward male sports fans between the ages of about 21 to 34 (though this target demographic is different than that of our intended campaign). Figure 100: “Do you drink?”
Though the usual Miller Lite consumer is seen to be male, women, in fact, drink light
domestic beer more often than men; 60% of women drink light beer all or most of the time. Females tend to prefer light flavored, low calorie, and exotic flavored beer. People 11
ages 21-24 choose light beer more often than not because they are more weight and health-conscious, as a result of more active and social lives (Figure 101).
Drinkers of beer have shown that taste is the most important attribute of beer,
followed by price and calorie content of the beer (Figure 101). Figure 101: â€œWhen thinking about the attributes of your favorite beer, which of the following are more important to you?â€?
In order to compose a more detailed analysis of the light beer and/or Miller Lite
drinker, we conducted an online survey, inviting several people to participate through the use of Facebook and University of Michigan group e-mail lists. An online survey was chosen because it is the fastest and most inexpensive avenue to obtaining information from a large mass of people. From our survey (which had 90 total participants), research indicates that 31.8% of the 84.4% of people who drink light beer drink it at least once a week (Figure 102). Miller Lite holds only 20.6% of the light beer consumption by those who had answered the survey, with Bud Light as the winner (Figure 103). Taste is most important to drinkers of light beer, followed by social norms, price, then calorie content (Figure 104). See Appendices V & VI.
Figure 102: “Drinking light beer” Base: 90 people who have consumed light beer in the past.
Figure 103: Light beer brand consumption. Base: 90 adults with access to the internet who have consumed light beer in the past.
Figure 104: Important aspects of light beer. Base: 90 adults with access to the internet who have consumed light beer in the past.
To further collect information on consumers’ thoughts and attitudes toward Miller
Lite, our group also conducted a focus group. A focus group was chosen because it is
an inexpensive and efficient method of gathering large amounts of data. Participants (all women ages 21 to 24 years old) were acquaintances of group members and were invited via e-mail to participate in a focus group that would take place in the home of one member and which would concern the topic of beer (Appendix II). With a total of 10 women participants, our group gathered much data about their views on beer, light beer, and in particular, Miller Lite. (We required all of our participants to sign a waiver indicating that they were of age to contribute to research on an alcoholic beverage, see Appendix III.)
Some of the interesting notes were that these women also viewed Miller Lite as a
beer of convenience, mostly consuming the drink when it was offered and/or available at social gatherings; they did not seek out the purchase of this specific beer on their own. At stores, when considering purchases, they also stated that price was the most important factor, followed by taste. Contrary to Miller Lite’s current emphasis on its “Triple Hops Brewed” taste, these women seemed to not think highly of the company’s claims to the beer’s great flavor. However, they did mention that light beer was indeed lighter than its regular counterparts (regular beer as opposed to light beer), where they could “drink more without feeling as heavy”.
When asked to associate Miller Lite with a variety of different subjects, some
interesting answers came about. When asked, “If light beer were a celebrity, who would it be?”, responses were: Jessica Simpson, Hilary Duff, Paris Hilton, and Lindsay Lohan. All of these celebrities can be seen as B-list celebrities, and as relatively talentless women who are only famous for their attractive looks. In a similar vein, in response to the question, “If Miller Lite were a TV show, which show would it be?”, some of the answers were Scrubs, Rock of Love, My Boys, The Hills, It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia, and Keeping up with the Kardashians. All of these shows are lewd reality television shows or sitcoms about dysfunctional families, and are not considered to be of the highest quality. These free association prompts indicate that, to women in the target audience of females 21 to 24 years of age, Miller Lite is viewed to be a “light, low-quality, second-rate” beer, providing insight into Miller Lite’s position in the minds of young female consumers.
Problems and Opportunities
Miller Lite beer faces a variety of different problems as well as opportunities in the light beer market. According to our focus group research, consumers appear to be concerned with the mediocre quality of Miller Lite, despite its overestimation of its brand. In 2008, Miller Lite based its advertising around the firm belief that the light beer would win the World Lite Beer championship. However, in actuality, Miller Lite beer did not win the award, which may have given consumers a negative impression of Miller Lite’s unsupported lack of modesty (Mullman 2008). The loss of the World Lite Beer Cup not only gives consumers the impression that Miller Lite beer is not as high quality as the company claims, but also that Miller Lite may have been less than truthful regarding other facts about the beer product. This appeared to further tarnish Miller Lite’s reputation among consumers.
Our focus group research also revealed that many light beer consumers’ dislike the
actual taste of the beer despite Miller Lite advertising on the superiority of its taste (“Great taste, less filling“). However, focus group members found the beer to be “watery” and tasteless (see Appendix IV). This would present a problem in the beer’s ingredients and/or the brewing method of the beer.
Despite the rather negative response to Miller Lite’s taste, there is an opportunity in
the favorable response to the calorie count of Miller Lite among the focus group members. Some focus group participants commented positively about the fact that drinking Miller Lite did not make them feel as if they had just consumed a “loaf of bread” (see Appendix IV).
Another setback regarding Miller Lite beer is its price. Despite a seemingly
general consensus of the low quality taste of the beer, a twelve-pack of Miller Lite beer costs $21.89--ten cents more than Bud Light, and the same price as Coors Light at supermarkets. During the focus group, there was also no favored majority for a particular beer. With this price competition and lack of market superiority, Miller Lite is faced also with the problem of a high price for a mediocre product.
One final opportunity would be Miller Lite’s established market share. Since Miller
Lite is not a new brand, many consumers are already familiar with the product and consume it to some extent. Thus, market entry and brand awareness will not be a problem for Miller Lite, allowing the brand to focus on expanding its consumer base and encourage brand loyalty through repurchase.
Currently, Miller Lite targets an audience of males in their early 20’s who have an
interest in sports (Mintel). Their ad campaigns emphasize Miller Lite as a very high-caliber light beer with amazing taste.
Contrary to the current target audience, our group aims to promote the product to
women, aged 21-24 years. In order to gather research and knowledge about the product’s position in the minds of this certain set of consumers, we conducted one focus group and one survey. As previously mentioned, a focus group is efficient and inexpensive, able to provide deeper insights into consumers’ thought about a product. Participants were asked to respond to an email inviting them to come and share their insights about beer. With a total attendance of 10 women, ages 21 to 24, we were able to ask them many questions regarding their views and opinions on light beer and Miller Lite (Appendix IV). A survey was chosen as an alternate route to obtaining information on consumers’ opinions and habits concerning light beer because of its inexpensive and efficient aspects of attaining much data (survey questions found in Appendix V).
From our focus group, we gathered that Miller Lite is not high in women’s minds as
a high quality, highly desired, great tasting beer. It is seen, rather, as a “Why not?” kind of beer, where many women drink it most usually in instances where the price is cheaper than competitors or in situations where it is freely and conveniently offered. Our participants also view the brand as obviously targeting males with its past and current advertising campaigns. They indicated that they would be more willing to buy the product if it were advertised in a way that targeted a female audience, but not a stereotypical female audience of classic model body types with luscious hair; they would prefer the projected image of a self-assured, beautiful “yet not devastatingly gorgeous”, down-to-earth woman as the drinker of Miller Lite beer.
We conclude that the overall image of Miller Lite in the minds of our target audience
(females, 21-24 years of age) is one of a beer that lacks in substance and is of lower quality than other beers, and one that specifically targets males in its advertising campaigns. When asked about their suggestions for a new advertising campaign, participants replied that they would like to see a more gender-neutral campaign, or one more geared toward women. They would enjoy the incorporation of witty humor, as found in programs like It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia or The Office. Humor against males would be considered funny, as well, in light of the fact that current beer advertising campaigns are seen to objectify women in order to appeal to men. However, they stated that they would not like a new Miller Lite campaign to be overly feminized. 16
Our new Miller Lite campaign would position the brand as the light beer for tough,
confident women who are not afraid to grasp the bottle of something normally considered to be masculine. She would choose Miller Lite first, with its high-quality and trendy reputation. Knowing that it is acceptable and even encouraged to be seen drinking our brand, she can subsequently feel even more confident in herself in social circumstances. Our new positioning statement is, “For the self-assured woman, Miller Lite is the beer that gives her that extra boost of confidence. Our new motto is, “What’s your confidence factor?” Both of these emphasize the attribute of Miller Lite as having the ability to provide confidence and being the beer for confident women. (However, it should be made clear that the new Miller Lite campaign is neither intending to sell beer as a source for confidence nor endorsing drunkenness as a means of gaining confidence—merely that Miller Lite, as a well-reputed and socially accepted, is a great confidence booster especially in social settings.)
With this kind of female target in mind, our typical audience member would exhibit
the following geodemographic qualities, as described by the PRIZM Zip Code Database: City Startups
“In City Startups, young, multi-ethnic singles have settled in neighborhoods filled
with cheap apartments and a commercial base of cafés, bars, laundromats, and clubs that cater to twenty-somethings. One of the youngest segments in America--with ten times as many college students as the national average--these neighborhoods feature low incomes and high concentrations of African-Americans” (PRIZM). Income is relatively low ($23,545 median), households typically have no children, and typical residents have completed some level of college. People here like to attend college football games and shop at stores like. Social group: Micro-City Blues; Lifestage group: Striving Singles New Beginnings
“Filled with young, single adults, New Beginnings is a magnet for adults in
transition. Many of its residents are twenty-something singles and couples just starting out on their career paths--or starting over after recent divorces or company transfers. Ethnically diverse--with nearly half its residents Hispanic, Asian, or African-American-New Beginnings households tend to have the modest living standards typical of transient apartment dwellers” (PRIZM). Income is relatively low ($31,196 median), area is generally suburban, and typical residents have completed some level of college. People here like to eat at Church’s Chicken and use the Internet for job searches. 17
Social group: Inner Suburbs; Lifestage group: Striving Singles Bohemian Mix
“A collection of mobile urbanites, Bohemian Mix represents the nation’s most
liberal lifestyles. Its residents are an ethnically diverse, progressive mix of young singles, couples, and families ranging from students to professionals. In their funky rowhouses and apartments, Bohemian Mixers are the early adopters who are quick to check out the latest movie, nightclub, laptop, and microbrew” (PRIZM). Income is relatively high ($54,237 median), area is urban, and typical residents have graduated from college. People here like to eat at Au Bon Pain, read The Economist, and watch soccer. Social group: Urban Uptown; Lifestage group: Young Achievers Young Influentials
“Once known as the home of the nation’s yuppies, Young Influentials reflects the
fading glow of acquisitive yuppiedom. Today, the segment is a common address for younger, middle-class singles and couples who are more preoccupied with balancing work and leisure pursuits. Having recently left college dorms, they now live in apartment complexes surrounded by ball fields, health clubs, and casual-dining restaurants” (PRIZM). Income is relatively average ($48,425 median), area is suburban, most households have kids, and typical residents have graduated from college. People here like to shop at Express, watch Family Guy, drive Mazda 3s, and read Vibe. Social group: Middleburbs; Lifestage group: Young Achievers
Despite this range of segments, the common factors among these groups are the
fact that they are young, liberal, and socially active.
The psychographics of our female target audience portray a female who is from
middle-class suburbia. She either holds or is in the process of obtaining a social science or general studies degree, since she may be unsure of what she wants to pursue post-college. She is a part of a sorority—for the social and philanthropic aspects of it, but mostly the former—and enjoys social activities such as going to parties or hanging out with friends. Furthermore, as a health-conscious social drinker, she does not drink for the purpose of getting intoxicated, and drinks light beer to maintain her slim, slender figure.
Miller Lite will focus on this woman, who is socially involved and socially aware, who
is young, hip, and health-conscious. With its new marketing campaign, Miller Lite will reposition itself from being a low-quality, low-rate, masculine beer to being the beer for the savvy woman looking for that extra boost of confidence. 18
To increase sales by 5% amongst middle-class females aged 21-24 years from the
Midwest region of the United States.
To increase the Category Development Index by 5% in the Midwest region.
To increase repurchase amongst middle-class females aged 21-24 from the Midwest
region of the United States by 5%.
To increase favourable attitudes toward the Miller Lite brand by emphasizing the
increased confidence women who drink Miller Lite will have.
Target Middle class females, ages 21-24 in the Midwest region. The females we are targeting would be university students, junior or seniors, majoring in general studies or liberal arts. They could also be recent graduates in a young, working, urban environment or graduate school students. These females would be very social and outgoing, possibly involved in sororities on campus and philanthropy.
Intended Effects •
Maintain brand loyalty among current users as well as gain brand awareness by 30%
among young females. We want to reinforce positive brand attitude.
Change beliefs that our brand is less desirable because of taste and previous
advertising geared toward men.
Convince female consumers, ages 21-24, that the brand will increase their
confidence and still have substantial taste.
Catch the consumer’s attention with a specifically targeted ad campaign toward
Increase females’ desire for Miller Lite by using celebrity ad placements and
Inspire females to take action when at the bar, drinking Miller Lite as opposed to a
Time Period August 2010 – July 2011, 1 year. The time period is to coincide with the beginning of university academic years and football season and will run through the warm summer months.
Budget As of March 2009, Miller spent $100,000,000 on their current advertising campaign. We will use the same budget. •
35% on television advertising (approximately $35,000,000)
15% on print ads (approximately $15,000,000)
5% Advertising production costs and spokesperson compensation (approximately
15% Sales Promotions (approximately $15,000,000)
Bottle cap manufacturing: $2,725,550
Grocery Store Chains: $12, 274, 450
15% to web activity (approximately $15,000,000)
5% PR and Events (approximately $5,000,000)
9% emergency costs (approximately $10,000,000)
1% campaign evaluation (approximately $1,000,000)
Ads ranging from $59,316 to $339,700 for thirty second slots.
Ads ranging from $128,220 to $222,400 for full page, full color ads.
See Appendices VII, VIII, and IX.
Marketing Strategy Creative Our creative goal is to use a sleek, modern, and confident graphic style to portray a slightly upscale look for Miller Lite, but still show it as an affordable and approachable brand. We want to include a woman who is confident both at work and while socializing, and have Miller Lite be the thing that gives her a “confidence factor” when she’s out with friends.
Objectives and Strategy Our primary objectives are to increase brand preference among our target demographic of females by 6%, increase brand switching by 4%, and encourage repeat purchasing by 5%. We hope that our ads have (70%) positive feedback, and that at least 50% of female consumers will feel more confident by drinking beer as a result of the ads. However, we in no ways wish to portray the confidence as something that comes from becoming intoxicated; it is purely a confidence factor that a woman feels from loving the beer that she casually drinks.
Rationale Our research from Choices 3 and Mintel indicates that females are more likely to drink light beer than are men. Women also prefer it because of the taste; though they claim that it is a bit bland and offers no special flavors, they believe it is what makes it so easy to drink (epinions.com). Datamonitor also says that “[there is] an increase in the number of women beer drinkers in the U.S., accounting for around 30% of beer volumes” and that “[female drinkers] could propel lite and low-carb products forward” (beveragedaily. com). After asking female beer drinkers what they would like to see in an ad campaign targeted towards them, we conclude that they would like to see women portrayed as confident, tough, and secure with themselves and their choice of beverage. Including a celebrity endorsement from Tina Fey, someone who is both well-liked among women and noticeably confident, will make our ads seem more credible. Although Tina Fey is older than our target we believe that she is a confident role model for women in our target as well as plays a character in a TV show that is popular among our target. She is also a different type of woman than is currently in Miller Lite advertising. She is pretty, funny, smart and confident without being overtly sexy or vain. Moving the focus away from taste is a major factor in our decision, for it is time for Miller Lite to stop advertising a feature that their consumers simply do not believe that they have. 22
Ad executions Figures 105 - 108
The magazine advertisements shown will run in the following publications: Cosmopolitan, Vanity Fair, Glamour, Shape, and Vogue. They will be full-page ads, and will cost $222,400, $140,480, $170,080, $160,000, and $128,220, respectively. (See Appendix VIII)
Ad executions Figures 109 - 111
Figure 112: Commercial Storyboard
The storyboard (Figure 112) is a rough outline of how one of our television commercials will look. They will run according to the following schedule during the fall to late spring months: Sunday ABC
Extreme Makeover: Home Edition Desperate Housewives Brothers and Sisters Sunday Night Football
Monday ABC CW
Dancing with the Stars Gossip Girl
Dancing With the Stars
Wednesday ABC Fox
Modern Family Cougar Town Glee
Thursday ABC NBC
Greyâ€™s Anatomy Private Practice Community Parks and Recreation The Office 30 Rock Bones Fringe
Thursdays will be our heaviest advertising day, for it is around this time that our target femaleâ€™s week will be winding down, and she will most likely want to start thinking about planning social activities for the weekend. See Appendix VII. 26
Media Strategy and Tactics ($65,000,000)
Our breakdown for this section will include an assorted mix of media advertisements
through television, the web, and print media. We have chosen these forms of advertising because both television and print media are high in clout factor in terms of trust worthiness, behind friends and family. While advertising on the web isn’t high on the clout factor, we have decided to also advertise through the internet because our target audience is young and most likely tech savvy. We will also offer coupons during the months of January and February as part of our offensive strategy to increase sales during the cold winter weather. Our advertising campaign will include television commercials, websites, magazines, as well as our own campaign website featuring Tina Fey, who will be the spokesperson for Miller Lite. In addition to advertisements centered on Tina Fey we will also produce print and television advertisements featuring our specialty bottle caps. Our objective is to get women to think that Miller Lite is a beverage that helps women become confident, and that confident women drink Miller Lite. We chose Tina Fey, the star of 30 Rock and Saturday Night Live as our celebrity endorser because she embodies who our target audience wants to be: confident, smart, and funny. Time Period (Aug 2010- Jul 2011)
Our strategy is to start using advertisements featuring Tina Fey in August of 2010
to gear up for the television season. We will introduce advertisements with our specialty bottle caps of Tina Fey (refer to page 25 for examples) starting in August as well. Then, in February, we will introduce a new line of specialty bottle caps that feature “bling” (refer to page 24 for examples). The commercials featuring Tina Fey and our specialty bottle caps will run concurrently until April 2011, during which the Tina Fey advertisements will phase out as the television season ends. At this time, we will concentrate solely on the limited edition of our specialty bottle caps with “bling” until the end of our campaign in July 2011. We will employ the continuous timing strategy as we will advertise all year round without any gaps in coverage. The only thing that will change is the focus in our advertisements, from Tina Fey to our specialty bottle caps featuring “bling.” Our rationale for launching the Tina Fey commercials in August is that we want to overlap advertisements with the Fall television season (Sept-Apr), during which people fall back into their daily routines (going back to work or school after the summer vacation season). Furthermore, beer is a staple for football games, a fall sport. Fall is also the time when college students, a large portion of our target audience, return to school. We hope that since college students are more
likely to drink with their peers, our emphasis on advertising in the fall will get students to think about Miller Lite, and to choose Miller Lite as their drink when they go to bars or when they are having parties. We are also providing coupons during the months of January and February for the purchase of canned Miller Lite in an effort to get people to purchase Miller Lite during months of cold winter weather. Furthermore, as our campaign is focusing heavily on increasing the sale of bottled Miller Lite, we do not want to neglect increasing sales of canned Miller Lite as well. TV($35,000,000)
We will run television commercials on ABC, NBC, FOX, and CW during primetime
television. We will scatter the commercials throughout some of the most popular shows with the highest household ratings (Hhr) and household shares (Hhs) such as Sunday Night Football (11.5 Hhr/18Hhs), Dancing with the Stars(12.9Hhr/19Hhs) and more (TVbythe Numbers). Furthermore, we will only consider airing our commercials during new episodes of these shows as they receive more audience.
Our commercials will feature Tina Fey and our specialty bottle caps. Our goal is to
advertise throughout the entire week, but focus more heavily on Thursdays and Sundays because these two days generally have a heavier viewership than others. In order to obtain the maximum reach, we have come up with an extensive list of popular shows to advertise on such as Gossip Girl, Glee, Dancing with the Stars, etc (see Appendix VII for a full list of shows). For the purpose of reaching the effective frequency, we will not advertise on every single episode of these shows. Web ($15,000,000)
In addition to the current Miller Lite website we would like to add a sister site geared
towards women to post our sales promotions and event listings (Figure 113). It would be a place to get feed back from our customers as well as inspire more confidence resources.
We would also like to incorporate other web advertising on websites and blogs such
as PerezHilton.com, a celebrity gossip blog. PerezHilton.com’s audience is 88% female and 71% between the ages of 21 and 34. See Appendix X. We would incorporate a website skin that includes the Miller LIte logo, botle cap promotions, and/or feature Tina Fey (see Figure 114). We would also like to incorporate advertising on social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, because filtering to our target audience is available. We could also set up a “Fan Page” to promote the “What’s your confidence factor?” campaign. We will also advertise oh television network websites (ABC, NBC, etc.) during their online episodes. 28
Figure 113: Sister Website mock-up
Figure 114: PerezHilton.com Advertising Skin
We have chosen magazines such as Glamour, Shape and etc. (refer to page 50,
Appendix VIII for a full list of magazines) that emphasizes women’s confidence level. These magazines dedicate articles to help boost women‘s confidence, whether it is teaching them what to wear, how to choose make-up, how to become more fit, or how to have a more positive attitude, etc. We will run full page print advertisements through these popular women’s magazines throughout the year. These advertisements will feature feature either our specialty bottle caps or a Tina Fey who is confident, smart, and funny as well as our tag line of “What’s your confidence factor?” Figure 115: Media timeline
Sales Promotions Objectives: • To increase sales and repurchasing by 5% among middle-class females aged 21-24 years from the Midwest region of the United States by placing Miller Lite in a more strategic location in chain grocery stores within the period of one year. • To increase sales and repurchasing by 5% among middle-class females aged 21-34 years from the Midwest region of the United States by introducing “buy one get one half off” coupons in chain grocery stores within the period of one year. • To increase the sales of Miller Lite by 5% among middle-class females aged 21-24 years from the Midwest region of the United States with special edition bottle caps within the period of a year. • To increase brand loyalty by 10% among middle-class females aged 21-24 years from the Midwest region with special edition Miller Lite bottle caps within the period of one year. Tactics
Miller Lite will allocate $12,274,450 towards the strategic placement of Miller Lite
Beer in grocery stores. Observations have revealed that Miller Lite is typically placed at the end of aisles in grocery stores throughout the Midwest. This sales promotion will move Miller Lite Beer to a more centralized area at eye-level among the other Lite Beers. The selected stores chains will be contacted by January 2010 for negotiations to be made. Refer to image A for a more specific list of the chain grocery stores, the states we have selected, and the amount that will be allocated to each.
The allocated imbursement will also include a series of “buy one get one half
off” Miller Lite coupons. This coupon will be applicable to packs of canned beer. These coupons will be issued to coincide with the beginning of the college school year and football season from August 20, 2010 until September 20, 2010.
From February 1, 2011 to July 1, 2011 Miller Lite will have limited edition bottles
featuring collectible bottle caps that can be converted into pins and necklace pendants. These bottles will be sold in packs at the same price as other Miller Lite Beers. Miller Lite’s limited edition bottles will be featured in grocery stores, but not in bars/clubs. Some pins will feature Tina Fey, the star of 30 Rock, and a relatable figure who can be seen as a role model for females of our target group. Refer to Figures 105-110 for a visual reference.
Other pins will be black with white writing spelling out Lite or ML (Miller Lite). Refer to figure (105-110) for a visual. All caps will be made so that they can be removed without using a bottle opener (i.e. caps that can be twisted off). Refer to Figures 105-108 and 111 for a visual of all seven bottle cap designs. Each month will feature a new cap design. The raw materials will be purchased, designed, and manufactured for $2,725,550. Thirty percent of the Miller Lite beers distributed to the grocery stores will be from the collectible bottle cap collection to create a scarcity effect. The time period that Miller Lite will host its limited edition bottles coincides with 30 Rock’s season schedule. Rationale
These sales promotions have been formulated to increase the incentive to buy
Miller Lite despite its high price and negative responses towards its taste. Placing Miller Lite in a more centralized location will increase the product display, which will increase convenience and appeal of the brand among its competitors. Better product display will also encourage customers to purchase Miller Lite Beer by adding to the validity of Miller Lite (better selling beers are usually placed up front). The amount designated to each grocery store chain is based on their popularity, and the share of the Midwest customers that they hold.
“Buy one get one half off” coupons will also provide incentives to buy Miller Lite,
specifically countering complaints of its high price. Applying the coupon only to canned beers will also counter the emphasis on bottled beers (i.e. the limited edition bottle caps). The time period that these coupons will be issued coincides with football season. The limited edition bottles will generate excitement and create a price-off incentive among the target audience. Tina Fey was selected as the campaign celebrity figure because of her down to earth appeal, confidence, and witty humor. Her presence on 30 Rock will coincide with the limited edition bottles campaign from February 1, 2011 until April 1, 2011. The ML design can be read either as “ML” or “Me” to reinforce self-confidence to the women who buy the limited edition bottles. This sales promotion will encourage new customers to try the brand by 5%, and will retain 100% of current female customers. However, we expect to lose 4 percent, with a margin of error of two percent, of our male customers.
Other Marketing Communications Public Relations, Direct Marketing, and Events
In this marketing campaign for Miller Lite beer, the brand will use a variety
of different marketing communications. Miller Lite will apply direct marketing communications, develop public relations, and sponsor events.
Miller Lite Beer will make use of many traditional marketing communications, such
as television commercials and magazine advertisements. Television spots will also be featured during the primetime show 30 Rock. Potential consumers viewing the program will see strategic product placement of Miller Lite beer in episodes of 30 Rock. Television advertisements will also feature Miller Lite during the program’s commercial breaks. Many of these television commercials will also be broadcasted during sporting events, such as college and National Football League games.
Miller Lite beer will also have advertising space in various women’s magazines;
specifically Cosmopolitan, Glamour, Shape, Vogue, and Vanity Fair. These will be one-page advertisements that stress Miller Lite’s new image as an empowering, low-calorie, alcoholic beverage for female consumers.
To develop consumer public relations, these one-page advertisements will be placed
strategically next to articles discussing various kinds of beverages in these magazines. These articles will discuss alcohol in many contexts, such as the various benefits of lowcalorie drinks, the different types of alcoholic beverages, as well as beer becoming the new woman’s drink. Therefore the topics of the articles will concern features of Miller Lite’s positioning efforts. Although the articles will not directly reference Miller Lite beer, Miller Lite advertisements will be placed within a page or two of the articles so that potential customers will still be thinking about these articles upon seeing the Miller Lite advertisement.
Miller Lite will also sponsor events, specifically a “Ladies Bar Night”on May 5,
2011 to coincide with the holiday, Cinco de Mayo. This date was chosen to start off the summer season. The bar night will be hosted in two of the most popular bars per Big Ten University town and per the largest city in each state. In total, there will be ten University towns, and these University towns are: East Lansing, Michigan; Ann Arbor, Michigan; Champaign, Illinois; Bloomington, Indiana; Evanston, Illinois; Columbus, Ohio; State College, Pennsylvania; West Lafayette, Indiana. The ten cities will be: Chicago, Illinois; Indianapolis, Indiana; Des Moines, Iowa; Wichita, Kansas; Detroit, Michigan; Kansas City, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; Fargo, North Dakota; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; and Milwaukee, 33
Wisconsin (Minnesota is already included in the eleven large cities due to the location of the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis). These events will offer discounts of 50% off the original price of Miller Lite beer to women who attend the event. This event aims to give women who do not normally drink Miller Lite a chance to sample the product as well as promote the Miller Lite brand in general amongst its target audience.
Evaluation Plan Miller Lite plans to implement and execute a wide variety of evaluative tests to gauge the overall effectiveness of the new campaign. In order to perform these tasks, 1% of the total budget will be used to cover all necessary production and execution costs. Concept Testing Near the beginning of the creative process, we conducted concept testing. Using the data from our focus group and survey conducted in October 2009, we will outline the direction of our marketing campaign. With this information on consumersâ€™ attitudes and opinions, we will be able to form a general idea for effective marketing concepts. Copy Testing We will carry out focus groups for the three separate media channels of our campaign: television, print, web. We will utilize the communication playback test for diagnostic and evaluative purposes, incorporating dummy vehicles to accomplish this task. Television commercials: In the focus group, we will have pilot versions of the suggested Miller Lite commercial featuring Tina Fey (see Figure 112). After the viewing, we will ask the focus group members a variety of questions to measure their reactions to the commercials, retention rates of commercial content, and appealing/unappealing attributes of the commercial (See Appendix XI for the complete list of questions). In addition, we will also ask them to perform a picture sorting, including approximately thirty to forty images both from the commercial and some of which are not even in it. We chose picture sorting in order to observe whether the participants can recognize, as well as recall, the content of the commercials. Print advertisements: Similarly, in this focus group, we will create fake magazines including several different advertisements for various beer brands (in addition to Miller Lite). After having the participants view the magazines and all of the ads, we will ask them several questions regarding their attitudes toward the ad, their abilities to recognize and/or recall, and their overall understanding of Miller Liteâ€™s new positioning message, as well as questions that gauge the effectiveness of our campaign (see Appendix XI). We will also list many different taglines (both from previous Miller Lite campaigns and current ones, in addition to those that have never been in Miller Lite ads) and ask which one is our current motto and which is the most memorable one. 35
Web advertisements: Like in the print advertisement focus group, the web group will utilize the same dummy vehicle method where participants will be shown fake website backgrounds and advertisements. The same response questions used in the print advertisements will be asked in the web advertisement group.
Results from the Copy-testing stage will be used to help assess the potential
effectiveness in the communication of Miller Lite’s new brand position, whose information can be used to make any necessary changes to better the success of our campaign before the final production process. Concurrent and Post-Testing: : For this component of the evaluative process, the concurrent and post-testing stages are combined in a wave survey format. Throughout the duration of the new Miller Lite campaign (“What’s your confidence factor?”), consumers will be encouraged to fill out online surveys (found on our new Miller Lite website) in order to observe the effects of the new campaign. Consumers will have the incentive to complete these surveys in the form of a sweepstakes, whereupon participants will be entered into a drawing for a gift card at any of our associated ten stores (as listed on p. 30 in our Sales Promotions section). The first wave of surveys will take place the last week of October 2010, offering fifty $20 gift cards to these affiliated stores; the second wave will take place during the last week of April 2011 and offers fifty $45 dollar gift cards; lastly, the final wave will take place the final week of August 2011, with fifty $75 gift cards as the prize. These increasing increments in gift card values are thought to provide consumers with continual incentive to participate all throughout the campaign. For the purposes of consistency and response measurability, the same survey will be used for all three waves. Participants will be emailed, Facebooked, or Twittered reminders to take the survey. For the list of questions on the survey, please refer to Appendix XI. Scanner data: In addition to the surveys during the Post-testing process, we will also use scanner data to evaluate the appeal and effect of our limited edition bottles (with our specialty bottle caps). Scanner data will also be able to show the impact of our coupon promotions. With these various evaluative tests, we hope to assess the effectiveness of this year-long endeavor in order to avoid negative or wasteful capital and effort, as well as implement applicable attributes in future Miller Lite marketing campaigns.
Sources Associated Press. “Miller Lite sales flat, profit plummets.” TheStar.com. 17 May 2007. Web. <http://www.thestar.com/Business/article/215083>. Beveragedaily.com. “Miller Lite Outshines Beer Gloom.” May 2005. Web. The Business Journal of Milwaukee. “Miller Lite’s sales decline.” The Business Journal of Milwaukee. The Business Journal Serving Greater Milwaukee. 31 July 2008. Web. <http:// milwaukee.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2008/07/28/daily45.html>. The Business Journal of Milwaukee. “Miller Lite sales drop 7.5 percent.” The Business Journal of Milwaukee. The Business Journal Serving Greater Milwaukee. 15 Jan. 2009. Web. <http://milwaukee.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2009/01/12/daily51.html>. Claritas PRIZM. Nielsen. Web. <http://www.claritas.com/MyBestSegments/Default.jsp>. Domestic Beer - US - November 2008. Rep. Mintel. Web. <http://0-academic.mintel.com. lib.bus.umich.edu/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&&type=RCItem&sort =relevant&access=accessible&archive=hide&source=non_snapshot&list=search_results/ display/id=393546/display/id=393546/display/id=297959>. Epinions.com.web “Fox Edges Closely Packed Field To Top Weekly 18-49 Ratings.” TvbytheNumbers. Web. <tvbythenumbers.com/category/ratings/nielse-network-tv-ratings-battle> Kesmodel, David. “Economy Beers Give Brewers Lift in Downturn.” The Wall Street Journal (2009). Print. “Light Beer.” Beer Handbook 2009 (2009). 2009. Print. “List of supermarket chains in the United States.” Wikipedia. Web. 4 Dec 2009. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_supermarket_chains_in_the_United_States>. “Miller Lite.” Wikipedia. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miller_Lite#Advertising>. Mullman, Jeremy. “Guess Which Lite Beer Didn’t Win the World Beer Cup This Year.” 37
Advertising Age (2008). Advertising Age. 24 Apr. 2008. Web. <http://adage.com/adages/ post?article_id=126637>. Mullman, Jeremy. “Miller Lite Sticks With Taste Despite Sales Fall | Hemmed in by Sibling Brands’ Positionings, Light Beer Stays Ad Course.” Advertising Age. Advertising Age. 19 Oct. 2009. Web. <http://adage.com/article?article_id=139746>. OneSource. OneSource One-Stop Report - MillerCoors LLC. St. Louis Business Journal. “Miller Lite sales grow despite A-B price push.” St. Louis Business Journal. 12 Apr. 2006. Web. <http://stlouis.bizjournals.com/stlouis/ stories/2006/04/10/daily24.html>. Sterrett, David. “MillerCoors tinkers with bottles, debuts new ads to spark Miller Lite sales.” Chicago Business. Chicago Business. Crain’s, 16 Oct. 2009. Web. <http://www. chicagobusiness.com/cgi-bin/news.pl?id=35824>. “TV Ratings: Sunday Night Football Big Bang, Dancing With the Starts and NCIS top weekly broadcast charts.” TvbytheNumbers. Web. < http://tvbythenumbers. com/2009/12/02/tv-ratings-sunday-night-football-big-bang-dancing-with-the-stars-andncis-top-weekly-broadcast-charts/35024#more-35024> Images Storyboard 1. http://i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/5290417/workplace1-main_Full.jpg 2. http://www.babble.com/CS/blogs/famecrawler/2008/03/08-15/tina-fey-snl-30-rock-2. jpg 3. http://remote.lohudblogs.com/files/2008/03/tina-fey-portrait.JPG 4. http://www.babble.com/CS/blogs/famecrawler/2008/02/23-End/tina_fey.jpg 5. http://www.newportonthelevee.com/images/Miller%20Lite%20Logo.jpg
Ads 1. http://i3.photobucket.com/albums/y56/korn7022000/tina_fey.jpg 2. http://www.blackeyebeerco.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/miller-bottle-08. jpg 3. http://www.newportonthelevee.com/images/Miller%20Lite%20Logo.jpg 4. http://www.newportonthelevee.com/images/Miller%20Lite%20Logo.jpg 5. http://ninavintage.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/tina-fey-vf-2.jpg Web 1. http://i3.photobucket.com/albums/y56/korn7022000/tina_fey.jpg 2. http://www.newportonthelevee.com/images/Miller%20Lite%20Logo.jpg 3. http://www.stolaf.edu/services/hr/facebook_logo.png 4. http://www.mapds.com.au/newsletters/0807/iphone_home.gif 5. http://cdn.nhl.com/blues/images/upload/2007/08/op_homefront_logo.jpg
Appendix I: Market Research: Mintel
Appendix II: Market Research: Choices3 Education Level
Census Regions of the United States
Female Census Regions of the United States
Female Age Specifics
Appendix II: Focus Group Email Invitation
RE: Free Beer Dear _________, We would like to invite you to participate in a focus group for a class project to develop a marketing campaign for a brand of beer. This focus group will take place on October 22 and October 29 at 7:30PM (you only need to attend one), at the homes of Claire Harold and Kimberly Lennex, respectively. We will be discussing topics related to beer and occasions for alcohol consumption. Snacks and free beer will be served. [I suggest that you not tell them the specific brand ahead of time.] Please remember to find alternate transportation than driving, and we ask you to be aware that this is solely for research purposes and not as a social event. If you are interested, please email us promptly with your availability and we will send you the date and time of your focus group. Thank you very much! Tabia Chui, Angel Chiohh, Claire Harold, Kimberly Lennex, Gabby Park, and Stephanie Ting Communication Studies 462 / MKT 407 Group #5 Professor Bonnie B. Reece
Appendix III: Focus Group Waiver/Consent Form Template. INFORMATION RELEASE AND SESSION RECORDING WAIVER By signing this document, you agree to the following points: I will answer each question to the best of my ability, and reserve the right to not answer any question. I understand that what I say in this focus group will be used as part of Professor Bonnie Reeceâ€™s MKT 407 (Group 5) research efforts. I understand that my voice will be recorded confidentially and be used solely for the purposes of this course, and will under no circumstances be used for other purposes. I certify that I am 21 years of age or older.
Appendix IV: Focus Group Results Blind Tasting:
All 3 beers had dead even ratings for best tasting: 3 for each. All 3 beers had dead even ratings for worst tasting: 2 for each. Someone said bud light tasted like bathwater Someone said miller light tasted watery
Question 1: If light beer were a celebrity who would it be?
Jessica Simpson (3) Paris Hilton (1) Lindsay Lohan (1) Hilary Duff (1) Kid Rock
Question 2: Where would light beer live?
Central Florida (1) Suburban Midwest Frat House Hick towns (hills of tennesse) Trailer Park College Farmington Hills, MI Fargo (poor rural) Twin Cities, MN. Somewhere with really active young adults. Suburban High School, where the kids can only get light beer from their older brothers.
Question 3: Scale (cheap to expensive)
3 (3) 2-3 4 (1) Bud Light 3 Miller light 4 Bud light 3 Miller light 2.5
Question 4: If light beer were a college major what would it be?
Psychology (2) Sports Management Economics Communications (2) Any non-science LS&A Undecided General Studies (2) Business
Question 5: If light beer were a color what would it be?
Clear Pink Black Yellow Turquoise Brown Beige Stepped on caterpillar green
Question 6: What donâ€™t you like about light beer?
The bottom of the can Only when there is no alternative Flavor Have to drink a lot to get drunk then I feel full It bloats me Flavor of light beer is bad, so is carbonation Peeing all the time. Gets too full
Question 7: How often a week do you drink Light Beer?
3-4 times 0-1 time a week (2) 2 every other week/4 times a month 2-3 once a month 1-2 for regular beer, 0-1 for light beer.
Question 8: Where do you go on the weekends?
Bar with friends (6) Gym Play games Dancing/clubbing (3) Homework (3) Parties Football games (go to or watch) (4) Movies (go to or watch) (5) Hangout with friends (3) Sleep (3) Relax (3) Travel
Question 9: What TV shows do you watch?
History Channel Curb your enthusiasm The office (3) Discovery channel Summer heights high American Idol Disney Channel Daily Show (2) Desperate Housewives Colbert Report (3) House Scrubs (2) Monk Dexter (2) Glee Gossip Girl Greyâ€™s Anatomy Friends Always sunny in Philadelphia (3) Nip Tuck (2) Sopranos The wire SVU Wild Pacific Planet Earth True Blood TLC Bones
Question 10: When do you drink Miller Lite/Do you drink Miller Lite?
Never (2) Accidentally while pregaming Rarely (2)
Never At football games Every once in a while
Question 11: If Miller Lite were a TV show/ on a TV show what would it be?
Scrubs Friends Daisy of Love Rock of Love Always sunny in Philadelphia CSI: Miami (light beer) My Boys (Miller light) The hills (light beer) Keeping up with the kardashians (miler light) Rock of love Bus
“Looks like Pee” “Beige because its boring” “turquoise, drinking by the pool in the summer” Black – its dark out when you drink Black – black out drunk You can regulate your self with beer better than with liquor Gradual drunkenness Buy wherever is convenient or cheapest Price sensitive consumers Advertising-not gender neutral All boobs and bikinis Packaging Red stripe – no hype – honest about quality of beer. Limited edition appeals to women They like witty clever humour like the office/sunny in Philadelphia Nothing too feminine Humor against men? TV show endorsement – sex and the city?
Appendix V: Online survey questions
What is your Gender? Male or Female How old are you? 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, other Do you drink light beer? Yes or No If yes, how often? Never, Once a year, Once every few months, Once a month, Once a week, Multiple times per week, Other (please specify) If no, why not? What light beer brands do you consume? Bud light, Coors light, Miller Lite, All of the above How do the following things affect your choice in light beer? (Rank from 1 to 5, 1 being the most important) Price Taste Calories Brand Name Availability/Convenience Social Norm Do you drink Miller Lite? Yes, No, Occassionally If yes, how often? Once a year, Once every few months, Once a week, Multiple times per week. Who
do you believe Miller LIte advertisements are targeting? Young men, Young women, Middle-aged men, Middle-aged women, Elderly men, Elderly women, All young adults, All middle-aged adults, All elderly adultsPlease specify more, ie: race, social class, education level, geographical location.
Appendix VI: Online survey selected results
Appendix VII: Cost of 30-second television commercial slots per primetime program.
ABC: Dancing with the Stars CW: Gossip Girl
ABC: Dancing with the Stars
ABC: Modern Family Cougar Town FOX: Glee
$130,388 $103,314 $127,350
ABC: NBC: FOX:
$240,462 $175,450 $120,000 $119,990 $191,236 $159,674 $107,942 $120,062
ABC: Ugly Betty
Extreme Makeover: Home Edition Desperate Housewives Brothers and Sisters Sunday Night Football
Grey’s Anatomy Private Practice Community Parks and Recreation The Office 30 Rock Bones Fringe
$136,743 $228,851 $140,445 $339,700
Source: Steinberg, Brian. Advertising Age. “‘Sunday Night Football’ Remains Costliest TV Show,” New York, New York: Crain Communications, 2009. http://adage.com/article?article_id=139923
Appendix VIII: Cost of full page ads per issue per magazine.
Cosmopolitan Hearst Communications
Glamour Magazine Condé Nast
Shape Magazine American Media Inc.
Vanity Fair Condé Nast
Vogue Condé Nast
Condé Nast Media Kit, Condé Nast 2009. http://www.condenastmediakit.com/index.cfm
Shape Magazine Media Kit, American Media, Inc. 2009. http://www.americanmediainc.com/mediakits/ shape/kit_online.htm
Cosmopolitan Media Kit, Hearst Communications 2009. http://www.cosmomediakit.com/r5/home.asp
Appendix IX: Grocery Store Chain Bakerâ€™s Nebraska
Dillons Kansas, Missouri
Hugoâ€™s $849,877 North Dakota, Minnesota Hy-Vee Food Stores $3,964,350 Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, Wisconsin Kroger Food and Drug $2,475,495 Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan Kwik Shop Kansas, Nebraska
Meijer $2,475,495 Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan
Appendix X: PerezHilton.com Audience Statistics
Source: Perez Hilton Media Site. http://perezhilton.com/mediakit/US/index.html
Appendix XI: Evaluation Plan Focus Group and Online Survey Questions Copy Testing Focus group questions Television commercial questions: • • • • • •
What were your overall feelings as you were watching the commercial? Can you describe what happened in the commercial from beg to end? What did you like/dislike about the commercials? How do you feel about specific elements in the commercial? What was your previous impression of Miller? How has your impression of Miller Lite changed (if any) and in what way?
Print/Web advertisement questions: • Did this ad tell you something new about the product that you didn’t know before? • Do you find this funny or clever? • Do you find this advertising appealing? • The main message of this advertisement is that… • According to the advertisements, which beer do you want to buy? o Which one is Miller Lite? • What did you like/dislike about the ad?
Concurrent/Post-testing Online Survey questions 1.
What is your gender?
What is your age?
a. 21 b. 22 c. 23 d. 24 e. 24+
Which of these Miller Lite print advertisements have you seen? (more than one)
Which of the Miller Lite television commercials do you remember?
[Write in response]
If you could choose a spokesperson for Miller Lite, who would it be?
a.Jessica Simpson b. Tina Fey c. Paris Hilton d. Kate Walsh (Addison from Private
Do you purchase more Miller Lite this year compared to previously?
On a scale from 1 to 10, how good do you feel about drinking Miller Lite?
(1 = lowest; 10 = highest)
BYOB, Jared’s, etc (samples from Figures 105-111 will be shown)
Attachments 1) Sample bottle cap pins, magnets, and pendants.
2) Focus group participant notes and waiver forms.
3) DVD containing interviews of female consumers at the Brown Jug
© Document Copyright 2009.
What’s your confidence factor?