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folio ÄŒasopis za sodobno umetnost, kulturo in veselje do Ĺživljenja Magazine for contemporary art, culture and the joy of life Letnik 3 (2011) / Volume 3 (2011), No. 1/4 Maribor, Slovenia ISSN 1855-8976


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Obetavno leto 2011? 2011 – a promising year? ENG Leto se je začelo obetavno: z objavo razpisa JAK za umetnostne revije že v decembru 2010 in z rokom za prijavo v začetku januarja. Kazalo je, da bodo razpisi za 2011 pravočasni in da nas ne bodo postavili pred dejstvo delovanja in ustvarjanja brez sredstev do konca leta, ko rezultatov na prijave ne bomo izvedeli pred poznim poletjem, sredstev pa ne videli do konca leta, ko je postavljen tudi rok za porabo (narekujejo nam življenje na kredit, pa še to z negotovim izidom). V kratko odmerjenem času smo za nadaljni dve leti evaluirali projekte, prijavljene za realizacijo v okviru EPK Maribor 2012, med njimi tudi za pripravo in izdajo časopisa, ki je pred vami, z ambicijo po bolj rednem izhajanju. Folio smo znova, kljub lanskemu neuspehu, prijavili na medijski razpis in v sofinanciranje na področju literature pri kulturnih projektih, ki jih sofinancira mestna občina Maribor … kazalo je, da bomo z vzporednim pripravljanjem vsebin časopisa tokrat natiskani pred poletjem, že spomladi. Sodelavce sem priganjala k oddaji prispevkov, pošiljanju slikovnega gradiva, preračunavala obsege, honorarje, zbirala ponudbe za tisk. Tiskarji so opozarjali na podražitev papirja in resnično, ponudbe so bile za tretjino višje od zadnjega računa za tisk. Začeli smo se pogovarjati in dogovarjati tudi za posebno izdajo Folio / EPK, celo roke smo postavili, spraševala sem se, kako bomo zmogli vse hkrati, ob dinamičnem rednem programu, postavitvah in otvoritvah razstav, ažurnem obveščanju na spletni strani in s tiskanimi materiali … Maja je postalo jasno, da nimamo še ničesar – razen dveh tisočakov, ki nam jih je dodelila Javna agencije za knjigo, MOM je želel dopolnitve glede financiranja s strani EPK, ki ga še nismo poznali. Prispevki za časopis so se “nabirali” in še najtežja naloga je bila razložiti avtorjem, zakaj še ne gremo v tisk. Vsem sodelavcem hvala za potrpežljivost in odločitev, da prispevek objavijo v Foliu (pri tem pa tudi čakajo na honorarje). V prepričanju, da bomo izdali dobro številko, smo prispevke prevajali, lektorirali, izbirali gradivo, se pogovarjali in dogovarjali – za to ali za naslednjo številko. In predvsem: kdaj izidemo. Končno sem dobila tudi novo naslovnico, ki je bila primerno nadaljevanje “sladkornega” Davida z mravljami Mateja Koširja (ugotovila sem, da si z dobro naslovnico narediš tudi problem pri naslednji). Gremo v tisk! Hm, rezultatov razpisov pa od nikoder, iz občinskega razpisa smo dobili 1.300 eur, … s pomladansko navdušenostjo smo praznovali 12. obletnico delovanja galerije Kibela in pripravljali dogodke ob 15. obletnici delovanja KIBLE. Zdaj je videti, kakor da je časopis nastajal kar nekako v ozadju. Pa vendar v ospredje postavljamo dvajset sodelavcev s prispevki, prav toliko fotografov in virov slikovnega gradiva, predvsem pa več kot trideset predstavljenih umetnic in umetnikov, projektov, slik, kipov, multimedijskih predstavitev, ki bodo na papirju živele naprej svoje tiskano življenje. Prva dva intervjuja posvečamo umetnosti, kulturi in Mariboru kot evropski prestolnici kulture (posebna številka časopisa še vedno nastaja). Animacija, risba in film so teme, ki na različne načine, z različnimi sogovorniki, osvetljujejo feminizem, duha časa in preteklost, aktivizem in umetniške intervencije – te pa od lokalnih do globalnih, z akcijami mehkega terorizma, feminizmom, Arktiko in Antarktiko, permakulturo. O letošnjem festivalu transmediale lahko preberete intervju z njegovim umetniškim direktorjem, Beneški bienale ocenite s pozicije gledalca, seznanite se z režiserjem filma Skrivnost iz Kellsa, naj vas privabijo k branju in listanju po zajetnem zvezku letošnjega Folia imena umetnic in umetnikov v kazalu. Zahvala gre avtorjem za prispevke, fotografom za bogastvo slikovnega gradiva v časopisu, prevajalkam in lektorjema za poglobljeno branje in pregled, bralkam in bralcem pa dobrodošlica na naših straneh ter na kulturnih in umetniških dogodkih po Sloveniji in drugje. Ko se poletje preveša v drugo polovico – smo soočeni z rebalansom proračuna in krčenjem sredstev, namenjenih kulturi, in lahko bi končala zapis s citiranjem peticije; vsi pa vemo, da ne gre za reševanje bančnega sektorja ali za preprečevanje zgrešenih poslovnih potez, pri katerih izpuhtijo milijonski zneski. Tako napihnjen balon kulturne dejavnosti nikoli niso bile, – gre pa za to, kakšno življenje si sploh še lahko predstavljamo in pričakujemo. Naj sklenem s citiranjem stavka iz prvega intervjuja: “Kultura in umetnost pa nista ne hektarski donos ne razmerje med najnižjim stroškom in najvišjim prihodkom in nikoli ne smeta biti.” Maribor, julij 2011 Snežana Štabi

The start of the year was promising indeed: the Slovenian Book Agency posted a call for art magazine applications in December 2010. It seemed that the 2011 public calls would be on time and that we would not be left to work and create without funds till the end of the year, not finding out about the results before late summer, or not getting the funds before the year would end – coinciding with the deadline for spending them (we are being dictated a life on credit, with an uncertain outcome). In this short amount of time we evaluated projects for the forthcoming two years, those ready to be realized in the framework of the European Capital of Culture Maribor 2012, including the preparation of the magazine in front of you, with the aim of a more regular future appearance. Despite of last year’s failure, Folio applied once more for additional co-funding in the field of literature with cultural projects financed by the Municipality of Maribor … it appeared that – working simultaneously on the contents – we would be able to release this edition before the summer, in spring already. I have urged my co-workers to send in their texts and graphics on time, calculated article lengths and fees, collected print offers. The printers warned about increasing prices of paper, and so it was – the offers were costlier by a third compared to the price of the last order. We began discussing and arranging the special edition of Folio / ECC, even setting deadlines for it; and I was wondering how we would manage all at the same time, side by side to a dynamic regular program, exhibition settings and openings, up-to-date web page information and printed materials ... In May it became clear we were still empty-handed – apart from the two thousand awarded by the Slovenian Book Agency, the municipality required additional information concerning the ECC financing, still unknown to us. The articles “piled up” and the hardest thing was in fact explaining to the authors what was holding back the release. Many thanks to all the colleagues, for their patience and the decision to publish their texts in Folio (and wait for the fees). Confident about publishing an excellent issue, we went on to translate, proofread, select texts, talk and discuss – this issue or the following one? And above all: when are we releasing? Finally I got a hold of the new cover, a suitable sequence to the “sugar-covered” David crawling with ants by Matej Košir (realizing in the meantime that a great cover poses a problem – it sets the standard for the next one). Ready for the release! Hum, the results of the application calls are still nowhere to be found, the municipality granted us 1,300 eur, … with a springtime enthusiasm we celebrated the KiBela gallery’s 12th anniversary and prepared for KIBLA’s 15th birthday. This makes it sound as if the paper was a background activity. However, twenty of our contributors stand in the spotlight with their texts, with as many photographers and graphic material sources; and foremost, over thirty presented artists, projects, paintings, sculptures, multimedia presentations, all of which will continue the printed version of their lives on paper. The first two interviews are dedicated to art, culture and Maribor as the European capital of culture (the special edition still in the making). Animation, drawing and film are the themes that in a number of ways and a variety of conversations shed light on feminism, the spirit of the time and the past, activism and artistic interventions – the latter pondering, locally and globally, soft-terrorism actions, feminism, the Arctic and the Antarctic, and permaculture. You can learn about this year’s transmediale festival in an interview with its art director, judge the Venice Biennial from the point of view of a spectator, get introduced to the director of ‘The Secret of Kells’ – may the names of the artists listed in the contents page inspire you to browse through and read the pages of this year’s hefty edition of the Folio magazine. Many thanks to the authors of the articles, the photographers for their rich picturesque contribution, the translators and the proofreaders for a detailed reading and check-up; and a warm welcome to the readers of our pages, as well as cultural and art venues in Slovenia and elsewhere. At the turn of the second half of the summer – we are facing a balanced-budget amendment and a reduction of funds for culture, and I could end these lines with a quote from the petition, but we all know it’s not about saving the bank sector or preventing misguided business decisions that cause millions to evaporate. Cultural activities were never as over-inflated as that; the question is nevertheless, what kind of life at all can we imagine and expect for the future. Let me conclude with a quote from the first interview: “But culture and art are neither yield per acre, not the proportion between lowest costs and highest revenues, nor should they ever be.”

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Časopis za sodobno umetnost, kulturo in veselje do življenja • Magazine for contemporary art, culture and the joy of life Letnik 3 (2011) • Volume 3 (2011), No. 1/4, Maribor, Slovenia ISSN 1855-8976 Naslovnica • Cover: Samo Lapajne Folio je vpisan v razvid medijev pod zaporedno številko 1455. • Folio magazine is entered in the mass media register under order No 1455. Folio izhaja v slovenskem in angleškem jeziku. • Folio is published in Slovenian and English language. Izdajatelj časopisa • Publisher: Kulturno izobraževalno društvo KIBLA Asssociation for Culture and Education KIBLA Zanjo • Represented by: Aleksandra Kostič, predsednica KID KIBLA • President of ACE KIBLA Copyright © 2011 ACE Kibla Photographs Copyright © Authors and ACE KIBLA Vse pravice pridržane. • All rights reserved. Urednica • Editor: Snežana Štabi Uredništvo • Editorial staff: Aleksandra Kostič, Snežana Štabi, Maja Škerbot, Margaretha Mazura, Miha Horvat, Dejan Pestotnik, Peter Tomaž Dobrila Prevodi • Translation: Alenka Ropret, Maja Ropret, Helena Fošnjar Lektura • Proof reading: Cameron Bobro, Mirjana Predojevič Prelom • Layout: Samo Lajtinger Priprava za tisk • Prepress: Miha Bercko Tehnično svetovanje • Technical support: Boštjan Polanec Sodelavci • Contributors: Boris Beja, Saša Belina, Žiga Brdnik, Miha Colner, Peter Tomaž Dobrila, Petja Grafenauer, Miha Horvat, Andrej Jakil, Aleksandra Kostič, Kaja Kraner, Katja Kremenčič, Maša Ogrizek, Alenka Pirman, Mojca Puncer, Dejan Sluga, Maja Škerbot, Renata Šribar, Vladimir P. Štefanec, Tanja Verlak, Ira Zorko Fotografije • Photo Credits: Animateka, Boris Beja, foto arhiv KIBLA / KIBLA photo archives, fotografije iz video arhiva Društva prijateljev zmernega napredka Koper / photos from video archive Association of friends of reasonable progress Koper, Dejan Habicht, Nejc Ketiš, Kinodvor, Žiga Koritnik, Matej Kristovič, Kunsthaus Graz, Universalmuseum Joanneum, Boštjan Lah, Marcandrea, P74 in galerija Kapsula, Photon, Ajda Schmidt, Slovensko mladinsko gledališče, Jože Suhadolnik, Damjan Švarc, Transmediale, via negativa, Ira Zorko & Andrej Jakil, Nada Žgank Ilustracija / Illustration (Zeitgeist): Tilen Lebe Tisk • Printing: Bograf tiskarna d. o. o. Naklada • Print run: 8.000 izvodov • 8,000 copies Tiskano v Sloveniji. • Printed in Slovenia. Finančna podpora • Supported by: Javna agencija za knjigo Republike Slovenije Ministrstvo Republike Slovenije za kulturo Mestna občina Maribor ESS

“Operacijo delno financira Evropska unija, in sicer iz Evropskega socialnega sklada. Operacija se izvaja v okviru Operativnega programa razvoja človeških virov za obdobje 2007–2013, 2. razvojne prioritete “Spodbujanje zaposljivosti iskalcev dela in neaktivnih” 2.1. prednostne usmeritve “Spodbujanje zaposljivosti iskalcev dela in neaktivnih” v okviru programa “Spodbujanje zaposlovanja dolgotrajno brezposelnih oseb 2009/2010” - v okviru javnih del -

Koprodukcija • Coproduction: MARIBOR 2012 Evropska prestolnica culture / European Capital of Culture


Kazalo / Contents

4

68

Marko Jakše

Peter Tomaž Dobrila

16

76

Breda Pivk

Uroš Kaurin

24

Tomm Moore

30

Stephen Kovats

38 41

54. Bienale

Umetnost: proces, produkt, koda

47

Marko Peljhan

58

Dan Oki

63

Miguel Chevalier

66

Goran Bertok

78

Meta Grgurevič Mark Požlep

80

Jože Šubic

82

Marko Črtanec

84

Diana Mureškič

86

Junoš Miklavc

88

Boštjan Plesničar

90

Nataša Ribič

91

Robert Klančnik Vlado Repnik

94

Peter Rauch

102

Tension Field

104

P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E

106

Boštjan Drinovec

108

Robot Dreams

114

Zeitgeist

116

André Eckardt

126

Evelin Stermitz

130

Veli & Amos

134

Marko Brecelj

138

Permakultura


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Peter Tomaž Dobrila Evropska dimenzija je zame pretesna The European dimension is too narrow for me Peter Tomaž Dobrila, nekdanji “l’enfant terrible” mariborske scene, je začel svojo publicistično, kulturniško in umetniško pot v mariborskih alternativnih krogih časopisa Katedre in radia MARŠ v začetku 80. let. Mariborski kulturniki se še danes spominjajo njegove udarne oddaje Kulturni sabat, kjer je dobro desetletje zabijal kritiške “žeblje” mariborskim, slovenskim in mednarodnim kulturnikom in njihovim produktom ter intenzivno spremljal mednarodna kulturniška dogajanja. Oddaje je odlikoval bogat recenzijski nabor domačih in mednarodnih prireditev in ekskluziven besednjak, pri katerem so se znojili novopečeni radijski spikerji, medtem ko so poslušalce stimulirale k intenzivnem listanju po slovarju tujk in terminoloških umetnostnih priročnikih. Ne nazadnje je nekatere nekdanje direktorje kulturnih institucij, ki so prisluhnili prodorni in udarni oddaji, celo privedla do pravih pravnih tožb, ki so se vlekle še leta kasneje. In to v času, ko pravna država še naj ne bi bila vzpostavljena. Publicist, po svoji univerzitetni izobrazbi diplomirani računalničar in informatik, sicer pa tudi glasbenik in strasten zbiratelj avdio-vizualnih nosilcev raznovrstnih glasbenih, filmskih in drugih umetnosti, od klasike do najbolj odbitih umetniških eksperimentov, je pridobival svoje prve redne delovne izkušnje na Ekonomskem centru Maribor v času, ko so bile računalniške diskete še v velikosti A4 formata. Na svoji publicistični poti je sklenil številna lokalna, nacionalna in mednarodna poznanstva, ki so kasneje pripomogla k razvoju mednarodne kreativne platforme KIBLA. Ustanovitelj Multimedijskega centra KIBLA in nekdanji prvi človek KIBLE (1996–2004), ki je povezal informacijskokomunikacijske tehnologije s kulturo in umetnostjo, na nacionalni ravni sokreiral umetnostno zvrst “intermedijska umetnost” in dal pobudo za nacionalno Mrežo multimedijskih centrov (M3C), je ves čas povezoval slovensko novomedijsko, vizualno in glasbeno sceno z mednarodno na recipročen način: gostovanja v tujini in mednarodne predstavitve doma. Ustanovitev KIBLE leta 1996 je bila mednarodno naravnana. Večina sredstev je bila iz tujine, prispeval jih je takratni Zavod za odprto družbo preko vzhodnoevropske mreže, ki jo je vzpostavil njujorški borzni posrednik madžarskega židovskega porekla George Soros. Sledile so številne mednarodne reference, med drugimi: 2000 je KIBLA vstopila v prve evropske konzorcije, ki so 2002 prinesli tudi prva evropska sredstva programa Kultura 2000 in sicer za prelomni projekt Medi@terra, Kulturno Olimpiado v času Olimpijskih iger v Atenah 2004. Kot član Programskega odbora festivala je bil Peter Tomaž Dobrila zatem povabljen v Evropsko akademijo za digitalne medije (EADiM). KIBLA je bila kot edina institucija iz držav nečlanic Evropske unije sprejeta v Evropski multimedijski forum (EMF), ki ji je leta 2008 je podelil nagrado za odličnost v multimediji. Aktivno je sodelovala tudi na konvencijah Evropskih multimedijskih zvez (EMMAC) ter bila posledično povabljena v Mednarodno federacijo multimedijskih zvez (International Federation of Multimedia Associations (IFMA). Vrstila so se sodelovanja na Svetovnem vrhu za internet in multimedijo (World Summit On Internet and Multimedia) in na Svetovnem vrhu o informacijski družbi (World Summit on the Information Society) leta 2003 v Ženevi in 2005 v Tunisu. Presenetljivo za nevladno institucijo, ki so jo doma predalčkali zgolj med kulturne institucije. Ko je 2004 predal predsednikovanje Aleksandri Kostič in se prostovoljno umaknil v vlogo svetovalca, je s čla-

ni društva KIBLA še naprej intenzivno deloval na zastavljenih področjih. Vzporedno s tem, značilno za strateško širino Petra Tomaža Dobrile, je v Corku na Irskem dogovoril slovensko sodelovanje v okviru Evropske prestolnice kulture 2005, in nato je bil leta 2006 pobudnik, strateg in skupaj s Simonom Kardumom, Dejanom Pestotnikom in Aleksandro Kostič, aktivni pripravljalec zmagovite kandidature Maribora in partnerskih mest za Evropsko prestolnico kulture 2012 skupaj s kreativno elito mariborske kulturniške scene. Z Lelo B. Njatin in Dejanom Pestotnikom je sodeloval pri sestavi predloga za Svetovno prestolnico knjige, ki je bila leta 2010 in 2011 v Ljubljani, in dal pobudo za Evropsko prestolnico mladih, ki bo leta 2013 v Mariboru. Je pobudnik, soustanovitelj in predsednik društva EPEKA, ki je nastala kot formalizacija najkreativnejših mariborskih snovalcev pri kandidaturi EPK. Ker pa je tudi evropska dimenzija zanj ves čas preozka, je sodeloval pri vzpostavitvi Azijsko-evropske mreže medijskih centrov ASEUM (Asia-Europe Media Platform), udeležil se je festivalov v Manili na Filipinih ter v Jogjakarti v Indoneziji, sodeloval je pri umetniškem projektu Hallerstein v okviru Šanghaj EXPO 2010 ter večkrat obiskal Kitajsko in Avstralijo ob različnih priložnostih, kongresih, seminarjih in na umetniških nastopih na tereminu. Obogaten s številnimi raznolikimi, pozitivnimi in negativnimi izkušnjami, znova pojasnjuje svoj pogled na Evropsko prestolnico kulture 2012, Maribor in partnerska mesta: Projekt Evropska prestolnica kulture, kot se imenuje od leta 2005 – tak naziv se prvič pojavi prav v Corku, kjer je Slovenija prvič sodelovala v uradnem programu kot članica Evropske unije – pred tem Evropsko mesto kulture, imam še vedno za največji kulturni dogodek na svetu. Dogodek, ki se razteza čez vse leto, naj bi se odvijal vsak dan v letu. Ker se seli in v letu 2011 vključuje dve mesti, leta 2009 tri in leta 2012, ko bo prestoloval Maribor (s partnerskimi mesti) v dvojčku s portugalskim Guimaraesom, spet dve, kar se nadaljuje do 2020, ko bodo ta naziv spet prejela tri mesta, ga lahko jemljem kot nekakšno konstanto, perpetuirajočo in kontinuirano kulturovanje. V namenih, kot si jih je zastavila pobudnica Melina Mercouri na začetku, leta 1985, ko se je premiera zgodila v Atenah, bi moralo to mesto biti takrat evropski kulturni center, lahko pa razumemo tudi center evropske kulture ali center kulturne Evrope. Meni je še najbližje prva formulacija, čeprav je lahko tudi vse troje. To pomeni, da bi z bogatimi vsebinami mesto pridobilo tudi nove infrastrukture, in ko oboje seštejemo, lahko dobimo tudi najdražji kulturni projekt na svetu. Danes je po njej poimenovana “Nagrada Meline Mercouri”, ki jo v višini 1,5 mio € prejme vsako uspešno mesto z nazivom Evropska prestolnica kulture. Menim, da gre za najpomembnejši projekt za evropsko vizibilnost, tako znotraj kot zunaj nje. Za slednje naj navedem, da so podobno kasneje tudi ZDA pričele z ameriško prestolnico kulture, obstaja pa tudi arabska prestolnica kulture. Gotovo bi se bilo zanimivo povezati z obojimi. Vemo, da je leto 2012 prestopno in da lahko s posebnim dogodkom obeležimo 29. februar, razen tega je tudi olimpijsko leto, takrat je olimpijada v Londonu. Maribor je pobraten z Greenwichem, v čast temu se imenuje tudi predel mesta na Pobrežju, in kar sama se vzpostavi ideja programskega povezovanja. Greenwich je sinonim za enega najbolj slovitih observatorijev na svetu. Ker so fotografije / photos by Damjan Švarc


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Še vedno prava umetnost prihaja iz podzemlja, kot je rekel Marcel Duchamp, toda tudi nad zemljo se da videti in slišati izjemne umetniške dosežke. Still, real art originates underground, as Marcel Duchamp claimed, but also above ground one can hear and see exceptional artistic achievements.


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Menim celo, da je EPK največji kulturni projekt na svetu, seveda če ga resno vzameš in ga ne sesuješ na nekaj minornega in obrobnega. olimpijske igre največja športna manifestacija, ob kateri poteka tudi tako imenovana kulturna olimpijada, je na dlani, da bomo lahko tam predstavili tudi Maribor, verjetno bi bilo smiselno izpostaviti tudi naše olimpionike, denimo Leona Štuklja kot simbol in tudi koga drugega. Kako komentiraš kritike, da je bila kandidatura EPK preobsežna? Kakšen je proces od dobljene kandidature na nacionalni ravni in potem evropski ravni do konkretne izpeljave projekta? Gledano s časovne distance … Priprave kandidature smo se lotili v skladu z razpisnimi kriteriji in zadostili vsem merilom najboljše izmed sodelujočih mest oziroma ekip, ki so bile za priprave zadolžene. Pri nas je bil pristop kar najbolj demokratičen in potemtakem tudi širok. Obsežnost pripravljenih in oddanih materialov je potrjevala bogastvo idej in značilnosti naše regije, ki smo jo utemeljili na vzhodno-kohezijski regiji in povezali Maribor s petimi partnerskimi mesti, Mursko Soboto, Novim mestom, Ptujem, Slovenj Gradcem in Velenjem. Ker smo projekt dojeli kot širši od zgolj kulturnega, vzeli smo ga kot gospodarskega in razvojnega, pri čemer smo nepridobitni sektor povezovali s pridobitnim, kulturo smo nadgrajevali z izobraževanjem in znanostjo, vzpostavljali kreativne in kulturne industrije, vključevali nove informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije (navsezadnje je brezplačen brezžični širokopasovni dostop do medmrežja v Mariboru ena od pobud iz kandidature, kar smo zagovarjali tudi v mestnem svetu Mestne občine Maribor), snovali kulturni turizem, ki je bil tudi eden od poudarkov v razpisu. Po odločitvi mednarodne ekspertne komisije, da je naš projekt najboljši, smo pristopili k nadaljnjemu krojenju dokumentacije skladno z željami Ministrstva za kulturo, Vlade RS in ga priredili za vprašalnik, ki nam ga je poslala Evropska komisija in nanj odgovorili po zahtevah mednarodne ekspertne komisije, ki je odločala o nadaljnjih, evropskih poteh sprejemanja kandidature. Po dvofaznem zagovoru v Bruslju in potrditvi ekspertne komisije je sledil uradni predlog za nominacijo, ki so ga najprej morali obravnavati na Evropski komisiji in potrditi kulturni ministri EU, da je končno nominacijo sprejel Evropski parlament. Dokaj dolg in zahteven proces. Celotna pot odbiranja vsebin in fokusiranja poudarkov je bila zvezna, postopoma smo predloge, ideje, pobude povezovali in jih kontekstualizirali v programske sklope. Kaj v tem naj bi bilo “preobsežno”, mi ni najbolj jasno. Če mi nekdo reče, da je nekaj preobsežno, razumem, da sam ni sposoben izpeljati tako zastavljenega projekta in ko nekdo sodi, da je projekt “preobsežen”, menim, da presega njegovo razumevanje in meje zmožnosti. Skratka, izražanje “preobsežno” pove največ o dosegih in dometih tistega, ki to izreka. In v primeru EPK 2012 bi bilo bolje, da bi projekt prepustili tistim, ki smo ga poznali in smo vedeli, kaj početi in kako ga izvajati. Iz integralne, zajetne prijavne dokumentacije smo za drugo fazo zagovora izpeljali šestnajst programskih sklopov, za kar nas je bruseljska komisija tudi pohvalila. Ker nismo uspeli vključiti vseh načrtovanih in želenih področij, da bi zadostili tudi raznovrstnim ambicijam iz prijave, smo pustili še osem sklopov odprtih, za potencialno nadaljnjo obdelavo, do česar pa – iz meni neznanih razlogov – ni nikdar prišlo. Informacije so zlagoma usihale in z novim letom sem bil le še član začasnega sekretariata. Nato sta me ministrica Majda Širca in državni sekretar Stojan Pelko povabila na ministrstvo za kulturo, kjer sem EPK spremljal kot državni uradnik in sodeloval pri sestavljanju ustanovnega akta Javnega zavoda Maribor 2012 – Evropska prestolnica kulture. Ko me je Mitja Čander, programski direktor, pozval, naj se vrnem, sem po razmisleku pristal. Končno se je po dveh letih spet začelo premikati, zbrala se je odlična ekipa in nastali so štirje tematski sklopi, s čimer se je EPK vsebinsko zakoličil. Kako ocenjuješ lokalno sceno, vpeto v evropsko prestolnico kulture, denimo učinkovitost župana Franca Kanglerja, ki si je v predvolilni kampanji zadal za nalogo izpeljati EPK, ter dvoletni mandat Vladimirja Ruka-

vine, ki je ta projekt vodil od sredine 2008 do začetka 2011? Ali dotični storijo oziroma so storili dovolj za ta projekt? Po moje je bilo vodenje EPK razglašeno. Prva napaka je bila storjena že kmalu po pridobitvi kandidature, ko so se akterji projekta odločili, da bodo celoto razbili na programski in investicijski del. Tega si nismo tako zamislili, saj smo bili prepričani, da uspeh zagotavlja povezanost obojega, da brez enega ni drugega in obratno. Današnja situacija, ko v zavodu Maribor 2012 načrtujemo programe, vendar ne vemo, kje se bodo izvajali, medtem ko mariborska občina improvizira z investicijami in njihovo namembnostjo, je ravno posledica te napačne odločitve. Takrat nas ni nihče poslušal, kot tudi ne bral, da bi bilo treba ustanoviti organizacijo za EPK že v začetku 2008, s čimer bi se izognili marsikaterim težavam in bi pridobili že kar nekaj sredstev iz evropskih in sponzorskih virov, ne pa da imamo danes iz tega naslova same ničle. Jasno je, da je nekdo, ki je vodil EPK skoraj tri leta, kar je največ od vseh, odgovoren za njegovo usodo, pri čemer pa ne moremo mimo dejstva, da je nosilka projekta Mestna občina Maribor in potemtakem odgovorna za njegovo izvajanje, saj so prav tam sprejeli tudi vse odločitve o kadrih in investicijah, kjer mora biti pri podpori soudeležena tudi država, saj gre za nacionalni projekt, zagotovo največji v zgodovini slovenske države. Menim celo, da je EPK največji kulturni projekt na svetu, seveda če ga resno vzameš in ga ne sesuješ na nekaj minornega in obrobnega. Ko sem spremljal peripetije okoli EPK, sem zaključil, da projekta niso razumeli oziroma da ga ne razumejo. Dogajanje se je zreduciralo na lokalno, regionalno in nacionalno raven, namesto da bi pletli čezmejne, evropske in širše mednarodne, tudi globalne dimenzije. Nekajkrat sem povedal, da je EPK sestavljanje, sodelovanje, povezovanje, ne pa odstavljanje, tekmovanje, izločanje. Da lahko vsak od nas nekaj prispeva k celoti, da je edino tako, s skupnimi močmi možno uresničiti zadano, pripraviti privlačne vsebine in postaviti infrastrukturo, da je 200 načrtovanih milijonov – 50 za programe in 150 za investicije, – mogoče pridobiti le ekipno. Toda prevladali so majhni, zasebni, ozki interesi. Milijon tu, milijon tam … zanikrno. Ali bi se strinjal s trditvijo, da si Maribor ne zasluži tega naziva? Da je mesto s 94 tisoč prebivalci premajhno, preveč nepomembno? Ne. Maribor si zasluži ta naziv, pridobili smo ga povsem zasluženo in prepričan sem, da je pomembno mesto, središče, ki si mora zgraditi svojo identiteto. Utemeljiti jo mora prav na kulturi v najširšem pomenu besede in v povezavi z drugimi področji, na prvem mestu seveda z izobraževanjem, univerzo, znanostjo. Kultura služi kot povezovalni člen, umetnost bo izžarevala kot presežek pripravljenih programov. Zavedajoč se, da živimo v času mreženja, smo tudi povabili pet partnerskih občin, da se pridružijo. Prvikrat se v Sloveniji dogaja skupen nastop več mest, prehajanje regij v enovito vsebino, kar je bilo mogoče doseči prav s kulturo. In v vzhodni kohezijski regiji živi preko milijon ljudi, kar je več kot polovica prebivalstva v Sloveniji. Del EPK so najstarejše (Ptuj) in najmlajše mesto (Velenje), najmanjše (Slovenj Gradec) in najbolj multikulturno slovensko mesto (Murska Sobota) in mesto situl in zibelka avantgarde (Novo mesto). Sami presežniki torej, ki jih je potrebno postaviti na kulturni zemljevid. Kakšno je stanje sedaj? Zasnova Javnega zavoda Maribor 2012 – Evropska prestolnica kulture, kjer deluješ od januarja 2011 je kompleksna (30 redno zaposlenih, 20 na rednih avtorskih honorarnih listah), je tako tudi pri izvajanju nalog? Najbolj očitno je, da se za promocijo EPK 2012 v mednarodnih krogih doslej ni nič postorilo. EPK Maribor 2012 je neviden list na evropskem kulturnem in turističnem zemljevidu. Od novembra 2010 se situacija izboljšuje, saj je zavod Maribor 2012 končno začel dobivati obrise organizacije. Zlasti z nastopom programskega direktorja Mitje Čandra, ki je privabil v Maribor tudi sijajno profesionalno ekipo, nabrano iz vse države, se je EPK premaknila v izvajalski smeri. Pred tem je bila v nekakšnem krču, vse je stalo in nerazumljivo je, da ustanoviteljica, MO Maribor, ni že prej imenovala uprave. Zavod je ustanovila januarja 2010 in lahko oziroma morala bi nemudoma pričeti s postopki postavljanja obeh svetov in nato vodstva, a kot tudi leta poprej, jih je prelagala do konca leta. Očitno je bilo tako nekomu v interesu in posledica teh interesov bi skoraj bil propad projekta. Nato se je obrnilo, toda zdaj moramo reševati zadeve in vzdušje je turbulentno, dejansko smo v kriznem upravljanju.

Kot vemo, je bil del dokumentacije projekta tudi poslovni načrt, ki je vseboval trženjske aktivnosti, med katerimi je bila tudi promocija. KIBLA je s temi dejavnostmi pričela nemudoma, že v letu 2007, z zaključkom priprave projekta EPK pa so usahnile tudi trženjske in promocijske aktivnosti. Logika tega je lahko edino, da so EPK jemali kot konkurenco lastnim kulturnim institucijam in je (bil) projekt zato odrinjen. Verjetno je (bil) nebodigatreba ali celo nevaren ustaljenim vzorcem delitve denarja. Konflikt interesov pač. Zategadelj v vseh letih obstoja projekt ni prejel nikakršnih sponzorskih sredstev. Kar je vsaj nenavadno, če vemo, da je bila na čelu oseba, ki se rada hvali, da je eden največjih mojstrov pri pridobivanju sponzorjev. No, razen če si rečemo, da je (bilo) po sredi neznanje, neprofesionalnost, saj gre pri tem projektu za nove, evropske in širše mednarodne dimenzije. Finančno sliko kulture je treba obogatiti z novimi viri, tako finančnimi kot človeškimi, in v Sloveniji mora priti do nekaterih zamenjav prav na vrhu, na nivoju vodstvenega kadra, če želimo pričeti s prenovo kulturnega sektorja. Projekt EPK je evropska pobuda, ki je verjetno ne bi zaznal, če ne bi sam sodeloval pri evropskih projektih, temelječih na vsebinah, ki jih je evropska skupnost podprla. Zavedanje, da živimo v evropski skupnosti, da se poslužujemo sredstev in možnosti neke kulturne skupnosti, ki presega nacionalne meje, je tudi zavedanje sprememb v sistemih financiranja. Kot pobudnik KIBLE sem v koncipiranju nove entitete razmišljal o drugačnem pristopu pri kreiranju kulture in umetnosti. Njeno delovanje sem želel dvigniti nad lokalno in regionalno ter tudi nacionalno raven in vzpostaviti organizacijo, ki bo mednarodno vpeta. Naš moto je bil odprtost in sodelovanje in zavedajoč se nujnosti povezave lokalnih umetnikov in umetnic z mednarodnim prostorom, sem stremel k pritegovanju mednarodnega prostora k nam in obratno, k promociji in podpori lokalnim umetnikom in umetnicam za predstavitve na mednarodni sceni, za sodelovanje v pomembnejših tujih institucijah. Zato je bila edina pot, da se vzpostavi tako vozlišče, če uporabim tudi nekoliko medmrežne terminologije, saj je bilo prav to izjemno pomembno pri nastanku in povezovanju z drugimi organizacijami in institucijami. Svetovni splet, takrat še dokaj v povojih komercialne in splošne rabe, je bil bolj točka dvoma in celo cinizma širše javnosti do novih informacijsko-komunikacijskih tehnologij (IKT) kot polja novih ustvarjalnih možnosti na področjih kulture in umetnosti ter izobraževanja. Kaj omogočajo evropski projekti, v čem je prednost, če to primerjamo s predhodnimi sistemi financiranja mednarodnih sodelovanj? Evropski projekti dajejo novo dimenzijo utečenim produkcijam in omogočajo mednarodne koprodukcije, ki so lahko ambicioznejše in obsežnejše. V glavnem vsi na začetku vidijo dodatna sredstva in spregledajo drobni tisk. Vsekakor odpirajo nove možnosti sodelovanj med organizacijami in institucijami iz različnih držav, pri če-

Na tako pomembnem področju, ki ponuja tudi veliko sredstev, kolikor vem, kar multiplikator proračuna Ministrstva za kulturo, dela premalo ljudi in zato gredo velike stvari mimo nas. Poglejmo samo prodajo gradov, ki bi bili vsi upravičeni do evropskega financiranja ali druge kulturne infrastrukture, vključno z ljubljansko Opero.


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mer povezujejo različne segmente kulture. V takšnih projektnih konzorcijih se lahko znajdejo velike institucije, univerze, fakultete in šole, inštituti in razvojne enote, podjetja, gospodarske družbe in profitne organizacije iz kulture, svetovalne firme in nevladne organizacije, zato očitno pridobimo veliko novih izkušenj, vedenj in znanj. Spoznamo tudi, da je velikost in paomembnost institucije nemalokrat prej slabost kot prednost zaradi okostenelih pravil delovanja, ujetosti v lastne vzorce, neko podobo, pri čemer imajo težave pri učinkovitem in kakovostnem izvrševanja projekta. Evropski projekti zahtevajo prožnost, tako v izvedbenem kot tudi finančnem smislu, da se ne izrodijo v breme namesto v dodano vrednost. Pred tem skorajda ni bilo možnosti financiranja projektov iz mednarodnih skladov, bile so štipendije, redke tuje fundacije in nekaj podpore mednarodnim projektom s strani države in lokalne skupnosti ter nekaterih ambasad. V čem je slabost evropskega financiranja? Težava pri evropskih projektih je, da se lahko tudi izrodijo, da se konzorciji sprejo med seboj zaradi tega in onega, kar se lahko zgodi tudi na čisto osebni ravni, ker nekdo ni kompatibilen, zaradi česar projekt propade. Možno je, da ne dobimo denarja, včasih ga je potrebno tudi vračati, kar je lahko boleče, saj je bil delno že porabljen za predvidene aktivnosti. Včasih koordinator projekta ob zaključni predstavitvi pred komisijo v Bruslju ni dovolj suveren in prepričljiv v argumentiranju izpolnitve vseh zastavljenih ciljev in rezultatov projekta in komisija sklene, da bo znižala sredstva projektu, kar velja za vse vpletene. Glavna težava pri projektih programa Kultura je, da morajo partnerji sami zagotoviti polovico sredstev, saj je dotacija največ 50 % in mnogo organizacij težko doseže zastavljeni proračun. Poleg tega je evropski projekt dodatek k nekemu že utečenemu portfoliju in zahteva popolno predanost, kar pomeni tudi ekipo, opremo in sredstva. Zato se lahko zdi, da se ob svojem delu moramo ukvarjati še z dodatnim projektom, ki ni ravno tak, kot bi si ga sami želeli, kar je logično, saj je plod skupnih priprav in nima zveze s tem in onim, kar že počnemo, zahteva ločeno računovodstvo in je podvržen posebnim pravilom, ki veljajo za EU projekte. Slabost je lahko tudi, da taki projekti zahtevajo mednarodni angažma, da je potrebno veliko potovati, torej ne smemo imeti zadržkov do tega, da smo malo doma. V najbolj turbulentnem mednarodnem obdobju od 2004 do 2009 sem bil skorajda več v zraku kot na zemlji, domov sem prišel zgolj zamenjat vsebino kovčka. Poleg tega moramo za sodelovanje v EU projektih biti pisno in ustno vešči tujih jezikov, znati se moramo vesti skoraj diplomatskemu kodeksu primerno, se udeleževati vseh družabnih srečanj in drugih dogodkov, ki nam jih je namenil organizator. Ni prostora za glavobol ali nenačrtovano zadržanost ali nezmožnost udeleževati se sestankov konzorcija, na voljo smo v petek in svetek, tudi ob nedeljah in praznikih, saj ko je v Sloveniji praznik, je lahko povsod drugod delovni dan, v nasprotnem primeru se lahko naše sodelovanje v projektu konča. Kako ocenjuješ vpetost Ministrstva RS za kulturo v evropsko kulturno politiko? Z izkušnjo direktorovanja oddelku za umetnost in v kabinetu ministrice se verjetno poraja tudi kritično mnenje? Na ravni ministrstva je vpetost v evropsko kulturno politiko verjetno takšna, kot se pričakuje. Po potrebi protokolarna, smo pa tudi člani več delovnih skupin na nivoju EU, sam sem bil v delovni skupini za mobilnost, v nekaterih primerih aktivna, kot je denimo v zvezi s sprožitvijo pobude za ničto stopnjo davka na knjigo. Vsekakor bi lahko bila naša vloga bolj aktivna, usmerjena tudi k postavljanju okvirjev evropske kulturne politike, če bi tako zastavili lastno kulturno politiko. Moje mnenje je, da je Slovenija v prvi finančni perspektivi, v kateri smo sodelovali kot polnopravna članica EU, torej od 2007 do 2013, premalo izkoristila razpoložljiva evropska sredstva za potrebe kulture, od programov do investicij. Državni dokumenti, kot so Strategija razvoja, Državni razvojni program, Nacionalni referenčni okvir in posledični Operativni programi, sprejeti v vladi in potrjeni v Bruslju in so podlaga za črpanje evropskih sredstev, so bili dokaj radodarni do kulture, verjetno mnogo bolj, kot bodo na koncu pokazali rezultati dejanske porabe. A počakajmo nanje. Na tako pomembnem področju, ki ponuja tudi veliko sredstev, kolikor vem, kar multiplikator proračuna Ministrstva za kulturo, dela premalo ljudi in zato gredo velike stvari mimo nas. Poglejmo samo prodajo gradov, ki bi bili vsi upravičeni do evropskega financiranja ali druge kulturne infrastrukture, vključno z ljubljansko Opero.

Ministrstvo za kulturo bi moralo več vlagati v obstoječo kulturno infrastrukturo, tako vladno kot nevladno ter z evropskimi sredstvi zasnovati nove investicije, vključno z objekti za prihajajočo evropsko prestolnico kulture, kupovati bi moralo nepremičnine in jih dajati v upravljanje za kulturne vsebine, vzpodbujati bi morali kulturno razmišljanje, poudarjati vlogo kulture, izpostavljati njeno razvojno moč. Nova miselnost v tej smeri bi bila potrebna tudi na vladni ravni, s čimer bi lahko v Mariboru nastala akademija za umetnost ali fakulteta kulturnega in medijskega managementa itd. Kar smešno je poslušati in brati izjave politikov o visoki ceni neke nastajajoče infrastrukture in spraševanju, kdo bo to plačal, saj bi morali biti prvi, ki bi vedeli, koliko kaj stane in od kod sredstva. Namesto prvi, ki jih to skrbi, bi morali biti zadnji – in omogočiti bi morali realizacijo naših najboljših idej in iniciativ. Kulturna politika bi morala izhajati iz miselnosti, da je kultura generator evolucije, da brez kulture razvoja človeštva ne bi bilo, da je vse, kar je za nami ostalo, kulturna in danes že industrijska dediščina. Ne nazadnje je knjiga najbolj malikovana sredica človeške družbe in tudi slovenske, pismenost je potemtakem kulturna kategorija, ki pa se sčasoma prelevi v socialno in ekonomsko, ko razvitost družbe merimo z odstotkom pismenosti. Kultura kot središče človeka in družbe bi morala biti vpeta v vse druge družbene sisteme, ne pa da je obratno, in se ekonomija kot rak širi tudi v kulturo, da smo tudi umetniki primorani razmišljati z ekonomskimi termini in dokazovati ekonomsko upravičenost lastnih projektov. Kulturna politika naj poskrbi, da kultura postane tudi del ekonomije, prisotna na drugih področjih, saj je nedvomno najbolj povezovalna, najbolj kohezivna sila, ki preči dobesedno vsa področja človekovega delovanja.

Zavedanje, da živimo v evropski skupnosti, da se poslužujemo sredstev in možnosti neke kulturne skupnosti, ki presega nacionalne meje, je tudi zavedanje sprememb v sistemih financiranja. Omenjaš opismenjevanje, ali je v tem zajeta tudi novomedijska pismenost? Digitalna pismenost je seveda ena od oblik pismenosti oziroma bolje rečeno, rokovanja z orodjem. V letu 2010 naj bi po evropski strategiji za informacijsko družbo i2010 dosegli 95 odstotno digitalno pismenost. V vsakem primeru mimo novih medijev več ne moremo, vsak dan nam razkrivajo nove možnosti tehnologije, zasipavajo nas s ponudbo naprav, multifunkcionalnost in interoperabilnost zahtevata, da smo že pri uporabi digitalne televizije pismeni. Mediji so postali in vse bolj postajajo širše interaktivni in za marsikoga tudi zapleteni. Na drugi strani pa za pojem pismenosti v globalnem svetu lahko postavljamo veliko vprašajev. Biti pismen pomeni razpoznavati in zapisovati določene kode, za nas je to zlasti latinica, pri nekaterih morda še cirilica, le redki znajo razbrati znakovne sisteme, ki jih uporabljajo, denimo kitajščina, japonščina, arabščina, hebrejščina ali inuitščina. Smo pa tudi številsko pismeni, kar je dejansko širše od črkovne. Pri digitalni pismenosti ne smemo spregledati slabih plati vsesplošnega opismenjevanja ali pasti digitalnega suženjstva, ko ne bomo mogli ali smeli biti odklopljeni in brez tehnoloških pritiklin. Glede na vseobsegajočo tehnologijo in vedno bolj popularne, že kar obvezne mobilne naprave, je pasti za zasužnjenje kar veliko. Niti dopustov si več ne zamišljamo brez dostopa do medmrežja in informacij na svetovnem spletu. Zanimivo je tudi prehajanje pismenosti, ki je v osnovi kulturna kategorija. Naučimo se brati in pisati, sčasoma, za državne potrebe pa postane ekonomska kategorija, saj se s pismenostjo meri razvitost neke družbe in so­ cialna kategorija, saj nas glede na pismenost in nepismenost družba tudi uvrsti medse. Očitno na neki točki pride do prevzema pismenosti kot kulturne kategorije s strani ekonomije in sociale.

To ne bi bilo nič narobe, če kasneje podjetniki, gospodarstveniki, upravljavci ne bi pozabili izvora svojega znanja in se ne bi vedli, kot da kultura ne obstaja. Režejo si korenine in svojo zablodo neodgovorno prenašajo na nove generacije. Na raznih konferencah, kjer imajo glavno besedo podjetniki, se je kultura sicer začela sramežljivo pojavljati v poslovnih povezavah kot korporacijska kultura, kultura vodenja, kultura podjetja, socialno podjetništvo ipd. Do kulture imajo še vedno dokaj zaničljiv odnos, kot da je nekaj nepotrebnega, kar je podprto iz proračunov, z denarjem davkoplačevalcev, torej z njihovim. A če primerjamo proračunske izdatke za gospodarstvo in kulturo, je razlika opazna, proračun za gospodarstvo je mnogo višji in tržno gospodarstvo dejansko ne obstaja, medtem ko je kulturni proračun med najnižjimi. Pri nas, kjer že drugič v zgodovini proračunsko rešujemo banke, je to še posebej očitno. Kako bi napovedal prihodnost evropske kulture – upoštevajoč grožnjo, da EU ne bo več podpirala kulture, tako kot do sedaj, saj se članice izrekajo proti (Češka, Švedska in druge). Ali lahko predvidevamo, kako se bo izrekla Slovenija? Ali to našo državo sploh zanima? Po moje kultura v Sloveniji ni v nevarnosti, da je država več ne bi podpirala. Tudi v EU bo verjetno kultura še naprej v enem od središč vsaj razmišljanja in pojasnjevanja. Nastajajoča Europeana, knjižnica najrazličnejših e-vsebin, je eden od osrednjih kulturnih projektov, o kulturi se govori kot o “duši Evrope”, finančno pa je njen proračun 450 mio € za obdobje 2007–2013 že zdaj smešno nizek in znaša manj kot 1 evro na prebivalca v sedmih letih. Če upoštevamo, da prebivalstvo EU 27 šteje okoli 550 milijonov ljudi, prispeva za kulturo vsak okoli 0,80 €, torej 80 centov v sedmih letih, kar pomeni dobrih 11 centov letno. Tudi v Sloveniji ima kultura enega nižjih proračunov med ministrstvi in priročna demagogija je govoriti o njenem ukinjanju. Malo dejanskega učinka bi s tem dosegli, saj ima obratna logika tudi drugačen predznak: ekonomija kulture je izračunala, da ima kultura največji donos na vložena sredstva, njena vrednost je multiplikacijska, z minimalnimi sredstvi lahko dobimo maksimalne učinke. Na drugi strani ima gospodarstvo mnogo višji proračun in vsi govorijo o tržni ekonomiji, čeprav ta dejansko ne obstaja. Tržna ekonomija je čisti konstrukt ekonomskih teorij. Vsako gospodarstvo funkcionira s podporami, z intervencijami države. Poglejmo samo bančni sistem. Ob osamosvojitvi smo vanj vložili vsi državljani in državljanke in zdaj ga ponovno kupujemo. To pa zato, ker je finančni razred v tem času uspel zlobirati političnega, da je neobhoden, generičen za družbo, da brez njega ne bi obstajali. Vendar je čas za politiko, ki bo postavila druge prioritete, ki bo repozicionirala družbeno stvarnost: namesto tržne ekonomije potrebujemo socialno državo in namesto pravne države moramo negovati pravično državo. Glede slednjega v zadnjem času vse prevečkrat trčimo ob primere, ko je pravo samemu sebi namen, ko več ne gre za pravično razrešitev primera, ampak pravniki uporabljajo vsa pravniška sredstva za izpodbijanje na nivoju pravniške procesualnosti in izgublja se ves smisel, zakaj in čemu sploh v družbi so. Seveda imajo vso pravico do tega, vendar takšno delovanje sodi v laboratorije, ki merijo skrajne meje pravniškega roba, ne pa v javnost, kjer bi se morali zavzemati tudi za smiselnost svojega početja in dober zgled. Pravniški lobi zahteva vedno več prava v družbenih podsistemih, za kar je potrebnih vedno več pravnikov in na koncu se znajdemo v položaju, ki ga obvladujejo na eni strani ekonomisti in na drugi pravniki. To je fundamentalno totalitarna družba. Pravo in ekonomija kot novi ideologiji. Tudi če pogledamo vrh slovenske politike, smo doslej imeli dva pravnika in enega ekonomista. Kot nadaljnje vpletanje ekonomije v kulturo in umetnost lahko razumem namenjanje vse večje pozornosti kulturnim oziroma kreativnim industrijam, kjer se kulture loteva ekonomska logika, skratka dobički. Kultura in umetnost pa nista ne hektarski donos ne razmerje med najnižjim stroškom in najvišjim prihodkom in nikoli ne smeta biti. Kakšen je nacionalni politični odnos do kulture in umetnosti? Slovenija je doslej sprejela dva Nacionalna programa za kulturo, 2004–2007 in 2008–2011, ter pred tem osnutek, ki je spodbudil slednja. V pripravi je tretji Nacionalni program za kulturo. Torej državna politika kaže svoj neposredni odnos do kulture. Smo edina država v Evropi, ki ima kulturni praznik za državni praznik, verjetno tudi ena redkih, če ne edina na svetu. Poleg tega imamo še veliko drugih praznikov, povezanih s kulturo. Nacionalna


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foto / photo by Damjan Švarc

Prešernova nagrada velja za eno največjih med državnimi nagradami, imamo tudi več nagrad za posamezna področja ustvarjanja. Vsaka občina, ki da kaj nase, ima občinsko nagrado za kulturo in umetnost. Deklarativno je odnos politike do kulture in umetnosti na visoki ravni. A že ko se spustimo s protokolarne na finančno raven podpiranja kulture, nam v oči bijejo razne anomalije, ki se začnejo pri državnih financah in se nadaljujejo v občinskih proračunih. Smešne so bile grožnje in tudi nekatere poteze, na srečo še ne usodne, ko so lokalne strukture ob zadnji krizi nameravale na prvem mestu porezati dotacije kulturi. Kaj hitro so spoznali, da se jim potem začne sesuvati družbena struktura. Ne moremo brez po-

sledic ukiniti enega družbenega podsistema, še posebej ne kulture, ki je povezana z vsemi drugimi. Zaradi močne javne kulturne infrastrukture, javnih zavodov, državnih in občinskih, se nam ni treba bati, da bo kultura talka neke trenutne politike, saj je njeno financiranje zakonsko določeno, ne glede na trenutne barve ali razpoloženja. Bolj v nemilosti je nevladni sektor, ki je že sedaj izrazito podhranjen v primerjavi z javnim in je resnično lahko v nevarnosti, če bi prihajalo do večjih posegov v proračune. Toda pameten oblastnik se ga potrudi obdržati, saj ponuja neverjetno pestrost ustvarjanja, ki se dogaja v skoraj 4000 kulturnih društvih, zavodih, ustanovah po vsej Sloveniji. Nevladni sektor je bazen kreativnih idej.

Ko se v zadnjih letih več govori in se aktualno ministrstvo za kulturo tudi ukvarja z reformo javnega sektorja, je potrebno poudariti, da se je tega treba lotiti izjemno previdno, preudarno in pametno, saj se nam sicer lahko zgodi, da bomo sektor sesuli. Zavedati se moramo, da je javni sektor v kulturi eden zadnjih še nedotaknjenih, kamor ni stopila noga neoliberalne ekonomije, zato si z vsemi sredstvi prizadeva tudi za njegovo osvojitev. Pri tem ji služijo tudi nevladne organizacije in njihove zahteve po reformah, po izenačitvi vseh segmentov. Neoliberalna ideologija izbira priročne in demagoške argumente, kako bi sprivatizirala javni kulturni sektor, osvojila dobičkonosne dele in zavrgla nedobičkonosne, kar pa bi


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prineslo kulturno katastrofo. Posledice nepazljivega ravnanja bi bile dolgoročne. Kako se naš vladni kulturni sektor vpenja v mednarodni prostor? Jasno je, da marsikatera kulturna institucija ne želi mednarodnih dimenzij in podobno kot na drugih področjih lahko ločujemo institucije lokalnega, regionalnega in nacionalnega pomena, kar sam razumem, da so nekatere ravni za določeno kulturno ustvarjanje bolj poudarjene. Mednarodna komponenta je zelo specifična in zahteva povsem drugačne pristope k vodenju, kot obstaja trenutno v vladnem sektorju, denimo nacionalnem ali lokalnem javnem zavodu.

Kultura in umetnost pa nista ne hektarski donos ne razmerje med najnižjim stroškom in najvišjim prihodkom in nikoli ne smeta biti. Kako je s trditvijo, da se politiki motijo, ko mislijo, da edini zastopajo državo in da so glavni promotorji evropske države športniki, umetniki in kulturne institucije? Vsak dober vladar se zaveda, da so najboljša promocija države odlična umetnost, živahna kultura in športni dosežki. Gospodarstvo je podstat, ki omogoča in obenem vzpostavlja okvirje za delovanje države. Če ima država dobro gospodarsko sliko, je vladanje uspešno, kar se kaže skozi umetnost, kulturo in šport. Tako potekajo družbeni kanali. Tudi če država ni uspešna, je umetnost še vedno lahko izjemna, kultura pestra in šport znan, vendar drugače. Zato imamo lahko kulturo in umetnost za stalnici, ki promovirata neko državo, kakršnakoli je. Politiki v kontekstu današnjega časa postajajo osovraženi, tarče ljudske nejevolje in vzroki nezadovoljstva množic. Menim, da zato, ker se niso znali oziroma se ne znajo soočiti s prostorom in časom, v katerem smo. Internacionalizacija in globalizacija se ne dogajata samo na nivoju ekonomije in gospodarstva ter v najhujši obliki delavstva in narave, ampak tudi na ravni politike, ki pa ni zmogla v pravem trenutku iz svoje domačijskosti in odvisnosti od lokalne oziroma nacionalne baze, ki jo voli, stopiti nivo višje in spregledati pozicije sredine, ki ji vlada, v širšem, evropskem ali katerem drugem regionalnem in svetovnem kontekstu. Na tej točki je padla večina svetovnih politikov, ki so samo razgalili svojo majhnost in zmožnost dosega samo lokalnih oziroma nacionalnih interesov. Evropsko dimenzijo globalno dojemam kot regionalno, nacionalne politike pa kot lokalne. Naj kot primer služi Sarkozy, ki iz Francije izganja romunske Rome, s čimer je navidezno reševal lokalni problem in povzročal regionalnega, saj je šlo za migracijo znotraj EU. Obenem so Romi svetovni narod in kot takega bi jih morali tudi že enkrat sprejeti medse. Ne vem, zakaj ta obsedenost iz 19. stoletja, natančneje Pomladi narodov 1848, da obstajajo samo narodi, ki imajo svojo državo, kar pomeni, da država definira nacijo. Prav Romi so dokaz, da to še zdaleč ni res in verjetno so zato v taki poziciji, da so moteči, ker nastavljajo ogledalo političnim omejencem, da je mogoče preživeti tudi drugače, po svoje, brez države. A predstavljam si, kako nekomu, ki svojo politiko utemeljuje na naciji in državi, kar počnejo vse desne in velika večina leve politike, zakuha, ko mu nekdo tiho, samozavestno in benevolentno pokaže, da to še zdaleč ni treba. Istočasno pa se Francija gre segregacijo, ko t.i. izobražene, voljne Romune sprejme odprtih rok kot ceneno delovno silo. To je eden od ključnih problemov Evrope in naše prihodnosti. Prepričan sem, da je v 21. stoletju potrebno preseči obsesijo nacionalnih držav z novo kakovostjo, EU je ena od možnih poti, vendar še vedno ujeta v spone nacionalnih politik in nacionalističnih politikov. Umetnost je vedno pred časom in utira poti, opravlja vlogo, ki si jo namenja, včasih estetizacijsko, drugič (re) animacijsko, tretjič aktivacijsko, odvisno od konteksta, v katerega je postavljena, in koncepta, iz katerega je nastala, vsebino ji po navadi vedno daje umetnik oziroma umetnica v odnosu z občinstvom. Ki je lahko lokalno, nacionalno in mednarodno. Tudi če se umetnost uporablja v določene namene, kar zgodi pogosto, da je promotor-

ka politik in gospodarskih interesov države, jo še vedno moramo soditi ali je slaba ali dobra po prikazanem. In prav tega mnogo oblastnikov ne razume, da si s kakovostjo umetnosti, ki jih spremlja, jo izbirajo za svojo, gradijo lastno javno podobo in ime države. Prav zato bi se morali zavzemati za najboljšo umetnost in ne pristati na nižanje kriterijev. Umetnost ni stvar političnega konsenza, je mnogo širša, večja in obsežnejša. Je metafizika. Žal pa ugotavljam, da je ena največjih nacionalnih katastrof, ki se nam je zgodila v zadnjih 20. letih, tako rekoč metanje talentov skozi okno. Koliko odličnih umetnic in umetnikov smo v teh letih onemogočili ravno zaradi slabe kulturne politike in dokaj zavoženega vodenja javnega sektorja. Kakšna bi bila tvoja ocena in vrednotenje slovenske umetniške in kulturne scene? Slovenska kulturna scena veliko nudi. V zadnjem letu in pol, ko sem služboval na Ministrstvu za kulturo, sem imel priložnost obiskati domala vso Slovenijo in se seznaniti z večino produkcije po Sloveniji. V Ljubljani je veliko dogodkov, vendar ne nujno kakovostnih in sploh ni samoumevno, da se najboljše v slovenski umetnosti dogaja tam. Morda se nemalokrat dela zase in se umešča v lokalno sceno z nekaj stalne publike ter bolj ali manj naključnimi pasanti. Takšno stanje na področju likovne umetnosti slikovito ponazarja poplava t.i. diskurzivnih projektov, vsi bi se samo še pogovarjali o umetnosti. Imamo svetovne slikarje, ki nikjer ne razstavljajo, odlične kiparje, ilustratorje in grafike, ki se jim namenjajo priložnostne razstave, medtem ko galerijske prostore zavzemajo kuratorji in kuratorice trendovskih zvrsti: neka scena je ustvarila samo sebe, samo sebe hrani in sebe žre kot Ouroboros in živi v avtarktičnem modelu. Tudi gledališče sem intenzivno spremljal, poskušal sem pregledati skoraj celotno produkcijo. Včasih sem imel občutek, kot da ne bi imeli Jovanovića v sedemdesetih, Živadinova v osemdesetih in Pandurja v devetdesetih. Malce presenečen sem bil, ker akterji na področju kulture nimajo prav dobrega vpogleda v dejansko stanje in dogajanje. Mnogi – ne samo, da se ne premaknejo v kako drugo mesto – nasploh ne obiskujejo prireditev. Sam sem se trudil obiskati kar največ dogodkov po vsej Sloveniji in v tujini, na vseh področjih umetnosti, v galerijah in muzejih, v gledališčih in na koncertih, na neodvisnih prizoriščih, na konferencah in simpozijih, predavanjih, predstavitvah in delavnicah – in upam si reči, da sem imel najbolj celovit pregled kulturne resničnosti. Kaj pa v najboljšem primeru? Najboljše primere lahko najdemo povsod, tako na obrobju in v neodvisnih organizacijah kot v uradnih institucijah. Niso vezani na prostorsko-časovno komponento. Še vedno prava umetnost prihaja iz podzemlja, kot je rekel Marcel Duchamp, toda tudi nad zemljo se da videti in slišati izjemne umetniške dosežke. Moramo imeti odprte oči in ušesa, v skladu s sinestetsko resničnostjo pa je najbolje, da odpremo vsa čutila, tudi tisti šesti čut, ki nam pravi, kaj je dobro in kaj ne, da nas napoti na neko prireditev. Cenim organizacije in institucije, ki umetnost iz podzemlja obelodanjajo in jo spravljajo na visok profesionalni nivo ter posredujejo najbolj aktualno ponudbo publiki, ki jo izobražujejo, ji odpirajo obzorja s tem, kar prihaja. Za to pa moraš biti v prvi vrsti sam dovolj odprt, dovolj umetniško posvečen in profesionalen, kar je domena redkih.

Če upoštevamo, da prebivalstvo EU 27 šteje okoli 550 milijonov ljudi, prispeva za kulturo vsak okoli 0,80 €, torej 80 centov v sedmih letih, kar pomeni dobrih 11 centov letno.

Kaj se zgodi, ko jo postavimo v mednarodni prostor? Slednji je seveda širok pojem, pa vendarle? Slovenska umetnost je svetovna in je svetovno relevantna in primerljiva, v veliko primerih celo pred svetom, če je to sploh možno reči. Toda žal ji ne sledijo slovenske

institucije, ki nezadostno skrbijo za produkcijo in promocijo slovenske umetnosti v domovini in v tujini. Institucije ne opravljajo svoje funkcije, kot bi jo morale, ker gre za državne ustanove, podvržene inerciji ali ker je njihov ustroj povsem napačen. Alarmatno se mi zdi, da je neka ekipa ali direktor lahko na čelu neke državne, javne institucije več kot dva mandata, osem ali deset let. Direktor skladno s svojim okusom in ekipo oblikuje slovensko umetnost in kulturo in če je na položaju petnajst, dvajset, trideset let, postane njegov okus prevladujoč. Tistim, ki ga ne zadovoljujejo, je prisotnost onemogočena, ne morejo razstavljali, koncertirati, igrati. V taki situaciji lahko nek umetnik za petnajst, dvajset let dela nekaj drugega in čaka, da mine. To lahko pomeni tudi, da nekaterim umetnikom prej mine življenje in da nikoli ne dobijo priložnosti.

Cenim organizacije in institucije, ki umetnost iz podzemlja obelodanjajo in jo spravljajo na visok profesionalni nivo ter posredujejo najbolj aktualno ponudbo publiki, ki jo izobražujejo, ji odpirajo obzorja s tem, kar prihaja.

Obenem je tak sistem neprimeren tudi za mlade, ki se nameravajo ukvarjati z umetnostjo in kulturo, saj jih odvrača od kakršnekoli ambicije, da bi karierno napredovali. Ob vedenju, da so najvišja mesta dosmrtno oddana, zmrazi še takega veseljaka, da bi se šel provizorično igro kandidiranja. Posvečeni ljubosumno skrivajo vsa spoznanja poklica, zavedajoč se, da bi vsaka razkrita informacija lahko bila orodje nasprotnika, ki bi načel njihove privilegije. Zato nimajo naslednikov, kar je ključni problem slovenske institucionalne kulture. Namesto da bi po dveh mandatih zamenjali vodstvene položaje in bi bil vsak zainteresiran, da prenese svoje znanje, vedenje in izkušnje na naslednika, se to skriva. Po dveh mandatih bi lahko dobil mesto svetovalca uprave ali bi prešel na drugo institucijo. Včasih smo imeli kolobarjenje kadrov, kar smo v socializmu razumeli dokaj ironično, danes pa ni niti tega, imamo zabetonirano situacijo, kjer se nihče več ne premika, kjer ni možnosti napredovanja ali sprememb, kjer ni pretočnosti. Scena je hermetična, kar pa velja za javni sektor v kulturi, pa tudi za nevladni, kjer generacija nekdanjih revolucionarjev zahteva plačano priznanje za 'borčevska leta' – kar lahko tudi sprejmem, a le pod pogojem, če se upokojijo in dajo mir. Imamo odlične, izjemne in svetovne umetnice in umetnike ter ustvarjalne skupine, vendar so prepuščeni sami sebi, lastni iznajdljivosti ali naključnim zvezam ter tistim nekaj entuziastom, ki verjamemo v umetnost in njeno poslanstvo. Kako lahko umetnost in kultura pripomoreta konkretno k izboljšanju statusa revnih, zapostavljenih, zlorabljenih? Pismenost je kulturna kategorija in vsekakor bi morali opismeniti čim več prebivalstva. Da ljudje berejo, pišejo, komunicirajo, se sporazumevajo. Vsem je treba ponuditi enake možnosti, jim omogočiti izobraževanje, odpreti dostop do informacij. V času medmrežja kot prvega globalnega medija bi morali vsi imeti enakopraven, brezplačen in prost dostop do vsebin na svetovnem spletu. V nasprotnem bo prišlo do novega segmentiranja ljudi, na tiste z dostopom in tiste brez, naredile se bodo digitalne elite. Zavedati se moramo, da je medmrežje že danes največji bazen znanja in informacij in če delu populacije ne omogočimo dostopa, jih prikrajšamo, oropamo do domala civilizacijske potrebe in ustavne pravice, ki postavlja med nujne pogoje enakost pri dostopu do informacij.


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Kot zanimivost naj povem, da v Avstriji študenti že zahtevajo prenosnik za vsakega študirajočega, saj se socialne razlike kažejo prav v tem: ni dovolj, da ima vsakdo dostop do medmrežja, potrebuje tudi orodje in seveda elektriko. Univerze morajo o tem razmišljati, saj tudi pri nas kmalu ne bo zadoščal zgolj prost in brezplačen dostop v času študija, ampak bo treba pokriti še kaj več. Ne bi smelo biti pretirano težko najti sredstva, saj se moramo zavedati, da so študirajoči najboljši vložek za prihodnost. In če jo želimo imeti, moramo vanjo vlagati. Za leto 2020 napovedujejo, da bo digitaliziranih v celoti več kot 61 milijonov knjig, kar bo presegalo vse današnje baze znanja. Eden od projektov kandidature za EPK 2012 je bil tudi brezplačen brezžični in širokopasovni dostop do spleta, kar se je v Mariboru že zgodilo, ne vem pa, kako je v partnerskih mestih. Nadalje brezplačna ponudba institucionalne kulture in umetnosti za brezposelne, kar smo realizirali, ko sem služboval na Ministrstvu za kulturo: slovenska gledališča, koncertne dvorane, muzeji, galerije in ostali prireditveni prostori so brezposelnim dodelili brezplačne vstopnice. Urejeni so dostopi do institucij kulture in umetnosti, rampe za invalide in induktivne zanke za gluhe ter napisi v Braillovi pisavi za slepe. Zakaj se ne bi mogli v galerijah in muzejih eksponatov ali vsaj njihovih replik tudi dotikati? In še: napisi pri umetninah ter podnapisi na predstavah v več jezikih, vsaj v jezikih obeh slovenskih manjšin, torej madžarskem in italijanskem, v romskem jeziku in v jezikih naših sosedov, v nemškem in hrvaškem ter seveda v angleškem jeziku. Morda bi kazalo spet vrniti kulturo in umetnost ljudem, jo napotiti v šole, umestiti v podjetja, odpreti javnosti, da bo spoznala, da na gre za noben bav-bav, ampak je lahko prav fino. In kulturo in umetnost obogatiti s programi, ki vzpodbujajo aktivno spremljanje in sodelovanje. Nemara nas bo tudi spomnilo na naše ustvarjalno obdobje, ko smo si še upali. Pri tem ne smemo pozabiti, da je kultura generator evolucije, samo z njo smo se razvili do današnje stopnje in brez nje ne bi preživeli; vse, kar ostaja od naših civilizacij, je kultura in kulturna dediščina. Nič drugega. ENG Peter Tomaž Dobrila, the former “enfant terrible” of the Maribor scene, began his publicist, cultural and artistic path in early 1980s Maribor in the alternative circles of Katedra magazine and MARŠ radio. Cultural workers of Maribor still recall his striking show “The Cultural Sabbath,” in which for more than a decade he would hammer the cultural workers of Maribor, Slo­ venia and from the international environment, as well as their products, and follow intensely the international cultural developments. His shows were marked by a rich range of reviews of domestic and international events and an exclusive glossary that made new radio speakers sweat, whereas the listeners were stimulated to browse intensely a dictionary of foreign words and terminological art books. At the end of the day the astute and striking show pushed some former managers of cultural institutions who listened to it to file lawsuits that continued for years. And that was when the rule of law had not even been established. A publicist, a graduate computer and information scientist by education, while also a musician and passionate collector of audiovisual media of various music, film and other types of art, from classics to the wackiest art experiments, he gained his first work experience at Maribor Centre for Economics in the time when the floppy disk was the size of A4. In his publicist career he formed many local, national and international acquaintances, which later contributed to the development of the international creative platform that is KIBLA. A founder of KIBLA Multimedia Centre and the former first man of KIBLA (1996–2004) who managed to integrate information-communication technology with culture and art, helped create the “intermedia art” genre at the national level and voiced the initiative for the national Multimedia Centre Network (M3C). At all times he has been linking the Slovenian new-media, visual and music scenes with their international counterparts in a reciprocal way – visits abroad and international presentations at home. The very formation of KIBLA in 1996 was internationally oriented, with the majority of funds coming from abroad as they were contributed by the Open Society Institute. The Eastern-European network was established by the New York stockbroker of Hungarian and Jewish origin, George Soros. This naturally resulted in numerous subsequent international references: in 2000 KIBLA entered the first European consortia, which

in 2002 resulted in the first European funds within the Culture 2000 programme for the groundbreaking festival project Medi@terra, the so-called Cultural Olympiad in the framework of Athens 2004 Olympic Games. He was member of the festival’s Programme Committee and subsequently invited into the European Academy of Digital Media (EADiM). KIBLA was the only institution from a non-EU Member State to have been accepted into European Multimedia Forum (EMF), and in 2008 received the award for excellence in multimedia that the forum presents. It participated actively at conventions of The European Multimedia Associations (EMMAC) and was consequentially invited to the International Federation of Multimedia Associations (IFMA). Then came a series of participations in the World Summit On Internet and Multimedia, two times in the World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva in 2003 and Tunis in 2005. This is surprising for a non-governmental institution that had in the local environment been labelled merely a cultural institution. When in 2004 he handed the presidency over to Aleksandra Kostič and withdrew voluntarily to the position of a counsellor, he continued to collaborate intensely on projects initiated with members of ACE KIBLA association. In keeping with his strategic breadth, Peter Tomaž Dobrila at the same time arranged Slovenian participation in the framework of the European Capital of Culture 2005 in Cork, Ireland. A year later he then acted as initiator, strategist and, together with Simon Kardum, Dejan Pestotnik and Aleksandra Kostič, as active deviser of the winning candidature of Maribor and its partner cities to become the European Capital of Culture 2012, which was supported by the creative elite of the cultural scene in Maribor. He worked with Lela B. Njatin and Dejan Pestotnik to compose the proposition for the World Book Capital, which took place in Ljubljana in 2010 and 2011, and voiced the initiative for the European Youth Capital, which will be organised in Maribor in 2013. He has initiated, co-founded and presided the EPEKA society that was established to formalise the most creative individuals from Maribor who helped devise the candidature for the European Capital of Culture (ECC). However, the European dimension being too narrow for him, he participated in the formation of the AsiaEurope Media Platform ASEUM, he attended festivals in Manila, Philippines, and Jogjakarta, Indonesia, he took part in the Hallerstein art project in the framework of Shanghai EXPO 2010 and visited China and Australia several times at various occasions, attending congresses and seminars and performing on The­ remin.

I even consider ECC to be the greatest cultural project in the world, if you take it seriously and not collapse it into something minor and marginal, that is. Having acquired extensive, diverse, both positive and negative experience, he explains once more his view of the European Capital of Culture 2012, Maribor and partner cities: What is your comment on the complaints about the ECC candidature being too extensive? What is the process like from when the candidature was won at the national level, then the European level, to the actual implantation of the project? Looking back from a distance... We set out to prepare the candidature in compliance with the tender criteria and fulfilled all the standards for the best of the participating cities or teams that were committed to implement the preparations. In our case, the approach was as democratic and thereby as broad as possible. The materials prepared and submitted were extensive, which only confirmed the wealth of ideas and qualities of the area based on the East Cohesion region,

within which we linked Maribor to five partner cities: Murska Sobota, Novo mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec and Velenje. Having understood the project as broader rather than only cultural, we interpreted it as economy and development related. The non-profit sector was linked with the profit side, culture was being upgraded by education and science, creative and cultural industries were being established, new information-communication technologies integrated (after all, free wireless broadband Internet access in Maribor was among the candidature initiatives, which we also advocated in the Maribor City Council), cultural tourism was being devised, another point that was emphasised in the call for applications. After the international expert commission chose our project as the best one, we approached further shaping of documentation in accordance with the desires of the Ministry of Culture and the Slovenian Government. We rearranged the contents to fit the questionnaire that was sent to us by the European Commission, which we answered, taking into consideration the demands of the international expert commission that was to decide on further, European paths of adopting the candidature. After two-phase defence in Brussels and the confirmation of the expert commission came the official nomination proposal, which first had to be treated by the European Commission and confirmed by EU cultural ministers, for the final nomination to be confirmed by the European parliament. Quite a lengthy and demanding procedure. The entire path of picking the contents and focusing the stresses was continuous: proposals, ideas and initiatives were gradually linked and contextualised into programme units. Which part of it was supposed to be “too extensive” I don’t really know. If somebody says that something is too extensive, I understand it in the sense that they are unable to implement a project devised like that. And when somebody judges a project to be “too extensive,” I think it must exceed their comprehension and limits of their ability. In short, to speak of “too extensive” says the most of the reach and the range of the person saying it. In the case of the ECO 2012 it would have been better for the project to be left to those familiar with it, those who know what to do and how to implement it. For phase two of defence, we used the integral, lengthy application documentation to develop sixteen programme units, for which we received praise from the Brussels commission. As we could not include all the areas as planned and desired to satisfy all the diverse ambitions from the application, we left eight units open for potential further processing, which eventually never happened for reasons unknown to me. Information gradually dwindled and in the new year I only remained a member of the temporary secretariat. Then the minister Majda Širca and the state secretary Stojan Pelko invited me to the Ministry of Culture, where I monitored the ECC project as state official and participated in composing the constituent instrument for the Public Institute Maribor 2012 – European Capital of Culture. As Mitja Čander, programme director, called on me to come back, I deliberated and agreed. After two years it finally began developing again, an excellent team was formed and four programme units emerged to set the contents of the ECC. How do you assess the local scene that is integrated in the European capital of culture, i.e. the efficiency of the mayor Franc Kangler whose election campaign included the task of realising the ECC project, and the two-year mandate of Vladimir Rukavina, who was in charge of the project from mid 2008 to early 2011? Have they done enough for the project? I think the ECC project was managed out of tune. The first mistake was made very soon after the candidature was won, as the project actors decided to divide the package to the programme and investment part. It had not been planned that way, as we believed that success would be ensured by connecting the two, that one cannot exist without the other and vice versa. It is a consequence of this wrong decision that currently the Maribor 2012 institute plans programmes without knowing where they would be implemented, while the City of Maribor improvises the investments and their purpose. Back then nobody either listened to us or read our comments about how an organisation to run ECC should have been established in early 2008, which would help avoid many problems and gain a considerable amount of funds from European and sponsor sources. As it is today, these sources have generated zeroes. It is clear that someone who has been running the ECC project for almost three years, more than anyone, has to


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be responsible for its fate, yet we cannot overlook the fact that the project operator is the City of Maribor, which therefore is accountable for its realisation. It is there that all the decisions have been made on the personnel and investments, in which the state has to partake with its support, this being a national project, surely the greatest one in he history of Slovenian state. I even consider ECC to be the greatest cultural project in the world, if you take it seriously and not collapse it into something minor and marginal, that is. When following the complications regarding ECC I have ascertained that they have failed to understand the project. Instead of integrating cross-border, European and wider international, even global dimensions, the activities were reduced to the local, regional and national level. I repeated a number of times that ECC is about construction, collaboration, connections, and not disposal, competition, elimination. That each of us can contribute something to the final result, that only this way, i.e. by combining out strengths we can realise what has been set to prepare an attractive programme and construct the infrastructure. That the planned amount of 200 million: 50 million for programmes, 150 million for investments, can only be accumulated through teamwork. However, it was the small, personal, narrow interests that prevailed. A million here, a million there... negligent. Would you agree with the claim that Maribor does not deserve the title? That the city is too small (94,000), too insignificant? No, Maribor does deserve the title, it has been welldeserved, and I am sure it is an important city, a centre that needs to build its own identity. It is culture in the widest sense and connections with other areas, primarily education, university, science, that its identity should be based on. Culture serves as the unifying link, whereas art will radiate as a surplus of the programmes developed. Being aware that we live in a time of networking, we have invited five partner municipalities to join the project. It has happened for the first time in Slovenia that several cities are appearing together, regions merging into a unified programme, and it is culture that enabled this. Also, East Cohesion region is inhabited by a million people, which is more than half the population of Slovenia. ECC integrates the oldest (Ptuj) and the youngest (Velenje), the smallest (Slovenj Gradec) and the most multicultural (Murska Sobota) Slovenian cities, as well as the city of situla and thee cradle of avant-garde (Novo mesto). Here we have s series of superlatives that have to be positioned on the cultural map. What is the current situation like? The Public Institute Maribor 2012 – European Capital of Culture, where you have been working since January 2011, is of complex design (30 permanent employees, 20 regular contract employees); is task implementation of similar nature? What is the most obvious is, nothing has been done to promote the ECC 2012 in the international environment. ECC Maribor 2012 is not present on the European cultural and tourist map. The situation has been improving since November 2010 when Maribor 2012 finally started getting the outlines of an organisation. The arrival of Mitja Čander, who attracted a brilliant professional team from across the country to Maribor, pushed the ECC forward towards implementation. Previously it was somewhat contracted, in a standstill, and it is impossible to understand why the founder, the City of Maribor, had not appointed the management earlier. They founded the Institute in January 2010 and could or should have immediately begun the procedures to establish first both the councils and then the management. However, as had been happening years before, it was delayed until the end of the year. Clearly this was done to someone’s interest, which almost led to a collapse of the project. The situation then turned around, but things have to be solved now and the atmosphere is turbulent, we are actually having crisis management. As we all know, the business plan was also part of project documentation and it comprised marketing activities that included promotion. KIBLA began implementing such activities immediately, as early as 2007, but when the ECC project preparations were completed, marketing and promotional activities dwindled as well. The only explanation might be that ECC was considered competition to their own cultural institutions and was therefore cast aside. Probably it was either unasked for or dangerous to the set patterns of allocating the funds. A conflict of interests, nothing else.

This is why the project has received no sponsor funds in all the years of its existence. Which is at least unusual, considering the fact that in charge of it there was a person who likes to claim to be one of the greatest masters in attracting sponsors. Well, unless we say that there was ignorance, unprofessionalism to blame, this being a project regarding new, European and wider international dimensions. The financial aspect of culture has to be enhanced with new resources, both financial and human. Also, certain replacements have to be made at the very top, at the level of management, if we wish to reform the cultural sector. ECC is a European initiative, which you would not likely be aware of if you hadn’t been participating in European projects that deal with the subject matter supported by

But culture and art are neither yield per acre not the proportion between lowest costs and highest revenues, nor should they ever be. the European community. To be aware that we live in the European community, using the resources and means of a cultural community that goes beyond national borders, also means to be aware of changes in financing systems. When making a concept for a new entity as an initiator of KIBLA, I pondered a different approach to creating culture and art. I wanted to bring it above the local and regional, as well as the national level, and establish an organisation placed in the international environment. Openness and cooperation were our mottos, and being aware of how crucial it is for local artists to have a connection with the international environment I aimed to bring the international environment to Slovenia and vice versa, to promote and support local artists to present themselves internationally and work with important foreign institutions. Therefore, the only way was to set up a hub, if I may use Internet terminology, as this technology played a major role in the process of establishing and making contact with other organisations and institutions. The Internet, at the time in its beginnings of being used commercially and widely, had been an object of public doubts and cynicism regarding new information and communications technologies, rather than a field of new creative possibilities in culture, art and education. What do European projects make possible, what is their advantage compared to the old financing systems in international cooperation? European projects give a new dimension to long-established productions and enable international co-productions that can be more ambitious and bigger. In general, at first everyone only sees additional resources, but disregards the small print. In any case, they open up new possibilities of cooperation between organisations and institutions from various countries, linking various cultural segments. In these project consortia, you can find big institutions, universities, faculties and schools, institutes and development units, businesses, companies and profit cultural organisations, consultancies and nongovernmental organisations, which obviously means a lot of new experience, knowledge and know-how. You also realise that great size and importance of an institution are often more of a disadvantage than a benefit due to rigorous operational procedures, and depen­ dence on set patterns and a certain image, which make it difficult to implement a project efficiently and well. European projects require flexibility, both in implementation and in financing, not to become a burden instead of an added value. Before that, there had hardly been any financing possibilities in international funds. There were some grants, the odd foreign foundation, and support for international projects on the part of state, the local community or some of the embassies. What are the disadvantages of European financing? The small print in European projects says they can degenerate. Consortia can get into an argument for whatever reason, even a completely personal one, with people not being compatible, which makes the project fall through. You may also not win funds at all, or have to re-

turn them, which can be painful when part of them have already been used for the planned activities. Sometimes a project coordinator is not confident and convincing enough at the final pitch in Brussels when arguing how all the set goals will be met and results achieved, so the judging panel decides to cut project resources, which then applies to all those concerned. The main problem of the Culture programme is that partners to a project have to secure half of the funds themselves, as support is limited to 50%, and many organisations struggle to make it with a budget like this. Also, a European project is an addition to the long-established portfolio, but demands complete dedication – with staff, equipment, and resources. So it may seem that in addition to our normal workload, you now have to deal with an additional project, which is not exactly what you wished for, which as a result of joint preparations without reference to what you usually do it was bound to be. It also requires separate financial records and is subject to special rules that apply for EU projects. One of the disadvantages can also be that projects require you to act internationally. You have to travel a lot and not have a problem with spending very little time at home. In the most turbulent international period from 2004 to 2009, I almost spent more time in the air than on the ground. When I came home, it was to change the suitcase content. To participate in an EU project, you have to have good written and oral communication skills in foreign languages, you have to follow an almost diplomatic code of conduct, attend all social gatherings and other events arranged by the organiser. There is no room for headache or unexpected absence or inability to attend consortium meetings. You have to be available day in, day out, including Sundays and holiday, because a Slovene holiday can be a normal working day elsewhere, otherwise this means and end to your participation in the project.

Considering the fact that the EU 27 population is around 550 million, each of them contribute around 0.80 €, i.e. 80 cents for culture over seven years, that is about 11 cents a year. How would you estimate the involvement of Slo­ venia’s Ministry of Culture in the European cultural politics? Has your experience of heading the Ministry’s Directorate for Art brought any critical thoughts? At the level of the ministry, the involvement in the European cultural politics is probably as expected. When necessary, this is protocol involvement, but at the EU level we are also part of several working groups, for instance the working group on mobility, which I was a member of. In some case, this is active involvement, as for example in the launching of an initiative for a zero tax rate on books. Our role could certainly be more active, focusing also on building frameworks of the European cultural policy, if our own cultural policy was outlined this way. In my opinion, Slovenia was not effective enough in exploiting the available European funds for culture, from programmes to investments, in its first financial perspective as a full member of the EU in the period between 2007 and 2013. Documents issued by the state, such as the Development Strategy, National Development Programme, National Reference Framework and subsequent operational programmes, which have been adopted by the government and given the green light in Brussels, and are the basis for disbursement of EU funds, have been fairly generous to culture, probably a lot more than the actual results will show in the end. But let’s wait and see. Not enough people work on this very important field, which provides a lot of funds – a multiple of the bud­ get of the Ministry of Culture as far as I know – so large projects are simply not here. Just take the sale of castles, all of which would be eligible for EU funds, or any


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other cultural infrastructure, including the opera house in Ljubljana. The Ministry of Culture should increase investments in the existing cultural infrastructure, both governmental and non-governmental, using EU funds to design new investments, including the buildings for the upcoming European Capital of Culture, buying property and allocating it for cultural activities, encouraging a cultural frame of mind, and emphasizing the role of culture and its potential in development. New thinking in this regard would also be needed on the part of the government, to set up a new art academy in Maribor, or a faculty for cultural and media management, etc. It is ridiculous hearing and reading how politicians

even when using a digital TV. Media have become interactive widely, and many find them complicated. On the other hand, literacy on a global level is accompanied by a number of questions. To be literate means to be able to recognise and write down certain codes, in our case mostly the Latin alphabet, sometimes maybe the Cyrillic alphabet, and that’s about it. Only rare individuals are able to read the sign systems used for example by the Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Hebrew or Inuit. However, we are literate in numbers, which reach further than letters. When it comes to digital literacy, negative sides of general promotion of literacy have to be taken into account. Otherwise we might slide into digital slavery, when we

How would you predict the future of European culture – considering the threat that the EU will no longer support culture as it used to, with Member States being against it (the Czech Republic, Sweden, and others...). Can we predict what Slovenia’s opinion will be? Is our country interested in this at all?

will no longer be able or allowed to be plugged off, not to use our technological fixtures. Considering the all-embracing technology and increasingly popular, practically compulsory mobile devices, there is no lack of traps leading into slavery. Even our holidays we cannot imagine without having access to the Internet and the information that we find there. Also interesting is the transition of literacy. This, in its principle is a cultural category, we learn to read and to write, and gradually it becomes an economic category for state needs because literacy is what is used to mea­ sure the level of development of a society, and becomes a social category because based on literacy and illiteracy the society decides who fits in. Obviously there is a certain point when literacy is assumed by the economy and the society as a cultural phenomenon. This would all be fine, had not entrepreneurs, economists and managers later forgotten about the origin of their knowledge and had they not pretended as if culture had not existed. They are cutting their own roots, transferring their delusion irresponsibly onto new generations. At various conferences with entrepreneurs being in charge, culture has begun to appear shyly within business connections as corporate culture, management culture, business culture, social economy etc. Their attitude towards culture is still quite scornful, as if it was something useless, something that is supported within the budget anyway, using the taxpayers’, i.e. their money. However, a comparison of budgetary outlays for the economy and culture shows a considerable difference, the economy budget being much higher and market economy actually non-existent, whereas the cultural budget is one of the lowest there is. This is particularly obvious in Slovenia, now that banks are being saved using budgetary means for the second time in history.

ridiculously low as of now, signifying less than 1 Euro per capita over seven years. Considering the fact that the EU 27 population is around 550 million, each of them contribute around 0.80 €, i.e. 80 cents for culture over seven years, that is about 11 cents a year. In Slovenia, also, the budget of the cultural ministry is one of the lowest and it is a handy demagogy to speak of abolishing it. The actual effect would be minimal as the reverse logic has the other connotation as well: the economy of culture has calculated that culture boasts the highest yield on the funds invested. Its value being multiplicational, minimum funds can bring maximum effects. The economy, on the other hand, has a much higher budget and everyone speaks of market economy, which, actually, is nowhere to be seen. Market economy is a pure construct of theories of economy. Each economy operates on the support, on state intervention. Take the banking system, for example. Upon gaining independence we, the citizens, all invested in it, and now we have been purchasing it again. And that is because, in the meantime, the financial class has managed to lobby the political class, convincing them of their unavoidability, their universal importance for the society, without which we could not possibly exist. But the time has come for a politics that will set different priorities, that will reposition the social reality. Instead of the market economy we need a welfare state and instead of the rule of law we need to maintain a just state. Referring to the latter, there have been too many cases recently when law is an end in itself, when it is no longer about a just solution to the problem. Rather than that, lawyers use all legal means to rebut each other at the level of legal procedures, which results in the loss of sense of why an what for they are in the society. Surely, they have all the right to do so; yet such actions belong

In my opinion there is no danger for culture in Slovenia to no longer receive the state support. In the EU, as well, culture will probably remain a centre of consideration and clarification. The emerging Europeana, a library of various e-contents, is a major cultural project, culture is also being referred to as “the soul of Europe”. However, financially, its budget of 450 million € for 2007–2013 is

fotografije / photos by Damjan Švarc

talk about the high costs of an emerging infrastructural project and wonder who would pay for it, because they are there to know how much things cost and how they are financed. They should be the last, not the first ones to be worried about this, and should push the best ideas and initiatives to realisation. Cultural politics should be based on a belief that culture is the drive behind evolution, that humanity would not have progressed without culture, that all that is left of us is cultural and today also industrial heritage. After all, book is the most worship­ ed core of human society, including the Slovenian, so literacy is a cultural category, turning into a social and economic one when assessing a society’s level of development in terms of its literacy rates. Being in the centre of the human being and the society, culture should be integrated in all other subsocial systems. In reality it is just the opposite with economy spreading like cancer into culture, so that we, as artists, are forced to think in economic terms and to prove how our projects are economically justified. Cultural politics should ensure for culture to become part of economy, to be present in other spheres, as undoubtedly, it is the most connecting, the most cohesive of forces, traversing practically all the areas of man’s activity. When you speak of expanding literacy, do you also mean new-media literacy? Naturally, digital literacy is a form of literacy, or, better to say of handling tools. According to the European information society strategy i2010, we should have reached 95 percent digital literacy in 2010. Whichever way we look at it, we cannot continue to ignore new media. Each day they present us with new technological possibilities, they flood us with a range of appliances, their multifunctionality and interoperability requiring us to be literate,


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to a lab where the extreme limits of the legal border are being tested, rather then the public where they should strive for the rationality of their actions and for being a good example. As a consequence, the judicial lobby require increasing amounts of law in the social subsystems, the settlement of which demands new and new lawyers, which finally leads to the situation that is controlled partly by economists and partly by lawyers. Fundamentally, this is a totalitarian society. The law and economy as the new ideologies. Even if we take the very top of Slovenian politics: so far we have had two lawyers and one economist. I also see further interventions by economy into culture and art in the increased attention to cultural, i.e. creative industries, with culture being ap-

proached by the logic of economy, meaning profits. But culture and art are neither yield per acre not the proportion between lowest costs and highest revenues, nor should they ever be. What is the national political attitude towards culture and art? So far, Slovenia has adopted two National Programmes for Culture, 2004–2007 and 2008–2011, and an earlier draft that led to them. The third National Programme for Culture is being devised. The state politics surely displays its direct attitude towards culture. We are the only country in Europe to have a cultural holiday as a state holiday, a rare, maybe the only occasion in the world. On top of that we have many other holidays to do with culture, whereas the national Prešeren award and the slightly less prominent Prešeren Fund award are considered among major national awards, and then there are also several awards for specific fields of creativity. Also, each municipality with high regard of itself awards municipal prizes for culture and art. Declaratively, the attitude of politics toward culture and art is of high-level. However, as we descend from the level of protocol to finance in terms of supporting culture, several anomalies stand out, starting with state finance and continuing to municipal budgets. It was ridiculous when upon the recent crisis the local structures threatened and made some moves, luckily nothing fatal, to cancel grants to culture in the first place. They were quick to realise that this then leads to a collapse of the social structure. It is impossible to cancel a social subsystem with no consequences, particularly not culture, which is connected to everything else. Thanks to strong public infrastructure, public institutes, both national and municipal, there is no fear that culture

might be taken hostage by a certain present policy. Its financing is required by law, regardless of current colours or moods. The non-governmental sector is more at mercy, and as we speak extremely underfed as compared to the public sector. It can really be endangered, should it come to major budgetary interventions. However, any smart ruler will try to preserve it, as it provides them with an unimaginable creative variety that is taking place in almost 4000 cultural societies, institutes, organisations around Slovenia. The non-governmental sector is a pool of creative ideas. In recent years it has been talked much of the public sector reform, and the current ministry of culture has been working on it. It has to be said, however, that this has to

be tackled with extreme care, wisely and cleverly, otherwise a collapse of the sector might happen. We have to be aware that the public sector in culture is one of the last unspoilt areas which the neo-liberal economy has not set foot in, which is why all the means are being employed to subdue it. Their efforts are helped by non-governmental organisations demanding reforms and the unification of all segments. The neoliberal ideology picks handy demagogical arguments to privatise the public cultural sector, i.e. to seize its profitable parts and discard the rest, which would result in a cultural catastrophe. The consequences of careless handling would reach far.

Not enough people work on this very important field, which provides a lot of funds – a multiple of the budget of the Ministry of Culture as far as I know – so large projects are simply not here. Just take the sale of castles, all of which would be eligible for EU funds, or any other cultural infrastructure, including the opera house in Ljubljana.

How is our governmental cultural sector integrated in the international environment? It is clear that many cultural institutions don’t care for the international dimension. Similar to other areas, there are institutions of local, regional and national importance. The way I see this, in certain cultural creativity certain levels are emphasised more. The international component is very specific, demanding entirely different managerial approaches from what currently exists in the governmental sector, e.g. a national or a local public institute. What do you say about the claim that politicians are wrong in thinking that it is only them representing the state, and that the actual main promoters of a European country are is athletes, artists and cultural institutions? Every good master is aware that the best promotion for a country is excellent art, lively culture and sports achievements. Economy is the foundation that enables and establishes the frameworks for the state to operate. If the economic situation in the country is good, its governing will be successful, and that reflects in art, culture and sports. This is how social channels operate. On the other hand, if the country is not successful, art can still be exceptional, culture diverse and sports can be noticeable, but in a different way. Therefore we can consider culture and art the regular features promoting a country, whatever it is like. In the current context, politicians are becoming increasingly hated, the targets of people’s annoyance and the reason for public discontent. This in my opinion is because they have not been able to face the space and time we live in. Internationalisation and globalisation have not occurred only at the level of economy and in the worst shape of labour and nature, they have also occurred at the level of politics. The latter, however, has failed in the right moment to abandon its localism and dependence on the local or national basis


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providing votes for it, to climb to the next level and pay regard to the position of the community if governs in the wider context, be it European or any other regional, and eventually the global context. Most of the international politics have failed in this, as they were only able to expose their smallness and their ability to reach only as far as their local i.e. national interest. From the global view, I take the European dimension as regional, and national politicians as local. Let’s take Sarkozy as an example. He has been throwing the Romanian Roma out of France, thus seemingly solving a local problem and creating a regional one, as this was internal EU migration. However, the Roma are a nation and should be considered as such and integrated among us. I don’t understand this preoccupation originating in the 19th century, in the Spring of Nations of 1848, to be more precise, about the state defining the nation, i.e. there are only the nations that have their own states. The Roma are a proof that this is far from true. Perhaps their position indicates how they are being disruptive, acting as a mirror to those politically slow-witted, showing that survival is also possible in a different way, in their own way, without a country. But I can image that for someone substantiating their politics on the nation and the state, which is what all the right and the major part of the left politics do, it must cause overheating when someone shows them quietly, self-confidently and benevolently how this is not required. At the same time France practices segregation, accepting with open hands the so-called educated, willing Romanians as cheap labour. This is a key problem both for Europe and our future. I believe that in the 21st century we have to overshadow the nation-state obsession with a new quality. The EU is a possible path, although still caught in the restraints of national politics and nationalist politicians. Art is always ahead of times, paving the way, fulfilling the task it has set for itself, be it that of aesthetising, (re)animating, activating, depending on the context in which is has been placed, and the concept it has grown out of. The contents are usually provided by the artist in a mutual relationship with the audience. This, again can be local, national or international. Even if art is being used for certain purposes, which happens fairly often, to act as promoter of certain policies and economic interests of the state, we still have to judge it by what is shown, therefore, whether it is good or bad. And that is what many rulers fail to understand, that the quality of art they have chosen as their companion helps build their public image, and thereby the reputation of the country. This is why we should strive for the best art rather than agree to lowered criteria. Art is not a matter of political consensus; it is much wider, larger and broader. It is metaphysics. However, I am sorry to realise that one of the worst national catastrophes of the past 20 years has been throwing talents out of the window. How many fine artists have been blocked in all these years and it was due to bad cultural policies and fairly wasted mana­ gement of the public sector. How would you rate and evaluate the Slovenian artistic and cultural scene? The Slovenian cultural scene offers a lot. When being employed by the Ministry of Culture for the past year and a half, I had the opportunity to travel across the entire country and learn about the majority of Slovenian production. Ljubljana hosts a great amount of events, but they are not necessarily of high quality, nor is it necessarily true that the best in Slovenian art happens there. Perhaps things are often made for artists themselves and positioned in the local scene with some regular audience and more or less accidental passers-by. In the area of fine art, this is illustrated well by the flood of the so-called discursive projects, everybody just want to talk about art. We have painters of world scale that have nowhere to exhibit, excellent sculptors, illustrators, graphic artists that are dedicated occasional exhibitions, while galleries are occupied by curators of trendy genres. A certain scene has established itself, feeds itself and feeds on itself like Ouroboros, lives in an autarkic model. I also followed the theatre intensely, trying to see almost the entire production. Sometimes I had the feeling as if there had been no Jovanović in the 1970s, Živadinov in the 1980s and Pandur in the 1990s. What surprised me to some extent was that actors in the field of culture have no real insight into the actual situation and developments. Not only do many of them never visit another city, they never attend events whatsoever. I, however, was striving to visit as many events as possible

across Slovenia and aboard, in all fields of art, galleries and museums, theatres and concerts, independent venues, conferences and symposia, lectures, presentations and workshops, and I dare say that I had a most comprehensive impression of the cultural reality. And at its best? Best examples can be found everywhere, at the edge and in independent organisation as well as in official institutions. They are not dependent on the time-space component. Still, real art originates underground, as Marcel Duchamp claimed, but also above ground one can hear and see exceptional artistic achievements. You only have to have your ears and eyes open, or, aligned to the synaesthetic reality it would be best to have all our senses open, including the sixth sense that tells us what is good and what isn’t, that even directs us to visit a certain event or rather stay at home. I appreciate the organisations and institutions that bring underground art out into the open, transfer it to a high professional level and forward the most topical range to the public, educating it, opening its horizons with what is in store. But to do that, you have to be open enough in the first place, be informed in art sufficiently, be professional, which is a rare domain. And what happens when we take it to the international environment? This, of course, is a wide concept, but still. Slovenian art is worldly, is relevant and comparable at the international level, often even ahead of the world, if that can be said at all. Sadly, however, it has not been followed by Slovenian institutions whose concern for the production and promotion of Slovenian art both at home and abroad is insufficient. They fail to perform their functions as they should. On the one hand these are public institutions subject to inertia, on the other hand, their structure is entirely unsuitable. I find it alarming that a team, a director can be in charge of a national, public institution for more than two terms, for eight or ten years. As a consequence, such a director shapes he Slovenian art and culture according to their tastes, and if they keep the post for fifteen, twenty, thirty years, their taste becomes predominant, which prevents those not fulfilling it to be present, to exhibit, perform, act. In such a situation, an artist can practice something else for fifteen, twenty years, e.g. get a job as a waiter or doorkeeper, waiting for the situation to pass. This means that certain artists run out of their lives rather than the director, and they are never given a chance. Also, this system is unsuitable to the young who plan to work in art and culture, dissuading them from any ambition to make a career. Knowing that highest positions have been handed out for life, any merrymaker would shiver rather than play the provisional game of candidature. By inference, the reserved employees are the only ones informed, concealing jealously all the discoveries of the trade, knowing that any information disclosed would work for their opponents and eat their privileges away. This is why they have no successors, which is the key problem of Slovenian institutional culture. Rather than changing their leading positions after two terms, which would make everybody interested in transferring their know-how, knowledge and experience to their successors, this is all being concealed. After two terms such a person should be given the position of an advisor to the management or move to another institution to share their best skills. We used to have the rotation of personnel in socialism, which was perceived rather ironically, but today there’s not even that. We have a cemented situation where nobody moves anymore, where there are no possibilities for promotion or change, no flow. The scene is hermetic, which holds both for the public sector in culture and the non-governmental sector, where the generation of former revolutionaries demands a paycheck for their “veteran years”. I can even accept that if they retire and leave us alone. Indeed, we have excellent, exceptional artists and creative teams of world scale, but they are left to their own devices, their own inventiveness or random connections and the few enthusiasts that believe in their art and its mission.

To be aware that we live in the European community, using the resources and means of a cultural community that goes beyond national borders, also means to be aware of changes in financing systems. Now when the Internet is the first global media, everybody should have equal, free and unhindered access to the contents available online. If this is not the case, a new segmentation of people will take place, into those having the access and those without it, digital elites will be formed. We have to be aware that the Internet already is the greatest pool of knowledge and information. If part of the population is not granted access to it, they are deprived, robbed of what is almost a civilisational need and the constitutional right that considers equal access to information to be an indispensable condition. Let me say as an interesting fact that students in Austria already demand that each person studying get a laptop as this is where social differences show – it is not enough for everybody to have internet access, the also need the tools, and of course, electricity. Universities would have to consider this because in Slovenia, free and open Internet access while studying will soon no longer be enough, some other things will have to be covered as well. It should not be too difficult to find a solution. Namely, we have to be aware that students are the best investment for our future. And, if we want to have one, we have to invest in it. It has been predicted for 2010 that more than 61 million books will be digitalised entirely, which will exceed all the current databases of knowledge. One of the projects within the ECC 2012 candidature was free wireless broadband Internet access, which in Maribor has happened already, but I don’t know about partner cities. The next step, naturally is free admission to institutional culture and art for the unemployed, which was realised during my post at the Ministry of Culture. Slovenian theatres, concert venues, museums, galleries and other venues have granted free tickets to the unemployed. Then access to art and culture institutions was organised, ramps for the disabled, inductive loops for the deaf and Braille information boards for the blind. Why couldn’t they also touch the gallery and museum items, or at least their replicas? And also: titles to works of art and subtitles to theatre plays in several languages, at least in the languages of minorities in Slovenia, i.e. Hungarian and Italian, in the Roma language and languages of our neighbours, in German and Croatian, and naturally, in English. Maybe it should be considered to bring culture and art back to people, return it into schools, position into companies, open up to the public so that people learn this is no bogey, it can be quite nice. And to enhance culture and art with programmes that promote active following and participation. Maybe we will thus also be reminded of our creative period, when we still dared do things. We shouldn’t forget that culture generates evolution. It was only culture that helped us develop to what we are today, without it we couldn’t have survived. Everything that our civilisations leave behind is culture and cultural heritage. Nothing else. Saša Belina

How can art and culture contribute specifically to a better position of the poor, the neglected, the abused? Literacy is a cultural category and of course as much population as possible should be made literate. So that people can read, write, communicate, and interact with each other. Everybody should be given equal opportunities, be enabled education, have access to information.

foto / photo by Damjan Švarc


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I appreciate the organisations and institutions that bring underground art out into the open, transfer it to a high professional level and forward the most topical range to the public, educating it, opening its horizons with what is in store.


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Uroš Kaurin Brez problema se slečem, nisem pa ekshibicionis

I have no problem taking my clothes off, but I’m not an exhibitionist

Uroš Kaurin je eden najbolj aktivnih mladih gledališčnikov in igralcev v Sloveniji. Poleg svoje redne zaposlitve v Slovenskem mladinskem gledališču, kjer je zaigral v tako odmevnih predstavah kot so Peklenska pomaranča, Kralj Lear in nazadnje v najnovejši, modernistični izvedbi Cankarjevega Pohujšanja v dolini šentflorjanski, se namreč zelo aktivno udejstvuje tudi na neodvisni gledališki sceni. Je eden od glavnih motorjev Momenta, praktično edinega društva v Mariboru, ki se redno ukvarja s kakovostno neodvisno produkcijo in je v štajersko prestolnico lani prineslo svež gledališki veter s festivalom neodvisnega gledališča Prestopi, v okviru katerega je Uroš zablestel s svojo predstavo Making Medea, hkrati pa je tudi pomemben akter ljubljanske neodvisne scene, saj je dolgoletni sodelavec ene najbolj odmevnih in aktivnih gledaliških skupin v Sloveniji in širše, Vie Negative. Nase je opozoril predvsem v lanskem letu, ko si je prislužil Borštnikovo nagrado za najboljšega mladega igralca, poleg vsega naštetega pa se redno spogleduje tudi s filmom, saj je zaigral v enem najbolj odmevnih slovenskih filmov Gremo mi po svoje, pred tem pa tudi v za študentskega oskarja nominiranem kratkem filmu Vučko. Do gledališča imaš zelo ambivalenten odnos, saj je na nek način smisel tvojega življenja, ki si se mu predal z vsem, kar imaš, do njega pa si tudi zelo kritičen in v intervjuju si celo izjavil, da je gledališče “drek”. Kako dojemaš ta odnos? Veliko razmišljam o tem, tudi o tej izjavi, ker se je intervju v Mladinskem gledališču znašel celo na oglasni deski in se kolegi norčujejo iz mene. Seveda je to provokacija, česar ne skrivam, ampak če do tega, kar delaš, nimaš zelo kritičnega odnosa, potem je bolje, da tega sploh ne delaš. Tako da je to v bistvu izjava iz čiste ljubezni do gledališča. Izjavo si v intervjuju razložil tako, da je vprašljiva miselnost in usmerjenost slovenskega gledališča. Si s tem mislil, da mu manjka ravno te samokritičnosti? Absolutno. Ta izjava ni zgolj načelna, ampak je tudi opažanje stanja. Zdi se mi, da se v teatru nekatere stvari velikokrat delajo na pamet, prehitro in brez tehtnega premisleka. To je mišljeno na vseh nivojih in ni zgolj kritika režijskih praks, kar bi mogoče najprej padlo na pamet. Gre za kritično evalvacijo celotnega sistema, ki se razširja tudi na produkcijsko raven, na to, kako institucionalna gledališča funkcionirajo, kako predstave nastajajo, se tržijo, na probleme neodvisnega gledališča in konec koncev na to, kakšne 'mučke' se dogajajo. Primer je post produkcija na neodvisni sceni, ki je nekaj res groznega, saj je na primer v sodobnem plesu v Sloveniji povprečje, da imaš vsega skupaj tri ponovitve. tonight I celebrate via negativa (foto/photo Marcandrea)


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(foto/photo Ajda Schmidt)


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Kar nekaj te kritike leti tudi na Borštnikovo srečanje, zato me zanima, kako si sprejel lansko Borštnikovo nagrado za najboljšega mladega igralca. To je večna debata. Preden sem izvedel, da bom prejel nagrado – mimogrede, to je bilo ob dveh zjutraj v Traču (bar v kleti stavbe Slovenskega narodnega gledališča Maribor, op. a.) v družbi vodje festivala Alje Predan – sem imel intervju, v katerem sem nekaj 'sral' po Borštniku. V osnovi kritika Borštnikovega drži, vprašanje, kdo se lahko poteguje za te nagrade, ostaja odprto in večinoma velja, da je podeljevanje institucionalno naravnano, ampak se do s takratnim odnosom ne morem več strinjati. Lansko srečanje, kar so tudi mediji večinoma prepoznali, je bilo zelo pozitivna izkušnja. Dvorane so bile polne in program raznolik. Mislim predvsem na novi 'showcase' programski del, na katerem je bilo nekaj predstav iz tekmovalnega programa, predvsem pa je bil močno zaznamovan z našo 'off' sceno. Celo nekdo iz komisije mi je rekel, da bi raje nagradil koga iz spremljevalnega programa. A verjetno je še bolj kot nagrade same pomembno, da se je ta program zgodil in da si ga je ogledalo veliko ljudi. Iz tradicionalnega in institucionalnega gledališča pa te vedno bolj vleče tudi v neodvisno sceno, izjemno si aktiven v društvu Moment, pa tudi v ljubljanski Vii Negativi. Najraje delam prav te predstave, ki v osnovi nimajo dramskega teksta in se odmikajo od klasičnega dramskega gledališča. Vsako predstavo moraš opredeliti posebej in ni jih mogoče kar tako popredalčkati. Prav zato Moment organizira festival neodvisnega gledališča Prestopi, ker smo želeli zajeti vso širino te scene in se ne omejiti na ožje oznake, kot je sodobno ali gibalno gledališče in podobno. V bistvu me v to ne vleče le v zadnjem času, ampak že od nekdaj, gre pa za to, da bi rad v Momentu s kolegi razvil to, kar tako rad delam že od začetka pri Vii Negativi in v Ljubljani, kjer je ta scena veliko bolj razvita in močna. Zato smo lani začeli s festivalom in bi radi, da ne ostane zgolj pri festivalu, ampak da se najde ustvarjalni prostor – na žalost je kino Partizan padel v vodo – in se začne razvijati celoletno dogajanje na tem področju ustvarjanja. Želimo si skupen, odprt prostor za scenske umetnosti, kjer bi ljudje lahko vadili, ustvarjali in nastopali, kar bi gotovo pripomoglo k razvoju te scene v Mariboru. In kako si sprejel dejstvo, da zdaj nekdanjo kinodvorano Partizan v centru mesta raje spreminjajo v skladišče kot pa v neodvisno gledališče? To je zelo zanimiva zgodba in veseli me, da lahko govorim o tem. Prvi preblisk sem dobil že takrat, ko se je začel obujati kino Udarnik in takrat smo se začeli pogovarjati, da bi lahko mi obudili kino Partizan in bi v središču Maribora imeli kar dva neodvisna kulturna centra. Ideja je zorela približno eno leto in v tem času sem s pomočjo različnih ljudi, uveljavljenih strokovnjakov z gledališkega področja, sestavil krajši elaborat oziroma konceptualni okvir projekta. Poslal sem ga Družbi za svetovanje in upravljanje, upravljalcem kina Partizan, ki so mi odgovorili, da bo prostore verjetno najel Pokrajinski muzej Maribor. Takoj sem elaborat s predlogom za sodelovanje poslal tudi njim. Direktorica muzeja Mirjana Koren mi sploh ni odgovorila, dva dni sem jo skušal tudi priklicati, a nikoli ni bila dosegljiva, zato smo se obrnili na javni zavod Maribor 2012 – Evropska prestolnica kulture (EPK). Vsi, vključno s programskim direktorjem Mitjo Čandrom, so nam povedali, da so za in nas podpirajo, na koncu pa smo vsi ostali razočarani. Zdaj sem razočaran, če pa bi me vprašal pred kakšnim tednom, bi ti rekel, da sem jezen, ker je vse skupaj prav neumno. Pred kratkim sem znova stopil v Partizan, ko so ga ravno demontirali – in dvorana je dejansko perfektna za uprizoritvene umetnosti. Zdaj iščemo nadomestno lokacijo, povezali pa smo se tudi s programskim sklopom EPK Ključi mesta. Ta bo najemal nekatere prostore v središču mesta, ampak to v osnovi nam Mariborčanom in mestu dolgoročno verjetno ne bo koristilo. Če bo celo mesto naseljeno s kulturnimi prostori za leto ali dve in bo potem spet vse po starem, se bomo sicer imeli eno leto odlično, potem pa … Mene bolj zanima, kaj bo z Mariborom v letu 2025, zato ne morem nehati razmišljati o Partizanu, ki bi s svojo lokacijo in dimenzijami dejansko pomenil neko možnost za prihodnost! Floskule o oživitvi mestnega jedra, ki se tako rade ponavljajo, bi dejansko dobile nek smisel. Ne morem verjeti, da ima neka javna kulturna institucija, kot je muzej, tako malo posluha za javno dobro, za kulturo in umetnost, v tem vidim predvsem velik načelen problem! Spreminjam svojo izjavo, o kateri sva se pogovarjala prej in zdaj lahko rečem: Kultura je drek!

Dotaknil si se EPK-ja, kulturnega projekta stoletja za Slovenijo in izpostavil enega od ključnih problemov, o katerem se sprašujejo vsi mariborski kulturni producenti, namreč, kaj bo po letu 2012 oziroma 2013. Kaj lahko po tvojem mnenju ta projekt prinese za dolgoročen razvoj kulture v mestu? Lahko da Mariboru trajen pečat in poskrbi za spremembo miselnosti in generacije, kar bi konec koncev pomenilo tudi to, da Moment in podobna društva dobijo prostor za ustvarjanje? Ko odgovarjam na to vprašanje, moram najprej opozoriti, da ne morem govoriti popolnoma objektivno, saj večino časa nisem v Mariboru, kar je lahko tudi prednost in da lahko govorim le za uprizoritveno umetnost, čeprav se v omenjenih problemih umetniške veje ne razlikujejo veliko med seboj. Najbolj mi gre na jetra, da ne vem niti, kaj naj pričakujem od EPK. Na spletni strani imaš vse projekte, kakšnih deset, ki prikazujejo, kaj vse naj bi se na novo zgradilo in izjemno me jezi, da je to še vedno gor. Halo! Bodo Udarnik prenavljali?! Ne. EPK je taka eksemplarična zgodba Maribora, ki je v osnovi vsekakor pozitivna, saj tega projekta gotovo nismo dobili kar tako in je moral biti z nečim pridobljen, ampak čisto druga stvar je, kako se potem izvaja. Tipično za naše mesto se mi zdi, da imamo vsi svoje ideje, kako bi nekaj naredili, ko pa je to potrebno izvesti, se ne znamo prav zmeniti, kako in kaj. Ko pridejo trenutki za sprejemanje odločitev in odgovornosti zanje, se zelo hitro pokaže nesposobnost, ki Maribor kar močno prežema, ali privatne zamere in preference. V osnovi bi moral biti EPK priložnost za prihodnost in veselim se celoletnega kulturnega dogajanja v prihajajočem letu, ampak mene kot mariborskega producenta in ustvarjalca sploh ne zanima leto 2012, ampak leta po tem. Predvsem mi manjka dejanski vpogled v to, tako pogosto ponavljano, floskulo o prihodnosti Maribora, zanima me, kje je ta program, ki bo izobrazil mariborsko publiko in pripeljal novo od drugod. Kot del izbranih programov EPK se imam za soustvarjalca tega projekta, pa nimam pregleda nad EPK-jem in nimam pojma, kaj bo iz tega. Kolikor razumem letošnji elaborat za prijavo na EPK, se mi zdi, da bi od nas radi opis tega, kar delamo in da se skuša najti povezave med ljudmi s primerljivimi projekti, za kar pa bi morali sami že zdavnaj poskrbeti. Upam na najboljše in čim več sinergij in denarja za mariborsko kulturo. Ampak potem spet pridemo do tega, da naj bi bil Maks v letu 2012 zgrajen, Pekarne pa ne morejo obnoviti. Mladi bi morali nujno prevzeti iniciativo, ampak tudi pri sebi opažam, da je velikokrat potrebno več razmišljati o dejanskih sposobnostih ljudi in odgovornostih. Primer so ravno razpisi, ki jih, čeprav sem igralec in ustvarjalec, na koncu vseeno izpolnjujem skupaj s kolegi iz društva, pri čemer smo zadnje čase tudi uspešni. Ampak vidim, da za ljudmi, ki se s kulturno produkcijo ukvarjajo profesionalno, še vedno veliko zaostajam. Z Momentom prav zaradi tega vabimo nove ljudi k sodelovanju in se povezujemo z drugimi producenti z našega področja in ravno to sodelovanje ter delitev odgovornosti je ena od poti v prihodnost. Ko smo bili pred kratkim na sestanku 'izbranih 120' za EPK, smo vsi bili jezni na zavod Maribor2012, vendar sem postal prav tečen zaradi nekaterih vprašanja iz občinstva. Kakor da ni jasno, da mi delamo program EPK in da moramo izpolniti ter poskrbeti za te stvari, saj po letu 2012 tudi ne bo več nekoga drugega, ki bo vse to urejal za nas in nas “obmetaval” z denarjem. Moment pa se vedno bolj razvija, širi po Sloveniji in v tujino. Lani ste s festivalom Prestopi v mesto končno pripeljali nekaj svežega vetra na uprizoritvenem področju, letos boste nastopili celo na največjem evropskem gledališkem festivalu v Avignonu, gostovali boste v ljubljanski Drami, v Beljaku itd. Nastavki so vsekakor dobri. Potrebno je vedeti, da smo začeli kot popolnoma amatersko društvo, saj smo naše prve predstave delali kot študentje, in dejstvo je, da smo zdaj ena redkih organizacij v mestu, ki dela stvari na takšni ravni. Zoran (op. a.: Zoran Petrovič, predsednik društva Moment) je vedno govoril – pa sem bil takrat ob tem po navadi nekoliko živčen – da se samo počasi in vztrajno daleč pride. Zdaj, po štirih letih, pa smo dobili prvo podporo z Ministrstva za kulturo, kar je gotovo potrditev profesionalnega in dobrega dela, naredili smo kar nekaj koprodukcij in gostovanj in uspelo nam je zasnovati in izpeljati lasten festival. Vse skupaj se mi zdi kar velik dosežek, zdaj pa smo na neki točki, ko pričakujem, da se bo Moment tudi kadrovsko razširil in nehal biti trojica ljudi, ki delajo kot budale.

Kakšen prestop so za vas pomenili Prestopi in kam nameravate z njimi prestopiti v prihodnje? Lahko smo zadovoljni s prvo izvedbo Prestopov in mislim, da gre vse skupaj v pravo smer. O festivalu smo se že dolgo pogovarjali, nato pa smo se enostavno odločili, da ga bomo naredili, denar pa bomo že nekje dobili. In res smo ga tako izvedli, na srečo pa smo bili dovolj dobro pripravljeni, da je na koncu vse šlo skozi, da smo dobili denar od nizozemske ambasade, dveh sponzorjev in občine ter da smo imeli svoj denar, ki smo ga tudi kar nekaj vložili. Najbolj pomembno je bilo, da je bila ekipa tako požrtvovalna. Osnovna ideja festivala je vsekakor ta, da v Maribor pripeljemo stvari, ki jih tukaj drugače ne bi bilo ali pa nimajo takšnega odmeva. Tako se tudi ustvarja potreba po teh vsebinah in publika, ki jih spremlja, konec koncev pa tudi novi ustvarjalci, saj se na primer v Mariboru za razliko od Ljubljane redko kdo, ki je zaposlen v gledališču, ukvarja z neodvisno produkcijo. Ne mislim, da so ti ljudje leni, ampak v mestu ni povpraševanja in produkcijskih pogojev za kaj takšnega v širšem obsegu. V Mariboru vsekakor je potencial in zakaj se ne bi začel razvijati, v Momentu smo vedno bili odprti, kar je tudi ena od naših prednosti. Skratka, v okviru festivala Prestopi pripravljamo tudi nov projekt, ki je zaenkrat še v zametkih, da bi namreč iz festivalskih delavnic začele rasti predstave. Iz povedanega in pokazanega se vidi, da te neodvisno avtorsko delo, kjer produkcija ni jasno in striktno hierarhizirana, ampak bazira na timskem delu in neprestani interakciji ter predvsem velikem lastnem vložku v vse produkcijske ravni, bolj zapolnjuje kot institu­ cionalni način ustvarjanja, kjer so naloge in vloge točno določene. V teh predstavah rad tudi velikokrat dodajaš nove, svojstvene elemente in se poigravaš z gledališkimi konvencijami. Moja kolegica in igralka Katarina Stegnar se dostikrat šali, da smo teater iz vrečke, saj za vse poskrbimo sami. To vsebuje neko romantičnost, saj imaš bolj oseben odnos do vsega skupaj, več krat pa lahko preraste tudi v problem, saj si za vse odgovoren sam. Takšne predstave, pa ne samo moje, ampak tudi te, ki jih gledam, imajo več duše in energije in so na nek način enostavno boljše. To sicer ni nujno pravilo, ampak se mi je že več krat zgodilo in uživam v tem, da imam trenutno doma kostume za tri različne predstave. Pred temi predstavami sem tudi veliko bolj živčen, ker zastavljam samega sebe, saj delam iz osebnega prepričanja, da je to potrebno povedati, pokazati in da to publika mora videti. Na podoben način deluje tudi Moment kot celota, saj z denarjem, ki smo ga imeli na začetku in z lastnim vložkom verjetno nihče ne bi šel delat festivala. Na koncu letošnjega leta sem prvič po štirih letih od Momenta dobil nekaj honorarja. Zate postaja že kar značilno, da si na odru gol. Pri tem je vedno pomembno vprašanje ali je ta golota upravičena in ima svojo sporočilnost v predstavi ali pa gre zgolj za kaprico in neumestno provokacijo igralca. Kako se odločaš, kdaj biti gol na odru in kaj želiš s tem sporočiti občinstvu, za del katerega golota v teatru še vedno ostaja tabu in sramota, ne glede na pomen v predstavi? Zakaj mi gre tako zelo na živce, ko mi nekdo reče, “kako lahko 'ščiješ' po odru” in da “to ni umetnost”? Tega enostavno ne morem sprejeti, saj mi kdo drug lahko reče, “kako lahko stojiš na odru” ali pa slikarju očita, “kako pa lahko uporabljaš rdečo barvo, saj to ni umetnost”. Seveda ni, če ne poznaš konteksta, saj je lahko umetnost tudi popolnoma rdeča površina ali predstava s samimi nagci na odru, če je tako zastavljeno v konceptu in pravilno umeščeno, če se s tem nekaj tehtnega pove. Tudi meni gre veliko krat na živce, če je kdo brez veze nag na odru in ne gre le za neko mojo kaprico, da bi se moral po vsej sili sleči v predstavi. Zgodilo se mi je že, da sem na vaji za eno od predstav Vie Negative dobil preblisk, da se moram sleči, pa so me vsi gledali po strani, ker ni imelo pravega smisla in predstavi ni dajalo nobenega dodatnega pomena ali širine. Pač en nagec skače na odru … Ni problem, da se slečem na odru, če ima to nek smisel, nisem pa ekshibicionist. Ni ravno zgražanje nad goloto na odru ali v filmu ali kjerkoli drugje nekaj najbolj dvoličnega v tej izjemno ekshibicionistični družbi, v kateri imamo prek videonadzora, Googla, Facebooka v vsakem trenutku vpogled v življenje posameznika? Ali ni najbolj boleče ravno to, da tudi v umetnosti, ki bi morala kritično osmisliti te težnje v družbi, golota še vedno do neke mere ostaja tabu?


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Slovensko mladinsko gledališče, Peklenska pomaranča Ivan Peternelj, Uroš Kaurin, Blaž Šef, Primož Bezjak foto / photo Žiga Koritnik


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Vsekakor. Prav to je tudi ena od stvari, ki se mi zdi tipična za Maribor, da se ne gleda na stvari v kontekstu ali pa da se nečesa sploh ne pogleda v celoti in se že pljuva vse povprek. Marsikje smo doživljali takšne škandale, predvsem z Vio Negativo, češ “oni pa urinirajo na odru, oni pa to in to”, ampak po navadi smo nato ugotovili, da so se najbolj zgražali ljudje, ki predstave sploh niso videli. Pač, vedeli so, da nekdo urinira po odru in zagnali vik in krik, kar je navadna neumnost. Lahko pa razumem, da človek tega od začetka ne 'šteka', zato pa mislim, da je nujno pristopati tudi k publiki, ki tega ni vajena. Ravno pred kratkim je imel Grega Zorc predstavo Vie Negative ob kulturnem prazniku v Čatežu in je pred njim nastopal pevski zbor, za njim pa neka lokalna pevka. Sicer se Grega ni slačil ali kaj podobnega, ampak je s čisto vianegativovskim performansom navdušil kakšnih 120 ljudi, ki takšnega gledališča gotovo niso vajeni. Tako se pokaže, da so nekatere stvari dobre, druge pa niso, in vseeno je, kaj se dogaja na odru. Opazil sem, da te neprestano spremlja lik igralca Marka Mandića. Omenjen je v predstavi Making Medea, nekje sem kot del tvojega opisa prebral: “Uroš bi rad bil Marko Mandić”, pa tudi v pogovoru ti je kot prvo ime na pamet prišel prav on. Imaš kakšen poseben odnos do njega kot igralca, da vprašam še malo bolj provokativno, je zate idol, zgled? Ko smo bili še na akademiji (Akademija za gledališče, režijo, film in …, op. a.), je bil Mandić vsem 'vau, oh in sploh' igralec, potem pa je to počasi preraslo v šalo. Še vedno ga zelo cenim, ne morem pa reči, da je ravno moj idol. Kot študentu mi je veljal za enega od glavnih vzorov in sem ga koval v zvezde. Zdaj gledam malo širše, saj ima vsak dober igralec nekaj, kar se mi zdi fascinantno. Marka zdaj dojemam z drugo distanco, saj sva se medtem spoznala in skupaj delala predstave. Zdaj gledam drugače na te stvari in raje sebe kujem v zvezde (smeh). Ves čas se poleg gledališča spogleduješ s filmom, nastopil si v lani zelo odmevnem slovenskem filmu Gremo mi po svoje, prej tudi v za študentskega oskarja nominiranem Vučku, a nekako ti ne uspe popoln preboj na velika platna in male zaslone, tako kot je na primer tvojima vrstnikoma iz Maribora, Nini Ivanišin in Juriju Drevenšku. Se držiš nazaj, čakaš na pravo vlogo, kakšni so tvoji načrti s filmsko kariero? Sam se glede filma prav nič ne držim nazaj in to, kar dobim, po navadi tudi odigram, saj zaenkrat še ničesar nisem zavrnil. Neuspeh lahko pripisujem svojemu krivemu nosu (smeh). Gre pa za čisto drug sistem in način dela, kjer je včasih zelo hecno, po kakšnem ključu se izbirajo igralci. Zdi se mi, da so filmarji veliko krat bolj previdni, saj če pogledaš slovenske filme, imaš kakšnih osem igralcev, ki so skoraj v vseh, nastopi ostalih so bolj epizodni. Z veseljem bi več igral v filmih, je pa res, da bi se lahko tudi sam nekoliko bolj potrudil za to. Film imam zelo rad in uživam v snemanju, čeprav je po navadi zelo naporno, saj je na setu veliko čakanja, kar jemljem kot sestavni del filmskega ustvarjanja. To tudi nekateri profesionalci radi pozabijo in so včasih zelo tečni, ko morajo malo počakati. Skoraj ljubše mi je igrati na klasičen način s tekstom, dialogom v filmu, v teatru pa me bolj zanimajo druge smeri, saj v gledališču vse ne sloni toliko na zgodbi kot v filmu. Na Facebooku sem videl, da imaš zapisano geslo “Dis­ cipline is freedom! (Disciplina je svoboda)”. Koliko se tega držiš? To je že pred časom rekla ena od mojih nekdanjih učiteljic za ples na eni izmed delavnic in zdelo se mi je res dobro povedano. Še zdaj mislim, da je čista resnica, ki pa se je nikakor ne morem držati. Tako da je to geslo namenjeno meni bolj v opomin. ENG Uroš Kaurin is one of the busiest young theatre personalities and actors in Slovenia. In addition to his regular commitments in the Mladinsko Theatre, where he was part of notable plays such as A Clockwork Orange, King Lear and the latest, modernist production of Cankar’s Scandal in the Valley of St Florian, he is also very actively involved in the independent theatre scene. He is one of the key driving forces behind Moment, the only association in Maribor to be engaged in

tonight I celebrate via negativa (foto/photo Marcandrea)

high-level independent production on a regular basis. Last year, Moment brought a breath of fresh theatre air to the regional capital of Štajerska with Crossings (Prestopi), a festival of independent theatres, where Uroš’s performance Making Medea was a great success. As a long-standing member of Via Negativa, one of the most celebrated and productive theatre groups in Slovenia and abroad, he is also an important part of the independent scene in Ljubljana. He attracted a lot of attention last year, when he received a Borštnik Award for best young actor. Apart from all this, he also has an ongoing flirtation with the world of motion pictures, having appeared in Let’s do it our way (Gremo mi po svoje), one of the most successful Slovene films, and earlier in Vučko, a short film nominated for a Student Academy Award.

dependent theatre Crossings. We wanted to capture the entire range of this scene and not limit ourselves to labels such as contemporary or moving theatre. In fact, I have been drawn to it not only recently, but for as long as I can remember. With Moment, I would like to develop what I have always liked to do so much in Via Negativa in Ljubljana, where this scene is much more developed and much stronger. This is why we started the festival and also why we want to go beyond that, to set up a creative space – unfortunately the plan with Kino Partizan didn’t work out – and start developing a year-round programme in this arts field. We aim for a collective, open space for performing arts, where people could rehearse, create and perform, which would definitely have a strong influence on the development of this scene in Maribor.

When it comes to theatre you have very ambivalent feelings. In a way, it is the meaning of life for you, one which you have given yourself up to, body and soul. On the other hand, you remain very critical, having even called theatre “shit” in one of your interviews. How do you see this relation?

What was your reaction to the decision to turn the former movie theatre Partizan in the city centre into a storage facility instead of an independent theatre?

I think about it a lot, and about this specific statement, as well, because a copy of this interview ended up on a notice board in the Mladinsko Theatre and colleagues now keep making fun of me. I don’t deny the fact this was a provocation, but if you don’t remain very critical of what you do, you better don’t do this at all. So this statement was actually made out of true love of theatre. In the interview you explained your statement by calling into question the mentality and orientation of theatre in Slovenia. Did you mean it was this self-criticism that theatre lacks? Absolutely. This statement is not only a matter of principle; it is also an observation of the state of things. I think in theatre some things are often done thoughtlessly, in a rush and without careful consideration. This goes for all segments; it is not merely a criticism of directors’ methods, which could be the obvious way to understand it. It is a critical evaluation of the entire system, which also includes the production level, the way institutional theatres operate, how plays come to live on stage and are marketed, problems of independent theatre, and finally also all the mess that is going on. Take post-production in the independent scene, which is truly terrible; in modern dance in Slovenia, for instance, it is normal to have three performances of one production altogether. How did you accept last year’s Borštnik Award for best young actor, since some of this critique is also directed at the Borštnik Theatre Festival? This is a never-ending debate. About eight hours before I was told about the award – incidentally, this was at 2 a.m. in Trač (a bar below the Slovene National Theatre Maribor, a/n), where I was with the festival director Alja Predan, so I was the first one to find out – I gave an interview saying some ‘crap’ about the festival. In essence, the critique of the festival still stands, the question of who can be awarded remains open to discussion, and the award-giving generally has an institutional tendency, but to some extent I can no longer agree with the attitude I had then. With full venues and a very diverse programme, last year’s festival was a positive experience, as the media noticed, as well. What I have in mind, above all, is the new “showcase” section of the programme, which featured some competing performances but very much focused on our “off” scene. A member of the judging panel even said to me, as I think most of us would agree, they would rather award somebody from the outof-competition programme. But what probably matters more than awards as such is that this programme was there and that many people saw it. You have been increasingly drawn from this traditional and institutional theatre into the independent scene. You have been very active in Moment, and also in Via Negativa in Ljubljana. What I like best is to work on these plays that in essence are not based on a theatre piece and move away from traditional theatre. Each performance must be defined on its own and cannot be immediately categorised. This is the reason Moment organises the festival of in-

This is a very interesting story and I am happy to be able to talk about it. I got the first idea as soon as the former movie theatre Kino Udarnik started to be revived, when we talked about how we could take over Kino Partizan and have not only one, but two independent cultural centres, side by side, in the Maribor city centre. The idea grew for about a year and in this period I put together a short report or a concept for the project with the help of various individuals, distinguished theatre experts. I sent it to the Management and Consultancy Company, the manager of Kino Partizan, which replied that Partizan would probably be let out to the Regional Museum of Maribor, so I immediately sent the concept with a proposal for cooperation to them, as well. Museum director Mirjana Koren has never answered. I tried calling her for two days, but could never reach her, so I also contacted Maribor 2012 public institute – European Capital of Culture. Everyone, including Programme Director Mitja Čander, said they liked the idea and supported it, but in the end we were left with nothing but disappointment. I am disappointed now, but if you had asked me about a year ago, I would have said I was angry, because the whole thing is just ridiculous. I have recently been to Partizan, which was just being dismantled, and the venue truly is perfect for performing arts. Now we are looking for a substitute location. We have also got in touch with the Town Keys programme section of the European Capital of Culture, which will rent some spaces in the city centre. In general, the people and the city of Maribor are not likely to benefit from this in the long run. If the entire city is full of cultural spaces for a year or two, this period will be great, but after it everything will go back to the way it was before. What I am interested in is Maribor in 2025, so I cannot give up the thought of Partizan. With its location and structure, it would actually bring us a chance for the future! All the empty talk of reviving the old town, which we hear over and over again, would then really mean something. I cannot believe how a public cultural institution such as a museum pays so little attention to the public good, culture and arts; the things it deals with itself. This is where I see the fundamental problem. I am changing my statement we talked about earlier; now I can say: Culture is shit! You have mentioned the European Capital of Culture (ECC), a centenary cultural project for Slovenia, and pointed out one of the key problems all arts producers in Maribor are talking about: what happens after 2012 or 2013? What do you think this project can contribute to the long-term development of culture in Maribor? Can it leave a permanent mark and help change the mentality and this generation, which would also mean Moment and similar organisations could obtain spaces like Partizan to create in? Before I answer this question I should emphasize I cannot be entirely objective, as I spend most of my time outside Maribor, which can also be an advantage. Also, I can only speak about performing arts, although forms of art are not in a very different situation as regards the problems already mentioned. What irritates me most of all is that I don’t even know what to expect of ECC. Its web site mentions all these projects, about ten of them, showing all these plans for new buildings, and it makes me mad that this is still there. Hello? Will Udarnik


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get renovated?! No. ECC is a case exemplary of Maribor. In essence, it is certainly positive, as this project could not have been won without effort and some good reason, but how it is being implemented and where it leads to is an altogether different thing. I think it is typical of our city that we all have ideas about doing things, but when they have to be done we just cannot quite agree what to do and how to do it. When a moment comes to make a decision and take responsibility for it, we soon see either incompetence, which affects Maribor quite badly, or personal grudges and favouritism. Essentially, ECC should be an opportunity for the future, and I am looking forward to the year-round cultural programme in the year to come. However, as a producer in Maribor and an artist I am not the least interested in 2012, but in the years after that. What I miss is a concrete insight into the future of Maribor, a phrase that gets repeated again and again; I wonder where the programme is that will educate the Maribor audience and attract people from elsewhere. As part of the ECC programme selection I consider myself one of the creators of the project, but I have no overview of it and have no idea what is to become of it. From what I make of this year’s document for ECC application, I think they would like to get a description of what we do, in order to try and link people with similar projects, although this is something they should have done themselves long ago. I hope for the best and for a lot of synergy and resources for culture in Maribor. But then again, Maks is to be built in 2012, while Pekarna cannot be renovated. Let me also answer the second part of your question. Young people must take the initiative, but what I have also noticed with myself is that you often spend more time thinking about the real competence of people and the responsibility this brings. Take tenders, for instance. Although I am originally an actor and an artist, my friends from Moment and I still have to deal with applications, and we have been doing so quite successfully recently, but compared to people who are engaged in cultural production professionally I still have a long way to go. This is why Moment tries to attract new people to work with us, and get in touch with other producers from our field, as this cooperation and the sharing of responsibility are one of the ways to the future. To go back to your question: at a recent meeting of the ECC “chosen 120” we have all been angry at the Maribor 2012 institute, but what really annoyed me were some questions from the audience. Come on, people, don’t you get it that we are preparing the ECC programme and that this means certain obligations and requirements? After 2012, there will be no-one to take care of this for us and swamp us with money. Regardless of this story, Moment is developing and expanding across Slovenia and to other countries. Last year, you brought a breath of fresh air in performing arts to Maribor with the festival Crossings. This year, you will perform at the biggest European arts festival in Avignon, in the National Theatre in Ljubljana, in Villach, Austria, etc. Prospects are certainly good. I have to emphasize we started as a fully amateur association, working on our first productions as students, but now we are one of very few organisations in the city that work at this level. Although this usually made me slightly nervous, Zoran (Zoran Petrovič, president of the Moment association) has always said you have to go slowly and steadily to come far. After four years we won first financial support from the Ministry of culture, which is some kind of a sign of our professionalism and good work. We have done quite a few projects in co-production and tours, and managed to develop and carry out our own festival. All in all, I think this is quite an achievement. Now we have reached the point at which I expect Moment to take on new staff and stop being a trinity of people who sweat their guts out. Was Crossings a big move for you and where do you plan to take the festival in the future? We were satisfied with the first edition of Crossings and I think it is developing in the right direction. We had been talking about a festival for a long time, and at some point we had simply decided to do it, regardless of finance. And we did do it. Luckily we were prepared well enough to pull it off in the end, to get some funds from the Neth-

erlands Embassy, two sponsors and the city of Maribor, and to have some own resources, a great deal of which we invested in the project. What counted most was the dedication of the team. The basic idea of the festival was to offer Maribor what it otherwise lacks or fails to really notice. This way we create both the need for this contents and the audience that follows them, but also new artists who engage in them. Compared to Ljubljana, very few people who work in theatre are also involved in independent production. I don’t think they are lazy; there is simply no demand and no production possibilities in the city to do this large-scale. There is potential in Maribor, so why not start using it. Moment has always been open, which is one of our advantages. So to conclude: we are preparing a new project as part of Crossings, which is now in its beginnings. The idea is to turn festival workshops into performances. From what I have heard and seen, it is obvious that independent self-initiated projects, which have no clear and strict production hierarchy but are based on team work, constant interaction and above all on big personal input into all production levels, are more fulfilling to you than the institutional way of creating, where duties and roles are strictly defined. In these performances you like to add new, unique elements and play with theatre conventions. My colleague and actress Katarina Stegnar often says in a joke that we are an instant theatre, because we do everything ourselves. This implies some kind of romanticism, because you definitely take everything more personally, but it can also become a problem, because everything is your responsibility. In any case, these performances, not only mine but also others I see, have more soul and passion, and are simply better in a way. It is not a rule, but I have seen it often. I enjoy having costumes for three different plays at home, not to mention other people who have much more than that. I am also a lot more nervous before going on stage for these performances, because it is myself I put at stake, because I do it out of my personal belief that something should be told, shown, put out there for the audience to see. Moment works in a similar way. With the amount of money we had at the beginning, and with such a personal input, no-one would even think about organising a festival. At the end of last year, I got my first fee in Moment after four years. You would be likely to have even more costumes at home if it wasn’t for your frequent nudity on stage, which is becoming your signature style. With nudity, there is always a question of whether it is justified and whether communicates a message, or it is only a whim and an inappropriate provocation of the actor. How do you decide when to be naked on stage and what you want to communicate with nudity, which is often still a taboo and embarrassment, regardless of its meaning in a performance? Why do I get so annoyed when someone says “how can you piss on stage” or “how can you call this art”? I simply cannot accept this. If so, anyone can criticize me for standing on stage, or criticize a painter for using the red colour, because it is not art. Of course it isn’t if you don’t know the context. A completely red surface or a performance full of naked people on stage can be art if it is conceived like this and placed in the concept accordingly, if it carries a meaning. I also find it annoying if people are naked on stage for no reason, and it is not my whim to take my clothes off in a performance no matter what. Still, at a rehearsal for one of Via Negativa’s perform­ances I had a sudden flash of inspiration that I need to take my clothes off. Everyone else looked at me strangely, as it didn’t make any sense and didn’t bring anything to the performance in terms of meaning or depth. Just a naked guy on stage ... I certainly have no problem taking my clothes off on stage if it serves a purpose, but I am not an exhibitionist. Isn’t indignation over nudity on stage, on screen or anywhere else one of the most hypocritical features of this extremely exhibitionistic society, in which we can access the life of any individual at any moment through surveillance videos, Google, Facebook? Isn’t the fact that to some extent nudity remains a taboo even in art, which should explore these social tendencies critically, what hurts the most?

Absolutely. This is one of the things I think are typical of Maribor – to focus on things in isolation regardless of the context, and then slate everything and everybody. We have often had scandals like this, especially with Via Negativa, in the sense of “they urinate on stage, they do this and that”. Usually we find out the strongest indignation comes from people who haven’t even seen the performance. They have heard about someone urinating on stage and caused a real brouhaha, which is just ridiculous. Still, I can understand if people don’t get it at first, which is why I think it is necessary to access the audience which is not used to it. At a recent commemoration of the cultural holiday in Čatež, Grega Zorc did a Via Negativa performance. A choir appeared before him and a local singer after him. Grega didn’t take his clothes off or anything like that, but he did a Via Negativa-style performance and the audience of about 120 people, who are surely not used to theatre of this kind, was excited. This shows some things are simply good, while others are not, regardless of what happens on stage. I have noticed continuous references to actor Marko Mandić. There is a mention of him in Making Medea, at some point one of your biographies reads: “Uroš wants to become Marko Mandić”, and earlier in our conversation he was the first name to spring to your mind. Do you have a special perception of him as an actor; or to be a little more provocative: is he your idol, a role model? During my time at the academy (Academy of Theatre, Radio, Film and Television, a/n), Mandić was everyone’s favourite and greatest and whatnot actor, which gradually became a joke. I still respect him a lot, though I couldn’t call him my idol, but when I was a student he surely was one of my main role models and I was full of praise for him. Now I simply have a broader perspective and I think every good actor has something I find fascinating. I also have a completely different attitude to him now because we got to know each other and work together. I just see these thing differently now, preferring to be full of praise for myself (laughing). Next to your career in theatre, you also have a constant flirtation with film making. You appeared in the very successful Slovene film Let’s do it our way, and earlier in Vučko, which was nominated for a Student Academy Award. But somehow you had no real breakthrough to the big screen or TV screens, compared to, for example, your peers from Maribor, Nina Ivanišin and Jurij Drevenšek. Are you holding back, waiting for the right part? What are your plans regarding your career on screen? I am not holding back when it comes to film, and I usually take any part I get. I have hardly turned any down so far. Lack of success is down to my bent nose (laughter). These are completely different systems and work methods, with sometimes very funny criteria in actor selection. I think film directors are often very careful, because if you look at Slovene films there are about eight actors who appear in nearly all of them, while the rest are more or less guest appearances. I would love to do more films, but I admit I could put more effort into making this happen. I like film and I enjoy making them, although it can be very exhausting, with all the waiting on set. But this comes with film making, and some professional actors tend to forget that, so they can be very annoying when they have to wait a little. I would say that in film I prefer to work in the traditional way, with script and dialogues, whereas in theatre I am more interested in some other directions, because it is not based on story as much as film is. I have noticed a motto on your Facebook profile reads “Discipline is freedom!” To what extent do you follow it? One of my former dance instructors said this at a workshop a long time ago, and I thought it was very well said. I still think it’s the truth; I just cannot seem to follow it. So this motto serves more as a reminder to myself. Žiga Brdnik


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Tomm Moore Ko enkrat oslepiš svoj strah, ta požre samega sebe Once you blind your fear it eats itself Tomm Moore je stripovski avtor, ilustrator, animator, oblikovalec oglasov in režiser, čigar prvi celovečerni animirani film Skrivnost iz Kellsa, ki ga je sorežiral skupaj z Noro Twomey, se je leta 2010 uvrstil med nominirance za oskarja. V filmu se irska zgodovina in mitologija prepletata z univerzalnejšimi pravljičnimi motivi in duhovnostjo. Slednjo Moore razume zelo odprto, zunaj institucionalnih zidov posameznih religij, zato z lahkoto prehaja iz poganstva v krščanstvo in budizem. Budistična osredotočenost in umirjenost mu služita tudi kot vodilo pri ustvarjanju animiranih filmov. Ročno risane animacije, ki nastajajo veliko počasneje kot računalniške, mu niso bližje le zaradi drugačne estetike, ampak tudi zaradi drugačnega duha, ki ga nosijo v sebi. Tomm Moore je Ljubljano obiskal septembra 2010 ob slovenski premieri filma Skrivnost iz Kellsa, za čigar distribucijo je poskrbelo Društvo za oživljanje zgodbe 2 koluta, sicer tudi producent festivala Animateka. Izkazal se je kot živahen, topel in skromen sogovornik; po koncu pogovora se mi je celo zahvalil, da ga nisem spraševala o oskarjih. Glavni navdih za vaš animirani film Skrivnost iz Kellsa, tako za njegovo pripoved kot vizualno podobo, je bil slaven srednjeveški rokopis Knjiga iz Kellsa, ki velja za irski nacionalni zaklad. S čim je tako navdušil vas osebno? Vsi smo se o njem učili v šoli. Na urah zgodovine se nam je zdel dolgočasen. A ko sem obiskoval srednjo šolo za animacijo, sem skupaj z Aidenom in nekaj ostalimi sošolci želel izvedeti več o irskem načinu animacije, ki se razlikuje od ameriških in japonskih stvari, ki jih ves čas gledamo. Tako smo se vrnili h Knjigi iz Kellsa. Kamorkoli se ozrete, vidite ljudi s keltskimi tatuji, irske pube najdete po vsem svetu; spoznali smo, da vsi ti vzorci prihajajo iz Knjige iz Kellsa. Bolj ko smo se poglabljali v zgodovino, v legende in zgodbe, ki obkrožajo knjigo, bolj nam je postajalo jasno, da je to res dobra snov – najbrž za deset različnih filmov. Mi smo pač naredili svojega. To je bilo zanimivo obdobje v naši zgodovini. Legenda o nastanku Knjige iz Kellsa zarisuje pripovedni okvir filma. A zdi se, da se film kot celota posredno nanaša nanjo, predvsem s svojo “staromodno” ročno risano animacijo. Ko smo začeli priprave na film, ročno risana animacija ni veljala za tako staromodno. A ko smo slednjič našli financerja, je 3D animacija že zares prevladala. Dejstvo, da smo bili umetniki, ki rišejo umetnike, kako rišejo, je postalo del samorefleksije filma. Menihi, ki ustvarjajo zelo natančno izdelane knjige, imajo v sebi nekaj meditativnega. Tudi ročno risana animacija je sorodna meditaciji. Zdi se mi, da je oboje nekako povezano. Vzelo vam je res veliko časa, da ste končali svoje delo, kar je prava redkost v tem hitrem tempu … … ki se odraža tudi pri ustvarjanju filmov s pomočjo računalniške animacije. Tudi nam so računalniki v veliko pomoč, a v svojih ročno risanih animacijah želimo ohraniti drugačnega duha, kot ga najdete v večini drugih filmov. Ker so hitro narejeni, so štosi v njih povezani z nečim, kar se je zgodilo pred kratkim, nanašajo se na sočasno pop kulturo. A taki filmi so hitro pozabljeni. Sam imam zares rad drugačne animacije, na primer Miyazakijeve filme ali stare filme, kot je Bambi. To so klasike, ki nikoli ne zastarajo, ker so brezčasne.

Tudi Skrivnost iz Kellsa lahko, ob zgodovinskem in mitološkem kontekstu, razumemo kot klasično pravljico, katere težišče je iniciacijski prehod glavnega junaka Brendana iz dečka v fanta in slednjič odraslega moškega. V tem pogledu lahko opata Cellacha in brata Aidena razumemo kot dva vidika očetovskega lika. V filmu je veliko stvari, tudi veliko klasičnih. Vsakdo ob določeni starosti potrebuje – tudi če ima očeta – nekoga, ki ga navdihuje; očetovski lik, ki mu kaže drugačno pot. V filmu tega sicer ni, a v stripu, ki sem ga naredil, je razvidno, da je opat rešil Brendana pred Vikingi. Ne gre torej zato, da bi bil slab, ampak tako ravna iz strahu. Mislim, da veliko staršev ukrepa iz strahu. Tudi sam sem starš. Strašljivo je, moj sin je star štirinajst let in prihaja v leta, ko bo začel iskati druge odrasle – ki niso njegov oče – da ga vodijo. Trudim se, da ne bi ravnal iz strahu kot opat. Aiden pa je podoben ljudem, ki sem jih sam iskal, ko sem se začel zanimati za umetnost in film, da bi me vodili bolj s humorjem. Je drugačen tip očetovskega lika. Bi lahko rekli, da je sporočilo celotnega filma, da mora življenje voditi upanje in ne strah? Natančno. To velja za osebno raven filma, ki je povezana s samimi liki. A na Irskem imamo dve verski tradiciji. Ena od njiju je bila Keltska cerkev, ki je bila bolj odprta, nekakšna mešanica s poganstvom. Druga pa je bila strogi katolicizem, ki je bil bolj povezan s strahom; zatiral je ljudi in povzročil veliko težav. Opat predstavlja to vrsto katolicizma, Aiden pa predstavlja duhovnost, za katero upam, da se ponovno vrača. Kako živa pa so poganska verovanja med Irci? So bila kdaj prepovedana s strani katoliške Cerkve? Katoliška cerkev je, lahko bi rekli, ravnala modro, ko je vključila že obstoječe stvari. Večine naših svetnikov Vatikan ni potrdil kot svetnikov, ker so v resnici bogovi in boginje iz časa poganstva. Sam sem katoličan; sicer nisem predan vernik, a me zanima duhovnost in univerzalnost mitologije. Mislim, da je zelo žalostno, ker Cerkev vztraja, da je edina Resnica. Resnica je v vseh religijah, ki so med seboj povezane. V svojem novem filmu, ki ga sedaj pripravljam, se ukvarjam s tem. Na Irskem imamo svete vodnjake. Ti so po svojem izvoru povsem poganski; namenjeni so bili boginjam in so kot nekakšne maternice v zemlji. Pa vendarle so bili kasneje pogosto spremenjeni v oltarje za Devico Marijo. Devica Marija je tako pravzaprav mogočen božanski lik oziroma mešanica obojega. Mislim, da so Irci – kar velja za večino evropskih dežel – naredili nekakšno mešanico, da bi delovala. Mislim, da je bila težava pri katolicizmu na Irskem, da je bil enostavno preveč močan. Problem ni bil v sami vsebini verovanja, ampak v tem, da so si prisvojili vso moč. Nadzor Cerkve je bil popoln, duhovniki so imeli v rokah vso oblast. Mislim, da Jezus ne bi bil navdušen nad njihovo obliko krščanstva. (smeh) Brat Aiden me nekoliko spominja na zen mojstre. To je bolj očitno pri Mojstru Pandi, enemu osrednjih likov v animirani televizijski seriji Skunk Fu!, katere producent je vaša produkcijska hiša Cartoon Saloon. Lahko bi rekli, da Aiden in Mojster Panda prihajata iz istega kraja. Čeprav so se naše poti umetniško ločile, smo vsi začeli pod isto streho. Zelo me zanima budizem in nekaj časa sem preživel v Plum Villagu v Franciji, kjer je opat – vietnamski budistični menih – obenem tudi iluminator. Prepričan sem, da obstaja nekakšno ujemanje – vem, da bo zvenelo nekoliko newagersko – med keltsko duhovnostjo in budistično osredotočenostjo, ki je sedaj dokaj

priljubljena. In vietnamske iluminacije me brez dvoma spominjajo na meditativno stanje. Igralec, ki je igral brata Aidena, je Gilgour, prihaja iz pokrajine Meyo, njegov prvi jezik pa je galski, kar je danes prava redkost. Pred kratkim je umrl, kar je zelo žalostno. Imel je prikupno osebnost, ki je bila dokaj zenovska. Bil je bolj zasidran v zemlji; izhajal je iz starejše tradicije, ne iz sodobne, hiteče Irske. Mislim, da so si vse religije med seboj sorodne. Nisem pa prepričan, da lahko organizirana religija prinaša takšen spokoj. V vašem filmu je zid simbol organizirane religije … … in njene ozkoglednosti. Zid gradijo okoli svojih misli. Opat v filmu reče: “Zaradi moči našega obzidja bodo zaupali moči naše vere.” Brendan Gleeson, ki je igral opata Cellacha, je to spremenil. Prvotno je bilo napisano “zaupali moči naše Cerkve”. Bilo je preveč neposredno, zato je med branjem spremenil. To se mi je sicer zdelo dobro, a takšen je bil prvoten namen. Brendanovo odraščanje v filmu ponazorite z vizualno metaforo dveh praznih strani v skrivnostni knjigi. Tabula rasa je seveda prispodoba učenja iz lastnih izkušenj. Kaj – tudi kot oče – mislite o sodobnem šolskem sistemu, ki temelji predvsem na učenju iz knjig? Da, samo učenje na pamet in ponavljanje, ki se ga pozabi takoj, ko zapustiš šolo. To je škoda. Po drugi strani pa struktura šolskega sistema zarisuje okvir, znotraj katerega delujemo. Mislim, da se stvari izboljšujejo. Ne vem, kako je v tej državi, a na Irskem – moja žena uči na šoli Educate Together School – morajo upoštevati, da niso vsi učenci katoličani in da prihajajo iz različnih kulturnih okolij. Zato so začeli razmišljati o novih načinih poučevanja in iskati skupne točke, kar je zelo koristno. A v filmu sem poskušal izpostaviti še nek drug vidik. Če želiš postati umetnik – ali kdorkoli, ki želi najti lasten način življenja – moraš odkriti lastno pot; soočiti se moraš s strahom, da lahko zamočiš, a to vseeno storiš. Četudi ni popoln uspeh, je vredno truda, ker si vsaj poskusil. In to želi Aiden pokazati Brendanu. V filmu je soočenje s strahom ponazorjeno s spopadom z mitološko pošastjo imenovano Crom Cruach. V filmu sem uspel združiti veliko stvari, saj sem se tudi sam moral soočiti s strahom. Bilo je nekoliko strašljivo. Ko smo začeli delati film, sem bil star osemindvajset let; Nora je bila moja sorežiserka, imel sem odličnega umetniškega vodjo in čudovito ekipo okoli sebe, a vseeno me je preveval močan strah tipa “O, moj bog, kaj sem si nakopal na glavo”. Veliko denarja in veliko ljudi je bilo odvisnih od mene, zato sem se zares lahko identificiral z občutkom, da name preži pošast. Crom Cruach je poganski bog, ki je obstajal pred krščanstvom. Brendanov vstop v njegovo votlino je nekakšno psihološko potovanje; gre za simbolično soočenje z lastnimi strahovi. A takšne votline so tudi zares obstajale; sredi zime, ob najkrajšem dnevu leta, ko se dnevi začnejo daljšati, je v votlino prodrl sončni žarek in jo razsvetlil. To se mi je zdela čudovita vizualna metafora. V filmu namreč vedno iščemo načine, kako pokazati in ne povedati. In ker je takšna podoba že obstajala v kulturi, se nam je zdelo zelo dobro, da jo uporabimo. Ta vizualna metafora želi pokazati, da ko enkrat oslepiš svoj strah, ta požre samega sebe. Potem imaš vizijo, ki ti kaže pot naprej. In to je vse, kar zares simbolizira. Crom Cruach postane Ora-bora, kača, ki jé svoj lasten rep. Ta simbol se pojavlja tudi v Knjigi iz Kellsa, ob robovih strani. V filmu je torej obstajala narativna potreba po Cromu,


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obstajala je psihološka potreba, pa še odsev v kulturi smo imeli.

volkodlak, torej negativen lik. Zatorej smo morali biti posebej previdni, da je bilo jasno, da je nežna.

Ko že govoriva o soočenju s strahom – tudi vi imate nekoliko junaško preteklost. Kot deček ste bili član tolpe, ki se je borila proti kriminalu …

V filmu je tudi bela mačka Pangur Ban. Tudi lik živalskega pomočnika je pogost v pravljicah.

(smeh) Jaz, umetniški vodja Ross Stewart in eden od producentov filma Ross Murray, smo skupaj odraščali v mestu Kilkenny. Vsi smo oboževali stripe, s katerimi smo bili nekoliko obsedeni. Tako smo se odločili, da postanemo super junaki; oblačili smo se tako kot oni in takšni hodili ponoči ven. To je bila naša fantazija, naša mala šala. V filmu je poudarjen boj med svetlobo in temo. Tako na zgodovinski ravni – borba med opatom in Vikingi – kot na mitološki ravni – dvojnost med vilo Aisling in pošastjo Cromom. Mislim, da je Aisling ženski princip. Na Irskem obstaja tradicija t. i. aisling pesmi. Te pesmi so pisali, ko smo bili pod britansko vladavino; bile so neke vrste koda. V pesmi je bila Aisling prikazana kot sen – pesnik je zaspal in v sanjah srečal čudovito žensko, ki mu je pripovedovala, da z njo grdo ravnajo in da jo mora osvoboditi. Seveda so pesmi govorile o Irski. Zamisel, da bi bila Aisling lahko gozdni duh, zadnja preostala vila, se nam je zdela smiselna. Ker nismo želeli ljubezenske zgodbe, smo jo ustvarili kot majhno dekletce. Prav ona je lik, ki je vsem najbolj pri srcu. Ustvaril sem jo po vzoru svoje dve leti mlajše sestre oziroma najinega odnosa – vedno se je trudila biti boljša od mene. Na ta način smo v film vnesli ženski aspekt, ki je zelo pomemben v irski mitologiji. Je močan lik – lahko se spremeni v volkuljo in je nekakšna kraljica volkov. Ni prav pogosto, da je ženskost predstavljena na takšen način. Obstaja veliko zgodb iz tega obdobja – kot na primer tista o svetem Patriku in njegovih bratih, ki jih je kralj želel pobiti, oni pa so se spremenili v jelene, sveti Patrik v belega. Tudi v legendah o kralju Arthurju je veliko ljudi, ki se spreminjajo v živali. Lahko se vrnemo še dlje v preteklost, k starim pravljicam; obstaja veliko zgodb o vilah, ki so živele med ljudmi spremenjene v živali, da ne bi bile opažene. Tovrstno spreminjanje v živali zares obstaja v legendah, zato je dobro, da smo ga vključili v samo zgodbo. Dobro je, da ste uporabili prav volka, ki ni ravno stereotipna predstavitev dekleta. Skrbelo me je edino to, da se ne bi preveč približali Miyazakijevemu filmu Princesa Mononoke. A mislim, da se je dobro izšlo, ker smo izhajali iz lastne kulture. Francoski koproducenti so se bali tudi, da bodo ljudje mislili, da je

To je najbrž edini lik v filmu, ki je v resnici obstajal. Eden od menihov je namreč napisal pesem o svoji mački Pangur Ban, o kateri smo se učili tudi v šoli. V filmu brat Aiden pove pesem v galščini. Pesem govori o tem, da sta mačka in človek enaka; mačka lovi miši, on besede, oba pa sta popolnoma predana svojemu opravilu. Ime Pangur Ban v galščini pomeni “bolj bela od bele”. Zdelo se nam je fino, da njen lik vključimo v film. Pangur Ban ima očesi dveh različnih barv – eno kot brat Aiden, drugo kot Aisling. Dvobarvne oči ponavadi pomenijo nekaj magičnega. To je dokaj pogost pojav pri belih mačkah. Vrniva se k vašemu osebnemu življenju. Meni se zdi osupljivo, da ste lastno produkcijsko hišo Cartoon Saloon soustanovili pri komaj enaindvajsetih letih. Vaš film Skrivnost iz Kellsa pa je bil nominiran za Oskarja, ko ste bili stari dvaintrideset let. Svoj prvi film sem želel posneti, preden dopolnim trideset let. To je bilo zame zares frustrirajoče, ker nismo mogli najti financerjev. Prej smo se morali kar šest let dokazovati z delom na drugih projektih. To je bila nekakšna tekma s samim seboj. Kar je v moji zgodbi nekoliko drugačno, je dejstvo, da sem bil pri kakšnih štirinajstih član mladih irskih filmarjev. Imeli so lasten prostor – ogromno sirotišnico v Kilkennyju – tako da smo nenadoma dobili atelje. Takrat sem ravno odhajal na srednjo šolo, kasneje pa sem se vrnil v ta prostor, s seboj pa sem pripeljal nekaj kolegov iz šole. Čeprav nismo imeli dosti denarja, smo se počutili kot profesionalci, ker smo imeli lasten prostor in opremo. To je bilo krasno. Ko sem imel osemnajst let, se je rodil moj sin, tako da sem imel obveznosti. Hitri ste v vseh pogledih. Zdaj se lahko upočasnim. Edina stvar, v kateri si ne želim biti hiter, je postati dedek. To sem povedal svojemu sinu. Star bom šestintrideset let, ko jih bo on imel osemnajst. Če bi šel po mojih stopinjah, bi bilo noro. (smeh) ENG Tomm Moore is a comic artist, animator, ad designer and director whose first animated feature film The Secret of Kells, which he co-directed with Nora Twomey, was nominated for an Academy Award in 2010. In the film, Irish history and mythology are combined with more universal fairy tale motifs and spirituality. The latter Moore interprets very openly, outside the institutional boundaries of particular religions, therefore

Tomm Moore, foto / photo Nada Žgank (Arhiv Kinodvor / from Kinodvor Archive)

he finds it easy to pass from paganism to Christianity and further on to Buddhism. Buddhist focus and calm are also his principles in creating animated films. Hand-drawn animation requires much more time than its computer counterpart, yet he feels closer to it, which is partly due to a different aesthetics, but also due to a different spirit it carries inside. Tomm Moore visited Ljubljana in September 2010 when the film The Secret of Kells premiered in Slo­ venia, being distributed by the Association for reanimation of storytelling 2 reels, which also produces Animateka festival. He turned out to be a lively, warm and modest companion, and eventually thanked me not to have been asking him about the Oscars. The major inspiration for your animated film The Secrete of Kells – for its narrative and visual image – was the famous Book of Kells, which is considered Ireland’s national treasure, but what was your personal fascination with it? Everybody learnt about it at school. We considered it boring at history lessons. But when I was at the Animation College, myself, Aiden and some other colleagues at the college wanted to know more about the Irish style of animation that was different from the American and Japanese stuff that you see all the time. So we looked back to the Book of Kells. Everywhere you look you see people with Celtic tattoos or Irish pubs all over the world; we realized that all of these patterns came from the Book of Kells. So the more we looked into the history, the le­ gends and stories around the book, the more we realized there was really good material there, probably for ten different films, but we ended up with this one. It was just an interesting time in our history. The legend about the source of The Book of Kells draws the narrative frame of the film. But it seems that the film as a whole is indirectly referring to it, above all with its “old fashioned” hand drawn animation. When we first started working on the film it didn’t seem that hand drawing was so old fashioned, but by the time we found the financer the 3D had really taken over. So the fact that we were artists drawing artists drawing became part of the self-reflective aspect of the film. The monks’ making these really detailed books is something like meditation, and hand drawn animation is also a bit like meditation. There is a kind of a connection, I guess.


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Skrivnost iz Kellsa / Secret of Kells, 2009, 75 min.


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It took you a really long time to finish your work, which is really rare today in this fast tempo … … And even the way they make films now with computer animation. We use computers a lot to help, but we are trying to keep in our handmade animations a spirit that is a little bit different than in most other films. Because they make them fast, very often the jokes are about something that happened recently, there are references to pop culture, and then the film is gone and forgotten about. That is why I really like animations like Miyazaki’s films or old films like Bambi; those are classics, they never get old because they are timeless. Beside its historical and mythological context, The secret of Kells can be considered as a classical fairy tale with the focus on initiation from a boy to an adolescent and finally to a grown-up man. In this respect, we can consider Brendan’s uncle Abbot Cellach and Brother Aidan as two different aspects of father figures. There is a lot of stuff in our film, a lot of classical stuff as well. Everybody at a certain age needs – even though their father is there – somebody who inspires them; they need another father figure to go maybe a different way. It’s also in a comic that I made, but it’s not in the movie, that the Abbot has saved Brendan from the Vikings, so he is not like a bad guy; he is acting out of fear. I think a lot of parents act out of fear. I am a parent myself; it’s scary, my son is fourteen now and he has come to a certain age where he may look for guidance to other guys, adults who aren’t his dad, and I try not to act out of fear like the abbot. Whereas Aiden is more like the people I would have missed when I was first getting interested in art and filmmaking and they would have guided me more with humour. It is a different type of father figure. Could we say that the message of the whole film is that life must be lead by hope and not fear? Exactly. That is personal, getting down to the level of characters. But in Ireland we have two traditions. There was a kind of Celtic Church which was much more open, a mixture of paganism. And then there was strict Catholicism that kept people down and was more about fear, and it caused a lot of trouble. The Abbot represents that kind of Catholicism and Aiden represents the kind of spirituality that I hope is coming back.

How vivid are pagan beliefs among Irish people? Was there a time when it was forbidden by the Catholic Church? The clever thing I suppose that the Catholic Church did at the start was they took what was there; most of our saints in Ireland are not recognized as saints by Vatican because they are actually Gods and Goddesses from pagan times. I am a Catholic, I am not a strong believer or anything, but I am very interested in spirituality and the university of mythology and I think what is very sad is that the Church insists they are the only truth. But in fact there is truth in all religions and it seems they are joined together. Even my new film I am working on now is kind of looking at that. We have holly wells in Ireland and they are so pagan, they are so much for the Goddess. It is almost like a womb in a ground. But yet what they did they took it and they made it like a shrine for Virgin Mary. So Virgin Mary is actually a powerful goddess figure, the mixture between the two. I think that the Irish people – and a lot of European countries as well – they kind of blend it to make it work. I think that the problem with Catholicism in Ireland was that it was just too powerful. And it wasn’t so much that it was what they believed in but more the fact that they had all the power. Their control was so complete, the priests had such authority – I don’t think Jesus would have been impressed with their form of Christianity. (laughter) For me brother Aiden is a bit like a Zen master. That line is more explicit with Master Panda, one of the main characters in TV series Skunk Fu that your studio Cartoon Saloon is producing. I suppose Aiden comes from the same place as Master Panda. Even though we separated our ways artistically we both started from the same roof. I am very interested in Buddhism and I spent some time in Plum Village in France, where the abbot is also the illuminator, he is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk. I actually think that there is a certain kind – I suppose it’s a bit new-agy – of Celtic spirituality that matches the mindfulness of Buddhism that is somehow popular now. And the Vietnamese illuminations definitively remind me of a meditative state. The actor that played Brother Aiden is a Gilgour, he is from Mayo, his first language is Gaelic, which is really rare. He died recently which is really sad. He had a lovely

personality that was quite Zen. He was more rooted in the earth; he was from that older tradition, not of that modern, busy Ireland. I think there are similarities in all religions. I am not so sure that organized religion can really bring the same peacefulness. In your film the wall is a symbol of organized religion… … And its close-mindedness as well. The wall they built around their minds. The Abbot in the film says: “If we strengthen the walls we will strengthen the trust of our faith”. Brendan Gleeson, who played Abbot Cellach, changed that. It originally said, “strengthen the trust of our Church”. That was too explicit so he actually changed it when he read it. Which I thought was good, but that’s what the original intention was. You illustrate the process of Brendan’s growing up by the visual metaphor of two empty pages in a mysterious book. Tabula rasa is of course the metaphor for learning from your own experience. What do you – also as a father – think of the contemporary educational system, which is based mainly on books? Everything is learned by heart and then just repeated and then you forget it all when you leave school. It’s a pity. At the same time the structure of the educational system gives you a framework to work within. I think it’s getting better. I don’t know how it is in this country, but in Ireland – my wife teaches at Educate Together School – they have to deal with the fact that not everybody is a Catholic and everybody comes from different cultures and they start to think about different ways to educate and that is really useful. And they start to look for commonalities. But there was another aspect in the film that we wanted to point out: if you want to be an artist – or anybody who wants to find their own way in life – you have to find your own path and confront the fear that you might make a mess out of it, and do it anyway. Even if it’s not a complete success it’s still worthwhile because you gave it a shot. And that is what Aiden is showing Brendan. In the film this confronting the fear is represented by an encounter with the mythological monster Crom Cruach.


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I was able to blend a lot of stuff there because confronting the fear was something that even I went through. It was kind of scary, I was twenty-eight when we started to make the movie; I had Nora as a co-director, a great art director and a great team around me but I still felt a huge fear like “oh my God, what have I got myself into”. A lot of money and a lot of people were relying on me, so I could really identify with this sense of a monster. Crom Cruach is a pagan god that was there before Christianity. Brendan goes into his cavern and it’s like a psychological trip. It’s somehow symbolic – he confronts his fears in the cavern. But these caverns actually exist; when the winter had passed and it was the shortest day in the year and the days were going to get longer, a light would come in and light up the inside of the cavern. I felt this was a beautiful visual metaphor, because in a film you are always looking for ways to show, not say. And since it already existed in the culture we thought that was a really good way to show it. What this visual metaphor really shows is that once you blind your fear it eats itself. And then you’ve got a vision and you can use that vision to go forward. And that is all it really symbolises. Crom Cruach becomes an Ora-bora, a snake that eats its own tail. That symbol appears in The Book of Kells, it’s around the edges of pages. So with Crom we had a need for it in the story and a psychological need for it and we also had a reflection in the culture. Speaking of confronting the fear – you yourself have a bit of a heroic past. As a kid you had been a member of a gang who fought criminals… (laughter) Myself and art director Ross Stewart and also one of the producers Ross Murray, we were all kids in Kilkenny and we all loved comic books and we were a little bit obsessed and we decided to become super heroes and we would dress up like them and go out by night. That was our little fantasy, a little joke. In the film the struggle between light and darkness is quite emphasized. Both at the historical level – the struggle between the Abbot and the Vikings – and at the mythological level – the duality between Aisling and Crom. I think that Aisling is the feminine pole. There is a tradition in Ireland on Aisling poems; when we were un-

der the British rule people would write these poems and they were like a code. In the poem a person would have thought Aisling means dream, the poet would fall asleep, he would meet a beautiful woman and she would tell a story she must be made free and she was being treated badly. And it was about Ireland of course. So the idea that Aisling could be the spirit of the forest, the last remaining fairy before people, made sense. We didn’t want it to be a love story, so we made her like a little girl. She is the character everybody likes best. It’s based on my sister, on our relation, she always wanted to be better than me, and she was two years younger. In that way we brought the feminine into the movie, which is so important in Irish mythology. She is a strong character, she can transform herself into a white wolf, she is some kind of a Queen of Wolves. It is not very common that feminine is represented in that way. There are a lot of stories of that period – like St. Patrick and all of his brothers were pursued, the king wanted to kill them and they all transformed themselves into deer and St. Patrick was a white deer. And in King Arthur le­ gends you have all these people transforming and if you go further to old fairy tales there are a lot of stories of fairies that stayed among people by transforming into animals so they wouldn’t be noticed. This kind of transforming into animals is really in the legends, so it’s nice to use it in the story. It’s nice that you use a wolf; it’s not a stereotypical representation of a girl. The only thing I was afraid was to get to close to Miyazaki’s film Princess Mononoke. But I think it was OK, because we came from our own culture. And there was also a fear coming from the French co-producers that people would think that she was a werewolf, like a bad character. So we were very careful to make it seen that she is gentle. In the film there is also the character of the white cat Pangur Ban. The figure of an animal guide is common in fairy tales, too.

Pangur Ban and we learnt about it at school. In the film Brother Aiden tells the poem in Gaelic. The poem is basically saying that the cat and the human are the same. The cat was hunting mice and he was hunting words and they both focused on their tasks. Pangur Ban means whiter than white in Gaelic. We thought it would be nice to put that character into the film. Pangur Ban has two different coloured eyes – one like brother Aiden and the other one like Aisling. Two-coloured eyes usually show something magical. It’s quite common with white cats. Let’s go back to your personal life. For me it’s quite amazing that you created your studio Cartoon Saloon when you were only twenty-one and your film was nominated for an Academy Award when you were thirty-two. I wanted to make a film before I was thirty. It was really frustrating for me, because we couldn’t find the financers; we had to prove ourselves, working on other projects for six years. I did a little race with myself. What happened that was different for me was I was a member of young Irish filmmakers when I was about fourteen. And they have a place – a large orphanage in Kilkenny – so we suddenly had a studio. Then I went to college and afterwards I could return to that place. So I took some of my colleagues from the college. Although we didn’t have much money we felt like professionals, because we had the space and equipment. That was great. My son was born when I was eighteen, so I had responsibilities. You are quick in every aspect. Now I can slow down. The only thing I don’t want to be quick in is to become a grandfather. And I told this to my son. I will be thirty-six when he is eighteen. If he does it at the same age as me, that would be crazy. (laughter) Maša Ogrizek Intervju je bil prvič objavljen na radiu Slovenija, program ARS. / The interview was first broadcast by Radio Slovenia, ARS programme.

Pangur Ban was probably the only character that really existed. One of the monks wrote a poem about his cat Skrivnost iz Kellsa / Secret of Kells, 2009, 75 min.


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Stephen Kovats Prihodnost v 21. stoletju? The future in the 21st century? Pričujoči intervju s Stephenom Kovatsom je rezultat obsežnega in poglobljenega pogovora o ključnih dejavnostih, v katere je bil vključen v zadnjih dvajsetih letih. V poznih 80. in zgodnjih 90. letih 20. stoletja je bil eden od ustanoviteljev in direktor Video Festivala Ostranenie v Dessauu, ki se je posvečal odkrivanju in predstavitvi videoprodukcije iz srednje in vzhodne Evrope v času velikih političnih in družbenih sprememb, ko je video postal eden od najvplivnejših in najbolj razširjenih medijev umetniškega izražanja. Nato je delal na Inštitutu za nestabilne medije V2 v Rotterdamu, kjer je kot glavni kustos in raziskovalec medijske umetnosti razvijal metodologijo in besednjak za arhiviranje širokega spektra praks v medijski umetnosti. Od leta 2007 je umetniški vodja festivala umetnosti in digitalne kulture 'transmediale', ki predstavlja enega od vodilnih dogodkov na širšem področju tako imenovane (nove) medijske umetnosti. Leta 2009 je soustanovil čezmejni projekt Transitland – Video Art from Central and Eastern Europe 1989–2009 (video umetnost iz srednje in vzhodne Evrope), skupni projekt arhiviranja, za katerega pobuda je prišla ob 20. obletnici padca Berlinskega zidu. Celoten projekt je predstavljen v obliki spletne strani, kataloga in prenosne naprave za prikazovanje. Transitland zastavlja vprašanja o položaju sodobne videoprodukcije na področju srednje in vzhodne Evrope za nekdanjo železno zaveso. Pretežno neformalen pogovor je potekal v prostorih Ljubljanskega laboratorija za digitalne medije Ljudmila med različnimi napol dokončanimi napravami in okostji umetniških projektov, ki so se ujemali z glavno temo – pomisleki o statusu efemernih medijskoumetniških del in njihovem arhiviranju. Slednje je bila tudi osrednja tema njegovega predavanja na seminarju Kako povezovati vsebine avdio-vizualnih arhivov?, ki je v organizaciji ljubljanskega zavoda SSCA potekal oktobra 2010 v Galeriji Vžigalica v Ljubljani. Kot artikuliran in luciden sogovornik je Kovats spremljal in mestoma narekoval tok pogovora, obenem pa razmišljal o novih vidikih prejšnje teme – temeljnih teoretičnih vprašanj elektronske umetnosti in digitalne kulture, povezanih z dolgoletnimi praktičnimi izkušnjami v snovanju, konceptualiziranju in vodenju različnih projektov. V svojih predavanjih govorite o arhiviranju medijske umetnosti, če lahko nekoliko posplošimo. Začniva torej z vprašanjem, kako bi danes sploh definirali medijsko umetnost. Moja predavanja ponavadi niso zelo formalna – sploh jim ne bi rekel predavanja – in govorijo predvsem o nekaterih pojmih kulturne nestabilnosti, povezanih s tem, čemur pravimo medijska umetnost. Pravzaprav nisem velik ljubitelj tega izraza – medijska umetnost –, čeprav natančno vem, kaj pomeni. Na umetnost raje gledam z vidika različnih tehnoloških kontekstov: obstaja video, obstaja internetna umetnost in obstajajo vsi drugi tipi kompleksnejših interaktivnih del. V določenem pogledu je to elektronska medijska umetnost. Specifičen kontekst mojega predavanja je usmerjen v zgodovino videa in vlogo, ki jo je video imel pri opredeljevanju in ustvarjanju zgodovine večinoma v srednji in vzhodni Evropi in predvsem po različnih revolucijah in spremembah oblasti pred dvajsetimi leti. Ta tehnologija, denimo radiodifuzna tehnologija, se s spremembo družbe ukvarja na precej drugačen način, kot sta to počela film ali fotografija. Video ima kot radiodifuzni medij inherentno politično naravo.

Kako se je torej tako imenovana medijska umetnost razvila iz videa in drugih umetniških praks? Zdi se namreč, da se v teh dveh definicijah pojavljata določena kontinuiteta in tesna povezanost. Mislim, da je vzporednih zgodovinskih razvojev veliko. Umetnostni kontekst, v katerem je video umetnost obstajala v Sloveniji v času Jugoslavije, je bil radikalno drugačen kot na primer na Poljskem ali celo v Sovjetski zvezi, kjer je bilo samo dotakniti se kamere iz ustvarjalnih nagibov v celoti prepovedano. Če si imel dostop do tovrstne tehnologije, potem si imel dostop do moči, saj

Stephen Kovats, umetniški vodja festivala umetnosti in digitalne kulture 'transmediale' z njeno pomočjo lahko širiš svoje sporočilo na načine, ki jih tradicionalni film ni omogočal. V Sloveniji je bila scena popolnoma drugačna v tem pogledu, da je bila bolj v skladu z radiodifuzno politiko kot drugje. Pri delu, ki sem ga opravljal v Dessauu v Nemčiji v zgodnjih 90. letih in ki se je začelo z video festivalom, se nisem neposredno osredotočal na video “per se”, ampak na video kot sredstvo izražanja, ki je bilo najbolj neposredno povezano z vprašanji sprememb družbe, ki so nas zanimala. V začetku smo se ukvarjali z urbanističnimi in arhitekturnimi projekti v Dessauu v Vzhodni Nemčiji, toda zanimalo nas je, kakšno vlogo so radiodifuzni mediji igrali v različnih političnih revolucijah in družbenih spremembah, predvsem v televizijski revoluciji v Romuniji leta 1989. Hoteli smo – takrat najbrž z bolj naivnega stališča – bolje razumeti kulturne mehanizme, ki so se za vsem tem skrivali, in se od filmske tradicije pomakniti k videu, čeprav je bilo to kot poseganje po prepovedanem sadu. Če govorimo o novo odkriti svobodi, je video omogočal manipulacijo tvojega osebnega umetniškega izraza, ne da bi za to potreboval armado ljudi in tehničnih sredstev. Festival, ki se je iz tega razvil, sprva je bil to video festival, vendar se je zelo hitro spremenil v festival za širok spekter elektronskomedijskega izraza, naj bi bil po prvotnih načrtih simpozij manjšega obsega, na katerega bi bilo na razpravo o teh fenomenih povabljenih kakšnih dvanajst avtorjev, režiserjev iz vzhodne Evrope. Ko pa smo začeli raziskovati dogajanje na tem področju in pošiljati pozive, smo naleteli na izjemen odziv raznovrstnih umetnikov, ki so počeli raznovrstne zanimive reči z videom in drugimi komunikacijskimi mediji. V tistem času je bila to velika novost. Povezovala se je z novo odkrito svobodo in velikim zanimanjem za delo v tej obliki medija med letoma 1990 in 1993. Bilo je zelo vznemirljivo, zelo sveže in popolnoma drugačno od načina, na katerega so z elektronskimi mediji in tehnologijo eksperimentirali na Zahodu, kjer je obstajala že dolga tradicija robotike in računalniške umetnosti. Kompleksnost medijske umetnosti je drugod do določene mere že obstajala, toda oblika izraza, “raison d'etre” za uporabo videa kot načina, da nekomu nekaj sporočiš, je bil v srednji in vzhodni Evropi družbeno in politično povsem drugačen in to je bilo za nas najbolj zanimivo. Kakšna je bila potem razlika med jugoslovansko sceno, ki se je razvijala po svoje in sceno v državah vzho-

dnega bloka, kjer, kot ste rekli, je bilo skoraj vse prepovedano? Poznam nekaj pomembnih video del iz vzhodnoevropskih držav, predvsem iz 80. let. Seveda, ni bilo prepovedano vse in ne povsod. Težava pri teh stvareh je, da vedno zapadeš v posploševanje. Obstajale so različne stopnje dostopa in uporaba videa je bila tako kot v primeru drugih kompleksnih tehnologij pogosto stvar tega, do kakšne infrastrukture si imel dostop. In Jugoslavija je imela sijajno mrežo mladinskih, umetniških in kulturnih klubov, ki so bili povezani tudi s športnimi klubi, ti pa so video uporabljali pri treningih. Poleg tega so bili mladinski klubi del ideološkega aparata države na precej drugačen način kot v klasičnem scenariju področja za sovjetsko železno zaveso, kjer je bil režim mnogo bolj restriktiven v tem, na kakšen način mladinska kultura sme širiti svojo identiteto, in kjer je scena delovala večinoma podtalno. Po drugi strani pa je imela na primer Madžarska zelo odprto umetniško sceno in je ustvarila nekaj pionirjev videa in elektronskih medijev v 70. letih. Torej gre tudi tu za drugačen umetnostni kontekst. Na Poljskem je bilo to nedvomno problematično. Umetniki, kot je Jozef Robakowski, eden redkih, ki se je poigraval in eksperimentiral z videom, so pogosto ustvarjali v svojih stanovanjih za omejen krog svojih prijateljev. Vse, kar so počeli, je bilo relativno neškodljivo, toda že samo dejstvo, da si imel v lasti opremo, ki jo država sama uporablja za nadzor nad prebivalci, je bilo velikokrat problematično. V Sovjetski zvezi je bilo kaj podobnega skoraj nepredstavljivo. Seveda so bile razlike v dostopu, za celotno področje pa velja, pa naj gre za Jugoslavijo, vzhodno Evropo ali Sovjetsko zvezo, da je delo s temi mediji in z radiodifuzno tehnologijo vedno ali skoraj vedno imelo politično konotacijo. Na Zahodu to ni bilo pravilo in tam je pogosto najprej prišla tehnologija, za katero so potem umetniki iskali možne načine uporabe, da bi z njo ustvarili določene oblike umetniškega izraza. Na Vzhodu pa so umetniki večinoma hoteli povedati zgodbo in čutili so potrebo, da na določen način izrazijo nekaj, kar je v mnogih primerih moralo biti izraženo s pomočjo tega zelo specifičnega in pogosto zelo političnega medija. Je po vašem mnenju umetniška produkcija v vzhodni Evropi še vedno bolj politično angažirana kot zahodnoevropska ali ameriška umetnost? Moje osebno mnenje je, da ni tako in da to ni niti dobro niti slabo. Reči moram, da pri tem ne razmišljam več kot o vzhodnem ali zahodnem scenariju. Naš festivalski projekt Ostranenie, ki smo ga začeli v 90. letih, je bil zelo specifičen v tem, da je nudil platformo za uveljavljajoče se umetnike in umetniške scene iz srednje in vzhodne Evrope in da si je prizadeval za resnično integracijo sistemov, ljudi in platform Vzhoda in Zahoda. To je tudi eden od razlogov, da sem projekt Ostranenie opustil – nikoli nisem načrtoval, da bi se festival ponavljal v neskončnost in ohranjal ločnico med Vzhodom in Zahodom. Zdelo se mi je, da je deset let po spremembi besednjak Vzhod/ Zahod že dodobra preživet in da strukture, ki so dovoljevale komunikacijo in gibanje in so bile sicer ponekod še vedno problematične in restriktivne, niso več ključno vprašanje. Ko je iz katastrof, ki so se dogajale po nekdanji Jugoslaviji, izšla nekakšna šibka rešitev, je bila to spodbuda, da se ustvari bolj odprte sisteme in platforme in ta premik je bil veliko bolj univerzalen od delitve Vzhod/Zahod. Zdaj me zanima raziskovanje vseh oblik tehnologije kot odprtih sistemov za umetniško izražanje in ustvarjanje bolj univerzalnih in mednarodnih oblik umetniškega izražanja. Mediji sami in tehnologija niso nujno vezani na določeno politično identiteto, ampak obstajajo kot zares svobodne in odprte oblike umetniškega izraza.


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Transmediale 11, Herman Kolgen

Toda uporaba oznake “creative commons” in odprtokodnih sistemov je najbrž že sama po sebi močan politični statement. Vsekakor. Mislim, da vedno obstajajo določene povezave s tem, kako upravljamo medije, saj so v veliki meri sami po sebi povezani z našim načinom komunikacije. V tem so tudi politični vidiki, saj komunikacijske kanale hočemo ohraniti odprte. Toda ta vprašanja nikakor niso značilna samo za Vzhod ali Zahod, Sever ali Jug – so povsem globalna vprašanja – in scenarij, po katerem imajo stare oblike taktičnih medijev, ki smo jih gledali v 90. letih, še vedno določeno rabo ali določen pomen, ko gre za politična vprašanja. Še vedno so velike težave denimo v Belorusiji in drugih delih sveta, v katerih so režimi pri informacijskem nadzoru še vedno represivni, ali celo v evropskih državah, kot je Madžarska, ki se zdaj, kot kaže, pomika v to smer. Vse skupaj postaja bolj globalen boj, le da se ne uporablja militarističnega besednjaka hladne vojne. Precej neverjetno je, če živiš v Berlinu in opazuješ, kako imajo ljudje 20 let po združitvi in 21 let po padcu Berlinskega zidu pogosto še vedno jasno predstavo o Vzhodu in Zahodu, o ločenosti obeh, in kako se turisti še vedno v trumah zgrinjajo v mesto, iščejo Berlinski zid in odkrivajo, kaj je predstavljal. Iščejo romantično izkušnjo nečesa, kar je že minilo. Če pomislite na kontekst druge svetovne vojne ... Ne vem, kako je bilo takrat. Sprašujem se, kakšen je bil svet leta 1965 v primerjavi z letom 1945, ampak zdi se, da sta to dva popolnoma različna svetova. Po drugi strani je 20 let po združitvi Nemčije in Evrope zelo jasna vez med sedanjimi časi in časi takratnih procesov sprememb in to je nekaj, kar bi zares rad izbrisal iz našega vsakodnevnega besednjaka. Delo pri lanskoletnem projektu Transitland je bilo zame na nek način nekoliko problematično, saj nisem hotel privleči na dan dejavnikov ločevanja med Vzhodom in Zahodom, kljub temu pa je bilo zanimivo raziskovati regijo srednje in vzhodne Evrope leta 2009, opazovati, kakšna so tam vprašanja in težave, ki so značilne za to področje in države in so posledica procesa transformacije, kako sta se na nereguliran, nor in precej nespameten način zakoreninila tržno gospodarstvo in kapitalizem. Na tem področju je prišlo do neznanskega razmaha spolne industrije, pornografije in trgovine z ljudmi, kar je ustvarilo celo vrsto morda nepredvidenih problemov. Transitland deluje kot videoarhiv. Mi lahko poveste kaj več o tem projektu?

Transitland je zelo neposreden evropski kulturni projekt, ki vključuje številne organizacije po Evropi. Te so vzpostavile arhiv 100 video del iz obdobja med letoma 1989 in 2009 in raziskale, kakšno vlogo je video igral v procesu transformacije. Bistvo arhiva je torej predvsem ideja o prehodnosti in spremembah v vzhodni in srednji Evropi. Del projekta je bilo tudi pet novih naročil, pet novih del, in rezultat in produkt projekta je trdi disk s temi 100 videi, primernimi za predvajanje. Obstaja tudi kot spletna baza, ampak disk si lahko izposodi kdorkoli, ki bi želel dela predvajati, ne da bi mu bilo treba iskati kopije. Tu v Ljubljani imamo tako imenovani 'Transitland video jukebox', trdi disk, na katerega je povezan zaslon, ki pri vsakem videu omogoča najboljšo možno kakovost. Namenoma smo izbrali to obliko predstavitve in ne preprosto spletnega arhiva, ki je omejen v smislu kapacitet in relativno nestabilen. Poleg tega smo izdali katalog esejev, ki predstavljajo razmislek o teh spremembah in vlogi arhiviranja in odkrivanja zgodovine v tej regiji. Zelo specifično se povezuje z videoprodukcijo, ne z drugo elektronsko, računalniško ali na tehnologiji zasnovano umetnostjo. Transmediale se je začel kot “VideoFilmFest” in spreminjal svoje ime, dokler ni leta 1998 postal “transmediale”. Zakaj se je ime spremenilo prav takrat in kako je to dejstvo spremenilo koncept festivala? Festival se je spreminjal odkar je bil leta 1988 ustanovljen. Prvi 'transmediale' je potekal pod imenom Video­ FilmFest, Mednarodni forum mladega filma. Tak je bil njegov polni naziv in bil je podsekcija filmskega festivala Berlinale, posvečena video umetnosti. Korenine ima torej v video tradiciji Zahodnega Berlina pred združitvijo. Kmalu se je razvil v dogodek, ki se je ukvarjal s celotnim spektrom produkcije v elektronskih medijih. Video je bil njegov temelj, toda hitro se je usmeril k umetnosti tehnološko nestabilnih medijev, kot so performans, računalniška umetnost in robotika, in zaradi sprememb v srednji in vzhodni Evropi začel vključevati druge oblike bolj politično in družbeno motivirane umetnosti in elektronskih medijev. Med letoma 1991 in 1993 je festival naredil precej radikalen premik k preučevanju teh odnosov med družbo in tehnologijo, ne le na Vzhodu, ampak tudi na primer v Latinski Ameriki. V tem času je bilo to že precej transdisciplinarni in transmedijskoumetnostni festival, leta 1997 pa je sledilo preimenovanje v festival 'transmedia', kar je odražalo te spremembe. Leta 1998 je bil ustvarjen naziv 'transmediale'. Toda tudi s tem razvoja še ni bilo konec in pred nekaj leti se je podnaslov festivala, ki je bil prej 'Mednarodni festival medijske

S tem smo mnogo bolje definirali, kaj sploh je bistvo festivala, vendar se v prihodnosti lahko spet spremeni, saj se zdaj podrobneje ukvarjamo z umetniško produkcijo v odprtih sistemih tehnologije in družbenih medijev. umetnosti' spremenil v 'Festival umetnosti in digitalne kulture', kar se mi zdi dokaj pomembno in zanimivo, saj imamo opravka z umetnostjo, ki jo na noben način nočemo zares kategorizirati, se pa ta umetnost nanaša na to, kako obstajamo kot digitalna kultura. S tem smo mnogo bolje definirali, kaj sploh je bistvo festivala, vendar se v prihodnosti lahko spet spremeni, saj se zdaj podrobneje ukvarjamo z umetniško produkcijo v odprtih sistemih tehnologije in družbenih medijev. Če primerjam digitalno kulturo in tako imenovano medijsko umetnost v okviru festivalov Ars Electronica in transmediale, se zdi, da je transmediale veliko bolj usmerjen v umetniške projekte, Ars Electronica pa deloma predstavlja tehnične inovacije. Med tema dvema festivaloma se pogosto pojavljajo takšne primerjave. Kot prvo je Ars Electronica veliko večji. Gre za ogromno institucijo, ki vključuje muzej in fu­ turelab za inovacije, je močno usmerjena v oblikovanje in tehnologijo. Sam festival Ars Electronica pa se kljub temu osredotoča bolj kot ne na umetniško ustvarjanje kot zelo močan element kulture oblikovanja in uporabnih umetnosti. Pri festivalu transmediale pa nas bolj zanimajo specifična vprašanja o vlogi umetnosti v družbi. V problematiki kreativnih industrij se te meje začenjajo brisati, saj umetnostni trg, kot kaže, čedalje bolj požirajo kreativne industrije. Po drugi strani je ob teh ekonomskih pritiskih še večja potreba po tem, da se okrepi mo-


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žnosti za umetniško ustvarjanje, hkrati pa je umetniško delo nujno vključiti v kreativne industrije. Gre za dokaj zapleteno in kompleksno vprašanje, saj veliko prijav na področju umetnosti prihaja iz kreativnih industrij in obratno. To je eno od področij, ki transmediale najbolj zanima in zadeva. Razen tega pa festival nima opravka z dolgotrajnejšimi industrijami in razvojnimi sodelovanji, kot jih ima Ars Electronica. Glavna razstava lanskoletnega festivala je nosila naslov 'Future Obscura' (Prihodnost Obscura), v njej pa je kustosinja predstavila avtorje, ki se ukvarjajo z mehanizmi preteklosti in jih usmerjajo v prihodnost. Na ogled je bilo nekaj pomembnih del, na primer delo Transmediale 11, People Like Us, Genre Collage (Ljudje kot mi, kolaž)

Žilvinasa Kempinasa. Imel sem to srečo, da sem videl njegovo samostojno razstavo v Kunsthalle na Dunaju, kjer se je predstavil z istim delom kot na festivalu trans­mediale. Ključnega pomena se zdi, da v svoji instalaciji uporablja analogne videokasete in z njimi ustvarja občutek digitalne slike. To delo je izjemno. Naša kustosinja je bila Honor Harger, ki prihaja z Nove Zelandije, vendar že precej časa deluje v Evropi in je z nami sodelovala pri enem od izdaj festivala Ostranenie v 90. letih. Delala je v ekipi kustosov, ki se je ukvarjala s problemom besede prihodnost. Dosegli smo prihodnost, o kateri smo se pogovarjali v zadnjih 100 letih. 20. stoletje se je precej časa ukvarjalo z definiranjem

21. stoletja, bodisi kot utopije bodisi kot distopije. Zdaj, 10 let po začetku tega stoletja, smo tam. Potrebujemo drug kulturni besednjak in koncept prihodnosti moramo raziskati z različnih vidikov ter ga redefinirati, saj ne deluje po enakih mehanizmih, kot smo jih uporabljali včasih. Umetniška dela na razstavi Future Obscura so se s pomočjo umetniških sredstev spraševala o dojemanju tehnologije, o tem, kako se digitalni in analogni mediji v določenih pogledih stapljajo, in o tem, da med temi vrstami umetniških del nimamo absolutne ločnice. Kempinasovo delo je bilo na tej ravni verjetno eno od najbolj poetičnih, saj si ob vstopu v temni prostor slišal, videl in mislil, da gre za projekcijo belega šuma. Šele ko si naredil


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nekaj korakov naprej v prostor, si ugotovil, da je nekaj čudno, da je slika preostra za projekcijo in prevelika za zaslon. Razobešenih je na tisoče VHS kaset, ki so osvetljene z zadnje strani. Zgodi se trenutek, ko tvoji možgani preklopijo med fizičnim prostorom in idejo o tem, kaj je digitalna slika. O teh vprašanjih smo se hoteli poigrati na razstavi. Toda veliko del s področja medijske ali novomedijske umetnosti nosi sporočilo o utopiji ali distopiji prihodnosti. Ta prihodnost se približuje z veliko hitrostjo in zdaj spoznavamo, da so imeli znanstvenofantastična literatura in filmi na nek način prav glede prihodnosti, ki se dogaja zdaj. Vse se odvija hitreje in kar je utopija leta 2010, morda leta 2015 to ne bo več. Seveda ne. Toda kot sem rekel, 20. stoletje je porabilo neverjetno veliko časa in energije, da bi naslikalo, kakšno bo 21. stoletje. Obdobje, v katerem se nahajamo zdaj, je hibrid vseh takratnih utopij in distopij. Mislim, da je čas utopije kot tehnološka fantazija 19. in 20. stoletja vsekakor mimo. Naš odnos do te tradicionalne predstave o prihodnosti je treba umeriti. Po mojem mnenju se je prihodnost končala, ko smo poslali človeka na Luno. Računalnik, ki je to omogočil, je v osnovi enak tem, ki jih uporabljamo zdaj, le da so naši veliko manjši, hitrejši in nekoliko drugače delujejo. Najbrž se bodo čez nekaj let ljudje sprehajali po Marsu, ampak to si lahko predstavljamo, ni fantazija ali izmišljotina, ki je lahko del naše prihodnosti ali pa tudi ne. Lahko si celo zamislimo potovanja v vesolje, to je praktično realnost. Seveda je znanstvena

... 20. stoletje je porabilo neverjetno veliko časa in energije, da bi naslikalo, kakšno bo 21. stoletje.

fantastika vedno prisotna in imamo polno predstav o tehnologiji in napredku, toda zdaj razumemo, da lahko tako tudi je ali pa ni. Ne gre nujno za globalne težnje. Mogoče je naša globalna težnja ali utopija precej bolj preprosta in ne tako zelo povezana s tehnologijo. Morda vse mogoče banalnosti, na primer ta, da se v prihodnosti ne bomo sposobni več nahraniti, postajajo resničnost. Mogoče tradicionalna povezava med tehnologijo in napredkom ni več enaka in mogoče moramo na te stvari pogledati z metaforo popolnoma drugačne vrste. Zdi se, da je bila utopija 20. stoletja, da bo tehnologija pomagala pri razvoju družbe in svetovnega gospodarstva, toda to se očitno ne dogaja. Prej bi rekli, da tehnologija služi gospodarstvu. Mislim, da je bil to vedno pomemben del scenarija. Seveda sta razvoj in gospodarski razvoj pomembna, ljudje morajo živeti in služiti. Nismo ludisti ali nasprotniki gospodarskega razvoja. Mislim, da je tehnologija še vedno pomembna pri ustvarjanju odprte družbe in odprtih sistemov izražanja. Vedno je zanimivo premlevati, kakšna bi bila 80. leta, če bi bil internet tako razvit kot v 90. letih. Bi to spremenilo način delovanja vladnega aparata? Na Kitajskem, kjer se je vlada borila s tehnologijami in proti njim, se je zgodilo marsikaj. Na nek način je to mogoče bolj kot karkoli drugega zares doba tehnologije, saj jo vsi uporabljamo. Včasih je bila nekaj, s čimer so se ukvarjali znanstveniki, zdaj pa tehnologijo razume in zna uporabljati vsa družba. Ni nekaj oddaljenega, kar bi bilo v izključni domeni znanstvenikov, raziskovalnih inštitutov ali pametnjakovičev, ampak je del našega vsakdanjika. To vpliva tudi na naravo naše prihodnosti, karkoli bo že prinesla. Vendar tehnologija ni dostopna vsem ljudem, niti v Evropi ne. Internet ni brezplačen. Ne gre samo za internet, ampak za prodiranje tehnologije v vse vidike življenja. Za idejo vedenja, kaj internet je, tudi če nimaš dostopa do njega, kaj omogoča. Način,

kako televizija in telekomunikacije vstopajo v skupnosti, je zdaj bistven. Tudi če teh stvari pravzaprav nimaš ali nimaš dostopa do njih, so prisotne. Te tehnologije uporabljajo celo naši stari starši, kar je precej neverjetno. K arhiviranju se bom vrnil z vašim citatom: “Vse oblike arhiviranja vključujejo procese kulturne nestabilnosti.” Katere so glavne metode arhiviranja medijev ali celo efemernih umetniških del? To je verjetno največja težava. Pri projektu Transitland je precej preprosto: iščemo določen tip medija, ponavadi video. Ko pa sem delal na Inštitutu za nestabilne medije V2 v Rotterdamu, smo začeli projekt, da bi zasnovali metodologijo, ki je potrebna za arhiviranje vseh oblik del s področja elektronskih medijev. Vprašanje je, kako arhivirati performans, ki izhaja iz procesa, ali nekaj, kjer se uporabljajo ogenj in elektromagneti. Je dovolj, da zabeležimo samo tisto, kar vidimo, ali bi morali arhivirati samo bistvo, s katerim bi lahko obnovili in rekonstruirali samo umetniško delo? To so zelo zapletena temeljna vprašanja. Projekt, v katerem sodelujejo V2 (Rotterdam), ZKM (Karlsruhe) in Langlois Foundation (Montreal), je namenjen vzpostavitvi takšne metodologije, ki bi jo lahko uporabili za vsako predstavljivo zvrst na tehnologiji zasnovane, nestabilne ali digitalne umetniške produkcije, tako da bi slednjo razgradili na njene najosnovnejše elemente. V projektu z naslovom 'Capturing Unstable Media' (Zajemanje nestabilnih medijev) smo izdelali metodologijo, ki je vsakršen umetniški proces, povezan s tehnologijo, razčlenila na približno 30 osnovnih komponent, od “besedila” do “napetosti”, in zasnovali arhivsko strukturo in metodologijo za merjenje, klasifikacijo in zajemanje vsakega od teh elementov. Pozneje bi lahko kdorkoli vzel te elemente, jih ponovno sestavil in “poustvaril” umetniško delo (teoretično). Gre za deloma teoretično metodologijo, saj se nanaša na postopek, kako nekaj zajamemo. Naj ponazorim: če bi v umetniškem delu uporabljali 3D tiskalnik, bi ga lahko preprosto vključili in upali, da ga bomo čez 20 let še lahko prižgali in Transmediale 11, Daito Manabe


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uporabljali. Lahko pa se zgodi, da bomo uporabljali drugačen elektroenergetski sistem ali druge komponente, kot jih potrebujemo za delovanje te naprave. Tudi ko gre za nekaj tako preprostega, je treba elemente razgraditi v standardizirane enote, ki jih je mogoče spet sestaviti. V okviru festivala transmediale imamo tudi ogromen fizičen arhiv, ki obsega več kot 20 let; v njem so umetniška dela in tudi njihova dokumentacija, kopije za predvajanje, kopije za predogled, avdiokasete, ni pa pravega konsenza o tem, kako znanstveno obravnavati širok razpon različnih medijev. Po drugi strani tudi ni konsenza o tem, kako ga umestiti v sistem, ki bi bil splošno dostopen – z arhivskim sistemom namreč želimo imeti tudi določeno obliko splošne dostopnosti, ki omogoča pretok znanja. Vprašanje, s katerim se ves čas soočamo, je, kako to doseči, glede na to da nismo nujno strokovnjaki za arhiviranje, vendar nenehno kaj uporabljamo in se s čim ukvarjamo. Tako pri festivalu Ostranenie kot pri transmediale želimo najti najboljša možna sredstva in način zajemanje njunih vsebin v arhiv. Kakšen je namen arhiviranja vseh teh kompleksnih procesnih ali efemernih umetniških del? Je namen ohraniti, če si sposodim Walterja Benjamina, avro umetnin in ali je to sploh mogoče? Za nekatere ljudi je to zelo pomembno. Po drugi strani pa gre bolj za vzpostavljanje kulturne in družbene zgodovine. Naše razumevanje tega, kdo smo in kam gremo, temelji na različnih oblikah arhiviranja: naj bo enciklopedično znanje, ustno izročilo ali filozofija. Mnoge, ki se že kakšnih 20 ali 30 let ukvarjamo z elektronskimi mediji, je nekoliko jezilo pomanjkanje resnosti v strukturah in skupnostih, ki razvijajo kanone zgodovinskega znanja, saj se veliko manj ukvarjajo z efemernimi mediji. Obstajajo zelo natančne in dobro raziskane zgodovine sodobne umetnosti, pri medijskih in elektronskih umetnostih pa ni čisto tako, najbrž ker je zelo težko določiti tržno vrednost umetniških oblik, s katerimi imamo opravka, in ker se umetniška oblika iz dneva v dan radikalno spreminja. Ni tako kot pri stabilnih medijih, slikarstvu ali kiparstvu, ki jih je preprosto katalogizirati. Dela na področju medijske in elektronske umetnosti lahko obravnavamo z veliko različnih vidikov in med njimi in drugimi deli, ustvarjenimi v podobnih medijih, lahko najdemo veliko stičnih točk. Ob vsakem ogledu se njihova oblika spremeni in najti moramo način, da to transformacijo umetniškega dela ovrednotimo. Pri arhivskih projektih je nujno potrebno vzpostaviti zgodovinsko tehtnost. Projekti, kot sta DIVA v Sloveniji ali evropski GAMA, so sijajni, ker so začeli razvijati jezike, ki prehajajo iz projekta v projekt, iz zgodovine v zgodovino, od institucije do institucije in pričnejo sestavljati. V okviru festivala, ki v toku dogodkov ustvari toliko materiala, razprav in zgodovin, se zelo malo pozornosti in sredstev posveča zajemanju te specifične zgodovine. Kar zadeva umetnostni trg, se je v 60. in 70. letih nekaj podobnega zgodilo na področju konceptualne umetnosti. Tudi ta temelji na dejanjih in efemernem, vendar je običajno dokumentirana na filmu, videu ali fotografiji. Po 20 ali 30 letih so ti dokumenti postali umetniška dela z veliko tržno vrednostjo. Mislite, da se enako lahko zgodi z medijsko umetnostjo? V določenem pogledu se že dogaja, z eno veliko razliko. V primeru konceptualne umetnosti so vsi ti dokumenti dobili vrednost znotraj medija, v katerem so delovali. Dokumentiranje je pogosto samo po sebi umetniško delo. Tehnologija in način gledanja se bolj prepletata, sredstva dokumentiranja pa so bolj kompleksna in zapletena. Ni dovolj, da dejanje samo posnamemo. Kako zabeležimo delo digitalne kode? Edo od glavnih gibanj je usmerjeno v ustvarjanje dokumentacije kot posnemanja, s čimer se raziskuje načine, ki omogočajo poustvarjanje. Po drugi strani pa naprave in mehanizmi, s katerimi to počnemo, pogosto sami postanejo umetniška dela. Razvoj ni povsem enak. ENG The following interview with Stephen Kovats is the result of an extensive and in-depth conversation concerning the main activities he has been engaged in for the past 20 years: in late 1980s and early 1990s he was one of the founders and director of 'Ostranenie Video Festival' in Dessau, focusing on detecting and presenting video production from Central and Eastern Europe in the period of major political and social changes when video became one of the most powerful and widespread media of artistic expression. Later he was working as chief curator and media arts researcher at 'V2_Institute for the Unstable Media in Rotterdam' de-

Rosa Menkman, The Collapse of PAL, planes of blue phosphor (PAL kolaps)

veloping the methodology and vocabulary for archiving a broad range of media art practices. Since 2007 he has been artistic director of 'transmediale – festival for art and digital culture', one of the leading European events in the broader field of so-called (new) media arts. In 2009 he co-founded the cross-border project 'Transitland – Video Art from Central and Eastern Europe 1989–2009', a collaborative archiving project initiated on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. The entire project is presented in the form of a website, catalogue and portable device for screenings. 'Transitland' is questioning the position of contemporary video production in the area of Central and Eastern Europe, behind the former Iron Curtain. Our fairly informal conversation took place in offices of Ljudmila Digital Media Lab in Ljubljana amidst various half-finished devices and skeletons of art projects that corresponded to the major theme – questioning the status of the ephemeral media art works and their archiving. The latest was also the central motif of his talk held in October 2010 in Vžigalica Gallery in Ljubljana as part of the seminar 'How to connect contents of audio-visual archives?' organized by SCCA – Ljubljana. As an eloquent and lucid interlocutor Kovats was following and sometimes dictating the course of the conversation while thinking about some new aspects of the old issue – the principal theoretical questions of electronic art and digital culture connected to many years' practical experience in initiating, conceptualizing and managing various projects. In your lectures you are talking about the archiving of media art, if we can generalize it to that single defini-

tion. So, let’s start with this: how could you define media art nowadays? My lectures are usually not so formal – I could call it more like a talk – and are more about some of the notions of cultural instability connected to what we call media art. Actually I am not a really big fan of this expression – media art – even if I know exactly what it means. I prefer to look at art from a number of different technological contexts: there is video, there is net.art and there are all other types of more complex interactive works. That in a way is electronic media art. The specific context of my talk is oriented more towards the history of video and the role that video also played in defining and creating histories, in particular in Central and Eastern Europe, especially 20 years ago after various revolutions and changes of power. The way also that kind of technology, like broadcast technology, has a very different way of dealing with the transformation of society than film or photography had, for instance. Video as broadcast media has an inherently political nature. So how did the so-called media art develop from video and other art practices? Namely, it seems that there is a certain continuity and close connection in those two definitions. I think there are a lot of parallel historical developments. The artistic context, in which video art existed in Slo­ venia back in the times of federal Yugoslavia, was radically different than, let’s say, in Poland or even in the Soviet Union where it was completely forbidden to even touch the camera for creative reasons. If you got access to that kind of technology then, you had access to power because you were able to distribute your messages in the ways that traditional film could not. Slovenia had a completely different scene in that it was more in tune


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That could much better define what the festival is all about but also this could change again in the future because we are looking more closely to the artistic production within open systems of technology and social media. art already existed to a certain level in other places but the form of expression, the “raison d’etre” for using video as a means of communicating an idea was socially and politically completely different in Central and Eastern Europe and that was the most interesting for us. What was then the difference between the Yugoslavian scene that developed in its own way and the scene in the countries of Eastern bloc, where you said almost everything was forbidden? I know some important video works from Eastern European countries, especially from the 1980s.

with the politics of broadcasting than in other places. The work I was doing in Dessau, Germany, in early 1990s that began with the video festival wasn’t directly oriented and specifically interested in video “per se”, but in video as the medium of expression, which most directly related to the issues of the transformation of society we were interested in. Initially we were doing urban and architectural projects in Dessau, in Eastern Germany, but we were interested in the role that the broadcast media were playing in various political revolutions and social transformation, especially the TV revolution in Romania in 1989. So, we wanted to – I guess at that time from a more naïve point of view – to get more understanding for cultural mechanisms behind all of this and also to move from the tradition of film towards video although that was like touching the forbidden fruit. In terms of the new-found freedom video was able to manipulate your own artistic expression without having to have a big army of people and technical resources to do it. The festival that emerged from it – at first it was a video festival but it very quickly turned to a festival for a broad range of electronic media expression – was originally going to be a small symposium, to which about 12 primarily filmmakers from Eastern Europe were going to be invited to talk about these phenomena. However, as soon we star­ ted looking at what was going on out there and sending out calls we received huge feedback from all kinds of artists doing all kinds of interesting things with video and other communications media. It was all very new at the time. There was a connection to the new-found freedom and big interest to work in this form of media in years between 1990 and 1993. That was very exciting, very fresh and completely different from the way electronic media and technology were experimented with in the West where there had already been a long tradition of robotics and computer art. The complexity of media

Of course, not everything was forbidden and not everywhere. The problem about these things is that you always get into generalizations. There were different levels of access and using video like other complex technologies often was the question of whether you had access to certain kinds of infrastructure. And Yugoslavia had this fantastic youth art and culture club network that was also connected to sport clubs and sport clubs were also using video for training. Youth clubs were also a part of the ideological apparatus of the state in a way that was very different from the classic ‘behind the Soviet Iron Curtain scenario’ where there was a much more restrictive regime in terms of the ways, in which even youth culture was allowed to disseminate its identity, where the scene was mostly functioning underground. But Hungary, for instance, had a very open artistic scene and some of the pioneers of video and electronic media in the 1970s were coming from Hungary. So again, it’s a different kind of artistic context as well. In Poland, for example, there was definitely an issue, there was a problem. Artists like Jozef Robakowski – who was one of the few that were playing and experimenting with video – were doing it often in their own apartments for limited circles of their friends. All the things they were doing were relatively innocuous but the fact of having possession of this equipment that the state uses for its own control over the population was often problematic. In the Soviet Union it was almost unheard of; of course there were variations in the degree of access but one thing that applies to the whole area, whether it’s Yugoslavia, Eastern Europe or the Soviet Union, was that work with this media, with broadcast technology, always or most often had a political connotation. This was not necessarily the case in the West where quite often the technology came first and then artists would look for the ways of using it to create certain forms of creative expression. On the contrary, in the East artists often had a story to tell, and the necessity to express something in a certain way, which in many cases needed to be expressed through this very specific and often very political type of medium. Is art production from Eastern Europe in your opinion still more politically engaged than Western European or American art? My personal opinion is that it is not, and that is neither good nor bad. I must say that I don’t think any more in those terms of East or West scenarios. Our ‘Ostranenie’ festival project from the 1990s that we did was very specific in terms of giving a platform to emerging artists and artistic scenes from Central and Eastern Europe and to work on really integrating systems and people and platforms between East and West. And that was one of the reasons why I ended the ‘Ostranenie’ project. I never meant it to be a festival to go on forever and keep pushing the East / West distinction. I felt that 10 years after the change we were already well beyond this East / West vocabulary and that the structures that allowed com-

munication and movement, which were still difficult and restrictive in some places, were not the issue any more. Once the catastrophes across former Yugoslavia moved towards some sort of fragile resolution there was a move to create more open systems and platforms, and this shift was much more universal that simply ‘East / West’. What I am interested in now is looking at all forms of technology as open systems for artistic expression and to create more universal and international forms of artistic expression. The media itself and the technology are not necessarily tied to one or another political identity but are there as really free and open forms of artistic expression. But merely using the creative commons label and open source systems is probably a strong political statement by itself. Absolutely. I think there are always certain connections to the ways in which we manipulate media because they are very much intrinsically tied to the way we communicate. That also has political aspects to it because we want to keep the channels of communication open. But these are things that are not in any way specific to East or West, or North or South – they are completely global issues – and the scenario where old forms of tactical media that we were looking at in the 1990s, still have some applications or some sense in terms of political issues. There are still big problems in, let’s say, Belarus and other parts of the world where there are still repressive regimes in terms of information control, or even in an EU country like Hungary, which now seems to be going in this direction. It is becoming a more global struggle but not using that cold war militaristic jargon. It is pretty amazing to live in Berlin and observe how 20 years after unification and 21 years after the fall of the Berlin wall people often still have a clear image of East and West, of the separation of the two places, and tourists are still coming in droves to Berlin and looking for the Berlin Wall and what that was. Looking for the romantic experience of something already gone. If you think about things in the context of the WWII – I don’t know what it was like back then – I wonder what the world of 1965 was like in relation to 1945, but it seems like there are galaxies separating those 20 years. On the other hand 20 years after the unification of Germany and Europe there is a very clear bond between the times now and the times before in the process of transformation and it is something I would really like to get out of our daily vocabularies. Doing the ‘Transitland’ project last year was for me a little bit problematic in a sense, as I didn’t want to bring up those factors of separation between East and West. Nonetheless it was interesting to look at this region called Central and Eastern Europe in 2009, to see what kind of issues and problems are developed there that are quite unique to those places and those countries and also a result of the transformation process, to see how market economy and capitalism rooted themselves in unregulated, insane and not really sensitive ways. There was an explosion of the sex and porn industry and massive human trafficking through this area creating whole new realms of, perhaps, unforeseen problems. ‘Transitland’ functions as a video archive. Can you tell me a little bit more about this project? ‘Transitland’ is very straight forward project, an EU cultural project, including a number of organizations in Europe that formed an archive of 100 video works spanning the period from 1989 to 2009 and looked at the role the video played in the transformation process. So, the archive is mostly about the notion of transit and transformation in Eastern and Central Europe. Part of the project also included five new commissions, five new works, and the result and product of the project is a hard drive with those 100 videos in screening quality. It also exists as an online database but anybody can borrow or loan this hard drive and make screenings without having to chase down the screening copies. What we have here in Ljubljana is the so-called ‘Transitland video jukebox’ – a hard drive with a monitor attached to it – which enables the best quality that was available for each video. We chose this form of presentation quite consciously instead of just doing a web archive, which is limited in terms of its capacity and relative instability. On top of that, there is also a publication with essays that reflect on these changes and the role of archiving and finding histories in this region. But it was very specific to video production and included no other electronic, computer or technology based art.


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Stephen Kovats, artistic director ‘transmediale’ festival for art and digital culture Transmediale also began as the ‘VideoFilmFest’ and changed its name over the time, finally becoming ‘transmediale’ in 1998. Why did the name change at that very time and how did that fact influence the concept of the festival? The festival has been transforming since it was started in 1988. The first ‘transmediale’ came out with the name ‘VideoFilmFest – The International Forum of Young Film’. That was the title and it was a subsection of the Berlinale film festival that was oriented to video art. So, it has its roots in the video tradition of West Berlin before unification. After that it quickly became an event that looked at the entire vocabulary of production within electronic media. Video was a core element of it but it quickly moved to the technologically unstable media arts including performance, computer and robotics, and also started to engage other forms of more politically and socially driven art and electronic media because of the changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Between 1991 and 1993 the face of the festival shifted quite radically to looking at these relations between society and technology, not just in the ‘East’ but also in Latin America, for example. By this time it was already a quite trans-disciplinary and trans-media art festival and it took it until 1997 when it was renamed as the ‘transmedia’ festival to reflect the changes. In 1998 the title ‘transmediale’ was established. But even this has continued to evolve and some years ago the subtitle of the festival that was ‘International Media Arts Festival’ changed to the ‘Festival of Art and Digital Culture’ which I think is also quite significant and interesting because what we are dealing with is art that we don’t necessarily want to categorize in one specific way or another, but it is art that is related to how we exist as a digital culture. That could much better define what the festival is all about but also this could change again in the future because we are looking more closely to the artistic production within open systems of technology and social media. If I compare digital culture and the so-called media art and in that sense compare festivals like ‘Ars Electronica’ and ‘transmediale’ it seems that ‘transmediale’ is oriented much more towards art projects whereas Ars Electronica partly presents technical innovations. There are often comparisons like that between the two festivals. Ars Electronica is much bigger, to begin with. It is a huge institution that includes the museum and futurelab for innovations and it is also highly designed and oriented in the technology industry. The ‘Ars Electronica’ festival itself nonetheless turns that focus more or less back to artistic creation as a very strong element of design culture and applied arts. In terms of the mandate of ‘transmediale’, we have more interest for the specific questions of the role of art within society. The boundaries within the problem matter of creative industries also start to blur and become fuzzy as the art market seems to get more and more consumed by the creative industries. On the one hand there is even greater necessity to strengthen the possibilities for artistic creation within these economic pressures but at the same time it is necessary to engage artistic work within the creative industries. It is a quite complicated and complex issue because many of the entries to arts are coming from creative industries and vice versa. These are among the things ‘transmediale’ is the most interested in and concerned about. Beside that it doesn’t have longer-term industries and development collaborations that ‘Ars Electronica’ has. Last year’s main exhibition of the festival was ‘Future Obscura’, in which the curator selected artists dealing with mechanisms of the past and turned them into the future. There were some significant works there, for instance by Žilvinas Kempinas. I was lucky to see his solo exhibition in Kunsthalle in Vienna with the same work he presented at ‘transmediale’, and in this sense Transmediale 11, Ho Tzu Nyen

it seems crucial that he is using analogue videotapes in his installation to create the feeling of digital picture.

now. Nowadays everything is faster and what is utopia in 2010 maybe won’t be any more in 2015.

It is an amazing piece. Our curator was Honor Harger, originally from New Zealand, but has been active in Europe for quite some time and also worked with us on one of the ‘Ostranenie’ festivals back in 1990s. She was working in a curatorial team that was dealing with the problem of the word future. Nowadays we have come to the future that we were talking about throughout the last 100 years. The 20th century spent much of its time defining the 21st century, either as utopia or dystopia. Now, 10 years into that century we are there. We need another cultural vocabulary and we need to look at the terms of the concept ‘future’ in different ways and to redefine it because it doesn’t work with the same mechanisms that we used before. The artworks in the ‘Future Obscura’ exhibition were questioning using artistic means the perceptions on technology and how digital and analogue media were fused in certain ways and how we didn’t have the necessity and absolute distinction between these types of artworks. Kempinas’ work was probably one of the most poetic ones on this level because when you entered the dark room, you heard, you saw and you thought that you were in a projection of white noise. Only when you walked a little bit further into the space you realized that something is strange, that the picture is too sharp to be a projection and it is too big for a screen. There are thousands of VHS tapes strung out and lit from behind. There is a moment where your brain makes the switch between the physical space and the idea what a digital image is. These are the things we were trying to play with in terms of the exhibition.

For sure not, but like I said, the 20th century spent an incredible amount of time and energy trying to paint a certain picture of what the 21st century will be about. And this era we are in now is a certain hybrid of all the utopia and dystopia from back then. I think the time of utopia is certainly gone as a 19th and 20th century technological fantasy. Our relationship to this traditional notion of the future needs to be fine-tuned. In my perspective the future ended when we put a man on the moon. The computer that did that is basically the same thing that we are using now, just that ours are much smaller, faster and working a little bit differently. In a few years, people will probably walk on Mars, but we can imagine that, it is not part of a fantasy or fiction that may be or may not be part of our future. We can even imagine space travel, it’s basically here. Science fiction is of course always there and we have all these images of technology and progress but it became part of our understanding that it may or may not be. It is not necessarily a global aspiration. So maybe our global aspiration or utopia is much simpler and not so much tied to technology. Maybe all kinds of ‘banal’ things like the idea that we will not able to feed ourselves in the future become our reality. Maybe the traditional link between the technology and progress is not the same any more and perhaps we need to look at those things through a completely different type of metaphor.

But many of the so-called media or new media art works contain messages about the utopia or dystopia of the future. That future is now coming really quickly and we are realizing that science fiction literature and films were somehow right about the future, that is

It seems that the utopia of the 20th century was that technology would help with development of society and world economy but apparently this is not happening. Technology seems to be serving the economy. I think that was always an important part of the scenario. Of course, development and economical development are important things, people need to live and make


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money. We are not ludists or against economic development and I think technology is still important in creating open societies and open systems of expression. It is always an interesting discussion what the1980s would have been like if the Internet had been as advanced as it was in the 1990s. Would that have changed the way the governmental apparatus was working? We have all seen these things happen in China where the government was struggling with and against technologies. In a sense, maybe it actually is the era of technology, more than any other because we are all users of it. Earlier technology was something that was left for scientists but now the entire society understands what technology is and knows how to use it. It is not a remote domain intended exclusively for the scientists, research institutes or geeks but it is in our daily vocabulary. This also influences the way things will be in the future, whatever the future is. But it is not affordable to all the people, not even in Europe. Internet is not for free. It is not just Internet, it is the pervasiveness of technology in all aspects of life. The notion of knowing what the Internet is even if you don’t have access to it, to know what it can do, the way television and telecommunications are brought into communities is now crucial. Even if you actually don’t have these things or have access to it, they are there. Even our grandparents are using these technologies, which is quite incredible. I will go back to archiving with your quotation: “all forms of archiving include processes of cultural instability”. What are the main methods of archiving media or even ephemeral pieces of art? This is probably the most difficult thing to deal with because, for instance, ‘Transitland’ is pretty easy: we are looking for a certain type of media, which is usually video. But when I worked at ‘V2_ - the Institute for Unstable Media’ in Rotterdam we started a project to establish

exactly that kind of methodology required for archiving all forms of electronic media works. The question is, how to make an archive on a process based performance or something that uses fire and solenoids? Is it enough to just record what we see or it is necessary to archive the actual essence that would enable us to reconstitute and recreate the art piece itself? These are really tricky fundamental questions. The project integrating V2_ (Rotterdam), ZKM (Karlsruhe) and Langlois Foundation (Montreal) was established to create the kind of methodology

... the 20th century spent an incredible amount of time and energy trying to paint a certain picture of what the 21st century will be about. that could actually be applied to every conceivable type of technology based, unstable or digital artistic production by breaking it down to its most fundamental elements. The project titled ‘Capturing Unstable Media’ set out the methodology that broke down any kind of artistic process related to technology to approximately 30 basic components that range from ‘text’ to ‘voltage’ and established an archival structure and methodology to quantify, classify and capture each of these elements. At a later time anybody could take those elements, rebuild them and ‘recreate’ the artwork (in theory). It is partly a theoretical methodology because it relates to the pro­ cess of how to capture something. To put it into practice: if a 3D printer was used in an artwork you could just plug

it in and cross your fingers that in 20 years from now you can turn it on and it will still run. But it could be that we are using different kinds of electrical systems or other components that are required to make things function. Even if something is as simple as that there is a necessity to break down its elements into the standardized pieces that could be re-established. In the case of ‘transmediale’ we also have a huge physical archive spanning over 20 years; there are art works but also their documentation, screening copies, preview copies, audiotapes, but there is no real consensus on how to scientifically deal with the broad range of different kinds of media. On the other hand there is no consensus on how to put it in a system that would be universally accessible, because with the archive system we also want to have a certain form of universal accessibility that enables the knowledge to be shared. One of the questions we are always faced with is how to do that, since we are not necessarily experts on archiving, but we need to use and deal with things all the time. Both, in the archive of ‘Ostranenie’ and that of ‘transmediale’, we are looking to find best means and methods to capture their contents. What is the purpose of archiving all these complex processes or ephemeral art pieces. Is it to keep, if I go back to Walter Benjamin, the aura of the art works and is this even possible? For some people this is very important. But on the other hand it is more about establishing cultural and social histories. The way we understand who we are and where we are going is based on all different forms of archiving: including encyclopaedic knowledge, word of mouth or philosophy. Many of us who have been dealing with electronic media over the last 20 or 30 years were a little bit frustrated by the lack of seriousness within the structures and communities that develop the canons of historical knowledge because they deal much less with the ephemeral media. There are very strict and well researched histories of contemporary art but the scenario with the media and electronic arts is not quite the same, probably because the market value of art forms that we deal with is very difficult to pin down and the art form is changing radically from one day to the next. It is not the same as fixed media, painting or sculpture, which is easy to catalogue. It is possible to look at media and electronic art pieces from many different contexts and to find a lot in common with other works done in the similar media. Each time we look at them they are changing the form and we need to find the way of assigning value to this means of transformation within the artwork. One of the necessary values with doing archival projects is to establish historical relevance. Projects like DIVA in Slovenia or the broader European GAMA project are phenomenal because they started to develop those languages that go from project to project, from history to history, from institution to institution and start putting it together. Within a context of a festival that produces so much material, creates so much debate and creates so much history throughout its own trajectory, there is very little focus and resources given to capture that specific history. In terms of the art market something similar happened to conceptual art in 1960s and 1970s; conceptual art is also based on actions and ephemeral but usually documented on film, video or photographs. After 20 or 30 years those documents became pieces of art with a big market value. Do you think the same can also happen to the media art? It already does in a certain sense but there is a significant difference. In the case of conceptual art all those documents became valuable within the medium they had been working with. Documentation is often the artwork itself. Technology and means of looking at things are merged together more and the means of documentation are much more complex and complicated. It is not enough to just videotape an action. How do you record a work of digital code? One of the main movements is towards creating documentation as emulation to be able to find the ways to enable this re-creation. On the other hand the machines and mechanisms that do that often become art pieces themselves. It is not quite the same scenario. Miha Colner


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Gledalec na 54. Beneškem Bienalu The viewer at the 54th Venice Biennale Umetnost sama zase nima pomena, ta mora vedno postavljati vprašanja, razmišljanja ali diskurze. Letošnja ponovitev bienala postavlja veliko odgovorov in mnogo vprašanj, povezanih ne samo z umetnostjo ampak tudi z gledalcem, ki je eden od vodilnih členov umetnostnega sistema in zdi se, da je gledalec z vsako razstavo vse bolj na preizkušnji. 54. Bienale v Benetkah pri tem ni izjema in predstavlja trenutno situacijo subjekta, umetnostnega delavca (pri tem mislim, da je biti umetnik poklic in ne zgolj prirojena danost) in umetnostnega dela, ki se skupaj vpenjajo v trenutno sfero globalizacijskega konglomerata. Umetnostnih del ne bi smeli gledati kot samoumevnih. Ta vedno nastopajo z izjavo in s sporočilom, ki ga je avtor uporabil za izhodišče svojega kreativnega razvijanja v umetnostnem delu. Letošnji bienale ponuja mnogo razmišljujočih del, ki – četudi v sebi ne vključujejo estetskih elementov in drugih kriterijev –, so predmeti, ki vsebujejo tudi subjektovo mišljenje. Predstavitev, ki jo mnogi postavljajo v sam vrh umetnostnih razstav, je vredna razmisleka in vprašanja, ne le, kaj je sodobna umetnost in kaj ta trenutno napoveduje za prihodnost, kaj je želel umetnik ali država, ki ga pošilja na razstavo, z delom sporočiti, ampak tudi to, kaj sporoča samo delo ter kako se jaz kot subjekt in gledalec vključujem vanj. Bienale, na katerem tokrat sodeluje 89 nacionalnih predstavitev – kar je največ do sedaj za beneški bienale – je kaotičen, hiter, fluiden, teatraličen in kaže, do kam so umetnost pripeljale sodobne umetnostne prakse. Kako torej preko tega, kar je že bilo ustvarjeno, kar je že bilo videno, udejanjeno ali uprizorjeno, narediti novost s ponovitvijo in pri tem ohraniti nivo umetnostnega dela v neposredni obliki, je eno od ključnih vprašanj umetnosti. Umetnostni delavci, ki so na žalost vse bolj podrejeni kapitalu, si sicer želijo, da bi od vizualnega prešli k likovnemu, a na bienalu je mogoče videti ravno obratno. S korakom preko tega, ko vsi želimo iti preko že ustvarjenega, so mnogi šli korak nazaj, k vizualnosti, ne zavedajoč se, da učinkovitost umetnosti ni zgolj prenašanje sporočil, ampak je pomembna njena sporočilnost. Dela na bienalu kažejo sliko razmišljanja in delovanja, ki umetnost potiska na njen rob, kar pa je na žalost v večini primerov lahko označeno kot potiskanje površinskosti umetnostnega dela h kratkotrajnim učinkom, k sijaju, k površinski estetizaciji in posledično umetnostni fetišizaciji. Tokratni 54. Zlati lev je za najboljšo nacionalno predstavitev pripadel nemški razstavi avgusta lani preminulega avtorja Christopha Schlingensiefa. Ime paviljona so Nem-

ci iz Germania preimenovali v Egomania, notranjost paviljona pa spremenili v cerkev, ki so jo poimenovali cerkev strahu. Zlatega leva za sodelovanje na osrednji razstavi bienala ILLUMInacije, ki jo je kurirala švicarska umetnostna zgodovinarka Bice Curiger, pa je prejel Američan Christian Marclay. Slovenci se v Benetkah predstavljamo z Grelci za vroče občutke avtorja Mirka Bratuše. Kiparsko instalacijo kontrastno sestavljajo kipi, kjer so dela v pritličju ogrevana in dela v nadstropju hlajena. Hipokriti, kot jih imenuje Bratuša, so izdelani iz gline, in v sodobnem času, ko se kot kiparski materiali izpostavljajo predvsem novi umetni materiali, vzpostavljajo svojevrstno vez s kiparsko tradicijo, na videz kot neobičajno. Z zavračanjem sodobnih materialov je Bratuši uspelo ustvariti kompleksen sistem del. Kar je pri slovenski predstavitvi najbolj zanimivo, je to, da avtor v umetnost izpostavlja in vrača nazaj taktilnost, torej gledalcu dela niso namenjena zgolj kot objekt za gledanje, ampak tudi dotikanje. Očitno je, da se pozornost v umetnostnem sistemu odvrača od veščine nekam drugam. Umetnostno polje skoraj da že poka po svojih šivih in v njegovi prenasičenosti vsega vizualnega, prevečkrat spregledamo tudi likovno, dobro in pravilno umetnostno delo. Dela, ki so podlegla ekonomskemu trgu in globalizaciji, so hitra, tako kot so hitre informacije na dnevni ravni in so zaradi zgoščenosti postale le še mašilo ali šum avdio-vizualnih podatkov. Velika koncentracija na manifestaciji na žalost ustvarja tudi prehitro ali pa premajhno selekcijo. Po ogledu razstave lahko gledalec prehitro določi prvih pet likovno najbolj učinkovitih del. A seveda je pri tem res, da ostalim naredimo krivico, ker nimamo časa, da bi brali ob delih dolge tekste ali spremljali video predstavitve. Zdi se mi namreč, da mora na takšni predstavitvi delo delovati in učinkovati hitro, a vseeno ne na prvo žogo, ampak s komponento diskurza in razmisleka o delu samem. Delo le tako privablja pozornost in vzdržuje ter vključuje tudi status gledalca, da se le-ta lahko nenehno vrača k njegovi vsebini in interpretaciji. V vsakem iskanju izvirnika, tiste najčistejše primarne stvari v umetnostnem trgu, se spet in spet znajdemo v ponavljajočih se principih, ki v nobenem pogledu ne osvobajajo našega duha. V času, ko ne strada le komunikacija in se nam v delovanju prehitrega zdi, da ima korist od tega le kapitalistično usmerjen svet, je del umetnostnega tudi iskanje izvirnega oziroma odgovor na trenuten kaotičen sistem delovanja sveta. V hitrem zastarevanju vseh novosti namreč iščemo tisto, kar ne bi zastaralo in bi lahko imelo tudi daljnosežne učinke.

Inovatorsko se na bienalu iščejo pogledi preko – preko že ustvarjenega in realnega. A zdi se, da so z delom prišli v slepo ulico, kjer je z vsakim delom, na katerem se zaustavlja naš pogled, vse bolj jasno, da je vse na tem svetu relativno. Ostali smo tam z zavedanjem, da relativizem ne more pripeljati subjekta do trdnih in čistih spoznanj. Ko delujemo in gledamo umetnostna dela, se pri tem zavedamo, da na nas učinkujejo tudi interni in globalni zakoni, ki so udejanjeni v umetnostnih delih bienala. V mediaciji med absolutnim in relativnim se iščeta čista znanost in čista umetnost, katerih rezultati bi javnosti ponudili tudi čiste rešitve oziroma odgovore. Problem ponavljanja in iskanja novosti se pokaže v ponovljenih aktualizacijah v umetnostnih delih, ki se trudijo biti umetnostna in neumetnostna hkrati in slednje je problem sodobnosti. Vendar pa je pri aktualizaciji in ponavljanju treba razumeti, da s ponavljanjem ustvarjamo tudi razliko in odstopanje ponavljajočega od izvirnika. S ponavljanjem ponovno aktualiziramo moment, star predmet, staro idejo in kar je pomembno, ponavljanje nas spodbuja k (ponovnemu) razmišljanju in ustvarjanju razlag tudi o tem, kaj danes umetnost sploh še je in kako jo bomo v trenutni situaciji lahko še zapakirali v formulo pravilne, učinkovite, dolgoročne umetnosti. Reprezentančne drže moči današnjega subjekta ne izpodriva zgolj ekonomska kriza ali mesto v socialnem krogu, v katerem utopično išče lastno identiteto, ampak pripada predvsem tudi komunikaciji med delom in umetnostnim delavcem ter gledalcem. Subjekt v liberalnem kapitalizmu kot del neoliberalne družbe na bienalu nikakor ni izgubljen, saj ta vpenja v najrazličnejše umetnostne kontekste. Verjetno se trenutno še toliko bolj kot prej zavedamo svoje prisotnosti v vseh fizičnih in iluzornih prostorih obstajanja, delovanja in bivanja umetnosti, na kar pa v nekaterih primerih opozarja tudi beneški dogodek. Umetnost na tokratni bienalni ponovitvi se očitno zaveda zmožnosti, v okviru katerih deluje in nastaja ter si prizadeva, da bi se osvobodila režima, pri čemer je izjema nacionalna predstavitev Južne Koreje z avtorjem Leejem Yong-baekom in egiptovska predstavitev v lanskoletnih nemirih ubitega umetnika Ahmeda Basionya. Objekt interpretacije v smislu osvobajanja svojih spon in premagovanja režima je tudi ameriško delo, naslovljeno “Track and Field” avtorjev Jennifer Allora in Guillerma Calzadilla, v katerem se izpostavlja tekmovanje, nacionalizem in militarizem v razmerju s telesom, zdravjem in fitnesom. Umetnost torej ni vedno zgolj materialna praksa, tudi če se ta ustvarja in konstituira zgolj na idejni ravni, se torej iz fizičnega pretaka in pretvarja v netelesno in kot


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takšna stoji pred nami. Dvojnost med formo in vsebino, med objektom in gledalcem ter delom in umetnostnim delavcem ustvarja svojevrsten diskurz, ki ne tvori zgolj tandemov, v katerih bi iskali zaveznika, uteho ali počitek, temveč predvsem sogovornika, s katerim bi lahko prišli iz ustaljenih kalupov umetnostnega pojmovanja in ustvarili tisto, kar potrebujemo, kar reflektira našo sedanjost. Umetnostno delo je kontinuiteta različnih odnosov in absorbiranih informacij subjekta, umetnostnega delavca, ki oblikuje oziroma preoblikuje primarne generativne oblike, ki postajajo nove vsebine in tvorijo potrebne dogodke za možnost nadaljnjega diskurza. Nadaljnji diskurz nas potrjuje in nam daje različne zmožnosti aktivnega udejstvovanja. Je pa res, da včasih ravno pomanjkanje diskurzibilnosti lahko sproži nadaljevanje diskurza. Zaradi manka diskurzibilnosti ali zaradi miselne praznine, ki se kaže kot očitna, lahko pri subjektu ta sproži razmišljanje, postane ponovno polna in se nadaljuje v drugačnem okolju, na drugem nivoju. In kot rezultat odvrne pozornost od prvotnega, torej tistega, kar smo sprva označili za pomanjkljivo in čisto ter pravilno. Slednje je pravzaprav postalo zaželeno, postalo je ponovno uporabno, saj je generiralo nadaljnje razmišljanje, delovanje, diskurz. Med razmišljanjem o razstavljenih delih sem si zastavil vprašanje ali je res mogoče trditi, da umetnik svojih zamisli, svojega delovanja ne more več potrjevati s samim umetnostnim delom, ampak ob njem potrebuje še dodatne, kontekstualizirane podatke, video dokumente, ki so bili stalnica na bienalu. Zavedati se je namreč treba, da umetnostno delo ni dejstvo, ki se ga je treba (in mogoče) učiti, temveč je v svojem bistvu odvisno od gledalca. Torej tistega, ki se uči. Gledalec namreč sestavi lastno zgodbo iz sestavnih elementov, ki stojijo pred njim. Trenutni gledalec je s strani umetnostnih praks naravnan k temu, da vidi, spozna, kar je prvinsko prikrito. Čeprav prav takšno gledanje pomeni tudi subjektivno branje, v skrajnosti celo obsojanje dela, kolikor sam avtor dela ne napeljuje k eni sami globalno razširjeni misli. Spoznanje je delovanje in vsako spoznanje je opravičljivo in dognano z delovanjem, ne velja pa tudi obratno – da naj bi tudi vsako delovanje pripeljalo do spoznanja. Da bi lahko gledalec vrednotil in presojal, mora biti v delo vključen in hkrati mora biti sposoben interaktivnosti v različnih predstavah sveta, da bi lahko zagovarjal svoj aktivni obstoj in zanemarjal držo pasivnega gledal-

ca. Seveda pri tem ne smemo zanemariti tudi drugih lastnosti gledalca, ko ta selekcionira, opazuje, interpretira, kar pa pri svojem delu počne tudi avtor sam, toda zaradi nekaterih dejavnikov lahko gledalec vidi več, kot je videl sam avtor pri upodabljanju ali razvijanju svoje ideje. Torej subjekt nikdar ni prazen, zanj vedno obstaja podlaga, da delom, ki jih je mogoče videti na bienalu, dodajmo vse druge spominske in izkustvene podobe, ki skupaj stremijo k navidezni izvirnosti in čistosti. Prav zaradi tega se ne moremo izogniti prisotnosti besede ob umetnostnem delu. Ta vselej obstaja – in pri tem ne mislim na opis koncepta, ki se ob delu pojavlja ali pa na avtorja in naslov dela. Delo namreč preizprašuje gledalca tudi o tem, kar mu stoječ pred njim sporoča in se s svojo formo ubeseduje v naših mislih. Gledalec prav v tem diskurzu igra poglavitno vlogo. Igra vlogo razmišljujočega gledalca, ki ne gleda zgolj s fizičnimi očmi, ampak v pogled in gledanje vključuje tudi miselne “oči”, druge sebi lastne podobe kot tudi podobe množic. Umetnostna manifestacija v Benetkah na nek vprašljiv način gledalcu daje možnost, da se izkaže kot popolni umetnostni subjekt. ENG There is no sense in art for art’s sake, for it always has to pose questions, considerations or discourses. Through artworks, this year’s staging of the Biennale offers several answers and many questions, related not only to art but also to the viewer as one of the leading elements of the art system. Thus it might seem that increasingly each exhibition puts the viewer to the test. The 54th Venice Biennale is no exception to it, presenting the current position of the subject, the art worker (which I consider a matter of calling rather than only the natural talent) and the artwork, altogether integrated in the current sphere of the globalised conglomerate. Artworks should not be taken for granted. They always appear with a statement and a message, which the author had used as the basis of their creative development within the artwork. The current Biennale brings many reflective works, by which I mean the works that comprise the subject’s opinions, despite not including aesthetical elements and other criteria. The presentation considered by many as the very culmination of art exhibitions, is worth consideration and posing the question about not only what modern art is and what future it currently

Mirko Bratuša s hladilnimi skulpturami v Galeriji A+A / Mirko Bratuša and his cooling structures at the A+A Gallery (foto / photo Boris Beja)

foretells, what the artist and the country sending them to the exhibition meant to say with the artwork, but also what the artwork itself communicates to me and how I, the subject and viewer, integrate with it. This time featuring 89 national presentations – the most so far in Venice – the Biennale is somehow chaotic, fast, fluid, theatrical, showing where art has been brought to by contemporary art practices. How can we therefore surpass what has been created, what has been seen, realised or performed, to make a novelty out of repetition, at the same time preserving the level of the artwork in its direct form? Which is a key question within art. Unfortunately increasingly subjected to capital, art workers wish to pass from the visual to fine art, yet the Biennale shows just the opposite. By stepping beyond this, everybody wanting to surpass what has already been created, many have made a step backwards to visuality, not being aware that efficiency in art is not only to communicate messages, rather, what matters is its informative aspect. The works exhibited thus show an image of consideration and action pushing art towards its brink. Unfortunately, in most cases this can be marked as pushing the superficiality of an artwork towards ephemeral effects, towards shine, superficial aesthetisation, thereby towards artistic fetishization. This time the 54th Golden Lion for best national presentation was awarded to the German exhibition by Christoph Schlingensief, who passed away in August last year. The name of the pavilion was changed from Germania to Egomania, its interiority adapted to a church named the church of fear. The Golden Lion for participation at the central exhibition of the Biennale, ILLUMInations, which was curated by the Swiss art historian Bice Curiger, was awarded to the American Christian Marclay. Representing Slovenia in Venice is Mirko Bratuša with “Heaters for Hot Feelings”. The sculpture installation comprises contrasting sculptures, with the artworks in the ground floor being heated, and in the first floor cooled. The hypocrites, as Bratuša refers to them, are made of clay, which in the present when new artificial materials are particularly being introduced as sculpture materials, establishes a particular bond with the tradition of sculpture, seemingly an unusual one. By rejecting contemporary materials, Bratuša has managed to create a complex system of works. What is most interesting about the Slovenian presentation, is the fact that the author ex-


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Francoski nacionalni paviljon je kot tovarna rojstev z dvema števcema / The French national pavilion is like a birth factory with two counters (foto / photo Boris Beja)

poses tactility, re-introducing it into art, so that artworks are not only meant to be observed by the viewer, but also touched. It is obvious that in the art system, attention is being shifted away from skill to another focus. The field of art has practically been bursting at its seams. As it is overfed with everything visual, it happens to often that we overlook a proper and accurate work of fine art. The works that have succumbed to the market and globalisation, are quick in the same manner that everyday information is quick, and have, thanks to their compactness, become mere fillers or noise in audiovisual data. At the manifestation, large concentration sadly results in a selection that has been too quick or too weak. Having seen the exhibition, the viewer is too quick in establishing the first five works as regards art efficiency. By doing so, surely, we do wrong to others as there is no time to read lengthy accompanying texts or watch video presentations. It seems to me somehow that works in such presentations should operate and function quickly, yet not straightforwardly, rather using the component of discourse and a consideration of the work as such. It is only thus that the work can attract attention as well as establish and integrate the viewer’s status, so that they can go back to its contents and interpretation ceaselessly. Whenever looking for the original, the purest primal matter on the art market, again and again we find ourselves among repeating principles that fail to liberate our spirit in all aspects. In the time when communication is not the only thing starving, and when the effects of everything too quick make us feel that this all merely works for the benefit of the capitalist world, art also comprises the quest for the original, i.e. the answer to the current chaotic way the world operates. When everything new quickly becomes obsolete, we are on the look for something that stays in use and might thus have far-reaching effects. In terms of innovation, the quest at the Biennale is for the looks beyond – beyond what has been created, what is real. Yet it seems that their attempts have come to a dead end where each work that attracts the eye makes us more certain about how everything in this world is relative. We have remained there, knowing that relativism cannot make the subject reach solid and pure findings. When being active and looking at artworks, we are aware that we are also affected by internal and global laws actualised in the artworks of the Biennale. In mediation between the absolute and the relative, pure science and pure art are seeking each other, the result of which would provide the public with pure solutions or answers. However, the issue of repetition and the search for the new show in artworks in the sense of repeated actualisations, trying to be art and at the same time not, which is the problem of modernity. But speaking of actualisa-

tion and repetition, one has to understand that repetition also creates change and deviation from the original. Repetition re-actualises the moment, an old item, an old idea, and, most importantly, repetition encourages (repeats) the consideration and formation of explanations about what art remains today and how in the current situation we could present it using the formula of proper, efficient, far-reaching art. Not only has the representative stance of the power of today’s subject been ousted by the economic crisis or its position in the social circle where it seeks in vain its own identity, it also belongs particularly to the communication between the work and the artists or viewer. In liberal capitalism, the subject being part of the neoliberal society is far from being lost, as the latter integrates in various art contexts. Currently, we are probably aware more than ever of our presence in all physical and ilussional spaces where art exists, operates and dwells, and this is what is stressed by the Venice event in some instances. In the current biennial event, art is obviously aware of the abilities, within which it operates and emerges, seeking to liberate itself of the regime. Exceptional in this sense is the national presentation of South Korea featuring Lee Yong-baek, and the Egyptian presentation of Ahmed Basiony, an artist who was killed in conflict last year. Another object of interpretation in the sense of liberating oneself from restraints and defeating the regime, is the American work entitled “Track and Field” by Jennifer Allora and Guillermo Calzadille that stresses competition, nationalism and militarism in relation to the body, health and fitness. Art, therefore, is not always merely a material practice, even when created and constituted at the level of idea it flows from the physical, transforming into the incorporeal, and this is how it is placed in front of us. The duality between form and contents, the object and the viewer, and the work and the artist, creates a particular discourse that produces more than just tandems, in which to seek an ally, consolation or rest. Particulalry, it produces someone to talk to, who would make it possible to break the mould of art conceptions and create what we need, what reflects our present time. A work of art is a continuity of various relations and information absorbed by the subject, the art worker who shapes or re-shapes the primary generative forms. These, in turn, are becoming new contents, creating the events required to enable further discourse. Further discourse affirms us, providing us with various possibilities of active participation. It is true, however, that sometimes it is the lack of discoursibility that can trigger a continuation of discourse. Due to a lack of discoursibility or mental emptiness that seems prominent, it can trigger consideration in a subject, then become complete again and continue in a different environment, at a different level. And, as a result, it shifts the focus away

from the original, from what was first labelled imperfect as well as pure and accurate. Having generated further consideration, activity, discourse, the latter has actually become desired for, it has become re-usable. While thinking of the works exhibited, I posed myself the question whether one could really claim that the artist can no longer affirm their ideas, their activity merely through the work of art. Rather, they need additional, contextualised data, video documents, which proved a regular feature at the biennale. We have to be aware that an artwork is not a fact that should (and could) be learned; it depends on the viewer in its essence. Therefore, on the one that learns. This is to say, the viewer creates their own story from the elements in front of them. The current viewer is oriented by art practices to see, learn what is primarily conceived. Indeed, such observation also means subjective reading, ultimately even condemnation of the work, if the author of the work has not been inducing towards a single thought spread globally. Finding is action and each finding is excusable and based on action, whereas the opposite is not true – not every action leads to a finding. For the viewer to be able to evaluate and estimate, they have to be integrated in the work as well as capable of interactivity in various perceptions of the world, to be able to defend their active existence and disregard their stance of a passive viewer. Naturally, other features of the viewer should not be neglected when they make the selection, observe, interpret, but this is what the author does as well. However, due to some of the abovementioned factors, the viewer might see more that the author saw when depicting or developing their idea. The subject, therefore, is never empty, for them, there is always a foundation to the works that can be seen at the Biennale, with the addition of all other memorial and experiential images that together strive for originality and purity. This is why we cannot evade the presence of the word beside the artwork. It is always there – and I don’t mean the description of the concept that accompanies the work, nor the author and the work title. Namely, the work also questions the viewer about what it communicates to whoever stands in front, its form articulating in our thoughts. It is in this discourse that the viewer plays the central part. Plays the part of the reflective viewer who, rather than looking with physical eyes only, integrates into the view and into observation the mental “eyes” as well as other own images and images of crowds. The art manifestation in Venice provides the viewer in a somewhat questionable way with the opportunity to prove a perfect art subject. Boris Beja


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Umetnost: proces, produkt, koda Art: process, product, code Kultura in umetnost kot interdisciplinaren proces v informacijski družbi Culture and art as interdisciplinary process in information society Če je z razvojem računalnika, na začetku algoritmičnega in procesnega stroja, intermedijska umetnost pridobila enakovreden položaj na področju sodobnih umetnosti, se je z razmahom najrazličnejših uporabniških vmesnikov uveljavila in vzpostavila kot upoštevanja vredna tudi v bolj tradicionalnih umetnostnih institucijah. Danes je intermedijska umetnost na točki, ko se vse bolj pojavlja kot interdisciplinarna izraznost, povezana tudi z drugimi umetnostnimi področji in je vpeta v celotno umetnino kot njen enakopraven in verodostojen del. Tehnologija je postala zgolj sredstvo in ni več cilj, je samo še eno od orodij v postopkih ustvarjanja in se jo prav tako uporablja, kot tudi problematizira in ignorira. Odprto-kodni načini spodbujajo povsem nova razmišljanja in pristope o sodobni intermedijski umetnosti. Kot je nastajanje umetniškega dela praviloma ustvarjalni postopek od začetka do konca, tudi odprtokodna umetnost zagovarja, da je treba umetniško delo ustvariti v celoti, od kode in programskega zapisa do končne postavitve v načrtovani obliki in na predvidenem mediju. Čeprav je odprta koda vse bolj prisotno dejstvo sodobnega programja, se malokdo zaveda, da se v veliki meri uporablja tudi pri razvijanju umetniških izdelkov. Po eni strani je tako zato, ker se po navadi ob umetniški izkušnji ne sprašujemo, kaj jo poganja, saj nas zanima le rezultat, po drugi pa se nam zdi tehnološka podstat samoumevno dejstvo, ki je zgolj v domeni strokovnjakov oziroma poznavalcev. Vendar bi vsekakor morali tehnično plat medijskega dela obravnavati enako kot jo obravnavamo pri drugih izdelkih in formah. UMETNOST KOT PROCES Nekdanja, dokaj surova računalniško generirana podoba, ki je pritegnila že s svojo neobičajno prezentacijo, digitalno estetiko in možnostmi vplivanja nanjo, se z razvojem tehnologije in ponudbe vmesnikov ter z novimi umetniškimi pristopi, dojemanjem in izvedbo umetniškega dela preliva v celovite svetove, ki jih ponazarjajo sintagme, kot sta mešana ali hibridna resničnost. S tem si lahko predstavljamo razširjeno ustvarjalni proces, kjer nimamo okoli sebe zgolj digitalne slike in/ali zvoka – po navadi poglavitnih faktorjev, na katera lahko povratno vplivamo in v okviru vnaprej določenih atributov spreminjamo stanje v nek dinamični postopek – digitalna umetnina namreč postane del širšega, celovitejšega okolja, ki iz virtualnega prehaja v realno in nazaj. Celostna umetnina Zato se pojavljanje novih umetnin vse bolj približuje svojevrstni celostni umetnini, vendar ne v zgodovinskem, Wagnerjevem pomenu označbe, ki je dojemanje umetniškega dela razmejil na odrsko dogajanje kot aktivno, ustvarjalno, in na publiko kot pasivnega spremljevalca v neki za-vse-isto gmoti, temveč v sodobnejši definiciji prostora in posameznika, ki opredeljuje vsakega opazovalca in/ali poslušalca kot aktivnega udeleženca umetniško generirane realnosti in ga umešča v okolje glede na njegove akcije in reakcije. V odnosu do podanih prednosti dela in izhajajoč iz afinitet in izobrazbe posameznika se tvori nekakšno informacijsko telo, skupek zunanjih vplivov in dražljajev ter notranjih sprejemanj in procesov; nastaja nov posameznik, ki del svojega časa živi v digitaliziranem svetu, del pa v analognem. Analogno, digitalno ... Digitalno postaja vse bolj realno in analogno se spreminja v digitalno. Zdi se, da ni umetnika in umetnosti, ki ne bi bila prisotna tudi v kibernetičnem svetu. Signali nas obkrožajo že od nekdaj, a v sodobnem svetu se vse bolj učimo zajemati frekvence in jih uporabljati kot prenosnike informacij in kot sredstvo komunikacije. Nekdanjo

prevzetost s tehnološkostjo, ki je bila prisotna v preteklosti, je zamenjala prevzetost z uporabniško vrednostjo, ključen pomen je dobila uporabnost. V taki konstelaciji se umetnost počuti vklenjeno in išče načine, ki bi presegali neposredno namembnost. Zato se povezuje z drugimi panogami, zlasti z znanostjo, nemalokrat se zateče tudi v psevdoznanost in ironizira postopke, spet drugič se odloči za ekstremne pogoje in skozi odmevnost takega pristopa pričakuje afirmacijo. Intermedijska umetnost Intermedijska umetnost vključuje tudi klasične vizualne in glasbene postopke, onomatopoejo je nadgradila v lastno estetiko narave, namesto posnemanja se je zgodila realizacija, generiranje lastnega bivanjskega prostora, ki nastaja v okviru žic in procesorjev in se razširja s pomočjo frekvenc. Kamor sežejo frekvence, je tudi digitalen svet in možne so podstati za intermedijsko ustvarjanje. Vendar pa se je treba zavedati, da je digitalno zgolj simulaker simulakra. Digitalno namreč obstaja samo kot skupek analognega, ki ima dve značilnosti, gostoto in hitrost. Digitalno je samo človekova definicija nečesa, česar naš um in čutila ne zmorejo zaznavati zvezno, analogno. Zaradi izjemne gostote določenih elementov na vse manjši površini in zaradi nepredstavljivih hitrosti predelave velikih količin informacij se nam zdi, da prihaja do skokov stanj, da postopki potekajo paketno. … Kvantno Toda še bolj kompleksni in hitri procesi se dogajajo v naših možganih – povsem analognem organu z vsemi receptivnimi sposobnostmi in omejitvami. Narava je pač analogna, digitalno je skupek analognih procesov na majhnem prostoru in v bliskovitem času. Tudi narava je kvantna, vendar ne bomo zašli na področje kvantne fizike in mehanike. Človek je v tej ožičeni informacijski oziroma digitalni družbi eno od vozlišč mreže, skozi katero se distribuirajo določene informacije, je bitje na razvodju komunikacijskih povezav in tokov, med katerimi je tudi intermedijska umetnost. Vanjo so se vpletle tudi povsem klasične oblike umetnosti – slika, kip, arhitektura – in sodobnejših medijev, iz katerih gradi – fotografija, film, video. Obenem je postala ozaveščena, ekološko angažirana, saj je vse več umetniških del, ki se ne ubadajo z nadgradnjo, ne iščejo naprej, ampak se spogledujejo z zastarelo opremo, z neuporabljanimi programi, obračajo se k dekompoziciji struktur, celo ludistično obračunavajo in razbijajo računalnike, izpostavljajoč njihovo sporno ekološko vlogo. UMETNOST KOT PRODUKT Vsaka umetnost ustvarja produkte. Tudi v dematerializiranem prostoru virtualne realnosti nastajajo umetniška dela. Materialno in nematerialno vzpostavljata sintetiziran svet mešanih oziroma hibridnih realnosti, ki z vseobsegajočim nadgrajujejo medijsko realnost. Zanjo je značilen pretok iz enega produkcijskega centra v nešteto distribucijskih kanalov, medtem ko je lastnost medmrežja kot generatorja mešanih realnosti nešteto produkcijskih centrov in distribucijskih kanalov. Pomeni, da se umetnost ustvarja in distribuira na enak način, s čimer nastane izjemno veliko ustvarjalno polje uporabniških vsebin, to je vsebin, ki jih generirajo uporabniki. Na tako širokem področju pa je umetnost dobila svojo priložnost, da se od nekdanjih konceptov ‘vsak-je-lahko-umetnik’ in ‘naredi-sam’ principov loči s kakovostjo, umetniškim presežkom in umetniškim kodiranjem. Realno in virtualno Intermedijska umetnost je potemtakem poleg lastne emancipacije poskrbela tudi za ponovno oživitev umetniške kreacije, ko jo loči od uporabniške izkušnje. Upo-

rabnik se je skozi intermedijo naučil novega dojemanja realnega in skozi virtualno izkušnjo spremenil svoj odnos do okolja. Analogno se je ponovno potrdilo, nadgrajeno s principi in estetiko digitalnega ter pridobilo nov pomen. Vrnilo se je k svoji izvorni kodi in klasične likovne forme soočilo z ustvarjalnimi principi kibernetike in računalniških postopkov. Umetnost je ponovno strukturirala nov medij in ga definirala kot ustvarjalnega v domenah intermedijske umetnosti. Zato lahko rečemo, da je intermedijska umetnost najbolj avantgardna umetniška sedanjost, saj v spajanju medijev vzpostavlja njihov medsebojni dialog in narekuje enakovreden odnos posamičnih medijev in njihov samostojen nastop skozi iskanje novih izraznih možnosti v okviru analognega in digitalnega. Odprto-kodno Kot se zdi, so v evropski (novo)medijski umetnosti odprtokodne rešitve osrednjega pomena, deloma zato, ker Evropa nima svojega programskega velikana in je bila vedno zainteresirana iskati lasten navdih računalništva, tudi vsled tradicije razsvetljenstva, ki je gojilo našo multikulturnost in večjezičnost. Nikakor ni naključje, da je stvaritelj operacijskega sistema Linux Finec Linus Torvalds aka Linus Thorwald, ki je pričel razvijati svoj odprtokodni sistem leta 1991. Linux je do danes postal eden najmočnejših dejavnikov svetovnega programja in upoštevanja vreden tekmec, ki med drugim poganja tudi večino svetovnih strežnikov. UMETNOST KOT KODA: Odprtokodna umetnost Odprtokodna umetnost naj bi bila edina prava umetnost, narejena z računalnikom, pri čemer je treba upoštevati tehnološke in uporabniške ter ustvarjalne in umetniške plati. V Sloveniji je novomedijska umetnost rasla na odprti kodi in takorekoč vsi so jo uporabili za svoje izdelke in rešitve so tudi javno dostopne na svetovnem spletu. Vsi navedeni primeri so bili predstavljeni in razstavljeni v Multimedijskem centru KIBLA v Mariboru, v okviru festivala Kiblix – Odprtokodna umetnost, v letih med 2007 in 2010. Pix: fijuu (http://www.fijuu.com) Pix je umetnik in programer iz Avstralije in Fijuu je 3D avdio-vizualna namestitev. Deluje po igralnem vzorcu PlayStation, igralci fijuu dinamično manipulirajo 3D instrumente in na ta način ustvarjajo improvizirano glasbo. Fijuu je zgrajen tako, da uporablja odprto-kodno prikazujoč motor OGRE, ki deluje na Linuxu. V prihodnosti bo fijuu izšel kot Linux CD projekt v živo, tako da bodo igralci preprosto “obuli” svoj PC s kompatibilnim priključkom igralnega vzorca in bodo lahko igrali brez nameščanja ne glede na operacijski sistem. Tako učinkovito spremenimo domači PC v igralno konzolo za avdio performanse. Julian Oliver levelHead, prostorsko spominska igra (http://www.julianoliver.com) Julian Oliver je na Novi Zelandiji rojeni umetnik, razvijalec, učitelj in priložnostni pisatelj, ki živi v Madridu. Od leta 1996 je svoje članke in projekte predstavljal na številnih mednarodnih dogodkih, posvečenih elektronskih umetnosti. Leta 1998 je ustanovil umetniški kolektiv za razvoj računalniških iger Select Parks. Povsod po svetu je vodil številne delavnice in mojstrske razrede na področju ustvarjanja iger, umetniškega razvoja iger, objektno orientiranega programiranja za umetnike, UNIX/Linux, virtualne arhitekture, zasnove vmesnikov, razširjene resničnosti in razvoja odprtih virov. Že dolgo je zagovornik uporabe proste programske opreme za umetniško ustvarjanje, distribucijo in izobraževanje.


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Edini vmesnik igre levelHead je trdna plastična kocka, ki jo držimo v roki. Na zaslonu se zdi, da je na vsaki ploskvi kocke majhna soba, te pa so med seboj logično povezane z vrati. V enem od teh prostorov je lik. Igralec ga z nagibanjem kocke usmerja iz sobe v sobo in si prizadeva, da bi našel izhod. Nekatera vrata ne vodijo nikamor in lik pošljejo nazaj v sobo, v kateri je začel Ta trik je zasnovan kot izziv za prostorski spomin igralca. Katera vrata pripadajo kateri sobi? Tri kocke (stopnje) so med seboj povezane z enimi samimi vrati. Cilj igralca je premikati lik iz sobe v sobo, iz kocke v kocko, pri čemer si prizadeva, da bi našel končni izhod iz vseh treh kock. Če ta vrata najde, se zdi, kot da lik zapusti kocko, se sprehodi čez površino mize in izgine ... Igra pa se znova začne. Skupina GoTo10 (http://goto10.org) Jan-Kees van Kampen [http://vacca.goto10.org] (Adrian Vacca) je rojen leta 1975 v nizozemskem mestu Zetten. Študiral je elektronsko glasbo in kompozicijo v Hilversumu. Posveča se omrežnemu zvočnemu in živemu skladanju. Adrian Vacca je zgodaj ugotovil, da njegovi vrsti glasbe bolj ustreza pozornost krav kot ljudi. Od takrat ustvarja glasbo izključno za krave. Trenutno raziskuje pripravljenost krav, da bi gostile dostopno točko 802.11g za podeželsko pokritost njegovih “koncertov računalniške glasbe za sodobno kravo”, ki je bila dve leti uvrščena tudi na festival placard. Claude Heiland-Allen [http://claudiusmaximus.goto10.org] je digitalni umetnik iz Londona. Umetnost je njegova prva ljubezen (ali pa so to morda računalniki). Kakorkoli, vsi trije so vključeni v prepleteno razmerje, kolikor daleč mu seže spomin in še dlje. Po desetih letih lastniške programske opreme je imel dovolj in je leta 2004 pobegnil na svobodo. Ni mu več treba uporabljati najverjetneje nelegalnih vdorov v programe, da bi lahko želenim orodjem dodal nove sposobnosti, ni mu več treba skrbeti, če bodo njegove datoteke v daljni prihodnosti še uporabne, ko bo prodajalec programske opreme že davno pozabljen. Študiral je matematiko in računalniške znanosti na univerzi v Oxfordu, nato pa se je začel posvečati učenju uporabe sistemov Linux, Puredata in Gridflow. Karsten Gebbert (krgn) je nemški glasbenik in razvijalec programske opreme, ki živi v Kaliforniji. Njegova glasba se navdihuje pri minimalističnem tehnu in generativni umetnosti. Njegovo delo nastaja v sistemu Supercollider s prilagojenimi avdio pripomočki. Karsten Gebbert trenutno vzdržuje jedro za realni čas za sistem pure:dyne, distribucijo sistema GNU/ Linux za medijske umetnike. Diego Maranan in Angelo Vermeulen Biomodd, delavnica/okoljska instalacija (http://www.biomodd.net/) Biomodd je sodelovalni umetniški projekt, zastavljen kot izziv predvidenim pojmom o nasprotjih med naravo in tehnologijo v različnih kulturah po svetu. Zamislil si ga je belgijski novo-medijski umetnik Angelo Vermeulen, nakar se mu je pridružil filipinski sodelavec Diego Maranan. Poimenovanje “Biomodd” je nastalo spontano kot delovni naslov, a je zelo hitro zaobjel naravo projekta in postal tudi delovno ime. Projekt se je pričel leta 2007 in je leta 2010 gostoval tudi v Multimedijskem centru KIBLA v Mariboru, v okviru festivala KIBLIX – Odprtokodna umetnost. Biomodd je odprtokodno umetniško delo in ga lahko zgradi ali izboljša kdorkoli. Njegov konceptualni okvir predstavlja niz tem, kot so simbioza med biološkimi in elektronskimi sistemi, e-smeti in njih ustvarjalna ponovna uporaba, spreminjanje ohišja, digitalne igre in igralna kultura, sodelovanje in soustvarjanje, jukstaponiranje lokalnega in globalnega, odprti viri. V Biomoddu narava in tehnologija nista jukstaponirani, temveč združeni v domiselno hibridno instalacijo. Osrednja ideja je stvaritev eksperimentalnega sistema, v katerem spremenjena računalniška omrežja sobivajo z živimi ekosistemi. Izziv je biološko življenje kot fizično približati elektronskemu kot možnemu in jima dovoliti, da komunicirata drug z drugim skozi pomenska simbiotska razmerja. Elektronske smeti so ena od najbolj problematičnih posledic digitalne tehnologije. Za razliko od konvencionalnega recikliranja e-smeti ponovna uporaba stare strojne opreme za umetniške projekte zagotavlja drugačen mehanizem za ukvarjanje z rastočim problemom e-smeti. Po prikazu rezultatov je vsaka hibridna instalacija popolnoma razstavljena in njene komponente ponovno

uporabljene in reciklirane. Biološko življenje posvojijo sodelavci ali pa ga vrnejo naravi. Ime Bimodd izhaja deloma iz prakse spreminjanja ohišja, primarne inspiracije za Biomodd. Scena spreminjanja ohišja je zelo aktivna in ustvarjalna subkultura, nekaj kar deluje daleč preko meja sodobne umetnosti. Biomodd takšne subkulture raziskuje z umetniškega stališča: projekt inspirirajo kode in metode, ki tvorijo takšne kulturne prakse. K ideji spreminjanja ohišja pristopamo kot k formi razširjajoče se subkulture. V tem subkulturnem približevanju faktor ‘funkcionalne’ forme ni imperativ; prej gre za gradnjo strukture, ki je oboje, skulptura in delujoči računalnik. V Biomoddu je funkcionalnost računalnika kooptirana z recikliranjem toplote, ki jo emitira z gradnjo ekosistema znotraj strukture, ki živi skupaj z elektroniko. Biomodd poudarja socialno naravo igre in igralne kulture. Vsaka instalacija lahko funkcionira kot igralna postaja za več igralcev. Obliko vsake instalacije dosežemo skozi izmenjavo ideje med udeleženci. Biomodd je eksplicitno skupen, sodelovalski napor. “Ta narava sodelovanja se dogaja na dveh ravneh. Na prvi delamo z ekipami in vsakega posameznika oziroma posameznico znotraj skupine pooblastimo, da doda nekaj pomembnega k izdelku. Zato se projekt prične zgolj s konceptualnim fokusom in raste organično. Na drugem nivoju izdelek preizkušamo na različnih krajih po svetu, vsakič z drugimi ljudmi. “ Biomodd je nomadski projekt, pri katerem se vse naslednje verzije zgradijo z drugimi sodelavci in z novimi materiali. Vsaka verzija odseva kulturne in socialne pogoje, v katerih je bila ustvarjena in je reinterpretacija originalnega koncepta. Vendar pa so določeni deli prejšnjih verzij vedno integrirani v vsako novo instalacijo. Na ta način so vse verzije konceptualno in fizično povezane in neodvisne od časa ali lokacije. Opogumlja odprto-virne operacijske sisteme (Linux) in odprto-virno igralno programje s ciljem razširiti možnosti spreminjanja umetniškega dela tako daleč, kot je mogoče. Biomodd projekt je prevzel odprto-virno naravo. Denimo, instrukcije za stvaritev vašega lastnega Biomodda so dostopne na spletu, izdelavo nove iteracije so vodili drugi posamezniki, posameznice, študenti, študentke itd.

Računalnik, algoritem, proces, stroj, intermedija, umetnost, kultura, sodobno, uporabnik, vmesnik, institucija, organizacija, interdisciplinarno, izraz, tehnologija, znanost, orodje, postopek, ustvarjanje, odprto-kodno, odprto, koda, program, projekt, zapis, medij, programje, izkušnja, rezultat, strokovno, vsebina, forma, informacija, družba, informacijska družba, analogno, digitalno, celostna umetnina, kvantno, dinamično, manipulacija, konzola, kompatibilno, igra, kocka, 3D, objektno programiranje, razširjena resničnost, odprti vir, glasba, datoteka, narava, simbioza, biološko, e-smeti, jukstapozicija, lokalno, globalno, recikliranje, ohišje, ponovna uporaba, funkcionalno, ekosistem, instalacija, sodelovanje, konceptualno, nomadsko ENG If with the development of a computer, this originally algorithmic and processing machine, intermedia art has gained an equal position in the field of contemporary arts, the expansion of various user interfaces has caused it to become, and establish itself as, noteworthy in more traditional art institutions, as well. Today, at a point when it is increasingly appearing as interdisciplinary expressiveness, intermedia art is linked with other fields of art and embedded in an art work as a whole as its equal and credible part. Technology is now merely a means, no longer a goal; only one in a series of tools in a creation process, which can be used, as well as questioned and ignored. Open-source modes encourage new reflections about, and new approaches to, contemporary intermedia art. Just as the making of an art work is usually a creative process from beginning to end, open-source art advocates the creation of an art work as a whole from the source code to the final launch in the planned form and

media. Although open source is an increasingly present notion in today’s software, few people are aware that it is also largely used in the development of art products. On the one hand this is because when experiencing art we are only interested in the result and rarely think about the drive behind it, while on the other hand we take its technological foundation for granted, something within the domain of experts and connoisseurs. However, the technical aspect of a media work should be treated just as it is in other products and forms. ART AS A PROCESS With the development of technology and the range of interfaces, and with new artistic approaches to, and comprehension and realisation of, an art work, the former rather rough computer-generated image, which attracted attention with, if nothing else, its unusual pre­sentation, digital aesthetics and the possibilities of affecting it, is transforming into integral worlds illustrated by syntagmata such as mixed or hybrid reality. This can help us imagine a broader creative process in which we are not only faced with a digital image and/or sound –usually the key factors, which we can affect back, converting a state into a dynamic process under previously defined attributes – but in which a digital art work becomes part of a broader, more integral environment moving from the virtual into the real and back. Comprehensive art work Thus, the emergence of new art works is increasingly coming closer to a distinct comprehensive art work (Gesamtkunstwerk), but not in the historic, Wagnerian sense, which distinguishes the on-stage happening as active and creative from the audience as a passive entourage in a nondescript crowd when it comes to comprehension of an art work; but in a more modern definition of the space and the individual, which interprets each spectator and/or listener as an active participant of the artistically generated reality and places them in an environment based on their actions and reactions. Some kind of an information body, a composite of external influences and stimuli, and internal receptions and processes, is formed in a relation to the given advantages of work and based on preferences and education of an individual; a new individual emerges, who divides his or her time between a digitalised world and an analogue one. The analogue, the digital... The digital is becoming more and more real, and the analogue is transforming into the digital. It seems there are no artists or art that are not also present in the cyber world. Signals have been there forever, but in the contemporary world we are increasingly learning to capture frequencies and use them as information transmitters and a means of communication. Fascination with the technological, which was present in the past, was replaced by fascination with a user value, with usefulness becoming the focus. In such a constellation, art feels trapped and looks for ways to go beyond an immediate purpose. This is why it forges links with other fields, especially science, often seeking refuge in pseudo-science and ironising processes, or sometimes going for extreme conditions and expecting affirmation in view of attention that such an approach produces. Intermedia art Intermedia art also comprises classical visual and music processes. It has upgraded onomatopoeia into own aesthetics of the nature; imitation was substituted by realisation, the generation of one’s own living space, which is created amid wires and processors and is expanded by means of frequencies. The reach of frequencies defines the limits of the digital world and the space in which foundations for intermedia art-making are possible. But it has to be emphasized the digital is merely a simulacrum of a simulacrum. The digital only exists as a composite of the analogue with two features: density and speed. The digital is merely a human definition of what our minds and senses cannot perceive as continuous, analogue. Due to high density of certain elements on a reducing surface and an unimaginable speed of processing large amounts of information, this appears to us as if states are skipping, as if processes are arriving in portions. ...the quantum But even more complex and speedy processes take place in our brains, this entirely analogue organ with all its re-

Diego Maranan in Angelo Vermeulen: Biomodd (Festival KIBLIX – Odprtokodna umetnost, Multimedijski center KIBLA, 2010) / Diego Maranan and Angelo Vermeulen: Biomodd (Festival KIBLIX – Open code for artistic purposes, Multimedia centre KIBLA, 2010), foto / photo Boštjan Lah


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folio / volume 3 (2011) / / 44

ceptive capacities and constraints. The fact is that nature is analogue, while the digital is a composite of analogue processes in a small space in an extremely short time. Nature is quantum, as well, but we will not go into quantum physics and mechanics. In this wired information or digital society, a human is one of the knots in a net through which certain information is distributed; and is a creature on the intersection of communication connections and streams, one of which is intermedia art. Interwoven into it are pure classical art forms – painting, statue, architecture – and more modern media, which it uses to construct – photography, film, video. It has also become environmentally aware and motivated, as less and less art works deal with an upgrade, a move forward; instead they flirt with dated equipment, unused software, they turn to the decomposition of structures, or even attack and destroy computers in a Luddite-like manner to emphasize their questionable environmental role. ART AS A PRODUCT Each art generates products. Art works are created even in a dematerialised environment of virtual reality. The material and the non-material establish a synthesized world of mixed or hybrid realities, which enhance the media reality with the all-embracing. Characteristic of it is a flow from one production centre into countless distribution channels, whereas the internet as a generator of mixed realities typically has countless production centres and distribution channels. This means that art is created and distributed in the same way, which brings about an immense creative platform of user-generated content. In an environment of these proportions, art has got another opportunity to depart from the old everyone-can-be-an-artist and DIY concepts through quality, creative superlatives and creative coding. The real and the virtual Therefore, in addition to its own emancipation, intermedia art has brought about a new revival of artistic creation that separated it from user experience. With intermedia, users have learned how to comprehend the real in a new way, and changed their take on environment though a virtual experience. The analogue, enhanced with principles and the aesthetics of the digital, has been given a new affirmation and has acquired a new meaning. It has returned to its source code and brought classical art forms face to face with creative principles of cybernetics and computer processes. Art has structured yet another new medium and defined it as creative in the domains of intermedia art. Thus, it could be maintained that intermedia art is the most avant-garde art present, because by merging media it initiates a dialogue between them, as well as dictates their equal relationship and, though a search for new means of expression in the analogue and the digital, their autonomous appearance. The open-source As it seems, open-source solutions are central to the European (new)media art, partly because Europe has no software giant of its own and has always been interested in finding its own inspiration in computer engineering, but also as a result of its tradition of enlightenment, which fostered multiculturalism and multilingualism. It is certainly no coincidence that the Linux operating system was developed by a Finn, by Linus Torvalds a.k.a. Linus Thorwald, who began creating his open-source system in 1991. Since its launch, Linux has grown into one of the strongest agents in world’s software and a noteworthy competitor, which also operates most of world’s servers. ART AS A CODE: Open-source art Open-source art is considered the only true computergenerated art, bearing in mind both technological and user aspects, as well as creative and artistic angles. In Slovenia, new-media art has been based on an open source code, used by everyone in their products, with their solutions freely available on the internet. All the following examples have been presented and exhibited in the Multimedia Centre KIBLA as part of the festival ‘Kiblix – Open code for artistic purposes’ between 2007 and 2010. Pix: fijuu (http://www.fijuu.com) Pix is an Austrian artist and programmer, and Fijuu is his 3D audio/visual installation. Using a PlayStation-style gamepad, players of fijuu dynamically manipulate 3D instruments to make improvised music. Fijuu is built using the open source rendering engine OGRE and runs on Linux. In the future fijuu will be released as a Linux live CD project, so players can simply boot up their PC with a compatible gamepad plugged in, and play without

installing anything, regardless of operating system. This effectively turns the domestic PC into a console for game based audio performances. Julian Oliver levelHead, a spatial memory game (http://www.julianoliver.com) Julian Oliver is a New Zealand-born artist, inventor, lecturer and occasional writer based in Madrid. Since 1996, his papers and projects have been presented and shown at numerous international electronic art events. In 1998 he established the art and games collective Select Parks. He has given numerous workshops and master classes in game-design, artistic game-development, objectoriented programming for artists, UNIX/Linux, virtual architecture, interface design, augmented reality and open source development practices worldwide. He is a long-time advocate of the use of free software in artistic production, distribution and education. levelHead uses a hand-held solid-plastic cube as its only interface. On-screen it appears each face of the cube contains a little room, each of which are logically connected by doors. In one of these rooms is a character. By tilting the cube the player directs this character from room to room in an effort to find the exit. Some doors lead nowhere and will send the character back to the room they started in, a trick designed to challenge the player’s spatial memory. Which doors belong to which rooms? Three cubes (levels) are connected by a single door. The goal is to move the character from room to room, cube to cube in an attempt to find the final exit door of all three cubes. If this door is found the character will appear to leave the cube, walk across the table surface and vanish... The game then begins again. GoTo10 collective (http://goto10.org) Jan-Kees van Kampen [http://vacca.goto10.org] (Adrian Vacca) was born in 1975 in Zetten, the Netherlands. He studied electronic music and composition in Hilversum. He focuses on networked audio and live composition. Adrian Vacca soon discovered the attention of cows was better suited to his music than the attention of people. He has been making music for cows exclusively since. He is currently investigating cows’ eagerness to host a 802.11g access-point for rural coverage of his “computer music concerts for the modern cow”, which found their way to two editions of the placard festival. Claude Heiland-Allen [http://claudiusmaximus.goto10.org] is a digital artist from London. Art was his first love (or was it computers?). Either way, the three of them have been involved in a tangled relationship for longer than he can remember. Ten years of using proprietary software was enough, and in 2004 he made a break for freedom. No more having to use hacks of dubious legality to add extra features to his tools of choice, no more worry over whether his files will be useable in the distant future after the software vendor is long gone and forgotten. He studied Mathematics and Computer Science at University of Oxford, and then devoted his time to learning the arts of Linux, Puredata and Gridflow. Karsten Gebbert (krgn) is a German musician and software developer based in California. His music is inspired by minimalist techno and generative art. All his work is done in Supercollider and with custom made audio utilities. Karsten is currently the maintainer of the real-time kernel for pure:dyne, the GNU/Linux distribution for media artists. Diego Maranan and Angelo Vermeulen Biomodd, workshop/environmental installation (http://www.biomodd.net/) Biomodd is a collaborative art project designed to challenge presumed notions of opposition between nature and technology in different cultures throughout the world. It was originally conceived by Belgian new media artist Angelo Vermeulen, who was later joined by Diego Maranan from the Philippines. The title “Biomodd” came up spontaneously as a working title, but very rapidly came to embody the nature of the project and became the final title. The project started in 2007 and was showcased in the Multimedia Centre KIBLA as part of the festival ‘Kiblix – Open code for artistic purposes’ in 2010. Biomodd is an open source art work and can be built and improved by anyone. Conceptually, Biomodd is predicated on a set of themes, such as symbiosis between biological and elec-

Computer, algorithm, process, machine, intermedia, art, culture, contemporary, user, interface, institution, organization, interdisciplinary, expression, technology, science, tool, procedure, create, opensource, open, code, program, project, record, media, software, experience, result, professional, content, form, analog, digital, Gesamtkunstwerk, quantum, dynamic, manipulation, console, compatible, game, cube, 3D, object programming, augmented reality, open source, music, file, nature, symbiosis, biologic, e-waste, juxtaposition, local, global, recycling, case, reuse, functional, ecosystem, installation, collaboration, conceptual, nomadic tronic systems, e-waste and its creative reuse, case modding, digital games and gaming culture, collaboration and co-creation, juxtaposing the local and the global, and open sourcing. In Biomodd, nature and technology are not juxtaposed but rather fused into imaginative hybrid installations. The core idea is the creation of experimental systems in which modified computer networks coexist with living ecosystems. The challenge is to bring biological life as physically close to the electronics as possible, and allow them to communicate with each other through meaningful symbiotic relationships. Electronic waste is one of the most problematic consequences of digital technology. In addition to conventional e-waste recycling, reusing old hardware for art projects provides another mechanism for dealing with the growing problem of e-waste. In addition, after showcasing the result each hybrid installation is fully disassembled, and its components are re-used and recycled. Biological life is adopted by collaborators or returned to nature. Biomodd’s name derives in part from the practice of case modding, a primary inspiration of Biomodd. The case modding scene is a very active and creative subculture, something that operates way beyond the boundaries of contemporary art. In Biomodd such subcultures are explored from an artistic point of view; the project is inspired by the codes and methods that make up such cultural practices. The idea of case modding is approached as a form of expanded sculpture. In this sculptural approach a “functional” form factor is not imperative; rather, it’s about building a structure that is both sculpture and a functioning computer. In Biomodd, the functionality of the computer is co-opted by recycling the heat it emits by building an ecosystem inside the structure living along with the electronics. Biomodd highlights the social nature of gaming and game culture. Each installation can function as a gaming station for a fully working multi-player game. The design of each Biomodd installation is achieved through the exchange of ideas between all participants. Biomodd is explicitly a collaborative effort. “This collaborative nature is situated on two levels. On the first level we work with teams and every individual within the group is empowered to add something substantial to the work. This is why the project begins with a solely conceptual focus, and grows organically from there. On the second level the work is recreated in different places throughout the world, each time with different people.” Biomodd is a nomadic project in which subsequent versions are built with different collaborators and new materials. Each version reflects the cultural and social conditions in which it was created and is a reinterpretation of the original concept. However, selected parts of previous versions are always integrated into each new installation. This way all versions are conceptually and physically connected, independent of time or location. We encourage the use of open source operating system (Linux) and open source game software in order to extend the modification possibilities for the art work as far as possible. The Biomodd project itself has also taken an open source nature. For instance, instructions for creating your own Biomodd are available on the web site. New iterations of Biomodd have been led by other individuals, students, etc. Peter Tomaž Dobrila


Mednarodni festival KIBLIX, Maribor, Slovenija, 10.–23. november 2011 International Festival KIBLIX, Maribor, Slovenia, 10–23 November 2011 www.kiblix.org

KIBLIX Izobraževalni program 10.–23. november 2011

KIBLIX Festival 18.–23. november 2011 KIBLIX 2011 – festival kot kulturni performans – njegov namen je postati platforma za umetnike, ki jih zanima, kaj počnejo in razmišljajo raziskovalci, kakor tudi za raziskovalce, ki zvedavo pogledujejo k umetniškemu eksperimentu, predvsem pa, kako se oboji združijo v raziskovanju, diskusijah in izmenjavi mnenj.

KIBLIX Festival 18–23 November 2011 KIBLIX 2011 – festival as a cultural performance – aims to be a platform where artists, who are hungry to know what researchers are doing and thinking, and researchers, jealous to know of artistic experimentation come together to explore, discuss and share their ideas.

KIBLIX 2011 – festival kot laboratorij – s poudarkom na izobraževanju, praktičnem delu, sodelovanju in izmenjevanju znanja. Izobraževalni program nagovarja uveljavljajoče se umetnike k udeležbi na strokovnih / nadaljevalnih delavnicah, razstavljanju dela med potekom festivala, ter vključevanju javnosti in mladih s številnimi mini-delavnicami na temo ustvarjalnih in igrivih tehnoloških in umetniških projektov.

KIBLIX Educational Program 10–23 November 2011 KIBLIX 2011 – festival as a lab – will have a strong focus on education, hands-on making, collaboration and sharing of knowledge. The educational program is addressing emerging artists to participate in professional / advanced workshops and exhibiting the outputs during the festival, and reaching out to the public and the youth with various mini-workshops on creative and playful technology&art projects.

framework radio (UK, EE) Snemanje na terenu, phonografija, umetnost lovljenja zvoka, odpri ušesa in poslušaj! Field-recording, phonography, the art of sound-hunting; open your ears and listen!

dimension plus (TW, HK) Predani interaktivnim digitalnim okoljem nenehno ustvarjajo nove ideje, povezane z digitalnimi in analognimi tehnologijami. Devoted to the interactive digital environments, constantly generating new ideas that deal with digital and analog technologies.

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Effi Tanner (CH)

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Kovčki so ultimativni simboli mobilnosti. Za potujočega umetnika je najlažje, da je njegovo delo kar se da mobilno. Zatorej bomo govorili o potovanju, razstavah, organizacijah in različnih vrstah (Art) prostorov. Suitcases are the ultimate sign of mobility. For a traveling artist the easiest thing is to have his work as mobile as possible. Therefore we will talk about traveling, exhibitions, organisations and different kinds of (Art)spaces.

Swiss Mechatronic Art Society – SGMK (CH) Marc Dusseiller, Liu, Pei-Wen, Maki3000 Švicarsko mehanotronično umetniško društvo (SGMK, ustanovljeno leta 2006) je kolektiv inženirjev, hekerjev, znanstvenikov in umetnikov, združenih v sodelovanju in promociji ustvarjalne in kritične rabe tehnologije. Med drugim razvijajo ‘naredi-sam’ tehnologije, sodelujejo z družbenimi in izobraževalnimi institucijami, prirejajo diy* festival (naredi-sam festival) ter javni MechArt Lab v Zürichu in organizirajo delavnice na temo elektronike, robotike, fizičnega računalništva, ‘naredi-sam’ biologije in lofi-glasbe. The Swiss Mechatronic Art Society (SGMK, established in 2006) is a collective of engineers, hackers, scientists and artists that joined to collaborate and promote on creative and critical uses of technology. They develop DIY technologies, collaborate with social and educational institutions, run the diy* festival and the public “MechArt Lab” in Zürich, and organize workshops in electronics, robotics, physical computing, diy-biology, lofi-music.

Tobias Hoffmann (DE, CH) “Študiral sem fiziko, specializiral s področja likovne umetnosti in novih medijev. Delam na področju avdiovizualne obdelave s poudarkom na sodelovanju z drugimi umetniki ob uporabi interaktivnih programov, ki omogočajo komunikacijo v realnem času ČS (človek-stroj).” “I studied physics and have special education in fine arts and New Media. I am working in the field of audiovisual processing with an emphasis on collaborating with other artists by using interactive programs which allow real-time MM (man-machine) communication.”

Tim & Puma Mimi (CH) Kolektivna norost v ustvarjanju funky, razposajene elektronske glasbe. Collective madness of creating funky, playful electronic music.

Veli & Amos (SI, CH) dim je v zraku smoke is in the air

Enrique Thomas (ES) Jonas Ohrstrom (CH) Glasbenik, koder, soustanovitelj Sonicsquirrel, revolucionarne platforme za spodbujanje prosto dostopne glasbe in netznamk. Musician, coder, co-founder of Sonicsquirrel, a groundbreaking platform for free music and netlable promotion.

Glasbenik – interaktivno na ostale obstoječe umetniške prakse – vizualno, računalniško performativno – vmesniki multifunkcionalnega izražanja Sound artist – interactive to other existing art forms – visual, computer performative – multifunctional interfaces expression

»v ŠUM_011« (SI)

Nara Phister & Mirzlekid (CH, AT) Serija performansov – urbanih intervencij v kontekstu ponovnega odkrivanja življenjskega cikla mesta, o rasti in minljivosti. A series of performances – urban interventions in the context of rediscovering life cycle of a city, about growth and transciense.

Visoka šola za umetnost Univerze v Novi Gorici – kolektiv študentov in profesorjev Kako je potrebno preoblikovati ustvarjalne procese v prostih povezavah med gibom, zvokom in sliko? Kako v tem kontekstu opisati in (programsko) izvesti interakcije različnih uporabniških skupin, npr. v soočenju “neukega” otroka, “laika” in “profesionalnega” umetnika? School of Arts, University of Nova Gorica – a collective of students and professors What is needed to transform the creative processes in free connections between movement, sound and picture? How to - in this context - describe and (program) implement the interaction of different groups, eg. facing an “ignorant” child, a “lay person” and a “professional” artist?

Izobraževanje. Delavnice. Instalacije. Performansi. Predstavitve. Lab. Education. Workshops. Installations. Performances. Presenations. Lab.

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SHARE IS IN THE AIR


AV nastopi v živo. Simpozij. Delavnice. Eksperimentalni laboratorij. A-E/19. mobilne predstavitve festivala. intervencije v javni prostor. AV live performances. Symposium. Workshops. Experimental lab. A-E/19. Mobile festival presentations. Public space interventions.

TRANSMEDIA STORYTELLING 17. Mednarodni festival računalniških umetnosti, Maribor, Slovenija, 18.–26. november 2011 17. International Festival of Computer Arts, Maribor, Slovenia, 18–26 November 2011 www.mfru.org Transmedialno pripovedništvo

Transmedialno pripovedništvo označuje metodo pripovedovanja zgodb preko različnih medijskih platform in formatov. Gre za fenomen, ki je del množične zabavne industrije (resničnostni šovi s TV in spletno platformo; igre s spletnimi, mobilnimi in fizičnimi sestavinami) in je hkrati vpet v izrazno in raziskovalno polje.

Transmedia storytelling

Transmedia storytelling designate a method of story narration through different media platforms and formats. It`s a phenomenon that is part of entertainment mass-industry (TV and web reality shows, games with web/mobile/physical components) and at the same time initiated in expressional and investigatory field.

Sonia Cillari (Optofonica Showcase, IT)

Herman Kolgen (Optofonica Showcase, DE)

Umetniška raziskovalka performativnih prostorov, kjer je človeško telo v funkciji vmesnika. Ukvarja se z vzorci zavesti, zaznavanja in identitete. Medijska umetnica in arhitektka, kreira senzorične in perceptivne mehanizme v poglobljenih in razširjenih okoljih.

Multimedijski ustvarjalec in avdiokinetični kipar črpa navdih iz intimnega razmerja med zvokom in podobo. V svojih delih uporablja radiografski pristop in skozi rentgenski žarek dela nevidne stvari vidne.

Artist and researcher of performative spaces where human body works as an interface. She is occupied with paterns of consciousness, perception and identity. Media artist and architect who creates senzorial and perceptive mechanisms in immersive and augmented environments.

Vizualni glasbenik raziskuje načine združevanja zvoka in videa v realnem času z uporabo generativnih računalniških sistememov. Pisec, raziskovalec, predavatelj in računalniški sinaestetični umetnik deluje kot freelance interakcijski dizajner. Visual musician who explores different modes of combining sound and video in real-time using generative computational systems. Writer, researcher, lecturer and computational synaesthetic artist works as a freelance interactional designer.

Multimedia artist and audiokinetic sculptor who draws inspiration from an intimate relationship between sound and image. In his works he uses radiographic access and makes invisible things visible using x-rays.

Francisco Lopez (Optofonica Showcase, ES) Avantgardni eksperimentalni glasbenik in zvočni umetnik v svojem delovanju razvija izrazit in svojstven zvočni univerzum, oseben in ikonoklastičen. Avant-garde and experimental musician and sonic artist who develops distinctive and unique sonic universe, personal and iconoclastic.

Primož Oberžan (SI) Glasbeni mehanik in mehanicističen glasbenik. Zvočni komponist, vizualist, graditelj zvokov, kymatik – s svojevrstnim glasbenim izrazom in nasprotovanjem potrošniški družbi. Musical mechanic and mechanicistic musician. Sonic composer, visual artist, sound architect, kymatician/kymatic – with his unique musical expression and opposition to the consumer society.

Knjiga združuje več kot 30 del in vsebuje katalog del, pogovore ter drugo dokumentacijo, ki iz knjige preko QRCode in FiducialMarkerjev vstopa v digitalno domeno multimedije in razširjene realnosti. Book that unites more than 30 works (catalogue of different works, discussions and other documentation) that enter in the digital domain of multimedia and augmented reality through QR code and FiducialMarkers.

Zgodbe dekleta Alice so podane digitalno kot kombinacija interaktivnih multimedijskih vsebin in besedila in odprte za sodelovanje bralcev. Zgodbe v več jezikih in nabor izobraževalnega materiala pomaga učiteljem literature predstaviti e-literaturo ter niz 'orodij', ki učence vpeljejo v svet sodobne literarnosti in njenega ustvarjanja/so-ustvarjanja. The story of a little girl called Alice is presented digitally and opened for cooperation with readers (a combination of interactive multimedia contents and texts). Stories in different languages and an assortment of educational material that helps literature teachers presenting e-literature as well as a series of ‘tools’ that introduce pupils to the world of contemporary literature and its creation/co-creation.

Interactive sound artist who is occupied with scientifical and technical visualization. He moves borders of this visualization in one emotional, expressive and personally painted form.

Multimedijska umetnica in videastka Ana Pečar deluje v delovnem območju video umetnosti, intermedijskih plesnih performansov in audiovizualnih instalacij v dialogu s specifičnimi prostori. V montaži zvoka ter slike sledi ritmu in pulzu časa. Multimedia and video artist Ana Pečar works in the field of video art, intermedia dance performances and audiovisual instalations, in dialogue with specific spaces. In setting up sound and image she follows the rhythm and the pulse of time.

Pe-Lang (Optofonica Showcase, CH) Langovi performansi in instalacije združujejo magnetne, električne in mehanične naprave, ki naredijo njegova dela vizualno privlačna in akustično fascinantna. Ročno izdelane skulpture kombinirajo mehanizirane sisteme z novimi materiali in predstavljajo drugačen pristop h kinetičnemu gibanju, ustvarjajo red, kaos in ravnotežje med njima. Lang’s performances and instalations combine magnetic, electrical and mechanical devices that make his works visually attractive and acoustically fascinating. Hand-made sculptures that combine mechanized systems with new materials and represent a different accession to the cinetic movement, creating order and chaos and the balance between them.

F.R.U.I.T. (DK, DE, USA) Ozaveščanje potrošnikov o realnosti prehrane, natančneje o ekoloških vidikih proizvodnje, prodaje in konzumiranja tako vsakdanjega ‘artikla’ kot je sadje. Zamolčani vidiki poti sadja od pridelovalca do kupca, škodljivi vidiki potrošnje, prakse trajnostnega razvoja. Awareness of the consumers about the reality of our food, especially about the ecological points of view of the production, sale and consumption of an ordinary ‘product’ like fruit. The concealed viewpoints of the path fruit travels from the producer to the consumer, harmful views of consumption, practices of the sustainable developement.

Špela Petrič: Cladocera Literarni večer (SI) Znanstvenica in umetnica, ki obe področji s pridom uporablja ob spajanju elementov literarnega, programskega in biološkega. Scientist and artist who uses both fields in favour of combining elements of literature, biology and programs.

Ultramono združuje različne variacije dela, raziskuje podatkovne tokove in njihovo manipulacijo. Spoj fizičnih objektov, senzorjev, odzivov, programske kode, videa in zvoka. Ultramono amalgamates different variations of works, investigates data currents and their manipulation. Junction of physical objects, sensors, responses, programme codes, video and sound.

Before/QR/After Kate Pullinger, Chris Joseph: Inanimate Alice

Interaktivni glasbeni umetnik, ki se ukvarja z znanstveno in tehnično vizualizacijo in pomika meje vizualizacije v osebno obarvano, izrazno in čustveno obliko.

Ana Pečar (SI)

Tanja Vujinovič Kušej: Ultramono (SI) FakePress: REFF. Il libro (IT)

Peter Ciuha (SI)

Paul Prudence (Optofonica Showcase, UK)

QR koda, avtorji Jože Slaček, Jaka Železnikar, Jure Cuhalev (SI) Eksperimentalni Laboratorij; produkcija: Zavod uho; oko: 2011/2012 / Experimental Lab; Production: Zavod uho; oko: 2011/2012 Projekt pripoveduje zgodbe o izvedbi 16 festivalov MFRU. Projekt je igra, ki uporabnika vodi skozi časovne, prostorske in programske dimenzije festivala; je preplet iskanja realnih prostorov v mestu, internetnih vsebin in virtualnih baz, ki so sestavljene iz različnih medijev in formatov. The project tells a tale about the realization of all the MFRU festivals. The project is a game that leads the user through festival dimensions (time, space and programme dimension); an interlace of searching for real sites in town, web contents and virtual bases that are composed of different media and formats.

VVVV, Paul Prudence (UK)

(delavnica na temo programskega okolja VVVV / VVVV workshop) Grafično programsko okolje VVVV omogoča enostavno izdelavo prototipov in olajša ravnanje z večjimi medijskimi okolji s pomočjo fizičnih vmesnikov. Procesiranje grafike v realnem času, združevanje zvoka in slike. Graphic programme environment VVVV allows a simple making of prototypes and simplifies dealing with bigger media environments using physical interfaces. Real-time graphic processing and sound-image combination.

Borut Savski: Cirkulacija 2 (SI)

(videomapping, laser tags, odprti studio / open studio) Iniciativa Cirkulacija 2 s totalnimi eventi ponovno prisvaja javni prostor z v ta namen narejenimi svetlobnimi in zvočnimi sredstvi. Laserski snop kot čopič in pročelja javnih stavb kot platno. Total events of the initiative Cirkulacija 2 reusurp public places with special light and sound resources. Laser sheaf as a brush and façades of public buildings as a canvas.


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Pogovor z Markom Peljhanom In conversation with Marko Peljhan API Arctic Perspective Initiative Projekt Arctic Perspective Initiative (API) je bil nedavno predstavljen na razstavah v Londonu in Dortmundu. API je kolektivno delo cele vrste sodelavcev, strokovnjakov iz različnih področij. Kakšna je tvoja vloga v tem projektu, si bil ti pobudnik? Lahko bi tako rekli, čeprav se ne podpisujem kot pobudnik. API je posledica dolgoročnega dela, ki smo ga s sodelavci opravili v zvezi s projektom Makrolab in je njegovo logično nadaljevanje. Ko se je Makrolab leta 1994 začel, sem napovedal njegov zaključek do leta 2007 in nadaljevanje ideje v predrugačeni obliki, temelječi na izkušnjah, nakopičenih v več kot desetih letih trajanja projekta, ter implementirani v realni svet. Ostajamo v razmerjih, povezanih z umetnostjo, ki presegajo področja prezentacije, distribucije in refleksije. To je bil osnovni namen. Česar pa nisem uspel doseči, je bila moja namera, da bi celoten projekt predal naprej s toliko potenciala, da bi bil samovzdržen. Verjel sem namreč, da se lahko utopija uresniči in da ne bom več potreben kot gonilo iz ozadja. Zaradi te izkušnje sem ostal pobudnik in vodja tudi pri ostalih projektih. Govorim o projektih na Antarktiki v okviru iniciative ITAS, Interpolar Transnational Art Science Constelation. Tudi tu smo iskali primeren izraz za 'pobudo', ki ne bi bila organizacija, iniciativa ali projekt, zato smo ji rekli konstelacija. Izraz predstavlja veliko različnih entitet, ki delujejo skupaj, čeprav med njimi obstajajo določene razdalje, tako simbolne, tematske kot tudi konceptualne. To je bila iniciativa, ki je bila posvečena predvsem delu na Antarktiki, čeprav je imela v mislih tudi Arktiko – zato se tudi imenuje Interpolar. Ko smo leta 2006 začeli delati na Arktiki, je postalo jasno, da je ta prostor popolnoma drugačna in samosvoja zgodba, ki z Antarktiko nima nikakršne – razen morda fizično-geografske – povezave, da je to prostor, povezan s politiko, kulturo, geo-politiko in zaradi neposrednega kopenskega stika med obema ideološkima poloma tudi hladno vojno, kar je vseskozi povzročalo specifično socialno dinamiko. Arktika je naseljena z avtohtonimi prebivalci, ki so verjetno poleg avtohtonih prebivalcev Papue – Nove Gvineje, Amazonke in Aboriginov v Avstraliji vzpostavili takšen stik z okoljem, kakršnega se je zahodna civilizacija polnih 2000 let trudila izgubiti. To je integralen stik z lastnim okoljem. Če imamo kakršen koli namen poskušati razumeti razmerja med naravo in tehnologijo, med sistemi v naravi in sistemi, ki jih ustvarja človek, je stik z naravo, ki je tradicionalen in povezan z večtisočletno prilagoditvijo in taktikami preživetja v ekstremnih pogojih, v čistem, zelo posebnem sozvočju z naravo, eden izmed ključnih dejavnikov, ki ne omogoča enostavnega, naivnega ali tipično kolonialnega pristopa, kakršen je mogoč na Antarktiki. Tam namreč ni žive kulture. Če znanstvenik ali umetnik dela na Antarktiki, to niti ni tako pomembno. Mogoče je priti v stik z znanstveno tehnološkim kompleksom, ki je globalen, s političnim kontekstom, ki je povezan z Antarktično listino, ki je eden izmed – po mojem mnenju – najbolj ključnih in temeljnih mednarodnih dokumentov, ki nakazujejo potencialno možnost prihodnje ureditve brez teritorialne navezanosti na nacionalne države. Kako pa je razdeljena Antarktika? Verjetno nima vsaka izmed 193 svetovnih držav tam svojega ozemlja, temveč je razdeljena med velesile. Seveda ne. Antarktika je zelo zanimiva zgodba. Znano je namreč, kako se je odvijalo osvajanje Antarktike. Norvežani, Britanci in Američani so bili eni prvih raziskovalcev na tem področju, ki so si “podajali” Južni pol. To je bilo v drugi polovici 19. stoletja in večji del 20. stoletja poveza-

no zlasti z lovom na kite, kar je del zelo žalostne zgodbe o uničenju teh morskih sesalcev. Antarktika je postala zelo zanimiva tudi v času nacistične Nemčije, saj so njeni strokovnjaki pospešeno kartirali Antarktiko, imeli pa so tudi načrt, po katerem bodo v primeru, da gre vse narobe, preselili celotno državno vodstvo na to ozemlje. V ta namen so kartirali področje, kjer stoji nekdaj sovjetska, danes pa ruska postaja Novolazajevskaya. Antarktika je bila vedno neke vrste projekcijsko platno zahodne mentalitete osvajanja planeta. Po koncu druge svetovne vojne je Antarktika postala zanimiva v geo-političnem smislu: obstajali so načrti za jedrske elektrarne, vojaške baze in podobno. Pohod na Antarktiko bi lahko postal generator novih konfliktov. Bila je razdeljena na različne teritorialne enote oziroma “territorial claims”, ki so jih upravljale različne države, Norveška, Velika Britanija, Francija, Avstralija, Čile, Argentina in Južna Afrika. Zanimivo pa je, da ozemlja tam nista imeli ne Rusija ne ZDA. Vse te stvari zdaj ureja Antarktična listina. Če gremo malce v zgodovino: leto 1957 je bilo razglašeno za mednarodno geo-fizikalno leto, ko so sovjetski in ameriški znanstveniki prvič po koncu druge svetovne vojne začeli sodelovati. Sovjetska zveza je v okviru geo-fizikalnega leta, povezanega tudi z osvajanjem vesolja, izstrelila svoj prvi satelit Sputnik, katerega prvotna funkcija je bila merjenje ukrivljenosti zemlje. Drugi rezultat geo-fizikalnega leta je bilo sodelovanje na Antarktiki, kjer so se vzpostavile prve začasne baze. Potrebno je poudariti, da ne govorimo o Antarktičnem polotoku, ki je bil zaradi dostopnosti vedno obljuden in v uporabi kot argentinska, čilenska in britanska ozemeljska enota in te tri države so se pogosto prerekale o razdelitvi ozemlja. Sovjetska zveza in ZDA sta želeli urediti stvari na mednarodnem nivoju, s pobudo za podpis Antarktične listine pri mednarodni skupnosti. Verjetno so s tem tudi Sovjeti in Američani stopili v igro, saj pred tem niso bili upravičeni do ozemlja. Stopili so v igro, ker niso imeli ozemeljskih pravic in v istem trenutku so podali izjavo, da ozemeljskih enot ne priznavajo. Tako je nastala nova ureditev. Listina je fantastičen mednarodni dokument, še posebej za tisti čas, čeprav je še danes enako relevanten. Problem listine je, da ji rok poteče leta 2041. Dali so ji omejen rok trajanja, to je 80 let. Leta 1961 so listino podpisale vse države, ki so imele ozemeljske zahteve. Antarktična listina je podelila temu ozemlju status, ki je podoben statusu mednarodnih vod. Je edini trans-nacionalni teritorij, kjer ni držav, s tem pa je prepovedano tudi kakršno koli vojaško udejstvovanje, izjema je le logistična podpora bazam. Antarktika je bila predana v izkoriščanje celotnemu človeštvu v imenu znanosti. Umetnost ni bila omenjena, kultura pa zelo splošno ob izjemno kreativni interpretaciji listine. Jaz to listino vidim kot precedens v političnem smislu, kot potencialno ureditev za celoten planet v prihodnosti. Kar je sicer utopija in danes sem v to trdno prepričan, saj gredo vsi globalni trendi v nasprotno smer. S krizo poznega kapitalizma so pred nami verjetno zelo težka desetletja v smislu refleksije stanja planeta. In, če se vrnem nazaj, Arktika je v jedru teh problemov. Arktika je naseljena in razdeljena med različne države. Naseljena je z avtohtonimi prebivalci in ima krvavo kolonialno preteklost, saj se je tu odvijala klasična kolonizacija, kakršno poznamo v Afriki ali v Južni Ameriki v času, ko je Evropa kolonizirala praktično ves svet. Zgodba o kolonizaciji gre v smeri uničevanja avtohtonega prebivalstva, uničevanja okolja, militarizacije. To je precej temačna zgodovina.

Na Arktiki oziroma Severnem polu je bilo zgoščene tudi veliko vojaške in civilne infrastrukture. Kako je to vplivalo na življenje avtohtonega prebivalstva? To je imelo izjemen vpliv na položaj avtohtonega prebivalstva. Na ameriško-kanadski meji je bil najprej vzpostavljen DEW Line, Distant Early Warning. To je sistem radarskih postaj, ki je speljan po 76. vzporedniku, med drugim pa sledi postavitvi sovjetskih oziroma ruskih izstrelitvenih in radarskih baz. Na sovjetski strani je zgodba zelo podobna. Celotna sovjetska Arktika je prepredena z vojaškimi instalacijami. Ne samo to, na zemlji Franza Josefa in Novi zemlji se je zgodila tudi največja atomska eksplozija v atmosferi. Preizkus največje vodikove bombe v zgodovini človeštva se je zgodil leta 1961. Militarizacija področja je bila popolna, saj je bil med drugim arktični del Sovjetske zveze tudi področje gulagov. V Stalinovih časih se je tam odvijala kolonizacija, vzpostavljala so se mesta ter naselbine in avtohtono prebivalstvo je bilo prisiljeno živeti v teh krajih. Tako so jih asimilirali, prišlo pa je tudi ogromno priseljencev z juga, kar pomeni, da se je vzpostavila povsem drugačna dinamika. Izjema je Čukotka, najskrajnejši in najvzhodnejši del sovjetske Arktike na meji z Aljasko, kjer je trenutno guverner Roman Abramovič. Njegovo guvernerstvo je nekakšna nagrada za lojalnost. Sicer pa to niti ni tako slabo, saj je ta regija prej imela zelo korumpiranega guvernerja. Ko je Putin prevzel njihovo imenovanje in niso bili več voljeni, je Abramovič prejel Čukotko kot nalogo. Iz tega je nastala velika zgodba o uspehu, saj je poskrbel za izobraževanje in ekonomijo s preusmeritvijo dela svojih enormnih sredstev v regijo. Čukotka je eden izmed primerov, kjer je bilo stanje katastrofalno zlasti v 70. in 80. letih, ko je bilo avtohtono prebivalstvo na robu uničenja v fizičnem in v socialnem smislu. Avtohtono prebivalstvo so Inuiti, medtem ko so v preostalih delih sovjetske Arktike avtohtona druga severna ljudstva, bolj sorodna z azijskimi plemeni. Kaj pa Kanada? Inuiti tudi tam niso imeli ravno rožnate zgodovine. Kanadska zgodba je pravzaprav še najbolj transparentna. Kanada je, kljub temu da se je upirala, dala eno največjih avtonomij inuitskemu prebivalstvu na Arktiki. Leta 1999 je bil ustanovljen nov teritorij Nunavut, kar v inuktitu pomeni 'naša dežela'. S tem je bila na novo postavljena tudi zgodovina Arktike, saj je avtonomija prinesla tudi potrebo in možnost nove refleksije zgodovine. Skozi zgodovino se je na tem področju dogajalo marsikaj: Kanada ni obvladovala Arktike zaradi razlogov, ki so zelo jasni in povezani z naravo. Imeli so kitolovske postojanke, imeli so klasičen kolonialni kapitalistični sistem, družba Hudson Bay Company je trgovala z lokalnimi prebivalci in jih izkoriščala na zelo klasičen način: od njih je kupovala kože in jih nato prodajala po 1000 odstotkov višji ceni. Po drugi svetovni vojni je Arktika postala zanimiva kot področje kontrole. Zgradile so se meteorološke postaje za napovedovanje vremena nad Evropo. V kanadskem delu Arktike je bilo tajno zgrajenih več nacističnih vremenskih postaj, med katerimi nekatere niso bile odkrite vse do konca vojne. Ko se je začela konfrontacija vzhoda in zahoda oziroma hladna vojna, je postala Arktika ne samo zanimiva, pač pa tudi strateško izjemno pomembna za celotno severnoameriško področje. Ustanovljena je bila iniciativa DEW Line, ki je prinesla na Arktiko radarske postaje, z njimi pa logistiko, denar, onesnaženje in stalno prisotnost. Predvsem onesnaženje je še vedno mogoče občutiti. Neposredno smo bili priča posledicam radarskih baz, med katerimi je večina že ukinjenih, zaradi spremembe tehnologije jih je ostala mogoče le še ena


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desetina. Tam so predvsem z namenom podpore severnoameriškemu raketnemu ščitu. DEW Line je prinesel industrializacijo, saj je bilo potrebno zgraditi letališke steze, radio navigacijsko infrastrukturo, že v 50. letih pa se je začelo intenzivno kartiranje kanadske Arktike. Z vsem tem se je povečal tudi pritisk na avtohtone prebivalce, da se podredijo kroni oziroma državi in začnejo živeti življenje, podobno tistemu na jugu. To je uničenje kulture, stikov z naravo in okoljem, s floro in favno Arktike na klasičen kolonialni način, kar ima posledice še danes. Kanadska vlada je preselila okrog petdeset družin na skrajni sever (Arktika je, kljub svoji površini, izjemno redko naseljena). Tja so prišli z obljubo, da je področje bolj ugodno za življenje, da je tam dovolj živali in ostalih surovin. Kljub obljubi so bili prepuščeni sami sebi in veliko ljudi je umrlo. Prišli so namreč iz krajev, kjer sta dan in noč prisotna celo leto, v kraje s polarnim dnevom in nočjo, kjer so temperature dosti nižje in primorani so bili nekako preživeti. Kanada je z naselitvijo hotela vzpostaviti suverenost tudi na tem delu Arktike in ti ljudje so živeli tam polni dve leti. Ta zgodba je izjemno pomembna v mitologiji dogodkov, povezanih z avtohtonimi prebivalci, saj ne gre zgolj za zgodovinsko krivico, temveč za klasični kolonialni kriminal. V tem času se je rodilo tudi gibanje za avtonomijo in samostojnost, saj je nova generacija Inuitov v 60. letih prišla v stik z informacijami o preostalem svetu, o vietnamski vojni, boju za človekove pravice in civilno družbo v ZDA in začela svoj boj za avtonomijo in nadzor nad svojim delom ozemlja. Tako se je začela zgodba o Nunavutu. Vse te zgodbe pričajo o tem, kako kompleksen sistem je Arktika. Je področje, ki priča o tem, kakšen odnos imamo ljudje do narave, kako vzpostavljamo tehnologijo za kontrolo nad naravo, vse to pa je povezano tudi z umetniki, ki delamo na področju tehnologije, ustvarjamo sisteme za opazovanje in refleksijo. Arktika je pomenljiv teritorij tudi v tem smislu, da omogoča tektonske spremembe. Postavljajo se vprašanja, kakšno funkcijo sploh ima tehnologija, v kolikšni meri je tehnologija v funkciji avtonomije, kaj pomenijo odprti sistemi, kako se znanje prenaša? Vse to je povezano z mojim delom, z Makrolabom, zato je Arktika postala osrednji fokus. API torej podaja nedvoumno izjavo o zgodovinskih in trenutnih problematikah na tem področju. Kaj pa je osrednja ideja ter končni namen projekta? Osnovna ideja ni toliko opozarjanje na probleme, ampak reševanje teh problemov na integralen način v sodelo-

vanju tamkajšnjimi prebivalci. Imamo določena znanja in predpostavke, da pomeni uporaba odprtih tehnologij v strojnem in v programskem smislu in omogočanje uporabe kreativnih tehnologij tudi povečanje avtonomnosti. Ta avtonomnost pa je povezana z mobilnostjo. Mobilnost na Arktiki pomeni večjo avtonomnost, ob tem pa tudi stik z naravo in zemljo v skladu z življenjem na Arktiki, preden je beli človek prikorakal tja. V 50. letih se je zgodilo prav to – odvzem mobilnosti. Ljudi so preselili v severne kraje in iz mobilnih nomadskih prebivalcev naredili ljudi, ki živijo v posebnih vasicah, s čemer so uničili velik del tradicionalnega načina življenja. Popolnoma so spremenili sistem. Ko se s tem soočiš, se izkaže, da si katastrofe sledijo ena za drugo, vzorec pa je identičen kolonizacijskim vzorcem iz Evrope, Afrike ali Avstralije. Beli človek je vsilil ta vzorec vsem kotičkom sveta, v katere je stopil. Zavedamo se, da smo danes mi belci, ki vstopamo v ta sistem in veliko se ukvarjamo s tem, da ne bi ponavljali vzorcev in kot sloni med porcelanom ponovno porušili vzpostavljenih razmerij. Zato so procesi zelo počasni in v skladu z inuitskim medsebojnim komuniciranjem. Naši pogovori trajajo zelo dolgo, tudi več dni, in to je potrebno tudi sprejeti. Angažma zahteva pristop, ki ga morda nismo več vajeni. Tudi sam sem zaradi delovanja v ZDA in v Sloveniji, na Arktiki, Antarktiki ali na Japonskem, velikokrat v težki situaciji, saj si je potrebno vzeti zares veliko časa in predvsem poslušati. Skozi API sem začel razmišljati, kako bi z izkušnjami, ki sem jih dobil z Makrolabom, produktivno vzpostavil stik z arktičnimi ljudstvi. Adaptacija tehnologije z juga je zelo hitra in na Arktiki se uporabljajo skiduji (motorne sani), kar pomeni, da se porabi ogromno goriva, tudi vsa elektrika je na gorivo, država vse to subvencionira, nihče pa se ne ukvarja z vetrno ali sončno energijo. Ta stik je izgubljen in tehnologije, ki so integralne bolj so-naravnemu načinu življenja, so v ozadju, saj je kapitalski in državni pritisk zaradi enostavnosti logistike tako močan, da se znanje o tem med Inuiti sploh ne širi. API služi kot klin, ki poskuša odpirati tudi tematiko obnovljivih virov energije. Eden naših prvih izdelkov je narejen v klasičnem arktičnem dizajnu, ki se imenuje kamutik. To so sani, ki jih je v preteklosti vlekla pasja vprega, danes pa večinoma skidu. Kamutiki so glavno prevozno sredstvo več kot polovico leta na Arktiki, od novembra do junija, omogočajo pa nomadski način življenja. Začeli smo razmišljati o oblikovalski ekipi, ki se je vzpostavila v sodelovanju z Nejcem Troštom, Samom Stoparjem in Andrejem Bizjanom. Začeli smo delati na oblikovanju, ki teme-

Interpolar API 2006–2009, instalacija / Installation, foto arhiv KIBLA / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah

lji na tradicionalnem vzorcu – habitat omogoča dvema ali trem ljudem, da živijo v popolni avtonomiji v naravi dva do tri tedne, in se napaja s sončno in vetrno energijo, opremljen pa je tudi s komunikacijskimi sredstvi. Habitat omogoča naraven način življenja in produciranje najrazličnejših vsebin. Inuiti so namreč izjemno prilagodljivi in ekstremno kreativni. Pri njih je vsak človek tudi umetnik, vsakdo nekaj ustvarja, najsi bo to kiparstvo, skulpture iz kosti, slikarstvo, film ali glasba; umetnost je nedvomno integralni del njihovega življenja. Kaj je po tvojem mnenju razlog takšne kreativnosti, ki v zahodnem ali vzhodnem svetu ni ravno običajna? Poglaviten razlog je odsotnost klasične ekonomije. Osnovna ekonomija je ekonomija preživetja. Ljudje so šli na rob ledu, ujeli so tjulnja, ga prinesli domov, ga razrezali, pojedli, iz kože pa naredili čevlje in rokavice, iz kosti so naredili orodje, iz preostanka pa so nekaj ustvarili. Princip, ko se vse uporabi in ni nobenih odpadkov. Seveda je vsiljeni zahodni način življenja prinesel tudi ogromno odpada. Lansko leto, ko je bila ekipa na Arktiki, smo začeli s projektom reciklaže in smo iz odpadkov naredili bivališče, nekakšno reciklirano arhitekturo. Ustvarjali smo ne glede na to, da so ti odpadki zahodnega tipa. Inuiti se izjemno hitro učijo. Seveda pa je kolonialni vzorec prisoten in veliko ljudi zgolj čaka na podporo države, ki je nekakšno opravičilo za grozovito uničenje njihove kulture. Uničenje verjetno niti ni bilo načrtno, uporabili so zgolj klasičen zahodni model. Kar pomeni tudi šole v angleščini, čeprav imajo Inuiti svoj jezik. Kolonialni vzorci so pripeljali do velikih težav, praktično do izgube kulture. Sredi 70. let je preko satelita prišla na Arktiko televizija, a nekaj inuitskih naselbin se je na referendumu odločilo, da ne bodo imeli televizije, dokler ne bo program tudi v Inuktitu. Prepoznali so nov kolonizacijski vzorec, ki bo še v večji meri uničil njihovo kulturo. Konec 70. let so se odločili, da začnejo ustvarjati lastno inuitsko televizijo, Inuit Broadcast Corporation, pa tudi filme in programe za otroke. S tem se je v Kanadi zgodila velika revolucija, saj je kamera močno orožje. Ljudje so začeli uporabljati video na kreativen način, kot počnejo vse v življenju. Medijska kultura je na zavidljivem nivoju. Inuiti so namreč zelo dobrih videasti, saj je to eden od načinov izražanja, s pojavom spleta pa je bila omogočena tudi distribucija vsebin. Na kanalu Isuma Broadcasting, ki je bil ustanovljen s strani API, so zbrane te vsebine. Portal je ustvarjen na način youtube, a je kvaliteta vsebin neprimerno višja. Vse to


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se je zgodilo, ko smo spoznali Zachariasa Kunuka, ustanovitelja televizijske in produkcijske hiše, saj je prav on največkrat pomenil prvi stik z lokalnim prebivalstvom. Morda najbolj znan film o Inuitih se imenuje Atanarjuat oziroma 'Hitri tekač', ki je leta 2001 prejel Zlato palmo v Cannesu. API je vzpostavil integralno sodelovanje s to produkcijsko hišo, tam imamo svoje prostore, skladišča opreme in našo mini-bazo. API verjame, da lahko s svojim znanjem prinese marsikaj koristnega; letos smo začeli s tečajem uporabe proste programske opreme za video produkcijo in ostale namene. Ob tem se pojavljajo določene težave, vzorci se vztrajno ponavljajo, saj ljudje ne uporabljajo proste programske opreme, ampak delajo z zaprtimi sistemi, ki zahtevajo precej denarja. Na ta način se ponovno zapletajo v sistem odvisnosti. Naša naloga pa je predvsem omogočati informacije. API torej služi predvsem namenom družbenega in ekonomskega osvobajanja? Ne delam si nobenih iluzij, da bi bil naš vpliv velik. Vedno sem se posluževal teorije majhnih korakov, tudi v okviru Makrolaba se je v integracijah znanosti in umetnosti morda na pet poskusov zgodil eden z odličnimi rezultati. To so namreč kompleksni procesi, ki se odvijajo počasi. Čisto konkretno: ko je ekipa odšla na Arktiko, smo bili soočeni z dejstvom, da so na naše delavnice prihajali ljudje, ki računalnika še niso videli. Vabili smo namreč na delavnice, kjer bi se naučili delati z odprto programsko opremo in mnogi so prišli z računalniki v originalni embalaži, saj jim ni nihče nikdar pokazal, kako se uporablja. Zame je bilo zelo pozitivno doživetje, da so ljudje preko odprtih sistemov vstopili v svet računalnikov. Dejal si, da ni pomembno, če ima vaša iniciativa takojšen velik učinek. Kaj ste dosegli od začetka projekta, ki je v pogonu od leta 2006? Leta 2006 smo začeli pripravljati teren za projekt in prvič obiskali Arktiko, dejansko pa je API začel delovati na Arktiki v današnji obliki, ki bo trajala še nekaj časa, leta 2009. V letih 2007 in 2008 smo zgolj pripravljali teren, zbirali sredstva, predstavljali projekt, ga poskusili re-definirati, saj sem moral usmeriti svoj fokus iz Antarktike na Arktiko. Na Antarktiki smo morali končati projekt, ki se je odvijal v okviru mednarodnega polarnega leta, sicer edini umetniški projekt v tem sklopu. Sodelovali smo z južnoafriško bazo in vzpostavili avtonomne sisteme, npr. mobilno električno centralo na saneh. Šlo je za sodelo-

vanje umetnikov in znanstvenikov, a se nismo najbolje razumeli z nekaterimi partnerji; dogajala se je namreč klasična zgodba tovrstnih iniciativ. Z zadnjo ekspedicijo je odšla na Antarktiko tudi skupina umetnikov, ki so zgolj posneli svoje stvari, odšli nazaj, materiale obdelali in jih predstavili v galerijah. Nas to absolutno ne zanima. To ni vzorec, ki bi ga hoteli ponavljati. V letih 2008 in 2009 se je zgodil fokus na Arktiko in začeli smo počasi zastavljati celoto; najprej je bil leta 2009 mednarodni arhitekturni natečaj, ki je požel izjemen odziv, saj smo dobili 130 prijav. Natečaj je bil razpisan za mobilno medijsko enoto na obnovljive vire energije za Arktiko. Žirija se je sestala na Islandiji in podelila tri tretje nagrade, ne pa tudi prve in druge, saj noben projekt ni zares ustrezal temu, kar smo razpisali. Kljub temu je bilo veliko zanimivih pristopov in večinoma primerov, kako arhitekti na jugu sveta vidijo Arktiko: veliki tehnološki sistemi, na pol tanki, ki se bodo lahko premikali po ledeni pokrajini, vesoljske arhitekture in podobno. Izkušnjo smo analizirali in reflektirali, iz tega pa je nastala knjiga, prva publikacija projekta z naslovom Arctic Perspective. Naš namen je izdati štiri knjižice, ki bodo posvečene različnim tematikam: prva arhitekturi, druga geo-politiki in avtonomiji, tretja tehnologiji, četrta bo imela naslov 'Landscape'. Ti štirje zvezki so poseben projekt, za katerega smo prejeli evropska sredstva ter bodo začrtali vizijo projekta API. Prvi zvezek o arhitekturi reflektira omenjeni natečaj, hkrati pa predstavljamo potencialne alternative. Objavljeni so naši dnevniki o dogajanju na terenu, da si lahko bralec bolj plastično predstavlja angažma API na Arktiki. Izdajo je omogočila nemška založba Hatje Cantz, kar je izjemno dobro zaradi same distribucije, mi pa smo se z njimi dogovorili o možnosti proste uporabe identične Creative Commons verzije na spletu. To je bil naš pogoj za sodelovanje in velja za večino stvari, ki jih delamo. Vse stvari poskušamo objavljati pod licenco Creative Commons. Projekt API je namenjen povezovanju umetnikov in znanstvenikov znotraj interdisciplinarne ekipe. Odločili ste se, da ne boste ponavljali vzorca iz Antarktike, zato me zanima, na kakšen način umetniki sodelujejo pri projektu? Pri projektu sodeluje veliko umetnikov in večina jih prihaja z Arktike. Velika razstava v Dortmundu je namenjena predstavitvi delovanja API v okviru Evropske prestolnice kulture. Nekaj časa smo se dejansko ukvarjali z vprašanjem, zakaj je sploh potrebno pripravljati razstavo. Ali

ima to sploh smisel? Toda organizacija Hartware MedienKunstVerein, ki sodeluje z nami, je bila odločna, da se razstava mora izpeljati. Ubrali smo strategijo dokaj neklasične predstavitve in postavitve, ki zajema predvsem krajinske motive. Predstavljeni so rezultati strategij in simbolna razmerja iz Arktike na zelo klasičen, umetniški način, predstavljamo inuitske avtorje, predvsem z video prispevki, predstavljen je tudi arhitekturni natečaj, naše tehnološke rešitve in vizije ter dokumentacija našega angažmaja na Arktiki, na vizualni način. Dokumentacijska soba vsebuje številne karte in vojaške dokumente in za knjižnico smo zbrali veliko literature o Arktiki. Razstava je bila odprta več mesecev in je delovala kot knjižnica. Naša ideja je predvsem, da vse to raste in ni zgolj enkraten dogodek ter da se znanje akumulira. Poleg tega imamo nekaj projektov, ki smo jih na Arktiki izvedli kot umetniki, pa tudi nekaj gostov: Lisa Vogel, ameriška konceptualistka, ki se ukvarja predvsem z geografijo in umetnostjo in je že prej delovala na Arktiki, je pripravila projekt posebej za to razstavo. Moj umetniški projekt je povezan s hladno vojno in podmornicami, ki so se preganjale po tem teritoriju. Namen razstave je različnim intervencijam navkljub malce didaktičen, predvsem zaradi konteksta našega razstavnega prostora. Kakšna je razlika med londonsko razstavo in razstavo v Dortmundu? Kako se sicer pripravljajo razstave? Je to tipsko ali se vsaka razstava pripravi posebej? Seveda vsaka posebej. V Londonu je bila razstava postavljena v Canada House, kar je kanadska ambasada oziroma njen oddelek za stike z javnostmi. Pripraviti je bilo potrebno zelo kompaktno postavitev, ki jo je dizajniral slovenski arhitekt Miha Bratina. Del je bil namenjen predstavitvi arhitekturnega natečaja, drugi del pa zgoščeni predstavitvi tega, kaj API sploh je. Tu so rezultati kartiranja in predstavitev brezpilotnega letala za instantno kartiranje teritorija, ki smo ga razvili v Sloveniji. Londonsko razstavišče je manjše, medtem ko je v Dortmundu približno 2.000 m2 površin, kar pomeni možnost zares velike predstavitve projekta. Londonska predstavitev je bila namenjena predvsem osvetlitvi tega, kaj API je in kakšno je naše razmerje do kanadske države. Moram priznati, da ni bilo enostavno, saj se le-ta skoraj boji naših aktivnosti. Naš prispevek vidijo kot potencialno možnost avtonomizacije področja. Zelo občutljivi so bili glede tega, kakšne slike predstavljamo, kaj se vidi, kje so mrtve živali in katere so; posebej občutljivi so glede tjulnjev, čeprav ima kanadska vlada do tega zelo jasno stališče. Inuiti tjulnje


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jedo že tisočletja. Kljub temu na razstavi niso želeli videti slike mrtvega tjulnja, ker bi pri občutljivi britanski publiki povzročilo negativne reakcije. Želel sem jim pojasniti, da so to njihovi državljani, ki bi jih morali podpreti – in zakaj ne bi pokazali njihovega vsakdanjika. Na koncu je bil to pogoj, da se razstava sploh izvede. Vse to je bilo nedavno moč videti tudi na razstavi 'Kodirana utopija' v Moderni galeriji v Ljubljani, že leta 2009 pa smo API predstavili v KIBLI v Mariboru.

v osnovi zastavili kot iniciativo, ki se ji lahko pridružijo različni sodelavci. Ne glede na to pa mora nekdo prevzeti odgovornost, tako da avtorstvo obstaja pri posameznih fazah, a se lahko manifestira na različne načine, nekdo je lahko urednik knjige ali kustos razstave. Jasno pa je, da so v svetu umetnosti imena zelo zaželena.

Projekt API torej poteka sam po sebi, brez razstavnih predstavitev ali pač z njimi. Katera oblika se ti pravzaprav zdi najprimernejša za njegovo predstavitev?

Bili sta v načrtu; če pogledaš prvotni načrt Makrolaba, je Arktika zapisana kot zadnja postaja projekta. Takrat sem zapisal, da bo to nova entiteta, transnacionalna fundacija, ki bo prevzela projekt v prihodnosti. Tako je bilo zastavljeno, vendar je moj angažma še vedno potreben. Na žalost.

Razstave pač služijo temu, da pritegnejo pozornost in da ima projekt tudi nadaljnje življenje. Vse to so namreč dolgoročni procesi, ki bodo trajali še nekaj časa. API namreč nima končnega datuma. To je iniciativa in ko se nam bo zdelo, da smo nekaj ustvarili in premaknili, bomo lahko odšli kam drugam. Konec koncev nameravamo obdelati celotno Arktiko. Naslednje leto gremo v Rusijo, v Čokotko. Razstave na jugu pa služijo kot predstavitev, na podlagi katerih zbiramo sredstva za nadaljevanje projekta. Galerijsko in muzejsko predstavljanje ni vedno najbolj učinkovito pri doseganju širših ljudskih množic. Verjetno je pojavljanje v različnih množičnih medijih, na način televizijskih dokumentarcev, časopisnih člankov ali knjižnih izdaj bolj učinkovito? Zaradi tega pripravljamo serijo knjig, ki pa so namenjene predvsem strokovni javnosti. Vse knjige so napisane v angleškem jeziku, vendar upam, da bodo imele odziv tudi v Sloveniji. Potrebno je povedati, da brez podpore Slovenije projekta API ne bi bilo. Iniciativa se je rodila prav tu in tukaj ima del finančne podpore, ki je dovolj močna, da lahko pridobivamo nova sredstva. Vedno lahko rečemo, da je slovensko Ministrstvo za kulturo je podprlo projekt in potem na primer kanadsko Ministrstvo za kulturo reagira. Tako to v bistvu gre. Glede množičnih medijev pa je tako: ker je projekt kompleksen, ga je težko predstaviti na preprost način ali pa le jaz nisem dober promotor, ki bi to znal. Vedno me bolj zanima kompleksnost projekta kot njegova preprostost. Vseeno pa bomo delali na tem. Za dokumentarni film imamo že dovolj materiala. Na londonski razstavi je bil predstavljen 15 minutni dokumentarni film in še bolj intenzivno bomo delali na tem. Imamo spletno stran, preko katere komuniciramo s svetom in moram povedati, da je zelo dobro obiskana. Odziv pa imamo tudi v svetu znanosti. Z znanostjo imamo agendo, povezano z omogočanjem pridobivanja senzorskih podatkov s pomočjo naših sistemov, te podatke pridobivajo Inuiti, so v njihovi lasti in oni jih delijo z znanstveniki z juga. Z znanostjo je namreč podobna težava kot z umetnostjo. Ljudje prijavijo projekte na univerzah na jugu, pridejo na Arktiko, ostanejo tam teden dni, naredijo, kar morajo, se vrnejo in nato objavijo rezultate in članke, medtem ko na Arktiki nihče ne ve, kaj se je dejansko zgodilo. Seveda pa so tudi znanstveniki, ki ne delujejo tako in prav z njimi smo se povezali: eden od takšnih projektov se imenuje Iglinit Project, ki je omogočal Inuitom, da so s pomočjo računalnika zbirali različne koristne podatke o okolju. Primer, kako znanje ostaja na Arktiki, obenem pa omogoča tudi prispevke na jugu. Ena od poglavitnih stvari, ki jih API promovira, je tudi povezava med tradicionalnim znanjem in znanstvenim pristopom. Vsekakor obstaja že dolga tradicija teh povezav in ne slepimo se, da se je API prvi tega domislil, saj so znanstveniki, ki so se zares angažirali na Arktiki, še zlasti klimatologi, zelo zgodaj razumeli, da je tradicionalno znanje o okolju kompatibilno znanstvenemu pristopu in ga lahko dopolnjuje. Tu ne gre za izključujoče stvari. Pri API imamo podobno situacijo, ki reflektira naš kreativni pristop v umetnosti: kako v umetnosti interpretiramo nek senzorski podatek, resonanco z znanstvenim pristopom. Mislim, da lahko iz tega v prihodnosti nastanejo izjemne zgodbe. API je še vedno umetniški projekt, ki se je razvil iz Makrolaba. Opazil pa sem, da se je tvoje ime nekoliko umaknilo. Pri Makrolabu si bil vedno poimenovan kot avtor, zdaj pa se pojavlja le skupno ime iniciative oziroma širše ekipe. Kako je prišlo do tega? Tudi pri Makrolabu sem poskušal s tem, a ker je živel predvsem v svetu umetnosti, je vse skupaj izpadlo drugače. Že na začetku projekta Makrolab sem želel, da se v katalogu Dokumente kot avtor navaja 'Projekt Atol – Makrolab' kot kolektiv, a kustosi so vztrajali, da mora biti predstavljen z imenom enega samega avtorja. To se je zgodilo večkrat tudi proti moji volji. Umetniški sistem pač tako deluje, meni pa je povzročalo zgolj težave s sodelavci. Pri API je bilo bolj enostavno, saj smo ga že

Makrolab je imel podoben princip: po navadi se je umeščal v neobljudena okolja, a to nista bili Arktika ali Antarktika, vsaj v začetku ne ...

Leta 1994, ko si koncipiral projekt Makrolab, je verjetno deloval kot utopična ideja z močnim izvedbenim potencialom. So postaje Makrolaba še vedno v funkciji? Makrolab je trenutno v skladišču. Govorim o zadnjem tipu arhitekture, saj je imel Makrolab tri verzije, ki so se razvijale in nadgrajevale. Tretja se imenuje 'Mark II extended version' in je bila nazadnje postavljena v Santa Barbari v ZDA (ta arhitektura je bila tudi na bienalu v Benetkah leta 2003). Trenutno je v skladišču, že nekaj let pa se dogovarjamo z Univerzo v Novi Gorici, da bi ga postavili v Sloveniji kot del te univerze, kjer bi delovali študentje ekologije in tudi umetnosti. Makrolab je bil namreč ustvarjen kot nekakšen stroj. Je medij za raziskave in skupno delo taktičnih medijskih delavcev, znanstvenikov, inženirjev in umetnikov. Je torej nekakšna samostojna in samozadostna enota za raziskovanje. V okviru Makrolaba smo leta 1997 realizirali samostojen energetski sistem, ki ga je poganjala sončna energija, predstavljen na Dokumenti X v Kasslu. Nato smo načinom pridobivanja energije dodali veter, reciklažo vode in proizvajanje pitne vode iz beneške lagune. V okviru umetniškega projekta smo izdelali kompleksne sisteme. Zakaj se ne bi to znanje preneslo naprej na univerzitetnem nivoju? Če bi bil jaz študent, bi z veseljem študiral na Makrolabu. Z univerzo smo se že dogovorili in z njimi ni težav, težavo predstavlja prepričevanje različnih ustanov in skladov za finančno podporo. Na koncu vsi pričakujejo od mene, da bom Makrolab postavil na lastne stroške, čeprav tu ni nobene logike. V projekt sem vložil deset let dela, veliko denarja in znanja, pa tudi veliko prostovoljnih oziroma neplačanih delovnih ur različnih ljudi. Mislim, da bi v tem trenutku nekdo lahko našel sredstva, govorim o nekaj deset tisoč evrih, da se vzpostavi učna infrastruktura, ki je ne premorejo nikjer na planetu. Z Univerzo v Novi Gorici iščemo načine in možnosti financiranja, a projekti so neoprijemljivi in ne spadajo nikamor. Ne moremo ga postaviti kot umetniški projekt, ker to ni. Makrolab je kot umetniški projekt živel od leta 1997 do 2007. Zaprosili smo za podporo na ekološkem skladu in dejali so nam, da je to najboljši projekt, kar jih je prišlo k njim na mizo, ampak da stane toliko, kolikor imajo sredstev za vseh tisoč manjših projektov, ki so večinoma namenjeni ekološkemu ozaveščanju. Mislim, da bi se moral najti mecen, ki bi to zmogel financirati, ampak v Sloveniji takšnega donatorstva praktično ne poznamo. Ni podprtega sistema, da bi lahko presežke usmerjali v zanimive umetniške in raziskovalne projekte. Zaradi tega tudi umetniški trg v Sloveniji ni nikoli zaživel. To je zgodba, ki se pri nas očitno še ne bo tako hitro razpletla. Večinoma sva govorila o API, najnovejšem projektu. Kaj pa počneš kot umetnik Marko Peljhan? Imaš ob projektu API čas še za druge aktivnosti? V zadnjih letih sem veliko časa sem posvetil projektu Teritoriji 1995, ki je tematsko navezan na masaker v Srebrenici. Poleg tega sodelujem pri performansih, imenovanimi Spektr. V Ljubljani imamo srečo, da se je vzpostavil Kino Šiška in da ima tudi Ljubljana prostor, kjer je mogoče postaviti zahtevnejše projekte na dostojen način in z vso tehnološko podporo. Projekt smo ustvarili skupaj z Matthewom Biedermannom, Brianom Springerjem in Aljošo Abrahamsbergom. Prvič je bil predstavljen na festivalu Ars Electronica leta 2008. Poleg tega pa trenutno delam še na enem dokaj kompleksnem projektu s sodelavcem Carstenom Nicolaiem iz Berlina. V japonskem Yamaguchiju, v centru za nove medije, delujeva na projektu v sodelovanju z japonskimi in ameriškimi inženirji, povezan pa je s projektom Polar iz leta 2000. Za Polar sva prejela nagrado Zlata Nika na festivalu Ars Electronica in kustosi projekta so si po desetih letih zaželeli, da se spet dobimo in naredimo nov projekt, ki bo večinoma nada-

Interpolar API 2006–2009, instalacija / Installation, foto arhiv KIBLA 2009 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah

ljevanje tedaj začetih raziskav. Gre torej za več različnih nivojev dela, ki se odvijajo v istem času. ENG Recently the Arctic Perspective Initiative project was introduced on exhibitions in London and Dortmund. The API is actually a group project by a number of colleagues, professionals from various disciplines. What is your role in this project? Were you the initiator? You could say so, although I do not sign as the initiator. Nevertheless somebody always has to take initiative in such matters. The API is a result of all the work that me and my colleagues have done until now, in relation to the Makrolab project and is in a way its logical sequence. With the onset of Makrolab in 1994 I predicted that the project would finish until 2007, acquiring a new form based on the experience gained in over a decade, and I would try to implement it in the real world. This means we are maintaining a realistic relation towards the project that goes beyond the mere presentation, distri-


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ce was an entirely different and particular story, that has little or almost nothing to do with Antarctica – except perhaps for the physically-geographic connection – and that this was a place more closely intertwined with politics, culture, geopolitics and the cold war. The Arctic was for years a direct juncture of both ideological poles, which has been creating a different social dynamics throughout the time, and beside that it is also populated. The indigenous populations, much like those from Papua New Guinea, the Amazon or the Australian Aborigines, have probably created a link with their environment of the kind the Western civilization has been trying to abandon for more than two thousand years: an integral contact with the local environment. For anyone trying to understand the relationship between nature and technology, between nature- and man-created systems, a traditional contact with nature through thousands of years of adaptation and extreme condition survival tactics in a pure, delicate harmony with nature, is a crucial factor, one that does not allow for a simple, naive or typically colonial approach that can be found in the Antarctic. That is because it does not have a live culture. If a scientist or an artist works in the Antarctic, it is not even that important. There is a possibility to contact a scientifically-technological global complex with a political context, related to the Antarctic Treaty documents, in my opinion one of the fundamental and most crucial international acts that implies a potential future arrangement without a territorial attachment to national states. How is the Antarctic divided then? Surely the 193 world countries do not have a territory of their own there; it must be divided between the superpowers.

bution and reflection connected to the art. This was the project’s basic purpose. The only thing that did not happen was my intention to hand it over to others; for the project to have enough potential to be self-sufficient. I believed the utopia could become reality and that the project will not need me any more as a driving force from behind. That didn’t happen, which was a down-to-earth experience for me, so I remained the initiator as well as head of other projects. One of these was Antarctica projects under the ITAS initiative (Interpolar Transnational Art Science Constellation). We were searching for an encouragement rather than an organization, an initiative, or a project; and we decided to call it a constellation – it stands for a number of entities working together, though separated by certain distances, symbolic, thematic, or purely conceptual. This was an initiative focused mainly on the work in the Antarctic, although it concerned Arctic as well – this is why it’s called the Interpolar. But as soon as we started work in the Arctic in 2006 it became clear that this spa-

Of course not. The Antarctic is an intriguing story. The course of its human conquest is well known. The first explorers in this area that exchanged rule over the South Pole were Norwegian, British and American. In the second half of the 19th and for most of the 20th century this was closely connected with whaling, a heartbreaking tale with devastating effects on these sea mammals throughout the planet. The Antarctic was also interesting to many professionals during the times of the Nazi Germany, who charted the territory excessively and even held a plan to move the entire state leadership there, in case everything went wrong. This was the purpose for charting the area of the former Soviet and now Russian Novolazajevskaya station. In short, the Antarctic was always a sort of projection screen for the Western conquerthe-world mentality. After World War II it also became interesting in the geopolitical sense: there were serious plans of establishing nuclear plants and military camps there. Taking on the Antarctic could thus have become a new conflict generator. The territory was subdivided into a number of units, the so-called ‘territorial claims’, governed by a variety of countries: Norway, Great Britain, France, Australia, Chile, Argentina and South Africa, and – interestingly – neither Russia nor the USA had one. All these matters now fall under the domain of the Antarctic Treaty. Taking a step back into history, 1957 was declared the International Geophysical Year (IGY) that saw the Soviet and American scientists working together for the first time after the end of World War II. Within the year that was also dedicated to space conquering, the Soviet Union launched its first satellite, the Sputnik, whose main function was measuring the curvedness of the earth. The other result of the IGY was the Antarctica cooperation and the setting of the first temporary bases. It needs to be stressed that we are not referring to the Antarctic Peninsula, which was always populated and used because of its accessibility – there are the Argentinean, the Chilean and the British territorial units, and disputes about dividing the ground were often between them. The Soviet Union and the USA finally wanted to settle the matter on an international level and engaged in an initiative with the international community, for the signing of the Antarctic Treaty. This probably enabled the Soviets and the Americans to join the game, since before that they weren’t entitled to any of the territories. Yes, they joined the game, having had no territorial rights before, and at the same time making a statement about not acknowledging the existing territorial units. Thus a new arrangement was formed. The treaty was a fascinating achievement in terms of international documents, especially in the light of those times, although it is still equally relevant today. The problem with the treaty is that it expires in 2041. They conceived it with a lifespan of eighty years. In 1961, it was signed by all the countries with territorial claims. The Antarctic Treaty

presented this territory with a status similar to the one of international waters. This is the only trans-national territory where there are no states, which means any kind of military engagement is prohibited, with the exception of logistic support to the bases. In this way the Antarctic is bestowed upon all mankind to be used in the name of science. At the time art was not mentioned in the treaty and culture only very broadly, considering a very creative interpretation of the document. Personally I see this treaty as a precedent in the political sense. It serves as an example of a possible future arrangement for the whole planet. Alas, it is still but an illusion, which I am even more certain of today with all global trends moving in the opposite direction. With the crisis of the late capitalism on board we are most likely facing some tough decades ahead of us, in the sense of reflection about the state of the planet. And – turning back – the Arctic lays at the heart of this concern. Turning back to the Arctic. It is an entirely different story, being populated and divided between a number of countries. It is populated by indigenous population, it has a colonial history – a typical colonization process was taking place here, much like that of which we know from Africa or South America at the time, when Europe was colonizing practically the entire world. The history then took a vile turn: destroying the indigenous population, demolishing the environment and militarising. This is a rather dark side of the history. There was also a lot of military and civilian infrastructure concentrated in the Arctic, i.e. on the North Pole. What effect did this have on the life of the indigenous population? It had a tremendous effect on the position of the indigenous population. On the American-Canadian border they first set up the so called DEW Line, Distant Early Warning. It is a system of radar stations following the 76th parallel, among other things it follows the locations of the Soviet and later Russian launch and radar bases. So the Soviet part of the story is very similar. The entire Soviet Arctic is perplexed with military installations. What is more, on the Franz Josef Land and the New Land, the biggest atomic explosion ever in the atmosphere happened. It was an experiment with the largest hydrogen bomb in the history of mankind, which took place in 1961. The militarization of the area was thus complete, as the Arctic part of the Soviet Union was was also an area of Gulag camps. In the Stalin era the colonization there was extremely rapid, towns and settlements were being built and the native population was forced to live in them. This is how they were assimilated, with many immigrants also coming in from the south, which means that a completely different dynamics was established. The only exception is Chukotka, the tip and the easternmost part of the Soviet Arctic on the Alaska border, with Roman Abramovič as the current governor. His governance is considered as some sort of prize for their loyalty. This is not even that bad considering that the former governor of the region was a corrupted man and when Putin began to appoint the governors, he assigned Chukotka to Abramovič as a form of mission. It turned out to be a great success, as he saw to the region’s education and economy by channelling part of his enormous funds into it. Chukotka is a specimen of a place that had its darkest hour mostly in the 1970’s and the 1980’s, when its native people were on the verge of extinction, physically as well as socially. The indigenous people there are the Inuits, whereas the rest of the Soviet Arctic is home to other northern peoples, more closely related to the Asian tribes. What about Canada? The Inuits there didn’t have a rose-tinted history either. There is actually by far most information about the Canadian part of the story. Despite all its efforts against it, Canada gave to the Arctic Inuits one of the most generous autonomies. In 1999, a new territory was established called the Nunavut Territory, which means ‘our country’ in Inuktitut (the language of the Inuits), setting a new cornerstone in the history of the Arctic, precisely because it brought the need and the possibility of casting a fresh perspective on history. Historically, this was a very busy area: Canada did not govern its part of the Arctic for any transparent or environment-bound reasons. There were whaling posts, and a classic colonial capitalist system – there was the Hudson Bay Company trading with the local people, exploiting them in the typical manner by buying skins from them and then reselling them at prices up to 1000% higher. Later on, after World War II,


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the Arctic grew interesting as a control location. Meteorological stations were built for weather prognosis for Europe. Many Nazist meteorological stations were built secretly, some of them were undiscovered until long after the war. With the beginning of the confrontations between the East and the West, the cold war, the Arctic became even more interesting by gaining an extreme strategic importance for the entire North American area. This was the basis for the building of the DEW Line initiative that brought radar stations to the Arctic, in the same package with logistics, money, pollution and a continuous presence. The pollution in particular can still be felt. We had seen with our own eyes the consequences that these radar stations caused, although most of them have been closed down, with another ten percent remaining because of technological changes. They are mainly still out there functioning as a support to the North American missile defence shield. The DEW Line brought industrialization – airport runways and radio navigation infrastructure had to be built, and as soon as the 1950’s, intensive charting of the Canadian Arctic began. All of this activity pressured the native population to yield to the crown, or the state, and start living lives like those in the south. It was a devastation of a culture, of genuine nature and environment contacts with the Arctic flora and fauna. In a typically colonial manner that still has its consequences today, the Canadian government moved about fifty families to the northernmost part (we still need to realize that regardless of its size the Arctic is extremely scarcely populated). These people came there with a promise of a better life, that they should have enough animals and other natural goods. In spite of the promise, it turned out fatal for many of them, as they were left to their own resources, many have died. They moved from an environment were day and night are present throughout the year, into an area of polar day and night, and extremely low temperatures. However, these people had to survive there in one way or another. Canada’s idea was establishing independence in this part of the Arctic, and these people had been living there for over two years. This is a very important story in the mythology of the events connected with the indigenous population, for it is more than a historical injustice, it is a classic example of colonial criminal. This was also a time when the Autonomy and Independence Movement was born, as the new generation of the Inuits in the 1960’s learned information about the rest of the world, the war in Vietnam, the human and civil rights movements in the USA, and started their fight for autonomy and control over their part of the territory on the basis of this information. Thus the Nunavut story began. All these stories bear witness to what a complex system the Arctic really is. It is a tale that reveals human attitude towards nature, that speaks about how we develop technologies to have control over nature, and all of this is linked to the artists working in the field of technology, creating observation and reflection systems. In this sense the Arctic is very significant, allowing for major relation changes to be made. Questions are being raised, like what is really the function of technology, to what extent is technology a function of autonomy, what do open systems mean, how is this knowledge being transferred? All of this is closely connected to my previous work, to Makrolab; and this is why the Arctic has become its main focus. The API is therefore making an unambiguous statement about the historical and cultural issues in this area. What is the basic idea of the project, and the purpose behind it? The basic idea is not so much informing about the problems, but resolving them in an integral way with the cooperation of local population. We have some knowledge, as well as the assumption that the level of autonomy will increase through the use of open technologies, technically and program-wise, and the possibility of employing creative technologies. Such autonomy is connected to mobility. The more mobile you are in the Arctic, the more independent you are, and at the same time closer to the nature and the earth, it is possible to live a life in the Arctic much like it used to be before white men have stepped in. A lack of mobility is exactly what happened in the 1950’s. They moved a population of nomad people to the north and made them live in those secluded little villages, ruining a great part of their lives and lifestyles. They changed the system completely. Once you look into it, it turns out that such disasters happen one after another, following a typical colonization pattern from Europe, Africa or Australia. The white man forced this pattern in every corner of the world that he ever set

foot on. We are very well aware of the fact that today, we are the white men entering this system, and we are making great effort not to repeat this pattern, acting like elephants in a porcelain shop, destroying the existing relationships. This is why the processes there are happening slowly, in accordance with the Inuit communication among themselves. Our discussions there often last for days, and it is necessary to except such a pace of development. It is most definitely an engagement that requires an attitude we are no longer used to. I am personally often in difficulty - working in the USA, Slovenia, the Arctic and the Antarctic, or Japan – because a lot of time, and quality listening is needed. Through the API I started considering how the Makrolab experience could help me in productively establishing contact with the Arctic peoples. The adaptation of technology from the south is fast, the Arctic uses skidoos (motor sleds), meaning they use a huge amount of fuel and so does the electricity. The state subventions are granted, but no one considers wind or solar energy. This is another lost contact and the technologies closer to a more natural lifestyle remain in the background because national and capitalist pressure is so strong, that a lot of information does not even reach the Inuits. The API is trying to resolve this issue as well. There are sustainable energy sources. One of our first products was made here, a classic Arctic design called ‘kamutik’, a sled that used to be pulled by dogs and mostly by skidoos today. Kamutik is the main means of transportation for more than half of the year in the Arctic, from November to June, and it enables a nomad way of living. We started thinking about a design team, it was formed from cooperation with Nejc Trošt, Samo Stopar and Andrej Bizjan who started working on a design based upon a traditional pattern: a habitat enabling two or three people to live in complete autonomy in nature for two or three weeks, fuelling only from the sun and the wind energy and equipped with communication means. Such a habitat allows for a natural lifestyle and the production of a variety of contents. The Inuits are extremely adjustable and abundantly creative. to them every person is an artist, everybody creates something, be it sculpture, structures made from bones, painting, films or music; art is undoubtedly an integral part of their lives. What do you think is the reason behind this creativity, considering it is not customary in our, eastern or western world? Mainly because there was no typical economy present there. The basic economy is the economy of survival. People went to the hole in the ice, fished for a seal, brought it home, cut it open, ate it, made shoes and gloves from the skin and tools from the bones, and the remains they used up creatively. This is a use-everything principle that practically leaves no waste. Naturally the intrusive western lifestyle brought along a vast amount of waste and litter. Last year our team started a recycling project – constructing a lodging from litter, a recycled architecture. We used the waste regardless of the fact that it originated in the western world. The Inuits learn amazingly fast. Of course the colonial pattern is still very present, many people just wait for the state subsidies which today come as a sort of apology for the horrible devastation of this culture. The devastation was not even premeditated; it was a mere consequence of using the typical western model. For example, schools in English, even though the Inuits have a language of their own. All these colonial patterns have led to increasing problems and eventually to the loss of culture. In the 1970’s the Arctic started receiving television programs via satellite, but some of the Inuit settlements voted against it until they would have an Inuktitut program. They managed to recognize the project as another form of the colonial pattern that will only add to the ruins of their culture. At the end of the 1970’s a group of people decided to take on the creation of their own Inuit television, the Inuit Broadcast Corporation, including films and children’s programs. This was a true revolution in Canada, since cameras are an influential weapon. People soon began to use the video in a most creative way, as they do with everything else in their lives. It was enough to trigger the onset of a media culture, which has reached an impressive level today. They are incredible video artists, for it is a possible means of expression and with the emergence of the internet, distribution was possible as well. If you take a look at the channel created from the API page, called Isuma Broadcasting, you will find all these contents there. The portal is created in a youtube fashion, but the quality of the contents is incomparably higher. It happened after we met Zacharias Kunuk, the founder

of this television and production house who was often the first to contact the local people. The most famous Inuit film is Atanarjuat or ‘The Fast Runner’, winner of the Camera d’or award in Cannes. The API established a close cooperation with this production house, we have our own space, equipment storage and a mini base there. The API believes it can contribute significantly with its knowledge, e.g. this year we started a course in using open program equipment for video production and other purposes. This is a source of various problems, the patterns repeat persistently and people often work with costly closed systems instead of using the available open program equipment. It leads them into a type of vicious addictive circle. Our job is mainly providing the information. So the API above all serves as a means of social and economic liberating? I have no illusions about our contribution being enormous. Personally I have always followed the small steps theory, and even with Makrolab the integration of science and art may only have produced one in five experiments with excellent results. These are namely complex processes that take time to develop. Concretely: when the team went to the Arctic, we were all confronted with the fact that our workshops were being visited by people who never even saw a computer before. We were inviting people to join the workshops to teach them how to work with open program equipment and many came


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Interpolar API 2006–2009, instalacija / Installation, foto arhiv KIBLA 2009 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah

with computers still in original packaging – nobody has ever shown them how to use them. It was a truly positive experience for me seeing people entering the world of computers through the use of open systems. You said it didn’t matter whether your initiative had any short term large-scale results. What was already achieved since the project started in 2006? In 2006 we began setting the ground for the project. In the same year we visited the Arctic for the first time, but the API’s actual start in its current and future form, was last year (2009). in 2007-2008 we were focused on preparations, collecting funds, presenting the project in the south, trying to redefine it, since I had to redirect my focus from the Antarctic to the Arctic. First we had to finish a project in the Antarctic, part of the International Polar Year and the only art project in this context. We collaborated with the South African base and built similar autonomous systems. We constructed, for example, a mobile power station on sled. The Antarctic altogether was more a cooperation between artists and scientists, but we have had some disagreement with some of the partners; what happened was rather typical of this sort of initiative: the final expedition brought a group of artists to the Antarctic. Many of them recorded their footage, travelled back, process the materials and displayed them in galleries. This is absolutely not what we are interested in, not a pattern we would want to repeat. In the following two years, 2008 and 2009, the focus shifted to the

Arctic and it was then that we started to conceive the complete image. First there was the international architecture competition in 2009, with a breaking response of 130 applications. The contest was for the design of a mobile media-centric unit incorporating the use of renewable energy, for the Arctic. The jury met in Iceland and announced three third place winners, but no first and second place awards, since none of the projects truly presented what we were looking for. Nevertheless there was a variety of interesting approaches shown, though mainly patterns of how the architects from the south viewed the Arctic. In most cases these were huge technological systems, almost tanks, which would be moving through the landscape of ice, space architecture and the like. The experience was analysed and reflected upon, and the result of all of this was a book, the project’s first publication entitled Arctic Perspective. Our final aim is to publish four booklets dedicated to different themes: the first to architecture, the second to geopolitics and autonomy, the third to technology, and the fourth one will be called ‘Landscape’. These four publications, part of a special project supported by European funds, will represent the outline of the API project vision. The first volume about architecture is a reflection on the above mentioned competition, as well as a presentation of potential alternatives, and a review of our journals from field work, offering to the readers a more vivid account of the API endeavour in the Arctic. Its publication was enabled by the German publishing house Hatje Cantz,

which contributed a great deal to its distribution, whereas we managed to reach an agreement with them about the possibility of an open use of the identical Creative Commons version on the internet. This was also our condition for cooperation, much like with most other things that we do. We try to publish everything under the Creative Commons licence. The API project, besides indigenous population, is enabling collaboration of artists and scientists. You have decided not to repeat the Antarctic pattern, so I am curious about the way artists participate in this project? Quite a lot of artists are working on this project and most come from the Arctic. The great exhibition in Dortmund is actually intended as a presentation of the API under the heading of the European Capital of Culture. We have spent quite some time working on the question of why it was necessary to set up an exhibition in the first place. Does it have any sense? However, the organizations working with us, such as the Hartware MedienKunstVerein, were very clear about it, the exhibition must come through. Then we decided upon a strategy of a rather unconventional presentation and organization, seen as it mainly consisted of landscape motifs. It is a presentation of the results of some of our strategies, symbolic relations from the Arctic in a very classical, artistic manner, a presentation of the Inuit authors – mostly through video footage, the architecture competition, our technological solutions and visions, and a documentation


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of our engagement in the Arctic in a purely visual way. Apart from that there is the documentation room with a myriad of charts, military documents and a library holding extensive literature about the Arctic. The exhibition was open for a long enough time (from June to the end of October) for this section to be able to actually function as a library. The idea behind this is, above all, to see all of this work grow, not for it to be a one-time event, but for the knowledge to be accumulated. Beside this we all have our own projects that we carried out in the Arctic as artists, and a few guests as well: Lisa Vogel, an American conceptual artist dealing mostly with geography and art, who had worked in the Arctic before, has contributed a project especially for this exhibition. My own artistic project deals with the cold war and the submarines’ chase on the territory. The purpose of the exhibition – in spite of the various interventions – is slightly didactic, particularly due to the context of the exhibition space. Staying with the exhibition. What is the difference between the London one and the Dortmund one? How are exhibitions set up in general? Is it a set procedure, or is every exhibition set up individually? They are definitely set up individually. The London one hosted in the Canada House, that is the Canadian embassy, i.e. its public relations department, which meant we had to set up a very compact organization, designed by Slovene architect Miha Bratina. One part of it was intended as a presentation of the architecture competition and the other as a condensed image of what the API actually is. It included charting results and a presentation of pilotless planes for instant territory charting, developed in Slovenia. The exhibition space in London was quite small, while Dortmund offered an area of 2000 m2, giving the chance for a truly grand project presentation. The London exhibition was mainly intended to shed some light on what the API actually is and our relation to the state of Canada. I have to admit working with them was not always easy, they seemed to be almost afraid of some of our activities. They perceive our contribution as a potential possibility for the gaining autonomy of the territory. They were also very sensitive about what images we would be presenting, what do they reveal, where the dead animals were and which were they; they were particularly sensitive about the seals, although the Canadian government has a very clear standing on that subject. The Inuits have been eating the seals for thousands of years. Despite this they would not have a picture of a dead seal shown at the exhibition, for fear of causing negative reactions with the delicate British public. I explained that these were their citizens who should have their support, why not show this part of their everyday lives? In the end it was a condition for the exhibition to be carried out at all. The results were also presented within a recent exhibition entitled ‘Coded Utopia’ in Modern Gallery in Ljubljana. There is a strong interest on both sides for Slovenia to see what it is that we have been doing. We also had a presentation of the API at Kibla, Maribor in 2009. Like you said, the API project is running on its own, with or without the exhibition presentations. Which form and medium do you actually consider the best for the project’s presentation? The exhibitions are there to draw the attention and to keep the project running into the future. The processes in question are all long-term, that will be going on for quite some time. The API does not have a final date set. It is simply an initiative and when we come to the conclusion that we have created something, taken a step forward, we will be able to move to another place. All in all we are planning to work through the entire Arctic. Next year we are heading to Russia, Chokotka. The exhibitions in the south serve as a presentation on the basis of which we are gathering funds for the future of the project. This question stems from a perspective that gallery and museum presentations are not always the most effective in reaching people on a large scale. In your opinion, are mass media appearances, either in the form of TV documentaries, newspapers articles, or books more effective? For this reason we are preparing a series of books, though they are mostly intended for the professional public. All books are written in English but I’m hoping they will initiate a response in Slovenia as well. It needs to be said that without the support from Slovenia the API project would never come to exist. The initiative was born here in a way and part of its financial support lies here. It is substantial enough for us to be able to draw from it in the future.

We can always say ‘this project is supported by the Slovenian Ministry of Culture’ and in turn expect a positive reaction from, say, the Canadian ministry of culture. It is basically how it works. In June the presentation activities are really happening at a lively pace. As far as the mass media are concerned - the project is too complex to be presented in a simplistic manner, or maybe it is just that I am poor at presenting it as such. I am always more fascinated by a project’s complexity than by its simplicity, but it is still an idea we will be working on. We wish to make a documentary, we already have enough material. Actually, the London exhibition already featured a fifteen-minute documentary, while we are planning further work on this subject for next year. Another fact is that we have our own web-site through which we communicate with the world and which has good ratings. We also left an impression in the world of science. As a matter of fact we have a scientific agenda, enabling the acquisition of sensor information with the help of our systems. This information is used by the Inuits, they own it and share it with the scientists from the south. The science, however, has problems similar to those of the art. People apply for their projects in universities in the south, then come to the Arctic, stay for a week, do what they need to, turn back and publish results and articles, while nobody in the Arctic knows what actually happened. Of course there are also scientists that do not operate in this way, and these are the ones that we connect with: one of their projects is part of the exhibition, it’s called the Iglinit Project, it helped the Inuits to collect useful information about the environment on their own, through the use of a small computer. This is a precedent example of how knowledge remains in the Arctic and at the same time contributes to the south. Another major API promotion is the connection between traditional knowledge and a scientific approach. There is most definitely a tradition of such connections already established; this is not an original invention by the API – the scientists that were truly dedicated to the Arctic, especially the climatologists, understood long ago that the traditional knowledge about environment is compatible or even supplemental to a scientific approach. These two concepts are not mutually excluding. This is what I perceive as a similar situation to ours: our creative approach to art and how we interpret sensory information, is in resonance with the scientific approach. I think exceptional stories could become of this in the future. The API is still an art project, after all it sprang from the Makrolab which was wearing a strong artistic connotation. But I have noticed that your name has somewhat eluded this time. With Makrolab you were always named as the author, whereas now only the common name of the initiative, of the team appears. How did this happen? I have already tried this with Makrolab, but since it was mostly part of the art world, everything came out different. At the very beginning of the Makrolab project I wished for the catalogue to list Project ‘Atol – Makrolab’ as the author, like a collective, but the curators insisted it should be presented as the work of only one author. A lot of times this happened against my will. This is how the art system works, but for me it meant nothing but trouble with my colleagues. With the API everything was a lot simpler, since it was conceived from the beginning as an initiative, free to be joined by other co-workers. Regardless, there is always somebody that has to take the responsibility in the end, as well as push things forward; and so individual phases will always have authorship, except it can be manifested in a number of ways – from book publishers to exhibition curators. It is nonetheless clear that names are wanted in the world of art. The Makrolab had a similar principle: usually it was set in unpopulated environments, but not in the Arctic or the Antarctic – at least not at the beginning… They were part of the plan, looking at Makrolab’s original map the Arctic was already marked as the final station of the project. I wrote it then, that it would become a new entity, a transnational foundation that will take over the project and run it in the future. It was always meant like this, except for my own engagement, which is unfortunately still necessary. When you conceived and began the Makrolab in 1994, it must have seemed an utopian project with great operational potential. Are the Makrolab’s s stations still functioning? The Makrolab is currently in storage. I am referring to the final architecture type, seen as the project had three

versions, which were developed and upgraded. The third one, called Mark II extended version was last set in Santa Barbara in the USA (the same architecture was in function at the Venice biennale in 2003). We have been discussing for some years with the University of Nova Gorica the possibility of constructing it as part of the university, available for the art and ecology students. The Makrolab was created as a sort of a machine. It is a medium for research and the joint work of media workers, scientists, engineers and artists. It is then an independent and self-sufficient unit. In 1997 we materialized a completely independent solar energetic system under the Makrolab project. The work was presented in Kassel, at the Dokumenta X exhibition. Later on we added to the energy sources the wind, recycled water and drinking water production from the Venetian lagoon. We manufactured extremely complex systems in the domain of an art project. Why shouldn’t this knowledge be transferred forward to a university level? It would be a paradise for the students, if I was a student myself, I would have no second thoughts. The university has already given us the support; the trouble lays in convincing various foundations and funds to support it financially as well. In the end everybody expects me to set up the Makrolab at my own expense, but there’s no sense there. I have managed to create this project; I put in it ten years of my work, an enormous amount of money and knowledge, and above all, voluntary or unpaid working hours of a number of people. I think in this moment somebody should be able to find the means – we are talking about a couple of ten thousand Euros – to provide for the learning infrastructure that is not available anywhere else on the planet. Thus we are currently looking for funds with the University of Nova Gorica, but these projects are hard to pin down to any field of research. We cannot present it as an art project, because it is simply not true. The Makrolab lived as an art project in the period between 1997 and 2007. That is why we asked for support at the Ecology fund, and we were told that it is by far the best project they ever came across, but it cost as much as thousands of other smaller projects, dealing mostly with the raising of ecological awareness. I think we should be able to find a suitable donor who would be able to finance it, except that Slovenia is practically unfamiliar with such a concept. All of this is due to the fact that our legislation has its roots deep-seated in the socialism, having no support for a system that would allow for people with extraordinary achievements to be able to direct them into fields like art and research. This is why the art market has never come to life in Slovenia. It is a story that will obviously still take some time before it unfolds. We were mostly talking about the API, your latest project. What do you do under the name Marko Peljhan, as an artist? Does the API leave any time for you to engage in other activities? I spent a lot of time last year focusing on the ‘Territories 1995’ project, thematically linked to the Srebrenica massacre, and still running. Apart from that I am continuing with the Spektr performances, a project we will be introducing in Ljubljana on September 10th. It is finally returning to Ljubljana, where we are lucky to have Kino Šiška, giving Ljubljana a space where complex projects can be carried out in a decent manner and with all the technological support needed. It is a project created together with Matthew Biedermann, Brian Springer and Aljoša Abrahamsberg. It was first introduced at the Ars Electronica festival in 2008. Apart from that, I am also working on another rather complex project with Carsten Nicolai from Berlin. In Yamaguchi, Japan, we are working at the new media centre with the collaboration of Japanese and American engineers, on a project linked to the Polar project from 2000. The latter won the Golden Nica award at the Ars Electronica festival, and the curators asked for cooperation after ten years – building a project that will mainly continue the research started back then. These projects represent work at different levels, but carried out in the same time. Miha Colner


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X-OP Izmenjava operaterjev in producentov umetnosti eXchange of art operators and producers 2008–2011 X-OP, izmenjava operaterjev in producentov umetnosti je postopoma rastoče omrežje umetnikov, raziskovalcev, operaterjev, producentov in centrov, s čimer želimo vzpostaviti Evropsko platformo za ustvarjanje umetnosti in izmenjavo. S svojimi lokacijami, prostori in uporabnikom prilagojeno tehnološko infrastrukturo spodbuja mobilnost umetnikov, teoretikov in vodstva. Projekt je zasnovan tako, da krepi vseevropsko sodelovanje, skupno produkcijo in interdisciplinarni pristop k umetnosti.

Benoît Maubrey, Die Audio Gruppe, VIDEO PEACOCK, Maribor, Slovenia, 17. 6. 2011

Mobilnost bo segala široko na podeželje, kjer se nahaja večina rezidenčnih centrov za umetniško ustvarjanje in predstavitve, v urbana središča s konstelacijami institucij ter v odprta vmesna ozemlja. Tu ne gre le za prenos skozi virtualni prostor, ampak za sprehod skozi fizični prostor. Partnerski centri želijo z dolgoročnim sodelovanjem vzpostaviti in razvijati infrastrukturno in informacijsko podporno okolje v povezavi z informacijsko tehnologijo, digitalno kulturo in umetniškim ustvarjanjem v širokih kontekstih od umetniške produkcije in predstavitve do raziskav in izobraževanja. Določanje prostorov – mapiranje, črpanje – zbiranje, vzpostavljanje – produciranje, pozicioniranje različnosti – predstavljanje, izjavljanje – izdajanje so osrednji koncepti za vzpostavitev multisektorskega sodelovanja med centri, producenti, operaterji, umetniki in raziskovalci z namenom razvijati infrastrukturo za informacijsko in komunikacijsko tehnologijo, ki omogoča širokopasovna omrežja za raziskovalna, izobraževalna, kulturna, umetniška in poslovna okolja, primerno infrastrukturo za središča umetniške produkcije in interdisciplinarnih področij raziskav. ENG X-OP, eXchange of art operators and producers is gradually growing network of artists, researchers, operators, producers and centers with the aim to establish European platform for creation of art and exchange. With its places, spaces and user accustomed technological infrastructure it fosters mobility of artists, theoreticians and executives. It is built to strengthen the pan-European collaboration, common production and interdisciplinary approach to art.

X-OP Festival “Time and Technique” (Čas in tehnika), Tomar / Abrantes (Portugalska / Portugal), 30. 4.–7. 5. 2010

The mobility embraces at the wide levels of the rural territory, where most of the residential centers for art creation and presentation are, to urban landscapes with their institutions’ constellation and open territories between both. The issue is not only to communicate through the virtual space, but also to walk in the physical space. By long-term cooperation the partner centers wish to establish and further develop infrastructural and information supportive environment in relation to information technology, digital culture and art creation in wide aspect from art production and presentation to research and education. Key conceptions spacing – mapping sourcing – collecting setting – producing siding – presenting stating – releasing to establish multi-sectorial cooperation between centers, producers, operators, artists and researchers wih the view to developing ICT infrastructure which enables quick broadband networks for research, education, culture, art and business environments, a suitable infrastructure for centers of art production and interdisciplinary fields of research.

Greie Gut Fraktion, MED - Maribor Electronic Destination 2011, Maribor, Slovenia, 25. 2. 2011


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Berlin – Maribor – Mooste – Abrantes/Tomar – Helsinki – Istanbul –

X-OP Izmenjava operaterjev in producentov umetnosti eXchange of art operators and producers 2008–2011


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Novigrad – Zagreb – Rijeka – Dunaj/Vienna – Praga/Prague – Ljubljana …


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Dan Oki Bežanje iz centra Escaping the center Dan Oki je na umetniškem prizorišču kontinuirano prisoten vse od leta 1987, ko je iz ustvarjalne potrebe začel ustvarjati kratke eksperimentalne filme. Po nekaj neuspešnih poskusih preboja v umetniške izobraževalne ustanove in po zaključenem študiju novinarstva in politologije je leta 1991 zaradi razpada političnega sistema in kaotične vojne zapustil okolje Zagreba in se podal na Nizozemsko, kjer je študiral film in video na De Vrije Academie v Den Haagu ter se nato izpopolnjeval še na nekaterih drugih izobraževalnih institucijah. Sprememba okolja je povzročila tudi zasuk v avtorskem izrazu: Dan Oki se je podal v svet naprednih tehnologij, računalniške umetnosti in večmedijskega eksperimenta, medtem ko je v njegovem delu vseskozi ostala prisotna sled performativnih akcij, fotografije in eksperimentalnega filma. Njegova umetniška dela se spogledujejo z raziskovanjem znotraj forme in samega medija, ki ga razume kot sporočilo. Njegova izraznost je temu primerno večplastna in ambivalentna ter večkrat vsebuje nepričakovan zasuk znotraj ohlapne in večpomenske naracije, ki običajno izhaja iz avtorjevega intimnega sveta. Dan Oki v svojih delih nemalokrat zaobide suho stvarnost in se podaja v popolnoma fiktivne svetove, ki služijo kot drzne metafore različnih družbenih in osebnih stvarnosti. Poleg performativnih akcij, zabeleženih na fotografijah, računalniških animacij, fotografskih opažanj, večmedijskih instalacij in raziskovalnih video del se je v zadnjih letih posvetil specifični in neobičajni formi celovečernega umetniškega filma, posnetega v cenejši video tehniki, a vsebujočega filmski formalni jezik. Svojo razgibano, več kot dvajsetletno ustvarjalno pot je Dan Oki prvič v svoji karieri obsežneje predstavil na pregledni samostojni razstavi v muzeju moderne in sodobne umetnosti na Reki (Muzej moderne i suvremene umjetnosti, MMSU Rijeka), v manjšem obsegu in prvič v slovenskem prostoru pa je njegovo avtorsko produkcijo bilo mogoče spoznati na razstavi 'Generatio Aequivoca' v KIBLI. Retrospektiva v MMSU na Reki je vaša prva retrospektivna razstava. Ali dojemate samega sebe kot starejšega umetnika zaradi te prelomne predstavitve? Zanimivo vprašanje. Ko sem na odprtje razstave povabil kolege iz medijskega instituta Montevideo v Amsterdamu, ki ima v svoji zbirki tudi štiri moja dela, me je ena od kustosinj vprašala: “Oki, to zveni, kot da bi bil zelo star!” Rekel sem, da sem – in nisem, star namreč. Vsekakor je obsežna pregledna razstava omogočila redefinicijo lastnega umetniškega dela in življenja nasploh. Pojavili so se določeni, prej neznani občutki in mislim, da je dobro in pomembno, da se začneš pravi čas zavedati svoje starosti. Skozi retrospektivno razstavo se je ponudila odlična priložnost, da na enem mestu predstavim velik del svoje umetniške produkcije, zato sem se poigraval z odnosi med različnimi deli. Večina umetnikov v svoji karieri redko dobi priložnost razstavljati v tako velikem in dobro opremljenem prostoru. Na Reki sem izkoristil priložnost in redefiniral svoje preteklo delo in procese. Še nikdar niste imeli tako velike samostojne razstave? Ne, moram pa priznati, da je bila ravno ob pravem času, v mojem 45. letu starosti – zaključila je neko obdobje in spodbudila razmišljanje o nadaljnjem delovanju. Sam pri sebi sem reflektiral svoje delo, ga ovrednotil in dobil nov vpogled v odnose med različnimi umetniškimi deli in pravzaprav presenetil samega sebe. Naenkrat se je zdelo, da stvari niso povsem takšne, kot sem mislil. Zaradi konteksta prostora in medsebojnih relacij začnejo dela sporočati nekaj povsem drugega. To je zanimiv vakuum, v katerem umetnik svoja dela izbira in se odloča, kako jih bo predstavljal in poudarjal. Navedem lahko nekaj ključnih besed, ki definirajo moje umetniško snovanje: to so “gibljiva slika”, “avtobiografija”, “virtualnost”, “jezik”, “telo”,


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“živalski svet”, “identiteta”. Teme, ki se jim posvečam, so vsebovane v različnih kombinacijah. Med koncipiranjem razstave je nastajala vizualna zgodba in lahko sem izpostavil različne elemente določenih del; spraševal sem se, kako jih postaviti v ravnovesje celotne postavitve, razmišljal, kateremu delu bi dal več prostora in s tem pomembnosti. Razstava ni bila definirana samo z velikostjo prostora, temveč predvsem z izborom del. Nekatera dela se preprosto niso vključila v kontekst celote, čeprav so zelo močna in meni zelo ljuba. Kako ste dela izbirali? Izbiral sem jih na podlagi sledenja zastavljeni zgodbi. Osnovna ideja je bila, da gledalec vstopi v prostor in sledi določenim linijam, ki med seboj komunicirajo. Hipo-

tetično bi lahko rekel, da je celotna razstava pravzaprav novo delo. Ta način je bil zelo priljubljen že v 90. letih, ko so kuratorske koncepte pogosto ustvarjali umetniki, pa tudi kadar so jih pripravljali kustosi, so poudarek na kombinaciji posameznih del, postavljenih v popolnoma nov kontekst, dojemali kot neko “super-delo”. Daniel Buren je nekoč dejal, da že postavljanje umetniških del na določeno višino definira njihov pomen; vsaka malenkost je torej izjemno pomembna: ali je delo postavljeno blizu vrat, ali je podlaga parket, kako visok je strop in podobno; to so poudarki, ki jih pri posameznih delih posameznik niti ne opazi, ko pa so postavljena v prostoru, postanejo vsi elementi arhitekture pomembni in potrebno jih je upoštevati. Dan Oki, underground loop, 1996

Če se osredotočim na kronologijo razstave, ki pove veliko o vašem avtorskem razvoju, me zanimajo predvsem zgodnji začetki. Kot umetnik ste začeli delovati ob koncu 80. let; v tem času so bila vaša dela po večini performativna in zabeležena na filmih ali fotografijah. Kakšni so bili vzgibi za to neposredno izraznost? Performans je pomenil predvsem izhod iz moje življenjske situacije, ki je bila neločljivo povezana z ustvarjalno situacijo. Takrat sem bil mladinec, ki je prišel iz Zadra v Zagreb, da bi se vpisal na likovno akademijo, vendar nisem bil sprejet. Klub temu sem ostal v Zagrebu in se veliko družil z ljudmi. Tomislav Gotovac, Ladislav Galeta in Hrvoje Turković so delovali izven institucij, obenem pa so bili mentorji ljudem, ki jih je zanimala umetnost. Posredno so ti avtorji močno vplivali tudi name. Nikoli nisem ustvarjal v medijih slike, grafike, risbe, ampak sem takoj začel s fotografijo, performansom in filmom, kar me je med drugim stalo tudi vpisa na akademije. Ko sem prišel na likovno akademijo s svojimi eksperimentalnimi filmi in videom, so me poslali na filmsko akademijo in obratno, s filmske na likovno. Na likovni akademiji bi na primer moral ustvarjati risbe, jaz pa preprosto nisem občutil potrebe po tem. Performans, fotografija in film so se mi v vsebinskem in tudi v produkcijskem smislu zdeli najprimernejša in najučinkovitejša forma izražanja. Takrat sem snemal super 8 mm filme in iz njih sestavljal improvizirane instalacije, saj so bili projektorji dragi in nedostopni. Ko pa sem prišel na Nizozemsko v začetku 90. let, sem se znašel v situaciji široko dostopne tehnologije in to je ustvarilo drastičen rez: v Amsterdamu je bilo možno eksperimentiranje in raba različnih tehnoloških pripomočkov. Imel sem možnost dela v različnih video studiih, največ v Montevideu. Nova dela so temeljila na razmerju med računalniško grafiko, softverom in super 8 mm filmom. Navezanost na film je prisotna vse do danes kot enega ključnih materialov, ki jih uporabljam in nadalje oblikujem. Tudi v novejših delih je filmski medij še vedno prisoten, saj me spremlja že od 12 leta, ko mi je stric, ki je bil tedaj kapetan preko oceanske ladje, kupil kamero in povzročil obsesijo snemanja. Omenili ste Tomislava Gotovca, za katerega je znano, da je bil velik filmofil, kar ste tudi vi. Koliko je Gotovac vplival na vas? Ne morem zanikati, da je vplival name v zgodnji fazi, ampak menim, da je bil njegov vpliv veliko bolj pomemben za druge umetnike. Konec 80. let je tudi on zahajal v multimedijski center v Zagrebu, kamor smo hodili na projekcije filmov. Prav preko Gotovca in Galete sem spoznal svet eksperimentalnega filma, vendar je moj avtorski razvoj šel v druge smeri. Morda bi bil ta vpliv močnejši, če bi ostal na Hrvaškem. Zanimivo je, kako se človek druži z določenimi ljudmi in se ti ljudje izmenjujejo ter se vzpostavljajo odnosi in različni vplivi. Največji pečat v mojem delu je pustila prav amsterdamska scena, kamor sem prišel s 25 leti in ostal polnih dvanajst let. Tam se je verjetno izoblikovala moja zrela umetniška identiteta, saj je bil začetek mojega delovanja nekako prekinjen. Na Nizozemskem je bila v tem času tehnologija toliko naprednejša, da sem po nekaj letih že ustvarjal 3D in cyber-scan animacije in vzpostavil drugačen ustvarjalni kontekst. Ohranil sem izražanje v mediju filma in foto-performanse, ki sicer predstavljajo sekundarni umetniški izraz, vendar so se na retrospektivni razstavi znašli v ugodnem razmerju z deli, ki predstavljajo – recimo temu – primarni del mojega ustvarjanja. Če se navežem na vaše razmišljanje o naraciji, bi lahko trdil, da vaši filmi vselej izhajajo iz intimne, osebne perspektive, kot da preko samega sebe reflektirate širši družbeni kontekst. To se zrcali v zgodnejši in tudi v novejši produkciji. Kako torej pristopate do naracije v svojem delu? To je verjetno eno ključnih vprašanj, ki se jih lahko zastavi pri poskusu razumevanja mojega dela. Vselej se namreč poskušam odmakniti od sebe, da bi lahko ustvaril delo o sebi, a ta svojevrstna oblika avto-objektivizacije vselej ostane v domeni subjektivnega. Domena subjektivnega, ki poskuša biti objektivno – zavest subjekta o lastni umetniški objektivizaciji – morda najbolje predstavlja proces, ki se odvija. Foto-performansi imajo na primer veliko vrednost v mojem življenju. Menim, da je čas velikih objektivnih umetniških konstelacij pravzaprav minil. Zdi se, da je dandanes smiselno govoriti edino o stvareh, ki nas obkrožajo. Okoli nas je vselej mreža tako imenovanega socialnega tkiva, v katerem bivamo, ki je izrazito subjektivno in obsežno v smislu komunikacije in vizualne prezentacije. V vseh teh tehnoloških mrežah vedno znova prihajamo v situacijo, ko želimo in moramo govoriti o sebi; nihče pač ne more iz svoje


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Dan Oki, Generatio Aequivoca, 2008

Dan Oki, selfportrait householder, 1997

kože. To lahko vodi do skrajnih meja z vidika telesnosti, kadar govorimo o performansu. Kako privesti sebe do konca v smislu umetniških horizontov je vselej pogojeno z avtobiografskim kontekstom. Preko umetnosti poskušam meje lastnega sveta omehčati in videti preko njih. Ko poteče naša življenjska doba, se namreč vsi posušimo kot list in preprosto izginemo v zemlji. Zavest o življenjski energiji iz povsem biološke perspektive je zelo prisotna v mojih delih, saj izpostavljam aspekt življenjskega intervala in spoštovanje do lastne biološke stvarnosti v dokaj pozitivnem, skorajda herojskem duhu. Če pa govorimo konkretno o dogodkih, ki so me zaznamovali, lahko seveda govorim o vojni v nekdanji Jugoslaviji, česar sem se dotaknil v video performansu 'Separation', kjer sem kot nekakšna hiper-ventilacija: poskušam priti do meja lastnega telesa in izginjanja z globokim dihanjem, dokler ne izgubim zavesti. V dolgometražnem filmu 'Oxygen 4' poskuša fiktivni lik hrvaškega astronavta priti do skrajne meje svojega telesa, kar se dokončno zgodi, ko porine glavo v potok in ugotovi, da ne potrebuje več dihanja. Stvari se dostikrat rešujejo in zaključujejo s smrtjo. V tem smislu so moji pogledi morda darvinistični, a v življenju se dogajajo vsemogoče stvari. Vsekakor se miselni konstrukt posameznika dogaja samo, dokler je tu življenjska energija. Če potegnemo vzporednico z umetnostjo, obstaja zaradi ljudi, ki jo ustvarjajo in ne zaradi produktov. Nekatere stvari pač izginejo v pozabo, druge postanejo ikone. Ljudje mislijo, da so določene stvari v življenju izjemno pomembne, saj se o tem dovolj dolgo prepričujejo, morda pa so povsem nepomembne. Konec koncev je prav življenje edino, kar imamo. To je naš edini resnični medij. Film 'The Performance', ki govori o 9/11 oziroma napadu na World Trade Center, se zdi tipičen primer vaše naracije, ki ima izhodišče na osebni ravni, film pa je mešanica dokumentarnih posnetkov s prizorišča in igranih prizorov. Kakšen je bil proces ustvarjanja tega filma? Film 'The Performance' je med nastajanjem doživljal čudno usodo. Govori o tematiki, ki je sam nikdar ne bi obdeloval, če ne bi takrat slučajno živel v New Yorku. Z neke terase na Manhattnu sem snemal, kako padata nebotičnika, ob meni pa je bila moja družina, žena in trimesečni sin. Uvedene so bile izredne razmere: uporabljali smo čistilce zraka, na ulice pa je bilo mogoče stopiti le z masko. Znova sem razmislil o našem bivanju v ZDA, kamor smo prišli iz Kanade le dva dni prej. Material je bil kasneje obdelan z mojim osebnim videnjem dogodka in deluje kot neka obramba pred celotno situacijo; podobno kot v zadnjih kadrih filma 'Stanje stvari' Wima Wendersa, ko se glavni lik na streljanje odzove tako, da vzame kamero in začne snemati, ker misli, da se bo tako ubranil. Material je ostal v mojem arhivu in dolgo nisem vedel, kaj naj z njim. Vmes bi ga lahko tudi prodal, vendar tega nisem storil. Ko sem sestavljal scenarij, sem kombiniral doku-

mentarne in igrane prizore in hotel sem narediti hibrid med video instalacijo in igranim filmom ter pripovedovati sublimno zgodbo o sebi. V film sem vključil tudi družino: moja žena, Sandra Sterle, je igrala producentko Arts Linka iz New Yorka, sin je igral samega sebe, ostale vloge pa so odigrali mladi igralci iz Splita kot gledališka skupina, ki je iz Zagreba prišla na turnejo v New York. Ti ljudje doživijo napad in njihovi medsebojni odnosi se skozi to ekstremno situacijo spremenijo. Tudi moje življenje se je takrat spremenilo; malo pred tem smo dobili delovne vize za ZDA in čakal nas je velik studio. Po tem pa sem slučajno dobil ponudbo za sodelovanje pri snovanju novega oddelka na likovni akademiji v Splitu, kar se mi je zdela najboljša rešitev v tej kataklizmi. Vrnili smo se v Split po štirinajstih letih selitev in tudi to je bila zanimiva izkušnja. Lahko bi jo poimenoval kot radikalen rez nekega obrata navznoter. Ko je človek mlad in ima veliko energije, vedno divje sledi umetniški karieri in želi biti neprestano v centru dogajanja, na koncu pa ugotovi, da je vse pravzaprav relativno, da je varnost in moč mest, kot je New York, relativna. Obrobna zgodba, ki jo doživlja nek Dalmatinec, je prav tako zanimiva kot na primer zgodba ameriškega poslovneža iz Wall Streeta. In življenje takega človeka ni nič boljše od življenja nekoga na otoku Visu. Razmišljati sem začel, kam grem, kako delujejo mehanizmi centrov umetniške moči; vse to se je zazdelo kot zgolj navidezna sila, ki funkcionira – ne zaradi kakovosti umetniških del, temveč zaradi ekonomske moči in dejstva, da lahko dominantne družbe definirajo umetnost, da jo uspevajo najhitreje konzervirati, prezentirati, katalogizirati in distribuirati. Ampak življenje je nekaj povsem drugega. Je film 'Oxygen 4' avtobiografska zgodba? Govori namreč o ambicioznih ljudeh, astronavtih, ki se zatečejo v Paklenico in se poskušajo umakniti od sveta? Natanko to sem želel izpostaviti. Vsi protagonisti filma, japonski, kanadski in hrvaški astronavt niso mogli najti prostora in realizacije v svojih lokalnih sredinah, zato so skušali delovati v mednarodnem kontekstu, v kontekstu nadnacionalnih korporacij. To je analogija z življenjem umetnika, ki se ukvarja z dejavnostmi, ki same po sebi le redko prinašajo zaslužek, zato žrtvuje svoje življenje, da se ukvarja z umetnostjo. Zanimivo je dejstvo, da večina uspešnih umetnikov nima otrok. Ena od pomembnih kategorij je vsekakor žrtvovanje družine, kar sem večkrat slišal od mednarodno profiliranih umetnikov. Vsi pravijo, da so družina in otroci ovira v umetniški karieri in da si to lahko privošči zgolj nekdo, ki je izjemno bogat. Kljub temu je mogoče ustvariti kariero, vendar ne v smislu delovanja nadnacionalne korporacije. Umetniška dela, ki nastajajo v tem kontekstu, se namreč približujejo industrijski proizvodnji, kar močno vpliva na njihovo vsebino, saj morajo izpolnjevati določena pričakovanja.

Osebno mislim, da je svobodno raziskovanje znotraj umetnosti najpomembnejše. Prav s tem se v zadnjem času veliko ukvarjam; številni ljudje so proti umetniškemu raziskovanju, saj ne vidijo potrebe in mislijo, da k umetnosti ni mogoče pristopati znanstveno. Relativnost kakovosti in konsekventnosti lahko pomagata, da stvari postanejo bolj berljive. Na področju izobraževanja je mogoče spočeti številne umetniške projekte, ki so financirani iz akademskih krogov in ne zgolj iz fondov, namenjenih produkciji in prezentaciji umetnosti, ali umetnostnega trga. Umetniki, ki so blizu tem disciplinam, lahko s svojim raziskovanjem in umetnostjo presežejo meje splošnega človeškega izraza. Umetniki lahko intuitivno vidijo stvari, lahko jih določijo, oblikujejo in pokažejo drugim; in zakaj ne bi mogli mapirati te dejavnosti enako kot delovanja na področju znanosti, zgodovine ali filozofije. Vse, kar umetnik počne, na nek način odraža njegovo življenje. Subjektivnost je vselej prisotna. Pri tem se moram navezati na grški pregovor: “Če bi voli imeli bogove, bi njihovi bogovi imeli rogove”. Torej, s čemerkoli se ljudje ukvarjamo, naj je to znanost ali umetnost, se vselej ukvarjamo sami s sabo, saj ne moremo stopiti iz sebe. V tem pogledu bi se umetniško raziskovanje moralo verificirati in upam, da se bo to zgodilo tudi pri nas, v Sloveniji in na Hrvaškem. Film 'Oxygen 4' je dolgometražni film in hkrati večkanalna prostorska video instalacija. Kakšen je odnos med tema dvema načinoma prezentacije? V Muzeju suvremene umjetnosti v Zagrebu sem leta 2005 'Oxygen 4' predstavil kot samostojno razstavo. Projekt je bil razstavljen v sedmih sobanah in vsaka je predstavila posamezen del filma. Celoten proces 16 kanalov instalacije se ukvarja z vprašanjem filma kot celote in s premikanjem skozi prostore muzeja se obiskovalec pravzaprav premika skozi film. V kinu Tuškanac v Zagrebu pa je publika lahko videla tudi film in razliko v raziskovanju medija in v predstavitvi projekta. Film kot instalacija deluje povsem drugače, saj se je mogoče sprehajati skozi prostor, s čemer gledalec sam odreja čas, pozornost in vsebino posameznim delom instalacije, medtem ko je v kinu 'postavljen' končni izdelek brez možnosti vpliva na potek dogodkov, brez interakcije. Zgodba filma 'Oxygen 4' je zanimiva: film sem posnel že leta 2002 in ga nato objavil na spletu; na spletni strani (www.oxygen4.org) je publika lahko montirala film po posameznih scenah, arhivirala določene scene in pisala besedila. Ustvaril sem tudi štiri elektronske naslove za glavne protagoniste filma. Na podlagi korespondence s publiko sem naredil bazo odzivov na film; nato pa sem vse te odzive posnel in jih vstavil v zgodbo. To je bila izjemno izkušnja; Lev Manovich mi je dal kompliment, da sem verjetno prvi, ki je naredil kaj takšnega. 'Oxygen 4' je bil najprej na spletu in šele skozi participacijo publike in avtorski proces je prišel v galerijo in v kino.


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Dan Oki, My last super 8 mm film, 2008

Nekoč so takšni intuitivni preskoki delovali na področju eksperimentalnega filma. V zadnjem času se avtorji vse manj ukvarjamo z vizualno antropologijo, kot da se je nekako izčrpala. Eksperimentalni film je bil v 60. letih v svoji pionirski fazi zmožen zares zanimivih preskokov. Zato je bilo zame izjemno zanimivo študirati v Amsterdamu v pionirskem času video animacije, internetne filmske baze podatkov, interaktivnega videa, CD romov in spleta. Veliko sva govorila o vaši retrospektivni razstavi in prelomnicah v ustvarjanju. V katero smer nameravate v prihodnosti? Boste še naprej ustvarjali dolgometražne filme? Pravzaprav sem enega že posnel in ga trenutno dokončujem. Srečo imam, da se družim s skupino približno desetih mladih igralcev iz splitske igralske akademije in da delam z njimi. Menim, da se bom z dolgometražnimi filmi v prihodnosti še ukvarjal. Nastajajoči film je ustvarjen v črno beli tehniki in lahko bi ga označil za igrano-eksperimentalnega. Prikazuje zgodbo o bratu in sestri, ki sta morilca. Žanrski film sem obdelal s pomočjo umetniških in eksperimentalnih postopkov. Dramaturgija je izjemno zanimiva, saj se poigrava z nekakšno absorpcijsko dolgo sliko, značilno za vzhodnoevropsko kinematografijo, vse to pa sem postavil v kontekst “črnega filma”. Zdi se mi dokaj zanimiva kombinacija. Scenarij je bil ustvarjen med delom z igralci, k sodelovanju pa smo povabili tudi psihologinjo, ki se je ukvarjala s psihološkim profilom filmskih likov. Zelo me zanima, kakšne bodo reakcije na film, ki se podaja v žanr in obenem v dekonstrukcijo žanra na specifičen umetniški način. ENG Dan Oki has been continually present on the art scene ever since 1987, when short experimental films started to arise from a creative need. After a series of unsuccessful attempts at art-educational institutions and a degree in journalism and political science, he fled Zagreb in 1991 due to the disintegration of the political system and the chaotic war, heading for the Netherlands where he sent on to study film and video at the De Vrije Academie, the Hague, and later perfecting his knowledge at some other academic institutions. Change of environment was a moment of changing his artistic expression as well: Dan Oki set sail for a world of advanced technologies, computer science and multimedia experiments, while his work constantly remained marked by performative actions, photography and experimental film. His artistic works flirt with the idea of exploring inside the form and the medium itself, understood as a message. Accordingly, his expressiveness is layered and ambivalent, often containing an unexpected turn inside the loose and ambiguous narration that usually stems out of the author’s private world. Dan Oki’s works frequently bypass the sheer reality, heading for entirely fictional worlds which serve as daring metaphors for numerous social and personal rea-

lities. Apart from performative actions captured on photos, computer animations, photographic observations, multimedia installations and experimental video works, he recently focused on the specific and unconventional form of full-length art films, filmed in a less expensive tech­nique but containing formal film language. For the first time in his career Dan Oki presented his diverse, over twenty-year long creative path in a large, transparent solo exhibition at the Museum of modern and contemporary art in Rijeka, Croatia (Muzej moderne i suvremene umjetnosti, MMSU Rijeka); while a smaller selection of his author production was showing for the first time in Slovenia at the ‘Generatio Aequivoca’ exhibition at KIBLA, Maribor. The retrospective at MMSU Rijeka was your first retrospective exhibition. Do you consider yourself an older artist because of this landmark presentation? Interesting question. When I invited some of the colleagues from the Montevideo media institute in Amsterdam, whose collection holds four of my works, one of the curators commented: “Oki, it makes you sound very old!” I said I was – and wasn’t, old namely. Definitely such a vast transparent exhibition enabled a re-definition of my own artistic work as well as life in general. Some very specific, previously unknown emotions arose on this occasion, and I think it’s good, and important for a person to start realizing their age at the right time in life. A retrospect exhibition was a great opportunity for me to present a large proportion of my artistic production in one place, so I toyed around with the relationships between individual works. Most artists seldom get the chance to exhibit in such a large and well-equipped space. I took this chance in Rijeka to redefine my past work and processes. You never had a solo exhibition this size before? No, but I have to say it came at the exact right time, at the age of forty-five – ending one period and encouraging thoughts about further action. I reflected upon my work within myself, evaluated it and gained a new perspective on relations between different works; and I actually surprised myself. All of a sudden things appeared different from what I thought them to be. It is the context of the location and the interrelation of works that make them send out an entirely different message. It is an interesting vacuum where an artist makes a selection of his works and decides how to present and stress them. I can provide some crucial terms that define my artistic endeavor: “moving picture”, “autobiography”, “virtuality”, “language”, “body”, “animal world”, “identity”. The themes that I focus on are contained in various combinations. During the concept stage of the exhibition a visual story was created and I was able to highlight different elements of specific works; I wondered how I should place them to achieve a balanced organization on the whole,

or which part deserved more space and significance. The exhibition was not only defined by the size of the space, but mostly by the selection of the works. Some of them simply did not fit into the context of the whole, even though they are very powerful and very dear to me. How did you select the works? I was choosing by following the concept of the story. The basic idea behind it was for the spectator to enter and follow certain lines which communicate among themselves. Hypothetically I could go as far as to call the exhibition a new work of its own. This was a very popular concept back in the nineties, when curator concepts were often created by the artists, and even when they were prepared by curators, the stress was on the combination of individual works, placed in an entirely fresh context and perceived as a sort of a “super- work”. Daniel Buren once said that even positioning art works onto a certain height defines their meaning; so every detail is extremely important: whether the work is placed close to the door, is the floor woodblock, how high is the ceiling, etc. – all of these elements are emphasized and often disregarded when observing individual works, however, when they are positioned in a common space, every element of the architecture becomes relevant and needs to be considered. Focusing on the exhibition’s chronology, that says much about your development as an author, I am mainly interested in the early beginnings. The start of your art career can be traced back to the end of the eighties; this was a time when your works were mostly performative and captured on film or photography. What instigated such a straightforward expressiveness? Performance was a way out of my then situation which was closely connected to creativity. I was a youth on my way from Zadar to Zagreb to study at the academy of fine arts, but did not make it. Still, I stayed there, hanging out with a lot of people, like Tomislav Gotovac, Ladislav Galeta and Hrvoje Turković, who functioned outside institutions and at the same time acted as mentors to people with an interest in art. Indirectly, they had a strong influence on me as well. I have never created in the medium of painting, graphics, drawing, but immediately started with photography, performances and film, which among other things cost me the ticket to the academy. I came to the academy of fine arts with my experimental films and video, and they sent me to the film academy, who did the same – they sent me back to the other. At the fine arts’ academy I was required to, say, make drawings, but I simply did not feel any need to do that. Performances, photography and film seemed – in terms of both, production and content – the most appropriate and the most effective form of expression. Back then I made super 8mm films and composed them into improvised in-


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stallations, as projectors were expensive and out of my reach. When I came to the Netherlands in the beginning of the nineties, I found myself in front of easily accessible technology, which was a dramatic cut: Amsterdam was a place of experimentation and the use of a variety of technological accessories. I was given the chance to work for a number of video studios, especially Montevideo. New works incorporated a proportion of computer graphics, software and super 8mm film. My attachment to film is still present today, as one of the crucial materials in my work that I have been using and designing for the longest time. Even my recent works still engage the film medium, it’s been part of me since I was twelve and my uncle, captain of a transoceanic ship, bought me a camera that caused my obsession for filming. You mentioned Tomislav Gotovac, known to be a great filmophile, like yourself. What influence did he have on you? I cannot deny his influence on me at the early stage of my work, but I think he has influenced other artists in a more significant way. Towards the end of the eighties, he often came to the multimedia center in Zagreb, where we used to see film projections. Gotovac and Galeta were the ones to introduce me to the world of experimental film, though my development as an author took a different course. The influence might have been stronger, had I stayed in Croatia. It’s always interesting to see how somebody shares the company of certain people, how these people change, together with the relationships and influences they create. My work was particularly marked by the Amsterdam scene that I landed at the age of 25, and stayed for full twelve years. It is probably there that my mature artistic identity was forged, seen as the beginning of my career was somewhat interrupted. The Netherlands at that time had so much more advanced technology, that three years later I was already creating 3D and cyber-scan animations, establishing a different creative context. I continued to express myself in the medium of film and photo-performances, basically a secondary artistic expression, though found in the retrospect exhibition in a favorable relationship with the works representing, say, the primary part of my creativeness. With regard to narration, I could say that your films always stem from a private, personal perspective, as if through yourself you are reflecting a broader social context. It is reflected in your earlier as well as more recent production. How is it that you approach narration in your work? This is probably one of the key questions to ask when trying to understand my work. You see, I always try taking a step outside of myself to be able to create a work about myself, but such a peculiar form of auto-objectivization inevitably remains in the domain of the subjective. The domain of the subjective, trying to be objective – the subject’s awareness about its own artistic objectivization – is perhaps the best description of the process at work. Photo-performances, for example, have a great value in my life. I believe that the times of great objective artistic constellations are actually over. It seems that nowadays it makes sense to talk about only the things that surround us. There is constantly a network of the so-called social tissue surrounding us, where we reside, and which is extremely subjective and extensive in terms of communication and visual presentation. These technological networks force us, again and again, into situations where we want to and must talk about ourselves; we are all too set in our ways. This can lead to extremes from the perspective of the physicality, talking about performances. How to reach one’s limits in the sense of artistic horizons is always conditioned by an autobiographical context. Art is a way for me to try and soften the limits of my world, and see over them. Once our lifespan is over we all dry out like leaves and simply vanish in the earth. An awareness about life energy from a purely biological perspective is very much present in my works, as I expose the aspect of the life interval and a respect for the proper biological reality in a positive, almost heroic manner. If, however, we are talking about concrete events that have marked my way, I can of course speak about the war in ex-Yugoslavia, a theme occurring in my video performance ‘Separation’, where I represent a kind of hyper-ventilation: trying to reach the limits of my body and disappearance by breathing heavily, until I lose consciousness. In the fulllength film ‘Oxygen 4’ the fictional character, a Croatian astronaut is exploring the limits of his body, which finally happens when he sinks his head into a water stream and

realizes he does not need breathing any more. Things are frequently resolved and ended in death. In this sense my views may be considered Darwinist, but all sorts of things happen in life. Definitely the individual’s mental constructs are only there as long as there is life energy present. Drawing a parallel to art – it exists because of the people that create it, not for the products. Some things fall into oblivion, others become icons. People often believe that certain things are very important in life because they spent an eternity convincing themselves it is so, but they might really not be. At the end of the day life itself is the only thing we have. Our only true medium. Your film ‘The Performance’, that speaks about 9/11 – the attack on the World Trade Center, seems a typical example of your narration, founded on a personal level, the film is a mixture of actual documentary footage and acted scenes. What was the process behind the making of this film? ‘The Performance’ was accompanied by a strange fate during its making. I would never have resorted to that theme, had I not happen to live in New York at that time. From a terrace in Manhattan I was filming the two skyscrapers falling, with my wife and my three months old son beside me. It was an emergency situation: we were using air filters; the streets were only accessible with a mask. I reconsidered our stay in the USA, to where we came from Canada just two days earlier. The footage was later processed with my personal vision of the event, and acts as a sort of defense from the entire situation; similarly the final scenes from Wim Wender’s “The State of Things”, when the main character responds to the shooting by taking the camera and recording, because he thinks it will save him. The footage remained in my archive and I had no idea what to do with it for a long time. I could have sold it in between, but I didn’t. Composing the screenplay I combined documentary and acted scenes trying to create a hybrid of a video installation and an acted film, as well as tell a sublime personal story. My family is included in it: my wife, Sandra Sterle, played a producer for Arts Link, New York, my son played himself, while the rest of the cast were young actors from Split, a theatre group that came from Zagreb to New York on a tour. They took the part of the people that lived through the attack and the changed relationships between them as a result of this extreme situation. My own life changed drastically as well, it was not long ago that we were granted American working permits and a great studio was waiting for us. After the event I was offered by chance cooperation with the founding of a new department at the Academy of Fine Arts in Split, which seemed the best solution in all that cataclysm. Turning back to Split after fourteen years of moving around was quite an experience as well. I could call it a radical cut of a turn inwards. When you are young and bursting with energy, you follow your career wildly and seek always to be in the center of action; then in the end you realize everything is relative, like the safety and the power of towns like New York is really very relative. A peripheral story, the life of some Dalmatian is just as interesting as the story of an American Wall Street businessman. His life is no better than the life of a person from Vis island. I pondered a great deal about where I was going, how the mechanisms of the centers of art dominions functioned; it all seemed as a merely imaginary force, functioning – not on the account of the quality of art works, but because of economic power and the fact that dominant societies have the power to define art, so that they can conserve, present, catalogize and distribute it in the fastest possible time. But life is something completely different. Is ‘Oxygen 4’ an autobiographical account? It speaks about ambitious people, astronauts that take refuge in Paklenica and try to stay away from the world. It is precisely what I wanted to stress. None of the protagonists – a Japanese, Canadian and Croatian astronaut could find the space or the realization in their local environments, so they tried to act in an international context, the context of transnational corporations. This is analogue to the life of an artist engaged in activities that in their selves rarely make any profit, so he sacrifices his life to create art. It is an interesting fact that the majority of successful artists do not have children. One of the important categories is definitely sacrificing family, something I hear quite a lot from artists with an international profile. Everybody says that having family and children is an obstacle in the career of an artist, something only very rich people can afford. A career can still be achieved, but

not in the sense of a transnational corporation. The art works produced in this context are namely close to industrial production, which greatly affects their content, as certain expectations have to be fulfilled. Personally I think the most important thing is free exploration inside the field of art. I deal with this a lot lately, there are a lot of people against artistic research; they see no need for it and don’t recognize a scientific approach to art. The relativity of quality and consequence can render things more clear. In the field of education several art projects could be launched, financed from academic circles, not just from funds intended for art production and presentation, or the art market. The artists close to these disciplines could transcend the limits of general human expression with their research and their art. Artists have an intuitive way of seeing things, defining them, designing them and showing them to others; why should this activity not be mapped in the same way as those of science, history, or philosophy? Everything that an artist does is a reflection of his life. There is always subjectivity involved. Like the Greek saying goes: “If oxen had gods, their gods would have horns” – whatever it is that we do, be it science or art, we are always dealing with ourselves, we cannot step out of ourselves. In this way artistic research should become verified, and I hope it will happen here as well, in Slovenia and Croatia. ‘Oxygen 4’ is a full-length film and a multi-channel space video installation at the same time. What is the relation between these two forms of presentation? At the Museum of Contemporary Art in Zagreb, ‘Oxygen 4’ was presented in 2005 as a solo exhibition. The project was showing in seven rooms, each representing an individual part of the film. The entire process of the 16 channels of installation deals with the issue of the film as an entity, and by moving through the rooms of the museum, the visitors are actually moving through the film. The audience at Tuškanac cinema in Zagreb, however, could also see the film as well as the difference between medium research and project presentation. The film as an installation produces a completely different effect, because the viewers are moving through the space they are able to devote the time, the attention and the content to individual parts of the installation; whereas the cinema shows the ‘final product’ with no possibility of influencing the course of events, no interaction. The story of ‘Oxygen 4’ is an interesting one: I filmed it in 2002 and posted it on the web (www.oxygen4.org); the public was able to edit the film by individual scenes, archive them and add texts. I also created four e-mails for the main protagonists of the film. On the basis of this correspondence a base of responses to the film was created; these were then recorded and inserted in the story. It was a truly amazing experience; Lev Manovich complimented me on being the first to perform anything like this. ‘Oxygen 4’ was primarily on the internet, only after the participation of the audience and an author process it made it to the gallery and the cinema. Such intuitive leaps once happened in the field of experimental films. Lately the authors have been less and less involved with the visual anthropology, it’s as if it’s been exhausted. The experimental film in the 1960s, in its pioneer stage, was capable of truly fascinating leaps. This is why it was so interesting to me to study in Amsterdam at the pioneer stage of video animations, internet film data bases, interactive videos, CD ROMs and the web. We have talked a great deal about your retrospect exhibition and the turning points in your career. What direction will you take in the future? Will you continue making full-length films? As a matter of fact, I just made one that is currently being finished. I am lucky to have the company of about ten young actors from the Split film academy, whom I am working with. I think I will still be making full-length films in the future. The one in the making is black-and-white and could be labeled as act-experimental. It is about a brother and a sister who are murderers. The genre film was processed with the help of artistic and experimental procedures. It has an interesting dramaturgy, playing with a sort of an absorption long picture, typical of Eastern-European cinema, altogether wrapped in the context of ‘film noir’. To me it seems a very interesting combination. The screenplay was created while working with the actors; and a psychologist was invited to work on the psychological profiles of the characters. I am anxious to see the reactions to a film that goes into a genre and at the same time into the deconstruction of the genre, in a specific artistic manner. Miha Colner


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Miguel Chevalier Dieter Lutsch Še več svetlobe! More light! Vidim, kar ti ne vidiš, in to je... ...bela. Neee, mavrična! Bela. Nikakor! Pisana je. Pravzaprav oboje. Oboje? Kakopak, saj vendar živimo v tehnološki dobi! Prosim? Kako? Kaj ima to z našo dobo? Veliko, veliko ... Se zavedate, da v tehnološki dobi – ja, živimo jo že nekaj časa – pravilo, o katerem so nas učili že v vrtcu, in sicer da z mešanjem osnovnih barv, torej rdeče, rumene in modre, dobimo vse barvne odtenke, pri čemer “dajo“ vse tri rjavo, sploh ni več edino? Odkar smo obdani z napravami tipa barvni televizor, mobilni telefon, digitalni foto­aparat ter s celo serijo različnih računalniških, pa tudi televizijskih digitalnih monitorjev, se ni spremenila le trojica osnovnih barv: rumeno kot osnovno barvo je zamenjala zelena, ki skupaj z rdečo v digitalni govorici tvori – rumeno. Čeprav različne kombinacije osnovnih barv digitalnih svetov (rdeča, zelena in modra) še vedno “dajejo“ množino odtenkov barvnega spektra, je za inertno-pragmatičnega uporabnika sodobnih tehnologij novo še posebej dejstvo, da z mešanjem vseh treh tako imenovanih RGB barv, dobimo – belo barvo! Torej svetlobo! Prav ta tehnološka pogruntavščina, temelječa na svetlobi, je eno od dveh vodil razstave, na kateri Miguel Chevalier (Mehičan, ki živi in ustvarja v Parizu) in Dieter Lutsch (v Romuniji rojen Nemec, živi in ustvarja v Berlinu) v razstavljenih delih aktualizirata in tematizirata novodobni fenomen RGB digitalnega principa mešanja barv. To počneta na diametralnih ravneh. V delu Chevalierja, svetovno znanega pionirja računalniške umetnosti, je princip aditivnega mešanja barv in z njim ustvarjanje svetlobe inkorporirano v počelu samega umetniškega dela, je kot vir, ki rezultira izrazito barvite umetniške svetove, kakršne ustvarja umetnik že od osemdesetih letih minulega stoletja, zaradi česar ga de facto uvrščamo med vidnejše predstavnike zavestnega ustvarjanja progresije zgodovine umetnosti in ga (lahko) povsem asociiramo z Monetom, ki mu je bil efekt svetlobe eden pomembnejših komponent pri umetniškem raziskovanju in ustvarjanju. Izbrano delo Dietra Lutscha, predstavnika mlajše generacije berlinskih umetnikov, ki smelo razstavlja doma in na tujem, se “chevalierski pisanosti“ postavlja v diametralno pozicijo v dejstvu, da Lutsch RGB princip mešanja barv, ki nastaja le in samo na digitalni ravni, kot inovator pervertira iz sveta digitalnega v realni oziroma fizični svet: rdeča, zelena in modra tekočina (nič več svetlobni snopi!) ustvarijo beli “produkt“. Analogija med deloma Chevalierja in Lutscha se pokaže na ravni percepcije obeh umetniških del, ki (že) na prvi pogled obljublja visoko stopnjo (emocionalnega) navdušenja. Deli nosita v sebi mnogo romantičnega. Chevalierjevi vrtovi gigantskega fraktalnega cvetja, različnih velikosti, barv in oblik v prvi vrsti navdušujejo s svojim generativnim in interaktivnim principom, kreirajočim av-

tonomna virtualna semena, ki rastejo, se gledalcu odpirajo in zopet izginjajo, a se že pojavljajo nova, pač glede na to, kako in kolikor se jim gledalec približa (interaktivnost!). Bela pena, ki nastaja iz barvnih tekočin in se nabira v vrteči se posodi, ne navduši zgolj na ravni inovacije, pač pa asociira počelo, iz katerega je bila rojena Venera, boginja ljubezni. Vzrok za prijetno občutje!? A kakor življenje tudi v tehnološki dobi ostaja paradoksalno, in kot veleva ljudski rek “za dežjem posije sonce“, ki funkcionira tudi obrnjeno, posedujeta obe deli tudi kapaciteto negotovega, skorajda anksioznega, kar v bolj ekstremni obliki napovedujejo apokaliptiki, ki zatrjujejo, da nam novodobne inovacije in tehnološki dosežki ne obetajo nič dobrega, da nas puščajo dezorientirane, prazne in kar je še tega. Inovacija, ki je Lutsch ne želi povsem pojasniti, kakor pač nemalokrat počnejo inovatorji, ki želijo obdržati v svojih rokah tisto magično, skrivnostno, neoprijemljivo, kar nemalokrat pri perceptorju vodi k zadržanosti, in cvetje Chevalierjevih interaktivnih vrtov, ki v primerjavi s predhodnimi mehkimi, organskimi oblikami, postajajo vse bolj koničasto futurističnih, kristalnih oblik, nosijo v sebi nekaj negotovosti našega časa. ENG

I see what you don't see, which is ... ... white. Nooo, rainbow-coloured! White. No way! It is multicoloured. Both, actually. Both? Why, surely, we live in a technological era! Excuse me? How? What does it have to do with our era? Much, much ... Are you aware that in the technological era – which, indeed, we have been inhabiting for some time now – the kindergarten rule that by mixing the primary colours, i.e. red, yellow and blue all shades of colour can be created, all the three of them combining into brown, is no longer the only one? Ever since we have been surrounded by devices such as the colour TV, mobile phone, digital camera and a range of PC and TV digital screens, not only the three primary colours have changed: yellow being replaced by green, which in the digital language combines with red to make – yellow. Although in digital worlds, various combinations of primary colours (red, green and blue) still “make” an abundance of shades of the colour spectrum, an inert-pragmatic user of mo­ dern technology will find it particularly surprising that by mixing the three so-called RGB colours we get – white! Which means the light! It is this technological finding based on the light that makes one of the two premises of the exhibition by Miguel Chevalier (a Mexican who lives and works in Paris) and Dieter Lutsch (a Romanian-born German who lives and works in Berlin). With the works exhibited, they actualise and thematise the modern phenomenon of the RGB digital principle of colour mixing.

This, they do at diametrical levels. The work of Chevalier, a computer art pioneer of world renown, incorporates in the very origin of an artwork the principle of mixing colours by addition, and with it the creation of light, thus making it a source resulting in extremely colourful art world. The artist has been creating such worlds since the 1980s, which de facto ranks him among the most pronounced representatives of making intentional progress within art history. As such he can (could) be associated entirely with Monet, who considered the effect of the light one of the major components of his artistic explorations and creations. Selected works by Dieter Lutsch, a representative of young Berlin artists exhibiting boldly at home and abroad, are in diametrical opposition to the “chevalier colour diversity”. This is due to the fact that Lutsch perverts from the digital world to the real alias physical world the RGB principle of colour mixing, which is effected on the digital level only and exclusively: his red, green and blue liquids (no longer beams of light, mind!) thus make a white “product”. The analogy between the works of Chevalier and L­­utsc­­­h shows at the level of perceiving both works of art, promising a high level of (emotional) pleasure at the very first sight. Both works comprise many romantic elements. Chevalier’s gardens of gigantic fractal flowers of various sizes, colours and shapes primarily fascinate with their generative and interactive principles. These create autonomous virtual seeds that grow, open to the viewer and again disappear, yet there are new seeds emerging, depending on the fact how and how much the viewer nears them (interactivity!). Emerging from liquids of diverse colours and gathering in the rotating container, the white foam not only impresses as an innovation, but also associates the source from which Venus, the goddess of love was born. A reason to feel good!? But naturally, life remains paradoxical even in the technological era, and according to the lore, “every cloud has a silver lining”, which works both ways, thus both the artworks comprise the capacity for the uncertain, almost anxious. In the most extreme form, this has been foretold by apocalyptic prophets claiming that modern innovation and technological achievements don’t pro­ mise anything good, leaving us disoriented, empty and so on. The innovation that Lutsch refuses to explain in full, as is often the practice with innovators wanting to keep for themselves the magical, secret and intangible, which then often makes the perceivers reserved, and the flowers from Chevalier’s interactive gardens, which as opposed to previous soft organic forms are acquiring increasingly pointed, futurist, crystal shapes, both contain some uncertainties of our time. Maja Škerbot Koprodukcija / Coproduction: Privateview


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Miguel Chevalier, foto arhiv KIBLA 2010 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah


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Goran Bertok Rdeče in črno Red and black Samostojna razstava Rdeče in črno Gorana Bertoka prikazuje presek novejše umetniške produkcije, ki so bila ustvarjena in delno predstavljena v zadnjih šestih letih. Fotografski ciklusi Obiskovalci (2004), Post Mortem (2007) in Rdeče (2009) ter nenaslovljena Video trilogija (2008) predstavljajo kontinuirano umetniško raziskovanje avtorja, ki je v preteklih dvajsetih letih na podlagi lastnih konceptualnih izhodišč beležil in upodabljal človeško telo v vsej njegovi krhkosti in minljivosti, kar ga je postopoma pripeljalo do skrajnega konca – fizične smrti. Pri tem Gorana Bertoka ne zanimajo toliko širši družbeni in kulturni aspekti dojemanja telesa in smrti v sodobnem času, pač pa predvsem neposredno soočenje z materijo kot posledico prekinjenega življenja. Čeprav postajajo fotografski portreti nemočnih teles v duhu trenutnega časa motivno subverzivni, je to zgolj pričakovana kolateralna reakcija posameznika, vpetega v konvencije danega prostora in časa. Iz tega sledi nezavedno referiranje ter poseganje v brezmejno simboliko fenomena smrti, čeprav se avtor temu s svojim neposrednim naturalizmom deloma izogne. A nezavedno asociiranje na ikonografijo smrti, strah pred skritim in neznanim, kar smrt sama po sebi tudi je, predstavljenemu vizualnemu materialu vselej dodajajo širši zgodovinski, družbeni ali intimni kontekst. Če je Bertok v zgodnejših obdobjih dokumentiral in upodabljal režirane mitološke prizore ranjenih teles in nekonvencionalnih spolnih praks, ki se poslužujejo zavestnega samo-poškodovanja zaradi užitka samega, je leta 2004 storil radikalen korak naprej v raziskovanju človeškega telesa. Serija Obiskovalci je nakazala smernice umetniškega razvoja, ki se brez patetike in moraliziranja osredotoča na obsesivno dokumentiranje in uprizarjanje minljivosti telesa: telo po svoji fizični smrti ostane le na propad obsojen mrtev kos mesa. Motivi gorečih trupel v abstrahiranem brezprostorju tako predstavljajo naturalistični, a skrajno estetiziran dokument vseprisotnega postopka kremacije, skrbno skritega očem širše javnosti. Starost, bolezen, smrt ter soočanje z mrtvimi telesi pomenijo svojevrstno obrobje današnje družbe, ki skozi različne informacijske kanale izpostavlja imperativ zdravja, mladosti in moči. Bertok se smrti loteva s stališča življenja: intrigira ga njena mitologija, ki skozi zgodovino zrcali pojem t.i. dostojanstvene smrti, fascinirajo ga psihološki učinki vseprisotnega smrtnega strahu in organski ostanki nekdaj živega telesnega sistema. Smrti nikdar ne idealizira, saj vselej predstavlja strah, agonijo in bolečino, ampak jo dojema kot posledico življenja. Serija Post Mortem se obrača k motivnim poudarkom, ki prikazujejo surovo realne podobe zamrznjenih teles v procesu umetnega upočasnjevanja njihovega neizogibnega biološkega propada. Avtor se v sterilnem prostoru mrtvašnice osredotoča na detajle posameznih delov telesa, ki izražajo nepopolnost, nemoč in skrajno razosebljenje. Ukrivljeni prsti, nagubana koža, porumeneli ten, potemnele očesne vdolbine, poškodovana tekstura kože in zakrčeni obrazi se nanašajo na ikonografski motiv Memento mori, ki se v svojstveni sodobni različici izogne vsakršnemu poveličevanju in moraliziranju. Pred gledalca so postavljene eksplicitne podobe smrti kot jih pač pogojuje medij (barvne) fotografije. Ciklus Rdeče predstavlja nadaljnji korak v obsesivnem raziskovanju globočin življenja in smrti, saj upodablja fizično smrt bitja, ki je šele začelo živeti. Fotografije mrtvega dojenčka, lebdečega v temnem brezprostorju je mogoče brati kot

surove podobe stvarnosti, ki vključuje bolečino, trpljenje ter občutje minljivosti in neprizanesljivosti, na drugi strani pa kot povzdignjene ter vizualno učinkovite metafore neizogibnega konca. Z nenaslovljeno Video trilogijo je Bertok povezal različne nivoje lastne ustvarjalnosti ter zaokrožil aktualno postavitev: v njej se zrcali kontinuiteta preteklega črno-belega imaginarija ter vsebinska navezanost na studijsko fotografijo z živimi modeli. Repetitivna video dela so v postavljena v nedefinirani ambient, kjer performativno prikazujejo posamezne detajle ritualno ranjenih teles. ENG Red and black, a solo exhibition by Goran Bertok, displays an overview of his recent works of art, which were created and partly shown in the past six years. The photo series Visitors (2004), Post Mortem (2007), Red (2009) and the untitled Video trilogy (2008) present continued artistic explorations of the artist, who, for the past twenty years, has been applying his own conceptual premises to record and portray the human body, its fragility and transience, which eventually led to the very end, the physical death. In doing so, he is not merely interested in wider cultural and social aspects of the contemporary understanding of body and death, but rather in the very encounter with matter as the consequence of a discontinued life. Although in the spirit of the time, his photographic portraits of helpless bodies have become rather subversive, this is merely the expected collateral reaction of an individual integrated in the conventions of a given space and time. This is followed by unconscious referring to and interfering with the endless symbolism of the phenomenon of death, although the artist ma­ nages to avoid it by applying direct naturalism. However, the visual material on display is always provided a wider historical, social or intimate context by unconscious associations to the iconography of death as well as the fear of the obscure and unknown, which death certainly is. Having in earlier periods been documenting and using staged mythological scenes of wounded bodies and unconventional sexual practices incorporating conscious pleasure-oriented self-harm, in 2004 Bertok made a radical leap forward in the exploration of the human body. His series Visitors hinted at guidelines of an artistic deve­ lopment that focuses on obsessive documentation and staging of body transience without any pathos or mo­ ralisations: after its physical death, the body merely remains a doomed dead piece of meat. Thus the motifs of burning corpses in abstracted spacelessness represent a naturalist, yet completely aestheticized document on the omnipresent cremating procedure, hidden carefully from the public eye. Old age, disease, death and facing death bodies are somehow placed on the edge of the contemporary society, which rather uses various channels to emphasise the imperative of health, youth and strength. Bertok approaches death from the perspective of life: he is intrigued by its mythology reflecting through history the notion of the so-called dignified death, he is fascinated by the psychological effects of the omnipre­ sent fear of death and by the organic remnants of the once alive bodily system. He never idealizes death, as it always stands for fear, agony and pain, he rather sees it as a consequence of life. The series Post Mortem addresses what is accentuated in motifs portraying brutally real images of frozen bo­

dies in the process of their inevitable biological decay being slowed down artificially. In the sterile mortuary environment, the artist focuses on details of body parts expressing imperfection, helplessness and extreme depersonalisation. Crooked fingers, wrinkled skin, yellow hue, darkened eye sockets, damaged texture of the skin and contracted faces relate to the iconographical motif Memento mori, the peculiar contemporary version of which manages to avoid any glorifications and moralisations. Placed in front of the viewer are explicit images of death as allowed by the medium of (colour) photography. Portraying the physical death of a creature that has only begun to live, the series Red takes a step further in the obsessive exploration of the depths of life and death. The photographs of a dead baby floating in the dark spacelessness can be read as rude images of the reality comprising pain, suffering and the feeling of transience and relentlessness, and at the same time as glorified and visually effective metaphors of the inevitable end. By means of the untitled Video trilogy, Bertok has integra­ ted various levels of his own creativity and rounded up the current installation – reflecting the past black-andwhite imaginarium and the reference to studio photography featuring live models. Positioned in an undefined space, the repetitive video works performatively display particular details of bodies wounded ritually. Miha Colner Koproducent: Društvo B51 / Co-producer: B51 Society Razstava je bila vključena v program 5. festivala avtorske fotografije Fotonični trenutki – Mesec fotografije 2010 v organizaciji Društva Photon iz Ljubljane. Razstava Rdeče in črno Gorana Bertoka v Galeriji Kibela v Mariboru je bila po izboru programskega sveta prireditve nagrajena kot najboljša samostojna razstava v sklopu meseca fotografije. The exhibition was a part of the 5th edition of the art photography festival Photonic Moments – Month of Photography 2010. Goran Bertok’s exhibition Rdeče in črno (Red and Black) at Kibela gallery Maribor was announced best solo exhibition within the month of photography by the event’s program board.

Goran Bertok, foto arhiv KIBLA 2010 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah


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Marko Jakše O spodobi in valilcu, vmes pa še poskok On decency and a hatcher, with a skip in between “Slika je spet noter. No, saj ni nikoli šla ven. Vsaj iz sebe ne. Mogoče se je le malce sprehodila, da se pogovori sama s sabo, tako zaupno kot se včasih mora, da ostane pri sebi. In da ponovno najde spokojnost, ki jo mora imeti, da je lahko celovita, da ne štrli in da ne pogreša. Ja, v svoji čezmernosti zna velikokrat pogrešati. Pa kar nekam gre in se vrne in spet gre. Da bi se vsaj za hip izmaknila, da bi izginila, da bi pozabila. Tudi mudi se ji nemalokrat, ker je treba še veliko odkriti in še več najti, a ne naglica niti monumentalnost ji ne pristojita. No, včasih se že rada postavi, čeprav se ji zdi, vsaj na prvi pogled, ko se zagleda v ogledalu, nečimrnost nespodobna. Včasih kar klavrna. Je pa njena in takšna je! A kaj bi samo o njej, ki noče in ne sme, pa še sama mora, če že, če je tudi On, ki hoče in sme. Ki mora! Tako ali drugače, toda vedno. On, ki mu čopič brez prestanka išče, ki mu sledi, ki lahko samo predlaga barvo, več mu ne pusti. On, ki zakrije vse sledi, kot bi drevesom izbiral tla pod nogami in potokom kazal ribe plavati. On, ki se odpre potezi na stežaj, kot bi oblakom pustil rasti in pticam peti, kot bi žabe učil regljati in konje rezgetati. Včasih pa je dovolj samo poslušati travo rasti in ujeti utrip sonca. Spet drugič je treba prešteti zvezde in zavrteti planete in se zazibati na Luni. Četudi sredi gozda, saj nikoli ne more biti pregost, da ne bi videl ven. Ali na pokošenem travniku, ko vonj stopi v glavo in megli misli. Še najraje pa verjetno nekje na samem, z njo. Kjerkoli.”

v nov svet, domač le vsaki sliki, v katerem se lahko tudi najbolj nedolžne misli zazdijo kot prividi daljnih emocij, prelepih v njihovi grozovitosti in preumazanih v njihovi nedolžnosti.

to. Zatiskamo si ušesa, da bi podoživeli čisti eliksir, njeno ekscelenco, Imanenco Umetnosti, vstopili vanjo brez popotnice. Vendar kmalu opazimo, da nismo sami. Pisana druščina nas hitro pograbi in povabi h klepetu.

Obzorja narave so obzorja duha. Ne tukaj ne tam ni ločnic, in umetnost je tista, ki tak prostor objema. Kot da je njeno prav vse, kot mati, ki pod svoje krilo sprejme vsakogar vedno in povsod. Brez usmiljenja, le z vedenjem in radostjo, s sabo in s tistim tam za drevesi. Ko bučijo gozdovi, brenkajo drevesa, ko pojejo trave, šumi veter, ko se rišejo sence, igra svetloba, ko se dan premika, postanemo, da bi ga ujeli. Trenutke, v potokih ujete, naplavijo barve, v katerih se ogleda podoba: lastna, tvoja, naša, kot bi se želela kar najudobneje namestiti, potem ko si najde pravo mesto. Tam, kjer nam pripoveduje zgodbe, se skušamo obrniti, da bi doživeli še tisto, kar je očem skri-

“O, o, o, o, o sliki se mi sanja, o sliki se mi blede... Vendar slika nikoli ne pride iz sanj. Slika je p-res-neto in pres-enetljivo resna reč. Od drugod. Nikoli čisto od tu in zato tudi nikoli iz sanj. To, čemur rečemo igra in igraje, ni igra, kvečjemu igraje. Prislovi in naslovi in liki, v redu, vsi ti se lahko menjajo, izmenjujejo, spreminjajo in izginjajo, ker niso resni. Slika sama pa ni ime. Je strašni akt in strašno strastni glagol. In nori takt. S skritim sebkom (, ki ni ne jaz ne ti ne znanec), ki brez prestanka in pristanka pohajkuje, da se na trenutke zdi zblojen in zgubljen. Blodim in bledem le sam, kadar si ne za-

Marko Jakše je eden tistih umetnikov, ki bi ga lahko – z različnimi deli – umestili v kar se da različna obdobja. Je slikar, ki kipari, je konstruktor, ki gradi, njegove slike nastajajo kot arhitekturne tvorbe, ki jih gradi poteza in oblikuje barva. Zlagoma in postopoma. Je pesnik, ki spravlja verze v podobe, je pisatelj, ki sloji zgodbe, kot bi se dogajale v eni gesti, kot bi se življenje odvilo pred našimi očmi v enem zamahu. Hipno in bliskovito. Je umetnik, čeprav bi se s tem izrazom ne strinjal, je eden največjih sodobnih ustvarjalcev, kar mu spet ne bi bilo po godu, je mojster, avtorsko specifičen in samosvoj, ki ga ni mogoče umestiti v nobene trende, čeprav je marsikdo to že poskušal. Izzvenelo je bolj ali manj površno in povprek. Slikar v svojem času, ki ga ni, prostoru, ki tiči, in okolju, ki nima ne konca ne kraja, smo nižine in višine, globine in gladine, bližine in daljine, ki vihti tako čopič kot svinčnik, ki ima odprtine za sprejemanje in oddajanje, ki mu vidno pomeni vsaj toliko kot slišno, ki ima miselno tudi za nesmiselno, se podaja z naravo od najsubtilnejše podrasti do najvišjih krošenj, pleza in pada, hodi in skače, kot riba iz vode, ko se ji zahoče zraka ali pa samo malo telovadbe, da si razgiba telo, da se osveži, stisne usta in izdihne ... pa vdihne. Vsrka in zajame. Včasih tudi kar tako, zakaj pa ne, prostrane širine nimajo poti, so le smeri. Med praprotmi, borovnicami, gozdnimi jagodami, bisernicami, drobnim potokom, mlako, ki diši po mahu v blatu, shojeno smerjo in vrisano cesto. In postopač, ki ne ve ne kod ne kam. Hodimo. Odprto zgoraj in spodaj. V stalnem stiku z zemljo in nebom. Spodaj in zgoraj. S streho pod glavo in potjo nad nogami. Čemu bi se obremenjevali s težo prostora, ko pa je tako lahek, da ga zmore nositi vsak sam. In to vedno in povsod. Kamorkoli gremo, ga imamo zraven. Ko se ustavimo, ga previdno odložimo. Da se ne prevrne. Zvrne se samo v čeber, ki se čudežno prelije iščoč novih leg, drugačnih položajev, dodatnih dimenzij. Njegove slike so n-dimenzionalen prostor, zbran iz vseh svetov in naphan z vseh vetrov, ki ne vedo, ali so sanje resnične ali to šele postanejo, ko jim damo obliko. In barvo. Zlijejo se Marko Jakše, FRESHEST MEAT, 2009 More Freshest Meat, UGM Viteška dvorana, 14.–31. 10. 2010 (foto / photo Nejc Ketiš)


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upam in zato ne čutim. Ta slika, tako strašno resna, s svojim grozljivim krohotom pa vselej ve, ker vselej je, gleda in vidi. In gleda te in vidi globje not vate kot vanjo ti, zagotovo. In ko jo gledam ta, ki ga je izbrala, se gledava, kot zrcalo zre zrcalo: če je tako, kot mora biti, vidiva nič. V praznini čiste svetlobe odsevanih odsevov je cel, še popolnoma nedotaknjen in – na srečo – za pamet nedojemljiv in divjelep svet. (Zato, za začetek, vsaj nikoli več ne reci: ‘Te slike pa ne razumem.’) Avstralija: pogledal sem v grozodejstva, grozodejstva so hušknila skozme, da se iztisnejo. Izbrala so me. Prav. V čudovitih barvah sem videl nelepe, krute reči. Napuh in prezir in zločin. Vsaki družbi je smrt ljub fetiš. Oblika higiene. V Avstraliji, enako kot v Berlinu, je zemlja pod menoj kričala in me prisilila, da ji prisluhnem. Bos. Skoz podplate, kajti podplati imajo oči in nos, sem dobesedno vdihnil njen glas. Ene same krike. Bili so duhov mrtvih in duhov živih. Živi smo samo umirajoči. Samo umirajoči lahko živimo. Divje do bolečine. Divje preko bolečine. Skoz bolečino v čisto lepoto o o o O. Čudežna enigma, kako lahko slikar s tako lahkoto in nepopisnim užitkom slika tako brutalne, srhljive, krute reči ‘na lep način’. Če je stvar res tako resna, kot trdim, je edini možen odgovor sila preprost: dolžnost.” (Marko Jakše: “Si spet jokala, ljuba moja?” “O ja! In še vedno jočem. Večno bom jokala.”, besedilo ob razstavi)1 Zgodbe se kopičijo, plastijo, igrajo pred očmi in strižejo z ušesi. Ne izbirajo si ne lege in se prepustijo. Da se jih lotimo. Samo pravi slaščičar zna ponuditi najprej slaščico, da bi se kasneje neopazno prelevil v kuharja in postregel s predjedjo. Le nenaveličan popotnik, ki se nenehno uči, se napoti od smrti k življenju, tudi ko je oboje že spoznal, in se vrne od cilja k začetku, ker ve, da brez enega ni drugega in ni nas. In to počne stalno, kot bi preizkušal meje: svoje, naše, ni važno katere niti čigave. Ni pomembno. 1  Razstava del Marka Jakšeta, izbor slik iz avstralskega ciklusa More Freshest Meat v Viteški dvorani UGM od 14. do 31. oktobra 2010. Razstavo sta pripravila Znanstveno raziskovalno združenje za umetnost, kulturno-izobraževalne programe in tehnologijo EPeKa in Umetnostna galerija Maribor. Razstava Črni metulji slikarja Marka Jakšeta, galerija Kibela od 3. do 20. junija 2011 / KIBLA Maribor, KIBLA 15 LET.

“Kaj pa jaz?” zakriči slika, če je predolgo sama, da se je ne dotakne intima, ki je sama še ne zmore. Brez besed se uležejo geste, da uredijo njeno grivo, da se živalce udomačijo in ljudje privadijo na lastno bližino. Vedno znova izdajajo, da si je najtežje biti blizu. Blizu sebi samemu. Zavit, pod odejo, skrit, zagrnjen, obrnjen, zleknjen, iztegnjen. Jezik je tukaj nebogljen, mlahav, okoren, brez barve, vonja in okusa, izpraznjen približek, ki se trudi prepričati druge, da zmore in zna premleti sebe. Neka pogruntavščina, kakor vse tiste nepotrebne potrebščine, ki so nam vsadile svet in z njimi živimo. Skoraj samoumevno, ker smo odločeni, da je nekaj je treba početi, čeprav nismo prepričani. Simboli pletejo niti, odločeni, da nam prenesejo sporočilo, svetovi gradijo prostore razgaljeno, da nam razkažejo bivališča, krajine prihajajo čudotvorno, da nam odstirajo pozabljen pogled, rastline poganjajo v nedolžnosti, da nas spomnijo na magijo življenja. S povedjo si ne moremo pomagati, saj ne odpira skrivnostnih duri, da bi videli noter. Samo brez in z brezami. Breze so baje zdravilo proti besedičenju. Njihov dotik dela čudeže. Omogoča nam potovanja. Takšne, kot so tukaj, so tudi tam. “Kaj pa živali?” poizveduje mimohod, ko si zamisli plišastih igračk, da bi jih božali, objemali, crkljali. Živali so tam, da nas opomnijo, naj jih pustimo. Da nas opozorijo, da jih ne razumemo. Da nas učijo sobivanja. Nam polagajo srca v telesa in čutila v duše, so naša čustva, naši svetovi, okolja, v katerih smo zbrani. Kot spomini ali kot slučajna srečanja, ki nas tvorijo in obenem razkrajajo: včasih provizorični štrclji, potem pravljične prispodobe, mitološka bitja, poosebljene kreature, prisrčni puhavci in nato okostja. Prisesane na podlago, zaverovane v svoj obstoj, zavedene v lastno vlogo in preklete v svojem poslanstvu. Ali pa tudi ne, ko se spremenijo v hudomušne nagajivke, ki obenem uravnavajo in čuvajo svet, da ostane in obstane. Kot učiteljice dobrega in slabega. Kot svarilke. Kot častilke in braniteljice svetosti. In svetega. Sveta in ega. Pa ribe. Povsod in na vse načine. V zraku in vodi, skačejo, dežujejo, se ponujajo, obljubljajo, da so bile prej. Lahko so tudi metulji. Ali zajci. Jate. Črede. Živijo, kar pa ljudje

stežka prenesemo. Saj še svojega nimamo vedno. Kot je morje starejše od življenja, je zemlja pametnejša od človeka. Ljudje so iz bonbonjere vzete podobe, ki zmorejo modrosti le za hip, da jih prenese samo hitro oko kamere in šele v zunanji podobi so zmožni uzreti svojo vlogo, kot jim jo prikliče njihova sla. Lazura na površini je zgolj bleščica, ki preslepi oko (trompe l’oeil) in mirnost situacije je varljiva tišina pred eksplozijo. Nam daje misliti. Svet je spet. In spet je lep. Tudi ko je v akciji s še neslutenimi posledicami. Te vedno pridejo kasneje. Nemalokrat prepozno. A nič ne de. Ko brodi po oltarjih preživetja, stika za zadnjimi preostanki, da sestavi sestavljanko do konca, ko išče po sobanah oskrunjenja, mu nič ni toliko sveto, da ne bi priklical nazaj k sebi, ko odpira medprostore arhetipov, se nikoli ne sprašuje, če so večni ali ne. Večno je potrebno vedno načenjati, ker se stalno ohranja. In trenutno je treba nenehno negovati, ker ga že v naslednjem trenutku lahko ni več. Ni VEČ-NO. Prav v tem je trik umetnosti, da naredi trenutek večen. In večnost minljivo. Vsaj poskusi lahko. Z ozirom na vse. Zato zastavlja sebe, ker je to edino, kar ima, in postavlja samoohranitev kot soodgovornost in soodvisnost, pri kateri se porušena razmerja gradijo s preostankom materialov. Bitka za ranjence. “Shot the enemy and wounded myself. NO-GO.” Nihče ne bo iz tega izšel nepoškodovan. “There’s no escape in here!” Od tukaj ni izhoda. Pobeg ni možen. Pozabite. Raje ostanite in se predajte melodijam, ki so vam namenjene. Tudi če so v barvah. Ali celo v sliki. Najlepše pesmi še zdaleč niso napisane. So v nas. Lahko jim prisluhnemo. Lahko si jih ogledamo. Toda, pozor. Otroške sanje odrastejo v čudovite podobe, da bi nas varovale. Vendar to je najbolj nevarno. Varljivo varovanje. Bližnje, kar je v nas. Bližnji, ki je v nas. Odločitve ni, ker smo se že odločili. Porabili smo bonus. Izkoristili smo vse možnosti, zato je potrebno vklopiti vsa čutila in čustva, odpreti kanale, ožareti najbolj skrite kotičke, sprožiti zadnje dražljaje in napeti vse sile, da stopimo na plano, v svetlobo skupnega, ponujenega njunega, da je tudi naše. Potrebno jima je le slediti ... in ju pustiti biti. On je v sliki in slika je v njem. Oba skupaj sta, “ljubček in ljubica, to je lepi par!” Gresta pred allstar. Medtem ko se Ona štima, jo On lišpa. Bosta sploh kdaj pri koncu? Bosta sploh kdaj dovolj pripravljena, da bosta drug drugemu rekla, “da”? Ne vem, ni pomembno, gotov sem le, da, če bosta kaj spočela, bo to čisto njuno. Samo onadva bosta vedela, kaj sta storila. Brez besed. Z gesto, ki bo daleč od oči, a blizu ušes. Z melodijo. V srcu in v umu. V ritmu. Nekje tam, kjer si je Ona našla mesto in ga ne zapusti, ker ve, da je samo tam tako čisto. Nekje tam, kjer se je On prvič spečal z njeno podobo, ki mu je razodela širni svet. Nekje tam, kjer se ji je potem razkril in sta odplesala svoj prvi ples. Potem mu je tudi Ona vse povedala. Iskreno. Zdaj pa klepetata in plešeta in te glasbe ne bo nikoli konec. ENG “The painting is in again. Not that it has ever gone out. At least not out of itself. Perhaps it only took a walk to have a chat with itself, in private as it sometimes has to, to keep its head on straight. And to find tranquillity again which it needs to be complete, not to jut out and not to yearn. Yes, in its excessiveness it can often yearn. So it just wanders off and comes back, and leaves again. To slip away, if only for a moment, to disappear, to forget. It is also often in a hurry, as so many things wait to be discovered and many more to be found, but neither haste nor monumentality become it. Well, at times it does likes to boast, although at least at first sight, seeing itself in the mirror, it finds vanity indecent. Sometimes plain pathetic. But it is its own, and this is what it is like! But enough about It, which would not and may not, and if it does it must so alone, when there is also He, who would and who may. Who must! Always, one way or another. He whose brush is in a never-ending search; who follows it; who can only propose a colour but is not allowed more. He who covers all traces, as if he selected the ground for trees to stand on and showed swimming fish to streams. He who throws himself open to a stroke, as if he let clouds grow and birds sing, as if he taught frogs to croak and horses to neigh. Sometimes it is enough to just listen to grass grow and catch a beat of the sun. Other times you have to count the stars and whirl the planets and swing on the Moon. Even if deep in the forest, for it can never be too thick to see out. Or on a mown meadow, with the scent in your head, blurring your mind. But preferably somewhere private, with It. Anywhere.” Marko Jakše is one of those artists whose work could be classified under the widest possible range of styles. He is a painter who sculptures, a constructor who builds, his


Marko Jakše, REKONVALESCENCA, 2011 Črni metulji, galerija KiBela / KIBLA Maribor, 3.– 20. 6. 2011 (foto arhiv avtorja / from the author's photo archive)


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Marko Jakše, LA RABBIA, 2010 More Freshest Meat, UGM Viteška dvorana, 14.–31. 10. 2010 (foto / photo Nejc Ketiš)


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paintings emerge like architectural structures built by stroke and designed by colour. Slowly, bit by bit. He is a poet who transforms verse into images, a writer who layers stories as if they happened in a single gesture, as if life flashed before our eyes in one go. Instantaneously, like lightning. He is an artist, although he would disagree with this label; one of the greatest contemporary authors, something he, again, would oppose; a master of an originally distinct and unique approach who refuses to be classified under any trend, although this has often been attempted. It turned out to be more or less superficial and indiscriminate. A painter in his own time that does not exist, in a space that lingers, and in an environment that has no end, just bottoms and heights, depths and surfaces, proximities and distances; who waves both a brush and a pencil, who has pores to receive and to give away, to whom the visible means at least as much as the audible, who sees sense also as nonsense, who follows nature from the most subtle undergrowth to the highest treetops, climbs and falls, walks and jumps, like a fish from water when it feels like taking in a breath of air, or just working out to exercise the body, to freshen up, close the mouth and breathe out ... and breathe in again. Suck in and soak up. Sometimes for no reason at all, why not, vast spaces have no paths, only directions. Among ferns, blueberries, wild strawberries, blushers, narrow streams, a pool with a scent of mud-covered moss, a trodden way and a drawn road. And a rolling stone who knows not which way to go, because there is no need. We walk. Openness above and below. In perpetual touch with the earth and the sky. Below and above. With a roof under our heads and a path over our feet. Why bothering about the weight of space when it is so light everybody can carry it alone. Anytime and anywhere. Wherever we go, we take it with us. When stopping, we put it aside carefully. Not to topple it over. It merely tumbles into a bucket, which miraculously spills in search of new positions, different arrangements, additional dimensions. His paintings are an n-dimensional space brought together from all universes and blown together from the four corners of the world, not knowing whether dreams are true or are only to become so when given shape. And colour. They merge into a new world familiar only to each painting; in it, the most innocent thoughts may seem like illusions of distant emotions, too beautiful in their horridness and too dirty in their innocence. Horizons of nature are the horizons of spirit. No boundaries exist neither here nor there, and art is what enfolds such a space. As if everything belonged to it; as if it were a mother, letting in everyone anytime and anywhere. With no mercy, only an awareness and felicity, with oneself and with what’s behind the trees. In the midst of roaring forests, twanging trees, in singing grass, rustling wind, with emerging shadows, playing light, in passing day, we halt to catch it. Moments captured in streams are washed up by colours, revealing an image: one’s own, yours, ours, as if it wanted to make itself comfortable after it had found the right spot. In a place where it tells us stories we try to turn around to experience what is invisible to the eye. We cover our ears to relive the pure elixir, its excellency, the Immanence of Art; to enter it barehanded. But we soon notice we are not alone. We are quickly seized by a motley crowd and invited for a chat. “I, I, I, I, I am dreaming about the painting, I am raving about the painting... But the painting never comes out of the dream. The painting is an ex-tra and ex-tra-ordinarily serious thing. From another place. Never really from here and therefore never from the dream. What we call a game and playing, is not a game, playing at most. Adverbs and titles and shapes, all right, not being serious all these may be exchanged, replace, may change and disappear. But the painting itself is not a name. It is a frightful act and a frightfully fervent verb. And a crazy metre. With a hidden subject (neither me nor you or an acquaintance), who wanders around with no letup or touchdown, appearing lunatic and lost at times. I only roam and rave alone, when I don’t trust myself and therefore don’t feel. But this painting with its horrifying guffaw, so frightfully serious, always knows, because it always is, observes and sees. And it observes you and sees deeper inside you than you see inside it, no doubt. And when I observe it, I whom it has chosen, we observe each other like a mirror seeing a mirror: when every­thing is as it should be, we see nothing. In an emptiness of pure light of the reflected reflections is a whole, completely intact and – fortunately – incomprehensible and


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wildlybeautiful world. (So for start, at least never again say: “I don’t understand this painting.”) Australia: I looked at atrocities, atrocities flashed through me to be imprinted. They have chosen me. All right. In beautiful colours I have seen unpretty, cruel things. Pride and contempt and crime. In each society, death is a dear fetish. A form of hygiene. In Australia, like in Berlin, the earth under my feet screamed and made me listen to it. Barefoot. Through my soles, for soles have eyes and noses, I literally breathed in its voice. Screams all the way. They came from spirits of the dead and spirits of the living. The living are merely the dying. Only the dying can live. Wildly until it hurts. Wildly beyond pain. Through pain into pure beauty y y y Y. A magical enigma, how a painter can paint such brutal, dreadful, cruel things “in a nice way” with such ease and indescribable pleasure. If the situation truly is as serious as I say it is, the only possible answer is really simple: duty.” (Marko Jakše: “You’ve cried again, my dear?” “Oh yes! And I am still crying. I will always be crying.”, exhibition text)2 Stories get piled up, layered; they play in front of your eyes and twitch their ears. They do not choose their position, they surrender. To us to embark upon them. Only a true confectioner knows how to serve a desert first, to invisibly turn into a cook later and serve an appetizer. Only an unweary traveller who is constantly learning sets out from death to life, even when he has met them both, and returns from an end to the beginning, knowing that one is a precondition for the other, and for us. And he is doing this without end, as if to test the limits: his own, ours, no matter which ones or who’s. It is not important. “What about me?” shouts the painting if alone for too long, for fear of intimacy brushing it which it cannot yet handle. Without a word, gestures lay down to groom its mane, for animals to get tame and for people to get used to their own closeness. They keep demonstrating that the hardest thing is to be close. Close to oneself. Curled up, under a blanket, hidden, covered, turned around, recumbent, stretched out. Language is helpless here, limp, clumsy, with no colour, smell or taste, an emptied approximation trying to convince others that it has the ability and knowledge to contemplate itself. Some sort of a conception, just like all those unnecessary utensils that planted our world and with which we live. Almost self-evidently, because we are determined, although not sure, that something must be done. Symbols knit threads, determined to deliver us a message, worlds construct spaces, exposed in order to show us dwellings, landscapes come miraculously to disclose the forgotten view, plants bud in their innocence to remind us of the magic of life. Not opening the secret door for us to see inside a sentence is of no use to us. No need, just trees. Birch trees are said to be a cure for verbiage. Their touch works wonders. It makes travelling possible. They are the same, here and there.

2  Exhibition of works by Marko Jakše in the Knight’s Hall of Maribor Art Gallery, comprising a selection of paintings from his Australian series More Freshest Meat. The exhibition has been co-organised by EPeKa, scientific and research association for art, cultural-educational programmes and technology and Umetnostna galerija Maribor (Maribor art gallery) Marko Jakše, Črni metulji (Black Butterflies ), exhibition of paintings in Kibela gallery / KIBLA Maribor, KIBLA 15 years, 3 June 2011, until 20 June 2011.

Marko Jakše (1959, Ljubljana) je po lastnih besedah leta 1987 kot samouk zaključil Akademijo za likovno umetnost (ALU) v Ljubljani. Od takrat živi kot svobodni umetnik. Razstavljal je na mnogih samostojnih in skupinskih razstavah doma in v tujini, za svoje delo pa je prejel več domačih in mednarodnih priznanj in nagrad.

Marko Jakše (1959, Ljubljana) graduated at the Academy of Fine Arts in Ljubljana in 1987, claiming to be a self-taught artist. He has worked freelance since. His paintings have been exhibited in many solo and group shows in Slovenia and abroad, and have brought him several Slovenian and international awards.


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“What about animals?” inquires a procession as it conceives stuffed toys to be caressed, hugged, pampered. Animals are there to remind us to leave them alone. To remind us that we don’t understand them. To teach us of coexistence. They place hearts into our bodies and senses into our soul; they are our emotions, our worlds, the environments in which we are gathered. Like memories or random encounters, which shape us and simultaneously break us apart: sometimes makeshift stumps, then fairy-tale like metaphors, mythological creatures, personified characters, lovely chicks and then skeletons. Sucked onto the surface, absorbed in their existence, mislead in their roles and cursed in their mission. Or not when they turn into roguish naughties who regulate the world, and also protect it to exist and persist. As those who teach about good and bad. As those who warn. As those who worship and guard venerability. And what’s universally venerable. The universe and vanity. And then fish. All around and all kinds. In the air and in water, jumping, raining, being at disposal, promising they were before. They could well be butterflies. Or rabbits. Flocks. Herds. They live, something difficult for people to accept. Because we sometimes lack what’s ours. Just as the sea is older than life, the Earth is smarter than a human. Humans are images taken out of a box of chocolates, capable of but an instant of wisdom, so only a quick eye of a camera can bear them and only in an external image they can recognize their role as invoked by their desire. Stain on the surface is merely a spangle that deceives the eye (trompe l’oeil) and the tranquillity of the situation is a delusive calm before the explosion. It makes us think. The world is once more. And once more wonderful. Even when at work with the yet unimagined consequences. These always come later. Often too late. But never mind. When paddling around the altars of survival, rummaging for the last remains to complete the puzzle, when searching the halls of desecration, nothing is sacred enough to him not to turn to himself again, when opening the interspaces of archetypes he never asks himself if they are eternal or not. The eternal must always be broached for it constantly preserves itself. And the instantaneous must incessantly be nurtured for in the next moment it may find its end. It’s not END-LESS. This is the trick of art – to make a moment endless. And eternity perishable. It can at least try. With regard to everything. This is why it puts itself at stake, as this is the only thing it has, and makes self-preservation joint responsibility and mutual dependence, where ruined relations are built with the remaining materials. A battle for the wounded. “Shot the enemy and wounded myself. NO-GO.” Nobody will emerge uninjured. “There’s no escape in here!” Forget it. Just stay and enjoy the tunes made for you. Even if they are in colour. Or even in image. The most beautiful songs are far from being written. They are within us. We may listen. We may see them. But watch out. Childhood dreams grow into beautiful images in order to protect us. This is where the greatest danger lies. Deceiving defence. The dear things inside us. The dear one inside us. There is no decision for it has already been taken. We have used up our bonus. Having exhausted all possibilities, we need to turn on all our senses and emotions, open all channels, light up the most hidden spots, release the last stimuli and make every effort to step into the open, in the light of the collective, of the offered mandatory, to make it our own. We just have to follow them ... and let them be. He is in the painting and the painting is in him. They are together, “the bird and the bee.” Approaching the allstar. While She is dressing up, He is sprucing her up. Will you ever be done at all? Will you ever be really ready to say “yes”? I don’t know, it does not matter; I only know for a fact that if they ever conceive anything it will be theirs alone. Only they will know what they have created. With no words. With a gesture out of sight but close to ears. With a tune. In the heart and the mind. In rhythm. In a place where She has found her place and which She would not desert, because She knows it is one of a kind. In a place where He first got intimate with her image, which opened up a universe for him. In a place where He then revealed himself to her and they danced their first dance. Then She opened her heart to him, too. Completely. Now they chat and dance and this music will have no end. Peter Tomaž Dobrila Marko Jakše, UČITELJICA, 2010 Črni metulji, galerija KiBela / KIBLA Maribor, 3.– 20. 6. 2011 (foto / photo Boštjan Lah)


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Breda Pivk Spektakelske površine Spectacle surfaces Razstava 3π Multiverse je nastala kot končni produkt enomesečne rezidence v Mariboru, ki ga je razpisal multimedijski center KIBLA. Aprilska rezidenca ni bila omejena zgolj na produkt v obliki umetniške razstave, saj so se nanjo lahko odzvali tako umetniki, kot tudi teoretiki, producenti ali kritiki sodobne umetnosti. Avtorica sodobno-umetniške razstave, Breda Pivk, je tako prvenstveno teoretičarka umetnosti, kljub temu pa se od leta 2006 posveča tudi povezavi sodobne umetnosti in znanosti, tako imenovani transumetnosti. Pojem transumetnosti je morda najlažje izpeljati kar iz koncepta postmodernistične umetnosti, predvsem pa navezati na številne novosti v umetniški produkciji 60tih in 70-tih let prejšnjega stoletja. Razcvet novih umetniških izraznih oblik ter postopno vključevanje novih medijev v sodobno-umetniške projekte je seveda neposredno vezano na vsesplošno pluralizacijo in hibridizacijo dotlej koherentnih in fiksnih institucij, pojmov, teorij, kulturnih meja in “družbenih sfer”. Vendar, četudi sama institucija umetnosti (v najširšem smislu) v tem kontekstu doživlja radikalne strukturne premike, skorajda manifestna hibridnost novih umetniških izraznih oblik, predstavlja v prvi vrsti hibridnost umetniškega medija, preko te pa tudi mešanje specifičnih medijskih “logik”. Hibridnost umetniškega medija umetnostno-zgodovinsko seveda ni vezana izključno na sodobno umetnost, vendar pa predstavlja prelom z modernistično tendenco čistosti medija. V tem okviru pa se znotraj umetniškoteoretičnega diskurza postopno uveljavita tudi ključna sodobno-umetniška termina: intermedijskost (medmedijskost) in multimedijskost (večmedijskost). Poudarjena intermedijskost, preko te pa odprtost in nedefiniranost, pa so tudi označbe, ki najenostavneje in najbolj celovito označujejo avtorski prispevek umetnice. Četudi je avtoričin projekt večmedijski, avtorica medijev ne sopostavlja, temveč preko njihovega mešanja ustvarja inter-medijske likovne površine. Morda najpogosteje zastopana posebnost intermedijskosti je v kontekstu sodobne likovne umetnosti predvsem združevanje individualne avtorske govorice z “govorico” stroja preko posredovanja podobe s pomočjo stroja ali računalniško generirane podobe. Na prvi pogled se zdi, da so v avtoričinem primeru digitalno posredovani, če ne kar računalniško generirani predvsem osnovni motivi. Ti namreč predstavljajo radikalno tuje “pokrajine”, katerih poreklo je nedoločljivo. Vendar je avtorica osnovne motive pravzaprav lastnoročno naslikala na keramične površine ter jih šele naknadno digitalno zajela. Svoje nadaljnje delo pa ni nadaljevala na novih, čistih površinah, temveč kar na/preko že naslikanih in digitalno zajetih podob. Posamezna nova podoba je torej razvita kot nekakšen palimpsestični skupek starih. Končne statične podobe je avtorica dopolnila še s premikajočimi se ‘dokumenti’ celotnega ustvarjalnega procesa, ki jih je razstavila v glavnem galerijskem prostoru. Medijsko posredovane naslikane podobe, ki so iz majhne velikosti spremenjene v površine velikih formatov, ravno tako nekako oživijo. Ogromne, gomazeče površine, ki istočasno spominjajo na tuje, futuristične pokrajine in telesne notranjščine, v svojem rastočem premikanju požirajo gledalca. Svetleče video površine mečejo sence po celotnem razstavnem prostoru ter, združene z glasbo Camerona Bobra, ustvarjajo ambientalno postavitev. Avtoričin ustvarjalni postopek je torej kompleksna intermedijska igra med govoricami različnih porekel, ki se v zadnji fazi neločljivo spojijo in ustvarijo umetniški hibrid. Zraven različnih govoric pa Pivkova meša tudi različne aspekte umetniške komunikacije. Kreativna proizvodnja, s katero pričenja, je med postopkom namreč zamenjana za “recepcijo” (zajetje s pomočjo stroja), ki dodobra popači prvotno informacijo. Avtoričina dela so torej zasnovana na specifični obliki interaktivnosti, ki med

procesom vendarle na nobenem mestu ne vključuje gledalčevega posega v samo delo. Pri ustvarjanju svojih likovnih površin umetnica konceptualno referira tudi na sodobno kozmologijo in kvantno fiziko, predvsem iz teorije neštetih paralelnih univerzumov. Teorija multiplih univerzumov izhaja iz predpostavke, da ob našem edinem in edinstvenem univerzumu (torej celoti, sestavljeni iz Zemlje in vesolja), sobiva neskončno število njegovih paralelnih različic. Ta množica med seboj povezanih alternativnih univerzumov oziroma realnosti, ki zanika tudi posameznikovo edinstvenost, umetnici predstavlja model za specifično logiko gradnje (likovnega) prostora. Avtoričino poseganje po najsodobnejših teorijah, ki prinašajo predrugačeno pojmovanje prostora, pravzaprav sploh ni neobičajen pojav znotraj zgodovine umetnosti. Še več; likovna dela na splošno je v nekem smislu mogoče brati tudi kot dokument, na podlagi katerega lahko pozoren gledalec izlušči aktualno kozmologijo. Aktualno razumevanje prostora, ki se manifestira na specifični gradnji likovnega prostora, je neposredno vezano tudi na izkušnjo in identiteto gledalca. V tem kontekstu je avtoričine ambientalne pokrajine mogoče navezati tudi na umetnostno-zgodovinski motiv krajine, ki je v metaforičnem smislu pogosto vezan na teme identitete in pripadnosti. Avtoričine drseče površine neznanega porekla se torej radikalno razlikujejo od čisto konkretne naravne pokrajine, s katero na primer “operira” land art, kot so tudi povsem drugačne od specifičnih kulturnopolitičnih lokacij, v katere intervenirajo instalacije in lokacijsko-specifični projekti. Njene fluidne pokrajine so bolj pokrajine “mreže”, manipulativne, brezmejne, nedoločljive in neulovljive, skorajda brezčasne ter vsaj načeloma dekontekstualizirane. To so pokrajine, ki ne nudijo več nobene trdne identifikacijske točke, ki (pogosto v obliki tal) gledalcu nudi mesto “pripenjanja” in fiksiranja. “Pripenjanje” gledalca na likovno pokrajino, ki omogoča tudi konstitucijo njegove identitete kot aktivne in koherentne, je v tem primeru nadomeščeno s fascinantno spektakelskostjo površin, ki ga posrkajo vase. Avtoričina umetniška produkcija vendarle na nobenem mestu ne izstopa iz “umetniškega medija” v znanost. V nobenem trenutku namreč ne žrtvuje ključne umetniške specifičnosti, ne-funkcionalnosti in edinstvenosti, posebnosti. Znanstveni koncepti ji predstavljajo temelj za preseganje uveljavljenih likovnih prostorskih uresničitev, predvsem pa preseganje “postmodernistične” ploskovitosti. Ta presežek je morebiti bolj kot na samih podobah dosežen na njihovih “rastočih” procesualnih različicah, video delih. ENG The exhibition 3π Multiverse was created as a final product of the author’s month-long residence in Maribor, hosted by the multimedia centre KIBLA. Her stay during April was not limited exclusively to a product in the form of an art exhibition, as it incited responses from artists, theorists, and producers or critics of contemporary art. Breda Pivk, the author of this contemporary art exhibition, is thus primarily an art theorist, but since 2006 she has focused also on the connection between contemporary art and science, the so-called transart. The idea of transart is perhaps best defined in terms of the concept of post-modernist art, and particularly as a response to various novelties in the art production of the 1960’s and the 1970’s. Naturally, the blossom of new expressive artistic forms and the gradual inclusion of new media into contemporary art projects are directly connected to the overall pluralization and hybridization of what were so far coherent and fixed institutions, concepts, theories, cultural boundaries and “social spheres”. However, in spite of the fact that the institution of art itself (in the broadest sense) in this context is experiencing

Breda Pivk, foto arhiv avtorice / from the author’s photo archive

radical structural changes, the nearly manifest hybridity of the new artistic expressive forms primarily stands for the hybridity of the artistic medium, and through it the merging of specific media “reasonings”. The hybridity of the artistic medium is, from an art-historical point of view, not exclusively confined to contemporary art, although it does represent a breakthrough from the modernist tendency of the purity of medium. Inside this framework, in terms of the art-theoretical discourse, another two crucial contemporary art terms are gradually evolving: intermediality (the interconnectedness of media) and multimediality (their numerousness). Stressed intermediality, and through it an openness and nondefinement, are also the suitable labels to describe in the simplest and most wholesome manner the artist’s personal contribution. Though the author’s project is multimediary, she does not co-place the media, but creates intermediary art areas through their merging. Perhaps the most frequent particularity of intermediality in the context of contemporary fine arts is combining individual author language with the “language” of the machine, by means of image mediating through the use of technology or computer generated images. It would appear at first sight that in the case of Breda Pivk, it is the elementary images that are being digitally mediated, or even computer generat-


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ed. Namely these basic images represent radically “alien” landscapes, whose origin cannot be established. However, she has painted the basic motives single-handedly onto ceramic surfaces before capturing them digitally. She then continued her work not on fresh, clean surfaces, but directly over the already painted and digitally captured images. Individual new images are thus developed as a sort of palimpsest unit of the old ones. Final static images have then been supplemented by moving ‘documents’ of the entire creative process, showing in the main gallery space. The mediated paint images, transformed in size into large format surfaces, give the impression of coming alive. Huge, crawling surfaces, reminiscent of alien futuristic landscapes or human interiors, devour the spectator while they are moving. The glaring video surfaces cast shadows over the entire exhibition space and, combined with the music of Cameron Bobro, create an ambient set-up. The author’s creative process is therefore a complex intermediary play of languages of different origins, which ultimately come together in an inseparable way, creating an artistic hybrid. Besides different languages, Pivk also introduces different aspects of artistic communication. During the process the initial creative production is thus transformed into “reception” (capturing by means of a machine), which thoroughly distorts the original

information. The author’s work is therefore founded on a specific form of interactivity, although it doesn’t include the spectator’s actual involvement at any stage of the process. In creating her art surfaces the author also conceptually refers to modern cosmology and quantum physics, especially to the theory of endless parallel universes. The multiple universe theory is founded on the premise that that beside our unique and one-of-a-kind universe (the Earth and the surrounding universe), there exists an endless number of its parallel variants. This multitude of interconnected alternative universes, or realities, which accordingly denies the uniqueness of an individual, serves as a model for a specific logic of building the (art) space. The author’s reference to the latest theories and their altered notions of space is not really that unusual in the context of the history of art. Moreover, fine arts’ works in general can also be interpreted as a document on the basis of which an attentive spectator can observe cosmology. The current understanding of space, manifested in the specific building of art space, is immediately connected to the experience and identity of the spectator. In this context the author’s ambient landscapes can also refer to the art-historical landscape motif, which is metaphorically often linked to the themes of identity and belonging. The sliding landscapes of undefined origin are thus radically different from concrete natural ones, like in land art, and from spe-

cific culture-political locations to which installations and location-specific projects intervene. Her fluid landscapes are really “networks” – manipulative, limitless, indefinable and uncatchable, almost timeless, and at least in principle, decontextualized. They are landscapes which cease to provide the spectator with a firm identification point, that (often in the form of the floor) offers a point of “attachment” and fixation. Attaching the spectators to the artistic landscape, rendering the constitution of their identity as active and coherent, is in this case replaced by a fascinating spectacularity of landscapes that absorb them. Nonetheless, the author’s artistic production does not cross the boundaries between an “art medium” and science at any point. At no moment does she sacrifice the fundamental artistic particularity, the non-functionality or the uniqueness and specialty. Scientific concepts represent to her a foundation for surpassing the established artistic space realizations, and above all, overcoming the “postmodernist” levelness. Such a surplus is best evident, perhaps more than in the actual final images, in their “growing” process variants – the video parts. Kaja Kraner


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“Queens and criminals” (Kraljice in kriminalci) je naslov vizualne prostorske postavitve objektov, video podob in zvočnih situacij, ki poustvarja prizorišče kot opazovalnico, kjer se zrcalijo odnosi moških in ženskih principov. Avtorja Meta Grgurevič in Mark Požlep vizualizirata romantična in erotična pričakovanja moškega in ženske, ki se v realnosti/pogledu drugega spreminjajo v svoje nasprotje. Video filme, ki so nameščeni v vizualno postavitev, sta avtorja ustvarjala ločeno po predhodnem dogovoru. Dogovor je temeljil na tem, da erotiko in seks posnameta kot voajerja in da video-dela temeljijo na osnovi lastnih atmosferskih videnj. Naslov “Queens and criminals” se navezuje na enega izmed video filmov, kjer se uprizarjajo erotični prizori. Avtorja poskušata vzpostaviti ravnotežje med subtilno erotično konotacijo, ki se giblje na meji med voajerizmom, in mehkim pornom, ki je povezan z

močnimi avtoritarnimi vzgibi moškega. V prvem primeru posnetki poljubljanja in pettinga, kjer se vidijo le obleke in v drugem primeru seks na travi, za drevesi, zunaj je lep sončen dan, vse je vidno in sončno. Na koncu koncev ima oboje romantičen pridih, razlika je v estetiki, ena je bolj surova, druga bolj zabrisana in estetizirana. V galerijski inscenaciji gledalca v aktivni vlogi (v vlogi opazovalca ali lovca s puško), se gledalec znajde v vlogi voajaerja, saj tudi sam gleda voajerske posnetke na razstavišču. V lahkem porniču se skozi veje, v grmovju pojavi palček, ki se premika v različnih točkah gledišča in nato tudi v “realnosti”, na razstavišču. Gre za marginalen preplet fikcije in realnosti. Meta Grgurevič in Mark Požlep sta strnila različne antagonistične umetniške dinamike in jih spojila v enoten prostor. Kar se izrisuje v galerijskem prostoru, je antagonizem ženskega in moškega pogleda na svet, obar-

van z romantično in humorno noto. Posamezna dela na razstavišču so prepletena in nepodpisana - ker imata vsak svoj avtorski pečat, slednje sploh ni potrebno. Posamezna vizualna dela, vpletena v celoto, povezujejo enega in drugega v avtorsko simbiozo. Meta o skupinskem delu pravi: “Smiselno je delati samostojno in se hkrati vsake toliko časa v projektih povezati z drugimi umetniki in umetnicami. Na ta način si izmenjuješ znanje in izkušnje ter se potrjuješ. Vsake toliko je dobro, da pozabiš na opredelitve, kot so: to je tvoje, to je moje.” ENG

“Queens and criminals” (Kraljice in kriminalci) is the title of a visual ambient installation of objects, video images and sound situations, recreating the venue as an observatory where attitudes of male


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Meta Grgurevič in Mark Požlep Kraljice in kriminalci Queens and criminals

and female principles are being mirrored. The authors Meta Grgurevič and Mark Požlep visualise romantic and erotic expectations of a man and a woman, which in reality/in the view of the other are being changed into their opposites. Video films placed in the visual installation have been created by the two authors separately according to a previous arrangement. Their agreement was based on the premise to record eroticism and sex in a voyeuristic manner and to base video works on their own atmospheric visions. The title “Queens and criminals” relates to one of the video films portraying erotic scenes. The authors have sought to establish the balance between a subtle erotic connotation on the verge of voyeurism and soft porn related to strong male authoritarian reason. In the first case there are shots of kissing and petting showing only clothes, and in the second case, there is sex on the

grass, behind trees, on a lovely sunny day where everything is visible and bright. Eventually both have a touch of romantics, but the aesthetics is different: one raw and the other blurred and made more exquisite. The viewer having an active role in the gallery set-up (being an observer or a hunter having a rifle), they can end up having the role a voyeur because they are watching voyeur recordings in the gallery. In the soft porn film, a dwarf emerges through the braches, moving across various points of the perspective, and then also in “reality” across the gallery. This is a marginal intertwining of fiction and reality. Meta Grgurevič and Mark Požlep have combined various antagonist artistic dynamics, integrating them into a unified space. What is being outlined in exhibition space is the antagonism of the female and male perspective of the world, tinged with romantic and humorous

tones. Individual works in the gallery are combined and unsigned – which is not even necessary as each author has their own touch. They are both integrated into an original symbiosis through individual works being part of the entirety. Meta comments on group work: “It makes sense to work solo, yet every now and then to connect to other artists through projects. It is a way of exchanging knowledge and experience, and of affirming yourself. Every now and then it is good to forget the descriptions like this is yours, this is mine.” (A. K.) Sodelavci / Collaborators: Jaša, Urša Vidic, Viktor Bernik, Tada, Samo Letonja, Mia Špindler Meta Grgurevič in Mark Požlep, foto arhiv KIBLA 2010 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah


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Jože Šubic Devet postaj tvojega okusa Nine stations of your taste Akademski slikar Jože Šubic (Maribor, 1958) je po končanem študiju na ljubljanski Akademiji za likovno umetnost (1984) na slovensko likovno prizorišče vstopil v obdobju razcveta nove podobe. Od leta 1981 kontinuirano razstavlja na številnih skupinskih in samostojnih razstavah, sodeluje na likovnih kolonijah doma in v tujini, za svoje delo pa je prejel tudi več nagrad. Ukvarja se s slikarstvom, risbo, grafiko, od leta 2000 se njegovo likovno snovanje iz slikovne površine, ki je po zgodnejši figuraliki vsebolj zaznamovana s čutnimi barvnimi nanosi in netipičnimi materiali, vedno pogosteje razteza tudi v prostor in predmetno stvarnost. V prostorske postavitve vključuje predmete iz vsakdanjosti, organske materiale in jih pretvarja v pomensko nabite objekte, ki s svojo asociativno močjo večrazsežno nagovarjajo gledalca. Les, železo, plastika, usnje, umetelno obdelani in sestavljeni v nove poetične celote, so razpostavljeni po prostoru. Umetnik specifike prostora inventivno zaplete v dialog z vizualnimi elementi, tako imenovanimi objekti-postajami okusa: Govori z menoj, Dan in noč bar, Opraševalke, Do neba poslinjen, Iztisnjeni popki, Nabiralec solz, Banquet, Senseless kiss for sale, Brbotajoče orgle / Bub­ bling organs. V Šubičevi postavitvi so precizno izdelani objekti svojevrstni mediatorji. Sestavljeni so iz različnih materialov, osnovna konstrukcija je les, mestoma obdelan z bakrom, krznom, usnjem, posode so iz patinirane žgane gline, dodani so tudi najdeni predmeti. Vsak objekt nosi drugačno sporočilo ali zahtevo ter obiskovalca vabi na osupljivo – ne le zunanje vizualno-estetsko, marveč tudi notranje-kontemplativno – popotovanje. Okus, ki ga tematizira Šubičeva umetnost, se iz telesno-senzorialnega okolja razteza v smeri svojevrstnega estetskega okusa in z njim nemara tudi ravnovesja. Po drugi strani zapeljuje v eksces, ko nas iz okvirov razstavnega prostora (ki vselej implicira prostor moči) vodi ven iz sedanjika in vsakdanjih pomenov. Prostori, kjer so aplicirane umetniške strategije, so prav tako locus vsakovrstnih agitacij mimezisa, od mode, športa, umetnosti do seksualnosti, transformiranih v skladu z dominantno ideologijo. Umetnost prinaša prostoru potencialnost upora telesa in s tem povezano artikulacijo drugačnega življenjskega prostora, ki je tudi prostor drugačnega okušanja in izkustva. Šubičevi objekti-postaje večrazsežno problematizirajo in nagovarjajo okus posameznika. Šubicev projekt spodbuja tudi razpravo o družbeno institucionaliziranih oblikah okusa. V tem smislu je v slovenskem prostoru dobrodošla novost, saj zastavlja vrsto vprašanj o okusu v zvezi z osebnimi in življenjskimi slogi, vse tja do prehranjevanja ter v širšem smislu o mehanizmih, principih in elementih družbene regulacije okusa. V sodobnosti, ko je meja med “avtentičnim” in “kičem” povsem pretočna, je v ospredju “popularni okus”, ki največkrat zaobide sleherne kriterije avtentičnosti, inovativnosti in kreativnosti. Na delu je profanacija tovrstnih kriterijev v množičnih medijih in med njihovo neselektivno publiko. Zato je Šubičev projekt dobrodošel za vse tiste, ki imajo potrebo po preizpraševanju lastnih kriterijev okusa. Kot ključni element, pa tudi simbol in metafora, nastopi glinena posoda, ki jo Šubic napolni z različnimi snovmi. S slednjimi mestoma izzove fizični transfer: nenadejano stimulirani čuti zdramijo gledalčev okus, ne le estetski, ampak tudi okuševalni. Tako je tematiziran in stimuliran tisti čut, ki je običajno v likovni umetnosti spregledan. Umetnik z likovno obdelavo odpira gledalcu nove možnosti identifikacije. V primeru obravnavane umetniške postavitve je zdajšnjost čutenja tisti barometer uspešnega rušenja estetske distance modernistični estetiki zavezane likovnosti; to rušenje omogoči gledalčevo nepreklicno vpetost v razstavljeno snovnost, predmetnost.

Šubic o okusu razmišlja tudi kot o dejavniku socialne razslojenosti. S tem so neizbežno povezani tabuji, vrednote, kršenje prepovedi, občutki sramu in krivde, pa tudi lizunstvo, kimavost, klečeplazenje in licemerstvo ter nadalje zatekanje v okrožje intimnosti, pa tudi iskanje prostora diskretnosti za etično-moralno katarzo v območjih vzvišenega. Raziskovanje okusa hkrati razpira komplesno tematiko materialnosti telesa: tabuji telesa, strah pred nečistostjo, itn. Likovne in simbolne prvine izžarevajo svojstveni erotizem, ki se z leti prekali v prepričanje, da mora biti estetsko utemeljeno na življenju, v izkustvu telesa, njegovi snovnosti. Šubičev projekt je poetsko artikulirano, večplastno in komunikativno delo, ki temo okusa domiselno in subtilno pretoči v likovni svet. Postavitev vzpostavi prizorišče performativnosti, procesualnosti in recipročnosti. Tematizacija okusa humorno pobeza v pregovorno slovenski cankarjanski patos kot tudi v patologije sodobne družbe, v kateri je slehernik avtor specifične simptomatike. Umeščanje objektov v specifičen razstavni prostor ne brez provokacije meri na prikrivanje in razkrivanje tovrstne simptomatike, ki jo izdatno pogojujejo moralni predsodki. Sicer pa bitka za emancipacijo na osebni – ne nazadnje tudi čutni, okuševalni – ravni skozi zvestobo izvoljeni gesti nikoli ne spodleti. Okus po življenjskem nemiru, po spoznanju, po neskončnem … Okus po ljubezni. ENG Having graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts, Ljubljana (1984), painter Jože Šubic (Maribor, 1958) entered the Slovenian fine art scene in the era when new image was flourishing. He has been exhibiting continually since 1981 both in solo and group settings, participated at art colonies at home and abroad and received several awards for his works. His techniques include painting, drawing, and graphic art. Since 2000, his creativity in fine art has been expanding ever more from the graphic surface, which was at first marked by figural art, and later increasingly by sensual layers of colour, to space and the material reality. His spatial installations embrace objects from everyday life, organic materials, which are then transfigured into meaning-charged objects that broadly address the spectator by way of their associative power. Wood, iron, plastic, leather, skilfully worked and fused into new poetical wholes, are displayed throughout the space. The artist has inventively reinstated a dialogue between the specificity of the space and visual elements, the socalled objects-stations of taste: Govori z menoj / Talk to me, Dan in noč bar / Day and Night Bar, Opraševalke / Pollinators, Do neba poslinjen / Slobbered up to the skies, Iztisnjeni popki / Squeezed gemmae, Nabiralec solz / Tears collector, Banquet, Senseless kiss for sale, Brbotajoče orgle / Bubbling organs. In Šubic’s installation, the accurately elaborated objects are unique mediators. They are composed of various materials, the basic construction is of wood, in spots worked with copper, fur and leather, receptacles are made of baked clay and found objects are also added. Each object bears a different message or claim, inviting the visitor to embark on a – not only outer visual-aesthetic, but also inner-contemplative – journey. Taste, as a subject matter of Šubic’s art, outstretches the bodily-sensorial environment, reaching into directions of unique aesthetical taste and perhaps even balance. On the other hand, it entices us into excess, leading us from within the context of the exhibition space (which always implies the space of political power) away from the present and ordinary meanings. Spaces in which artistic strategies are applied are also the locus of all kinds of promotion of mimesis, from fashion, sport, art to sexu-

ality shaped to suit the dominant ideology. Art fills the space with the potentiality of the resistance of the body and with it the articulation of a different living space that is also a space of different tasting and experience. Šubic’s objects-stations in many respects touch upon and address individual taste. Šubic’s project encourages the debate about the socially institutionalized forms of taste as well. In this respect, his art is a refreshing novelty in the Slovenian space, for it poses a set of questions about taste in connection with personal and life styles, about alimentation and, in the broader sense, about mechanisms, principles and elements of social regulation of taste. In this present era in which the border between “authenticity” and “kitsch” is completely fused, what is coming to the foreground is “popular taste”, which in most cases evades the criteria of authenticity, innovation and creativity. What is at work is the profanation of such criteria in mass media and among their non-selective audience. For this reason, Šubic’s project is welcomed by all those who have the urge to question their own criteria of taste. The key element, as well as the symbol and metaphor, is the receptacle of clay that Šubic fills up with various substances to stir, in places, a physical response: unexpectedly stimulated senses awake the viewer’s taste, both aesthetical and gustatory. In this way, the artist thematises and stimulates the sense that is usually overlooked by the field of fine art. By way of visual processing, he offers the spectator new possibilities of identification. In the case of this art installation, the presentness of sensing represents that very barometer of the successful disruption of the aesthetic distance of the fine art dimension which is loyal to the modernist aesthetic that allows the irrevocable engagement of the spectator with the exhibited materiality. Šubic sees taste as a factor of social stratification to which are unavoidably linked taboos, values, violations, feelings of shame and guilt as well as slavering, adulation, fawning and hypocrisy, as well as the recourse to intimacy and the search for a space of discretion for the ethical-moral catharsis in the spheres of the sublime. The exploration of taste unveils the complex theme of the materiality of the body: body taboos, fear of impurity, etc. Visual and symbolic elements emanate a unique eroticism that with passing years has turned into the belief that the aesthetical must be grounded in life, in the experience of the body and its materiality. Šubic’s project is a poetically articulated, multilayered and intelligible work that inventively and subtly transposes the theme of taste to the fine art world. The installation sets the stage for performativity, processuality and reciprocity. Thematisation of taste humorously rebukes the proverbial Slovenian Cankarian pathos, as well as the pathologies of contemporary society in which Everyman is the author of a specific symptomatics. The instalment of these objects in the specific exhibition space points – not without provocation – to the concealing and disclosing of such symptomatics that is largely conditioned by moral prejudices. However, the struggle for emancipation at the subjective – and last but not least sensual, the tasting – levels, carried out through loyalty to the gesture of choice, never proves a failure. The taste of life’s unrest, of cognizance, of infinity … The taste of love. (translated by Tanja Passoni) Mojca Puncer Jože Šubic, Senseless kiss for sale, 2009–10, detajl / detail, 80 x 154 x 30 cm Jože Šubic, Izstisnjeni popki / Squeezed gemmae, 2009–10, detajl / detail, 32 x 36 x 140 cm, foto arhiv KIBLA 2011 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Matej Kristovič


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Marko Črtanec Muze Muses Črtančeva pozicija do lesa je enigmatična, saj les kot material izgublja svojo materialno danost, oblikovana mehkoba zanikuje pregovorno trdoto lesa in s tem tezo srednjeveških lesorezcev, ki so z oblikovalskim pristopom poudarjali trdoto in ustvarjali črtasto strukturo, kakor da je ne bi mogli ukriviti, zaobliti in zmehčati. Črtančev yin-yang se kot idejni perpetuum mobile zrcali v odnosih med materialom in formo, ki niso nikoli enoznačni. Takoj, ko hočeš nekaj označiti, določiti in zamrzniti, že zaniha drugam in s tem opozori na površnost in počasnost artikulacije zaznavanja. Virtuozni igralec medija – lesa, v njegovih tisočerih različicah in poetikah, ob postopkih struženja in tesanja sanja drugačne, paralelne svetove, polne prevratnih, igrivih domislic. Večnamenska funkcionalnost, asociativnost in univerzalnost preproste, toda povsem avtorske inventivne forme:

kuhalnica, golf palica ali kaj drugega? Valovita miza? Čokoladni bonboni ali japonske kroglice? Multiplicirana svastika ali DNK formula? Asociativne igre, ki gledalca napotijo h globljemu premisleku, na primer o svastiki (“iz serije Levi in desni, majhni in veliki”), starodavnem verskem in okrasnem simbolu, ki ga zaradi negativne konotacije desnosučne svastike Hitlerjevega nacizma ne uporabljamo več v zahodni civilizaciji – toda v hinduizmu, budizmu in džainizmu se še danes uporablja, predvsem levosučna, ki jo povezujejo s srečo, na japonskih zemljevidih pa še danes označuje budistične templje – zanimivost, ki kaže na to, kako je nacizem na simbolni ravni povezal lastno ideologijo z globalnimi množičnimi prepričanji in kako močno delujejo simboli na človeški kolektivni nezavedni ravni. Črtančeve svastike so nanizane v obliko

neskončne DNK ponazoritve, v obliko trdo valujočega rožnega venca ali abstraktno formo geometrijskih oblik. Stvar pogleda in premisleka. Ai Weiwei, umetnik iz Pekinga, se je poigral z idejo kitajske masovne produkcije in s 1600 artizani ustvaril sto milijonov porcelanastih semen in jih posipal po tleh razstavišča v Tate Gallery v Londonu, kjer so obiskovalci lahko ležali, hodili in se dotikali teh “semen”. Kasneje so zaradi strupenega porcelanskega prahu namestitev ogradili. Črtančeve lesene kroglice izražajo popolnost posameznih preprostih oblik, ki sestavljene v množico in s svojo osnovno strukturo vzpostavljajo kompleksne, ne-ponavljajoče se forme – kot v naravi – podobnim elementom navkljub ne more ustvarjati izdelkov masovne produkcije – revni, istovetni elementi, okleščeni na dolgočasni minimum se razlikujejo od Črtan-


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čevega minimalizma, ki te vedno odpelje v stransko ulico, kjer še nisi bil in znova čutno odkriješ lepoto dotika oblike in materiala (“Se sveti kot pumpeževa rit”). “Ali si že kdaj poskusila spati v višini mize?” reče Marko. In mize, Črtančeve muze, personificirane, oblikovno bogate, pomensko presenetljive funkcionalne stvaritve, ki tako zelo presežejo pojem mimezis, ki se zrcali v izjavi neke umetnice: “Kaj pa človek zares potrebuje, razen mize, stola in postelje?” Naključno izjavo bi lahko parafrazirali: “Kaj pa človek zares potrebuje razen ustvarjalnosti, domišljije in sle po življenju?” Po nenavadnem ciklusu postelj iz leta 2002, ki jih je Marko Črtanec naslovil Vrtovi Bjor Haremsfeld, sledi ciklus miz, nenavadnih, posebnih različic tistega, kar je veljalo od antike naprej “opredmeteni” mimesis, ki se tokrat opredmeten izmika ustaljenim tridimenzionalnim pojmom človeškega civilizacijskega obstoja. ENG Črtanec's attitude towards wood is enigmatic. Wood as material is losing its material nature, the shaped softness denying the proverbial hardness of wood, thus also the argument of Medieval engravers claiming to be using their forming approach to emphasise the hardness and create a striped structure, as if it was impossible to curve it, round it off or soften it. Like a conceptual perpetuum mobile, his yin-yang is reflected in relations between material and form, which are never unambiguous. As soon as you want to label, specify or freeze something, it swings elsewhere, thereby warning about the cursory and slow articulation of

perception. In its countless versions and poetics, alongside the processes of planing and chiselling, the virtuoso on the medium – wood dreams of different, parallel worlds full of subversive, playful ideas. Multi-purpose functionality, associativity and universality of the simple, yet entirely original inventive form: a wooden spoon, q golf club or something else? A wavy table? Chocolates or Japanese balls? A multiplied swastika or the DNA formula? Associative games lead the viewer to a deeper consideration, e.g. on swastika (“from the series Left and right, small and large”), the ancient religious and decorative symbol, which due to its negative connotations of the right-facing Hitlerian Nazi swastika is no longer used in the Western world. However, it continues to be used in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, particularly its left-facing version, which relates to happiness and still marks Buddhist temples on Japanese maps. This is an interesting fact showing how Nazism integrated its ideology with global mass beliefs at a symbolic level, and how symbols operate at our collective unconscious level. Swastikas by Črtanec are lined up in the shape of an endless DNA depiction, as a rigidly undulating rosary or an abstract form of geometrical shapes. A matter of perspective and consideration. Ai Weiwei, a Beijing artist, toying with the idea of Chinese mass production, contracted 1600 artisans to create a hundred million porcelain seeds to be spread across the floor of Tate Gallery in London, inviting the visitors to lie on, walk over and touch these “seeds”. As the porcelain

dust turned out toxic, the installation was later fenced in. Črtanec's wooden balls express the perfection of individual simple shapes. When composing a mass, their basic shapes establish complex, non-repeating forms, yet – as in nature – despite having similar elements, it is not possible to create products of mass production. Deficient, identical elements, stripped to the bare minimum are different from Črtanec's minimalism, which takes you to a side street you have never visited before, and makes you discover sensually the beauty of touching the form and material (“glittering like polished mirror”). “Have you ever tried sleeping as high as a table?” says Marko. And tables it is, Črtanec's Muses, personified, rich in form, functional creations surprising in their sense as they exceed so thoroughly the concept of mimesis reflected in the statement of an artist: “What is it that a man really needs, apart from a table, a chair and a bed?” This incidental statement could be paraphrased as: “What is it that a man really needs, apart from creativity, imagination and lust for life?” Following a curious series of beds from 2002, named by Marko Črtanec as Gardens Bjor Haremsfeld, we have a series of tables – unusual, peculiar versions of what has been considered from the antiquity onwards as a “tangible” mimesis. This time, its tangibility evades the established three-dimensional concepts of our civilisational existence. Aleksandra Kostič foto / photo by Damjan Švarc


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Diana Mureškič Elementarno kroženje Elementary circulation Izdelki iz ročno obdelane gline Diane Mureškič so sestavljeni iz različnih tipov naravne gline. Odlikuje jih prefinjena forma, ki upošteva krhkost in (ne)obstojnost materiala ter naravno barvno in oblikovno strukturiranje. Spoznavanje z materijo, z zemljo, z medijem je bistveno pri kreativnem procesu. Dotikanje z rokami in prsti, neposredna komunikacija z materialom, ki se spreminja in nikoli ne ponovi – pa tudi popraviti se ga ne da – v tem je srž ustvarjalnega postopka. Nezavedno deluje. Kakšni svetovi prihajajo na plano? Fantazmagorične pra-pokrajine, figuralika in abstrakcije se bohotijo v detajlih. Glina zaživi v odsevih in zabrisanosti podob, v večnem gibanju pojavljanja in izginjanja ter zavedanju minljivosti. Štirje osnovni elementi se dopolnjujejo in krožijo v kreativnem procesu oblikovanja vlažne gline, ki jo je treba zapeči z ognjem. Ogenj plameni z zrakom. In voda, nalita na pečeno glino in na rožo, ponovno zaokroži ciklus … da bi se lahko znova ponovil. Na performativnem nivoju je pozornost usmerjena v tradicionalne vsakodnevne prakse, ki so visoko estetizirane. Umetnostno obrtni izdelki nakazujejo drugačno namembnost, ki se oplaja z drugimi, evropskemu prostoru bolj oddaljenimi kulturami. Roža iz Jericha je v posušenem stanju shranjena. Ko je zalita z vodo, se v nekaj urah odpre in kot bi oživela. Ko ji nehamo dovajati vodo, se znova posuši in zapre. Ta krog se lahko poljubno ponavlja. Roža je sama po sebi performativni element, najden v naravi. Roža simbolizira indijsko filozofsko premiso, da se mora vsaka pot v celoti prehoditi in da se moramo vrniti na izhodišče – tako v detajlu, kot pri kompleksnejših strukturah, pri dnevnih opravilih, kot tudi v umetnosti in filozofiji. Pravilo odseva kroženje življenja v stiku z naravo ter v ročnem ustvarjanju. ENG The clay items that were hand processed by Diana Mureškič are composed of various types of natural clay. They are marked by a refined shape that abides by the fragility and (non-) durability of the material as well as its natural colour and structured form. Of key importance in the creative process is to get to know the material, the soil, the medium. Touching it with hands and fingers, direct communication with the material that changes and never repeats itself – neither can it be repaired – this is the core of the creative process. It works subconsciously. What worlds are there, emerging to the surface? Phantasmagorical pre-landscapes, figural art and abstractions abounding in details. The clay comes to life in reflections and blurred images, in the eternal movement of repetition and disappearance, and in the awareness of transience. The four basic elements supplement each other, circling in the creative process of the shaping moist clay that needs to be baked on fire. Fire blazes in the air. And then there is water, poured over the baked clay and the flower, to round up the cycle once more … only to make it repeat again. As regards the level of performance, attention is directed at highly aestheticised traditional everyday practices. Arts and crafts items imply at a different intent, feeding in other cultures that are somewhat more remote from the European environment. The flower of Jericho is kept in dried condition. When covered with water, however, it opens up in a few hours as if coming to life. When the supply of water is stopped, it again dries and closes down. The cycle can be repeated arbitrarily. The flower itself is an element of performance encountered in nature. The flower symbolises the Indian philosophical premise that each path has to be walked in its entirety bringing us back to the starting point – both in detail and in structures of more complexity, in everyday chores as well as art and philosophy. The rule reflects the circulation of life in contact with nature and in handicraft. (A. K.)

Diana Mureškič, foto arhiv KIBLA 2011 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah


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Junoš Miklavc Meditacija Meditation

Budistično meniško življenje in meditacija je slikarju Junošu Miklavcu že sredi 80-tih obrnila umetniško pot raziskovanja – osnova je postal notranji očiščevalni proces, skozi katerega barve in kompozicije počasi oživijo v svojih nenavadnih vrednostih in kombinacijah. Svet zaživi v svojih odsevih, zabrisanosti podob, v večnem gibanju in zavedanju minljivosti. “Skozi meditacijo umetnik pridobi koncentracijo in ukinja razmišljanje. V kreativnem procesu deluje razum na treh nivojih: na podlagi izkušnje, občutkov in razmišljanja. Razum potisne razmišljanje na stran, saj potrebuje samo izkušnje in občutke. Tudi izkušnje izbira iz zbiralnika izkušenj sam, izbora ne določamo mi. Razmišljanje postavlja stvari v koncepte in razum tega ne potrebuje, vzame izkušnjo, ki se je ne zavedamo več, ki smo jo že pozabili. Ko se umetnik ukvarja z napornim materialom, bodisi rezanjem v les ali z mastno jajčno tempero, ki ustavlja čopič, mora uporabiti precej moči, da naredi vreznino ali razporedi barvo s čopičem po platnu. Delovati začne podzavest, razum jemlje iz zbiralnika, umetnik nima časa razmišljati in takrat lahko nastanejo dobre stvari,” pojasnjuje Junoš Miklavc. Grafika in jajčna tempera omogočata Miklavcu popolni kreativni proces skozi fizični napor. Slike se loti brez vnaprejšnje ideje, koncepta ali risbe. Zgodba nastaja sama in je pogosto nerazumljiva, vendar ustvarja neko napetost, ki na sliki deluje. Zanima ga tisto dogajanje, ki se bo v resnici šele zgodilo. Razum vnaprej najde odgovor skozi sliko. Hkrati avtorja zanimajo barve, prosojnost in nanosi, zato uporablja jajčno tempero – akril mu ne zadošča, je enoznačen in prazen. Spoznavanje slikarske materije in priprava sta bistvena pri kreativnem procesu. Material se natre, zmeša, spreminja in nikoli ne ponovi – pa tudi popravi ne – v tem je srž ustvarjalnega postopka. Papir in svinčnik ali čopič je neposredno soočenje s praznino prostora. Več kot je posrednikov med roko in umetniškim delom, bolj je pravi kreativni proces oddaljen. Slikarsko delo Junoša Miklavca odlikuje občuteno plastenje, posluh, pomen in izvor materialnega v slikarskem, ki ga vodi v spiritualne svetove. Telo je v vlogi prevodnika energij. Zaznava zunanjega sveta potuje kot čutenje skozi telo, ki ga prevaja v risbo in barve ter njene subtilne odtenke. Miklavc je pretanjen raziskovalec barvnih odnosov in nians. Figura je z natančnim občutkom tisočkratne izkušnje – pa vendar nikoli zares ponovljene – postavljena v duhovni prostor barve.

Junoš Miklavc, Radha, 2008, 85 x 75 cm, foto arhiv avtorja / from the author’s photo archive


ENG The path of artistic exploration was turned for Junoš Miklavc already in mid 1980s by monastic Buddhist life and meditation – when the internal cleansing process was made the basis through which colours and compositions gradually come to life in their unusual values and combinations. The world awakens in its reflections, in blurred images, in the eternal movement and the awareness of transience. “By meditation, the artist gains concentration and abolishes thinking. In a creative process, the reason works on three levels: based on experience, feelings and thinking. Requiring only experience and feelings, the reason pushes thinking aside. It even selects the experience from among the experience storage tank itself; it is not us who select. Thinking organises things into concepts, and the reason does not need that, it only takes an experience that we no longer remember, that has been forgotten. As the artist is dealing with a difficult material, be it carving wood or using greasy egg tempera that blocks the brush, they need to use much power to make a cut or spread the colour across the canvas with a brush. The subconscious sets to work, the reason extracts from the storage tank, the artist has no time to think, and it is then that good things might be created,” explains Junoš Miklavc. Graphic art and egg tempera enable Miklavc to have a perfect creative process based on physical strain. He sets about painting without an advance idea, concept or drawing. The story emerges by itself, often being incomprehensible, yet creating certain suspense that works on the painting. He is interested in the activity that actually yet has to happen. Through the painting, the reason finds the answer in advance. At the same time, the author is interested in colour, transparency and layers, therefore he uses egg tempera – acrylic colours, being too unambiguous and hollow, are not sufficient. Getting to know the painting materials and making the preparations are of key importance within the creative process. The material is to be rubbed, mixed, changed and never repeated – neither corrected – and that is the core of the creative process. Paper and a pencil or a brush, this is the direct confrontation with the emptiness of space. The more there are mediators between the hand and the work of art, the more the creative process is distant. The paintings by Junoš Miklavc are marked by tangible layering, attention, meaning and origin of the material in painting taking him to spiritual worlds. The body has the role of conducting energies. The perception of the outside world travels through the body like a sensation, being translated into the drawing and colours and its subtle shades. Miklavc is a refined explorer into relations and shades of colour. The figure is positioned into the spiritual space of colour with precise feeling of a thousand-fold experience – yet never really repeated. (A. K.)


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Boštjan Plesničar Ličkanje Porn corn

Boštjan Plesničar, Ličkanje / Porn corn, 2010, olje na platnu / oil on canvas (avtorj

Boštjana Plesničarja (raz)graditev erotike in seksualnosti Forma je moč. V seksualnosti in igri erotičnih zapeljevanj (pa naj ta potekajo med ljudmi ali komer koli, čimer koli že, kar se podredi tristmegistovskemu zakonu privlačnosti) je že tako, da je sama postavitev tista, ki sporoča o razmerjih moči. Niti v erotiki, sili življenjske privlačnosti, ni nič nedolžnega. Je univerzalen boj za pozornost, energijo, ugodje in užitek. Med ljudmi pa tudi prikrit boj za konkretne privilegije, konkretizirano oblast nad drugo/ drugim. Bolj je ta realnost prikrita, romantizirana, bolj so razmerja moči naturalizirana, vpeta v “normalnost” seksualnih vlog, več je možnosti, da bo nekdo razžaljen, bolje: razžaljena in onemogočena v svoji lastni seksualni realizaciji. In kaj je, ko smo že pri povednih oblikah, s slikarskimi formami Boštjana Plesničarja? In kako tematsko in vsebinsko zapleše svoj profesionalni slikarski ples, ki ga razume kot delo in ne magijo (njegov podpis je “Ples ni čar”). S kakšnimi sredstvi nasploh gradi, reciklira in razgrajuje seks in spolno privlačnost? Za uvod v oblikovanje odgovorov preračunljivo izberimo erotični teater, naslikan na žamet, ki je nastal v okviru inovativnega opusa “žametk”. Ta s pomeni nasičeni material kot dobro metaforično izhodišče za žametne noči, dotike površin in dotike pogledov. Motiv oddaljenega poljuba med gledališkimi zavesami seže v jedro intimnih srečanj: seks, igra zapeljevanja ne more biti drugega kot performans. Ali rečeno s filozofom Michelom Foucaultom: vsako spolno dejanje je del diskurza o seksualnosti – ni nekega naravnega seksa (ali izvornega erotičnega akta), ki bi bil pozneje pospravljen v specifično formo, spolni ritual določene kulture. Plesničarjeve slikarske konstrukcije erotičnosti (zlasti) ženskega telesa in seksualnih aktov so avtorsko inovativne v videnju reciklaž spolnosti. Slike govorijo, da vedo, za kaj gre, ampak to počnejo na samosvoj, privlačen, zares erotičen način. Te slikarske erotike bi bilo brez znaka distance, zabavljaške note, dosti manj. Tako pa ženske prsi veselo vihrajo (Ti si moja žabica; Prihajam, Manitu), lezbični odnos v odsotnosti homoseksualnih motivov prav spontano zleze v dominantno heteroseksualno matrico (Ličkanje), seksualni akti pa se dogajajo v poskočnih ali poetičnih slikarskih metaforizacijah spermijev in penisov (Poslednji Mohikanec, Motovilka). Vrhunec tega na veliko srečo humorno obarvanega umetniškega nagovora “v imenu očeta” za tisto pravo stvar seksa in v znamenju falusa z veliko začetnico je slika Ličkanje. Njeno “meseno spoznanje”, ki ga formalno nakazujeta temno rdeča in modra barva, apelira na ruralni ritual seksualne “sproščenosti” ob ličkanju koruze; umetniško se povezuje s sodobnimi pornografskimi prikazi/-nimi. Duhovito veliki koruzni storži so baza imaginarnega seksualnega dogajanja. Rumena barva opozarja na “strahovlado” falusov. In ni naključje, da je par ženskih rok na sliki amputiranih: da ne bi ženske penisov vzele v svoje dlani in jih zmanipulirale po svoji volji in predstavi. Moška telesa medtem ostajajo celovita. Nekatere slike in risbe imajo presežno vsebinsko moč, saj konstruirajo samo seksualnost in erotiko na kreativne načine. V nasprotju s silo vsebine je njihova forma; so manjše, intimistične. Kot da bi spolne inovacije ostajale napol v umetnikovem zasebnem prostoru, kot da še ni dovolj poguma dodati avtorstvo samim seksualnim izrazom. Kljub temu so te slikarske rekonceptualizacije

seksualnega nadvse dragocene: ženski Zaratustra, ki obvladuje odzivnost moškega telesa (Tako je govoril Zaratustra), meditativno razpiranje ženskega mednožja kot (za zdaj še) minimalistični kontrapunkt falusa (Om), ženska avtoerotizacija in erotična ginosocialnost (Čarovnici). Po formalni moči tu vendarle prednjačita sliki Ljubezen gre skozi želodec in Pot v jajce. V prvem primeru sicer tradicio­ nalni motiv ljubezensko užaloščene ženske, ki se tolaži s slaščico, obleži v (moškem?) želodcu; na drugi sliki pa orgazem kotalečih se planetov in bleščečih anorganskih pradelcev kaže na možnost srečnega, celovitega seksualnega srečanja, kjer se premikata in se medsebojno spravljata v gibanje oba v heteroseksualnem paru, čeprav to medsebojno stimulacijo nakazuje zgolj gibanje zunaj teles. Žensko telo je pri tej postavitvi celo bolj svobodno. Vsekakor si je želeti nadaljevanj v tej slikarjevi usmeritvi onkraj zapovedanih norm in meja vladajočih konstrukcij seksa in erotike. ENG

Boštjan Plesničar’s (de)construction of eroticism and sexuality Form is power. In sexuality and games of erotic seduction (be it among people or whoever, whatever subjects themselves to a Trismegistian law of attraction) is can well be said that the composition alone is what indicates power relations. There is nothing innocent even in eroticism, the force of vital attraction. It is a universal struggle for attention, energy, comfort and pleasure. Among people there is also a hidden struggle for concrete privileges, concretised power over others. The more this reality is covert, romanticised, the more power relations are naturalised, bound into “normality” of sexual roles, and the more chance there is of one being offended, or better to say: of her being offended and thwarted in her own sexual realisation. Speaking of indicative forms, what can be said about Boštjan Plesničar's artistic forms? How does he dance, theme- and content-wise, his professional painter's dance, which he comprehends as work, not as magic (his surname can be broken up to mean “dance is not magic”)? What means does he use to construct, recycle and decompose sex and sexual attraction? For an introduction into providing answers, let us calculatingly choose the erotic theatre painted on velvet, created as part of the innovative series “velveties”. A meaning-filled material as a good metaphorical starting point for velvet nights, touching surfaces and touching through glances. The motif of a distant kiss surrounded by theatre curtains reaches the sheer core of intimate encounters: sex, the game of seduction, can be nothing but a performance. Or in the words of the philosopher Michel Foucault: each sexual act is part of the discourse on sexuality – there is no natural sex (or original erotic act) to later be put into a specific form, a sexual ritual of a culture. In their take on reapplications of sex, Plesničar's artistic constructions of eroticism of (especially) a female body and sexual intercourse are original and innovative. Paintings convey they know what this is all about, but do this in a unique, attractive, truly erotic way. There would be much less of this artistic eroticism if it was not for some kind of distance, a jesting quality to it. Woman's breasts flutter joyfully (You are my frog / Ti si moja žabica; Coming

Boštjan Plesničar, Om, detajl /detail, 2010, olje na vezani plošči / oil on plywood (


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jev osebni arhiv / from the author’s photo archive)

(foto / photo Robert Ograjenšek)

/ Prihajam, Manitu), a lesbian relationship spontaneously enters a dominant heterosexual matrix amid an absence of homosexual motifs (Porn corn / Ličkanje), while sexual intercourses take place in frisky or poetic artistic metaphorisations of sperm cells and penises (The Last of the Mohicans / Poslednji Mohikanec, Rapunzel / Motovilka). This artistic address “in the name of the father” for the right cause of sex, marked by phallus in the true sense of the word, which very fortunately has a humorous touch, culminates in the painting Porn corn (Ličkanje). Its “carnal revelation”, formally indicated by dark red and blue colours, implies the rural ritual of sexual laxity during corn husking; while from the artistic point of view it may be linked to contemporary pornographic representations. Wittily large corncobs are the grounds for imaginary sexual activities. Yellow points out the danger of the “rule of terror” of phalluses. It is no coincidence that a pair of woman's arms on the painting has been amputated; this prevents them from taking penises into their hands to manipulate them at will. Meanwhile, men's bodies remain intact. Some paintings and drawings have an excess contentbased power, constructing sexuality and eroticism in creative ways. Their form is in contrast with the force of content: they are smaller, more intimate. As if sexual innovation somewhat remained in the artist's personal space, as if there wasn't just enough courage yet to add authorship to sexual expressions as such. Nevertheless, these artistic re-conceptualisations of the sexual are highly valuable: a female Zarathustra dominating the responsiveness of a male body (Thus spoke Zarathustra / Tako je govoril Zaratustra), a meditative opening-up of female genitals as a (still) minimalist counterpoint to phallus (Om), female autoerotisation and erotic gynosociability (Two Witches / Čarovnici). As regards formal power, two paintings at the forefront are The way to a man’s heart is though his stomach (Ljubezen gre skozi želodec) and The Road to Ovum (Pot v jajce). In the former, the usually traditional motif of a lovesick woman having a comfort dessert is left in a (man's?) stomach; while in the latter, an orgasm of rolling planets and glittering inorganic particles indicates the possibility of a happy, integral sexual encounter, in which both individuals of a heterosexual couple move and affect each other's movement, although this mutual stimulation is only implied by movement outside their bodies. In this composition, the woman's body is the freer one. One would certainly wish for a continuation of this painter's tendency which goes beyond the appointed norms and limits of the existing constructions of sex and eroticism. Renata Šribar Dr. Renata Šribar je tekst napisala kot spremljevalni zapis ob razstavi Ličkanje, ki je bila na ogled maja 2010 v Centru sodobnih umetnosti Celje – Galeriji Račka. Del teksta je bil natisnjen na vabilu za omenjeno razstavo, katere kustosinja je bila Irena Čerčnik. This text was written by dr. Renata Šribar for Porn corn (Ličkanje), an exhibition curated by Irena Čerčnik which on display in the gallery Račka, Center for Contemporary Arts in Celje, in May 2010. An excerpt from the text was used in an invitation to the opening.

Boštjan Plesničar, Pot v jajce / The Road to Ovum, 2010, olje na platnu / oil on canvas (avtorjev osebni arhiv / from the author’s photo archive)


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Nataša Ribič Sanje naprodaj Dreams for sale V sanjskih prizorih Nataše Ribič, naslikanih na njenih slikarskih objektih, starinski postelji in blazinah, se prepletajo uresničljivi in neuresničljivi, realni in nerealni, sladki in odbijajoči obeti, v njih se povezujejo stvarno in domišljijsko, racionalno in iracionalno, obljube užitkov in strahovi … Nelagodje ali srh izražajoči prizori se srečujejo s trivialnostjo, bizarnostjo, grotesknostjo, mističnost se druži z uroki, more blažijo razsvetlitve ali vsaj odrešujoči namigi, šele zapredki smisla ali že jasno definirane vsebine, simboli so splošni in osebni, razkrivajo zasebno in družbeno okolje, posameznikove in kolektivne predstave, domačne bližine in skrivnostne dalje … Sanje naj bi bile izraz naših potlačenih želja (Freud) ali spontana, simbolična samopredstava podzavesti (Jung), bile naj bi nekakšna temna stran naše zavesti, ventil zatrtih impulzov …, a kaj pomeni, da so sanje naprodaj, kar kažejo tudi na blazine pripete etikete? Morda nič drugega kot to, da živimo v časih, ko ni nič več nedotakljivo, izvzeto, ko je vse postalo le bolj ali manj zanimivo in vredno blago. ENG Intertwining within dream settings of Nataša Ribič, depicted on her painting objects, an ancient bed and pillows, there are expectations, both feasible and unfeasible, real and unreal, sweet and repulsive, all of them integrating the real and the imaginary, the rational and the irrational, promised pleasures and fears … The sights evoking unease or shudder encounter the trivial, the bizarre, the grotesque; mystique socialises with spells, nightmares are being eased by enlightenments or at least hints providing redemption, be it only cocoons of meaning or contents already clearly defined, the symbols being both general and personal, exposing the private and social environment, individual and collective perceptions, the homey closeness and mysterious remoteness … Dreams are supposed to be an expression of our repressed wishes (Freud) or a spontaneous, symbolic self-representation of the subconscious (Jung), they are somehow supposed to be the dark side of our consciousness, a valve for suppressed impulses... But what does it mean that dreams are for sale, which is also hinted at by the tags fastened to pillows? It might only mean that we live in times when nothing is untouchable, nothing is excluded, when everything has merely become goods that are more or less interesting, more or less valuable. Vladimir P. Štefanec

Nataša Ribič, foto arhiv avtorice / from the author’s photo archive


Robert Klančnik in GVR babaLAN

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“Ustnice predstavljajo enega najizrazitejših atributov človekove neracionalne čutnosti. V tem idejno paradoksalnem kontrapostu se v svoji pragmatičnosti neskončnega bogastva različnih oblik, barv in ritmov kažejo kot izrazni topos in univerzalni poligon. Naj govori tisoč ustnic. Lipss light district. Naj cvetovi in plevel govorijo skupaj – kajti med njimi ne obstaja linija demarkacije. Sleherni sistem prepričanj lahko svobodno raste in vpliva na kogarkoli, vendar noben ne more zahtevati epistemološke superiornosti. Odprta koda.” ENG

“Lips are one of the most expressive attributes of human irrational sensuality. Their endless wealth of pragmatism in various shapes, colours and rhythms shows as the expressive topos and universal drive in this conceptually paradoxical contrapposto. Let a thousand lips speak. Lipss light district. Let the flowers and the weeds speak together – for there is no demarcation line between them. Each belief system can grow freely and influence anyone, yet any of them can demand epistemological superiority. Open Code.” Vlado Repnik

Robert Klančnik in Vlado Repnik, Lipsss


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Peter Rauch Objekti Objects Peter Rauch je v galeriji KiBela razstavil izbor 18-ih fotografij odprte serije, naslovljene Objekti. Na vabilu zapiše: “Preokupiran sem z objektnostjo in fotografijo, zato ustvarjam podobe različnih objektov, suhih, brezpomenskih artefaktov vsakodnevnega sveta. Obenem te iste artefakte samonanašalno iščem v svetu fotografije. Zame je to vaja iz potrpežljivosti v brezpomenskem polju, ki vseeno omogoča intenzivno ustvarjanje, angažma in navdušenje. Čeprav obstajajo konkretna družbena vprašanja, ki naj bi jim umetnost dajala odgovore, se zapiram v politiko medija, v politiko lastnega prsta na sprožilcu, pogleda v iskalu, v strategijo razvijanja in povečevanja fotografij in v politiko izbora ter razstavljanja. Ne posedujem nikakršnega dodatnega védenja o svetu, se opravičujem, s svojo aktivnostjo ga želim šele ustvariti. Če obstaja namen razstave, je to ta.” Skozi svoje delo Rauch raziskuje performativno v fotografiji in objektnost v navezavi z vizualnim. V intervjuju bi želela osvetliti namen razstavljenih fotografij in izpostaviti avtorjevo ravnanje in razmišljanje do fotografske prakse v navezavi z besedili, ki teoretsko uokvirjajo njegovo delo. Tudi mene zanima objektnost, ki se pojavlja na tvojih fotografijah, pa ne toliko predmeti, ampak bolj ustvarjen odnos, ki se dogaja med tvojo prisotnostjo in fotografirano podobo. Predmet in objektnost sta seveda zelo različna koncepta, čeprav imata skupne presečne točke. Ko govorim o objektnosti, govorim predvsem o tem odnosu, ki ga izpostavljaš. Morda bi stopil še korak dlje in izključil fotografijo iz osnovnega razmisleka: gre namreč za človekov odnos do sveta, odnos, ki temelji na kategoriziranju oziroma prepoznavanju okolja skozi (male) pakete, ki jih lahko mislimo–poimenujemo. To so objekti. V tem odnosu vidim temeljni strah, ki ga imamo pred nemisljivim–nepoimenovanim. Ko v svet gledamo skozi prizmo že znanih konceptov, ko vsako stvar lahko pokličemo po imenu, smo varni, svet je urejen in stvari v svetu imajo svoje mesto. Enako velja za dogodke, medčloveške odnose, osebne izkušnje. Vsak vnos v naš register mora imeti svoje mesto, tako namreč postane vnos in tako je lahko misljiv kot singularna enota, o kateri lahko nekaj povemo. V tem vidim veliko moralno dilemo. To je tista strahopetna udobnost, zaradi katere se ne bi soočili s svetom, pripravljeni pa smo o njem veliko govoriti. V enem izmed intervjujev (Forum, 9, 10, 2010) sem že izpostavila distanco, ki jo ustvariš na fotografiji in se pojavlja med tabo in fotografiranim, potem med gledalcem in fotografiranim. Kot fotograf si tako rekoč optimalno blizu in to vidim kot enega bistvenih elementov tvoje fotografije. Praviš, da je zate najpomembnejša drža telesa (da pokrčis kolena, pripreš oči in prežiš na svoj plen). Slikovito sicer razlagaš, da ne fotografiraš, ko je plen še ranljiv, ampak počakaš, da se ta dvigne nadte kot pošast, ki ji “omogočiš”, da te žre v neskončnost. Sliši se kot punctum, ki ohranja suspenz in vzdržuje gledalčevo pozornost. Obenem pa, da imaš kot avtor pomislek o moralni odgovornosti do tega, kar fotografiraš. Lovski prizor, seveda! Previdno je treba pristopiti k zadevi in premišljeno izbrati trenutek odstrela. Uspeh je, če lovec ujame pošast v vsej njeni pošastnosti, torej, če pošast ostane pošast in ne nebogljena mačkica, ki bi si jo lahko zadegal čez ramo. Plen je prizor, ki živi naprej in ki od samega vznika presega lovca in njegove namene. Poniža ga do molčečnosti. To je mogoče lahko neka epistemološka vrednost fotografije. Največja škoda se namreč zgodi, če plen umre. V takem primeru je bolje, da uide in živi po svoje, obenem pa lovec odkoraka v tesnobi poraza, kar je v redu.

Ja, lahko bi bil to tudi punctum, pri čemer je pomembno, da je ta punctum izrazito intimne narave. To, kar žre lovca, ni enako tistemu, kar žre gledalca. Gre za dvojno požrtijo. Precej postmodernistično, kajne?! Nekje drugje sem zapisala, da kljub temu da fotografija nastane kot trenutna izpolnitev in se sklicuje na navdih trenutka, s sabo vedno nosi kontekst, ki fotografijo postavi v berljivo celoto. Avtorska fotografija, vsaj v mojem primeru, ne želi razlagati in je vedno nad tem – komaj nakazuje slutnjo določenega pojava ali misli, ki jo avtor vseskozi izpostavlja in jo v materialnem svetu lahko opazujemo skozi podobo. Veliko bolj kot za eno samo, posamezno fotografijo gre za celostno občutje, ki ga avtor ustvarja s svojim delom. Namen fotografije ni niti dobesedno niti površinsko ukvarjati se s svetom, ampak pripravljenost slediti fenomenom, ki se avtorju v tistem času kažejo kot razumljivi ali jih intuitivno sprejema. Tudi sam praviš, da je osnovno izhodišče tvojega dela odnos do sveta, ki ga vsakodnevne izkušnje sproti sestavljajo in končno manifestirajo v podobi. V bistvu je odnos do sveta osnovno izhodišče in hkrati končna manifestacija mojega delovanja. Ostale aktivnosti, vključno s fotografijo, so nujno potrebne kolobocije v tem procesu. Strinjam se, da je posamezna fotografija le del celotnega mozaika, seveda. Opus, oziroma kot praviš, celotno delo daje relevantno sliko o avtorjevem angažmaju. Pri tem pa vseeno ne gre pozabiti, da ima vsako dolgotrajno delovanje svoja nihanja in svoja odstopanja. Včasih se to dogaja na nivoju posamezne serije ali projekta ali obdobja, včasih se ekstravagance dogajajo na nivoju posamezne fotografije. Tega ne smemo zanemariti – taka razpoka namreč lahko ponuja vstop v prikrito podtalje. Avtorstva zato ne jemljem preveč resno. Celovito avtorsko početje je po navadi retrospektivni konstrukt. Kot je to vprašanje komentiral Makavejev (v pogovoru z Jožetom Dolmarkom, maja letos v Kinoteki), je pod neko delo avtor zgolj pogojno lahko podpisan. Vedno gre namreč za širši kontekst, v katerem zadeva nastane in vključuje širok spekter akterjev, ki bi jih bilo potrebno navesti v podpis. Poleg tega je avtor lahko avtor določenega dela zgolj v določenem trenutku, zato se, kot pravi Makavejev, ob ogledu svojih preteklih del enako čudi kot ostala publika. V tistem trenutku je avtor nekdo drug, mlajši ustvarjalec, ki zgolj slučajno nosi isto ime kot on sam. Podpis je zato vprašljiva inštitucija – ustvarjalec v mojem oziru ni stvarnik ampak iniciator, nekdo, ki poda neko izjavo. Kaj se s to izjavo dogaja naprej, je zanj enako presenetljivo kot za občinstvo. Edina razlika je v njegovem spominu na ustvarjalni dogodek in v plačilu za opravljeno delo. Fotografija je neke vrste arhiv bolj ali manj verodostojnih prizorov, “spomin” kot jo imenuješ sam. To je precej resno izhodišče, še posebej, če govorimo o fotografiji neposredno povezani z državno komercialno politiko. Znani so primeri npr. komunističnega vzhodnega bloka, kjer so politike s skupinskih portretov mojstrsko retuširali in tako prilagajali zgodovino neke dobe. Nekoliko bolj mitološko o fotografiji v navezavi s smrtjo govori Barthes; Derrida se sprašuje, kako naj si predstavlja arhiv, ki je pravzaprav že spomin sedanjosti itn. Sam se zapiraš v politiko medija. Ali to pomeni, da je tvoja fotografija samozadostna? In če, v kakšnem smislu? Bi lahko malo več povedal o tem? Ko govorim o spominu v povezavi s fotografijo, po navadi govorim o artefaktu, ki nosi vlogo suvenirja. Sam zase ne more zamenjati dogodka ali ga nadomestiti, v najboljšem primeru ga skuša opisati. Fotografija je spro-

žilec spominjanja in mišljenja preteklosti za tiste, ki so bili prisotni. Za ostale je lahko muzejski artefakt, izjava, ki vzpostavlja določeno fikcijo. Nivoji in dominante so pri tem odvisni od konteksta – bodisi da je to dokumentarna fotografija bodisi da gre za avtorsko izjavo ipd. Hkrati je treba razumeti vzgib fotografiranja. Ta v mojem primeru izhaja iz prej omenjenega odnosa do sveta. Motiv zato razumem kot neko temeljno naravnanost fotografa do določenega prizora ali objektnega sveta – kar si že sama prej omenila. Motiv podobe je torej motiviranost ustvarjalca, tista zagretost, da poda svojo izjavo. Zelo nerad motiv enačim z označevalcem torej s predmeti, ki so upodobljeni ali s prizorom, o katerem naj bi fotografija poročala. Včasih v zvezi s tem izjavljam, da se trudim za emancipacijo fotografije od ideologije medijske produkcije. Zavedam se, da to zveni pretenciozno, ampak v bistvu gre za podobno misel, kako oprati medij njegove uslužnostne reprezentacijske funkcije. Pa to ne velja zgolj za fotografijo – zadeva namreč širši družbeni angažma. Fotografija v mojem ustvarjanju ni samozadostna, vse prej kot to. Gre za trivialno dejavnost, ki se bistveno vključuje v moj odnos do sveta: iz njega izhaja in ga retroaktivno konstituira. Zaradi tega, sposobnosti konstitucije namreč, se pa veliko ukvarjam z njo. Kaj je torej tisto, kar mi omogoča, da se vpenjam v svet? Namesto samozadostnosti bi prej govoril o samonanašalnosti fotografije. Precej banalno in hkrati silno zabavno početje. Omenjaš politiko svoje prakse. Kaj pa politika reprezentacije, originala in kopije, edicije fotografij? Upoštevanje takšnih pravil na umetniški trg vnaša določen red. Ali so po tvojih izkušnjah ti koncepti pri nas upoštevani? Ne vem, kako je na splošno, lahko govorim le za svoje delo. Pravila, ki jih navajaš, so del celotne izvedbe in predstavitve dela. Ni vseeno, kako je fotografija pripeta na steno, kakšna je izvedba, tehnika povečave, osvetlitev in oprema razstave. Vse to je del izjave, ki jo avtor podaja. Ni ključni, je pa bistveni del izjave. V svojem delu posvečam veliko pozornosti tej izvedbi in pri tem po navadi sledim pravilom, ki so določena s strani umetnostnih inštitucij v najširšem pomenu besede. V primeru, da imam tehtne argumente, se odklanjam od teh pravil. Na primer, ko opazim, da je sledenje pravilom zgolj formalna gesta, namenjena ponavljanju vedenja uspešnih ustvarjalcev. To po navadi zavira formulacijo avtentične izjave, premišljeno in iskreno gesto. Če se vrnem v izhodišče, je aparat predstavitve dela, ki ga omenjaš, stvar tradicije. Enako kot kriteriji ustvarjanja. Na tem področju sem velik pristaš tradicije. V zvezi s tem pogosto navajam Jeffa Walla, ki pravi, da je vsakršno umetniško delovanje izpostavljeno izjemno visokim kriterijem, ki so jih postavili tisti, ki jim je to uspelo. Wall pravi, da ti kriteriji definirajo območje možnosti ustvarjanja nekega dela, če naj je sprejemljivo in pozitivno ovrednoteno. Umetnikove ambicije so v svojih nazorih efemerne narave, kriteriji umetnosti pa vedno ostajajo neizprosni. Peter, prebrala sem tvoj veristični opis razstavljenih fotografij, postavljen poleg drugih tekstov. Kaj pomeni za samo razstavo in komu je namenjen? Opis razstavljenih del je bil prvotno namenjen medijem. V najavah po navadi pričakujejo opis razstave, kaj bodo lahko videli in kdo je avtor. Glede na to, da objekti ne problematizirajo velikih tem, da ne potrebujejo pojasnila ali vstopnega besedila, ki bi obiskovalca prepariral za vstop v galerijo, sem se odločil, da medijem sporočimo točno to, kar bodo lahko videli. Namesto reprodukcij smo poslali dosledne opise razstavljenih fotografij. Gre za zelo iskreno gesto. foto arhiv avtorja / photos from the author’s archive


Savin Model Portret / Savin Model Portrait 2010 inkjet print, 126 x 100 cm edicija / edition: 3


Debla, zavite veje, šibe, grmovje, odmrlo vejevje in tako naprej / Tree trunks, twisted branches, rods, bushes, dead branches and so on 2008 inkjet print, 104 x 158 cm edicija / edition: 3


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Ker je bilo to besedilo pripravljeno, sem ga vključil še v razstavo. Obiskovalcem ponuja memoar na videne podobe. Namesto telefonskih posnetkov ali kataloških reprodukcij, se lahko vrnejo k podobam s pomočjo teh opisov: razstavljene podobe si lahko prikličejo v spomin – vendar bodo to konstrukti spomina, kar je izvrstno! Kaj ni to največ, kar lahko ustvarjalec doseže? Da se njegova izjava vpiše v spomin gledalca in se tam sčasoma udomači, transformira in živi svoje življenje?! Kakšen odnos imaš do teorije; ali je teorija pomembna za tvojo fotografsko prakso? In, ali sploh lahko govorimo o zgolj fotografski praksi? Teorijo razumem kot poglobljeno misel, kot sistem vpenjanja ustvarjalnega dela v humanizem. S tega stališča je seveda pomembna za to, kar me zanima v zvezi s svetom in posledično v zvezi s fotografijo. Obstajajo ljudje, ki poglobljeno misel zelo uspešno prakticirajo, zato se zgledujem po njihovem delu in besedilih. Poskušam jih razumeti enako pomembno kot vsakodnevne banalnosti. V bistvu je teorija precej praktična. Težko bi jo ločeval od prakse, ker si ne predstavljam, kaj bi preostalo. Gre za isto stvar, razlika je le v sistemu in terminologiji. Ostalo je intimna odločitev, kam ustvarjalec in mislec stopita. Zdi se namreč, da se tvoje delo interdisciplinarno dotika več sfer. Predvsem, ko izpostaviš “vajo iz potrpežljivosti”, ki meji na kontemplativno držo. Predstavljam si, da je to pri tebi že neločljivo povezano, pa vendar, ali je to del ustvarjalnega procesa ali način življenja? Težko govorim o načinu življenja, ker se bo ta verjetno pokazal retrospektivno. Ne vem, kako živim, zavedam pa se, da ima ustvarjalni proces lahko velike imperialistične težnje v vsakodnevnem življenju. Nekateri se tega zavedajo, drugi ne, nekateri so s tem udobni, drugi ne. Obstajajo gospodinje, ki vsak dan sproti z veseljem sestavljajo jedilnik in si izmišljujejo nove igre, s katerimi motivirajo svoje otroke. Z ustvarjalnim procesom je enako kot z avtorstvom. Nekateri so zanj plačani, drugi ne. Fotografsko ustvarjanje se pogosto označuje z neprimernimi pojmi, kot so: norost, obsedenost, smrt … Kot da resnica znova ostaja podrejena epistemologiji. Nasprotno pa fotografija vedno predstavlja tudi tisti del, ki bi morda želel ostati skrit, saj pogosto izhaja ravno

iz sveta konceptov in vzorcev, ki se prevrednotijo šele v presežkih. In tudi, česa se človek boji bolj, kot norosti in neprištevnosti? Fotografija je sama po sebi dovolj kompleksen pojav, zato je ni potrebno razlagati na drugi ravni, da bi vzbujala očaranost. Sam praviš, da si “preokupiran s fotografijo”; to ima drugačno konotacijo, kot če bi nekoliko bolj populistično zapisal, da si “obseden s fotografijo”. Ali? Seveda! Ne gre za obsedenost niti ne za usodnost ali poslanstvo. Tu je treba biti skromen. Veliko ljudi je pred nami že teptalo to zemljo in veliko jih še bo. Ne bi si rad lastil fotografijo tako, da jo deklariram kot neločljiv del svojega življenja. Fotografiram verjetno precej po naključju. Od medijev, ki jih in sem jih prakticiral, mi ustreza zaradi navidezne očitnosti in konceptualne izmuzljivosti. Stalno brni in vzpostavlja neko napeto stanje v podobi. To mi ustreza. Njena površinska napetost namreč. Hkrati pa se navdušujem nad performansom fotografske produkcije. To bi bil lahko eden izmed ključnih argumentov za izbor medija. Ne zgolj podoba, ampak ustvarjanje podobe, vse, kar zaradi te aktivnosti ostane na/v njej in vse, kar se zaradi neznanih razlogov ne obdrži in morda ostane le v spominu prisotnih. Ja, preokupiran sem s fotografijo, ker se poglabljam v njen ustroj in v njen domet. Zanima me, če lahko drug drugega izčrpava. Pri tem ne želim vzpostaviti ezoteričnega odnosa z medijem ali fetišističnega razmerja s tehnologijo. Na delu je navdušenje, fascinacija, ljubiteljstvo pravzaprav. S tega stališča sem ljubitelj, navdušenec – če to opredeljuje status amaterja, potem sem amater. Ko govoriš o svojem delu zelo premišljeno in natančno uporabljaš besede. Ali se tvoje delo začne že z besedo? Beseda pride kasneje. Po navadi je precej moteča. Beseda je potrebna za medijsko najavo, za izjavo za medije, za otvoritvene besede in spremno besedilo, za predavanje in intervju, beseda je ključni del prijave na razpise za financiranje ustvarjalnega dela itn. Tej besedi se ni mogoče izogniti in ta beseda se premočno zažira v moje delo. Verjetno si mislila še drugo besedo – intimno besedo, ki omogoča nastanek misli in razumevanja sveta. Tej besedi se seveda nisem sposoben izogniti. Vanjo sem vkorakal in pri njej gostujem.

ENG At Kibela gallery, Peter Rauch exhibited a selection of 18 photographs from the open series entitled Objects. On the invitation he says: “Being preoccupied with objectness and photography, I create images of various objects, of dry, meaningless artefacts of everyday world. At the same time I seek the same artefacts self-referentially in the world of photography. This, to me, is an exercise in patience in a meaningless field, which nonetheless enables intense creativity, engagement and enthusiasm. Although there are concrete social issues that art should be providing answers to, I tend to shut myself in the politics of the medium, in the politics of my own finger on the shutter button, the gaze in the viewfinder, in the strategy of developing and enlarging photographs, as well as the politics of selecting and exhibiting. I apologize for not possessing any additional knowledge of the world, I only mean to create it through my activity. If there is an aim to my exhibition, this is it.” In his work Rauch explores the performative in photo­ graphy and the objectness in connection to the visual. This interview is an attempt to highlight the purpose of the exhibited photos and stress the author’s acting and perspective about photographic practice, in connection to the texts that represent a theoretical framework to his work. I am interested in the objectness exposed in your photographs; not so much the objects themselves as the created attitude formed between your presence and the photographed image. The object and the objectness are of course two very different concepts, although they have common intersection points. When I refer to objectness, I am mostly referring to the attitude that you just mentioned. I might even take a step further and exclude photography from the basic discourse: the question is namely a person’s stance towards the world, an attitude based on categorizing or recognizing the environment by way of (small) packages, units that can be imagined and named. These are objects. In such an attitude I see a fundamental fear that we have, of the unthinkable and the unnamed. Looking at the world through the lens of familiar concepts, being able to call anything by its name, gives us safety;

Objemalna škatla je naprava za ustvarjanje pritiska, namenjena pomirjanju hipersenzibilnih ljudi, po navadi so to osebe z motnjami avtističnega spektra. Terapevtsko napravo z blagodejnimi učinki je zasnovala in razvila Temple Grandin leta 1965. / Hug machine is a deep pressure device designed to calm hypersensitive persons, usually individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The therapeutic, stress-relieving device was originally conceived and designed by Temple Grandin in 1965. 2010, srebro-želatinasta fotografija na FB papir / gelatin silver print on FB paper, 104 x 158 cm, edicija / edition: 3


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Prisotnost telesa 3 (skica) / Body Presence 3 (sketch) 2009 ročna povečava, kromogeni postopek / c-type handprint, 34 x 50 cm edicija / edition: 5

the world is orderly and things have their place in it. The same goes for actions, human relationships, personal experiences. Every entry in our mental framework must have a place of its own, for it is how it becomes an entry, and as such it is thinkable as a singular unit, about which we have something to say. This represents a great moral dilemma to me. It is that cowardly comfort zone, which makes us not confront the world, but allows us to talk about it abundantly. In one of the earlier interviews (Forum, 9, 10, 2010) I have already stressed the distance you create in photographs, that occurs between yourself and the photographed, and then between spectators and the photographed. As a photographer you are, so to speak, optimally close and I see this as one of the basic elements of your photographs. You say that body posture is the most important thing to you (knees bent, eyes squinted, awaiting your prey). You explain vividly how you don’t photograph while the prey is still vulnerable but wait for it to come at you like a monster whom you “allow” to eat at you for infinity. It sounds like a punctum that keeps the suspense and maintains the spectator’s attention. At the same time it seems as though you are having second thoughts about the moral responsibility of what you are shooting. A hunt scene, of course! You have to be careful and the moment of the shot always has to be a premeditated decision. Success means that the hunter catches the monster in all of its monstrocity, i.e. that the monster remains a monster and not some helpless kitten that you can flip over your shoulder. The prey is a scene that lives on, and from the very beginning surpasses the hunter with his intentions. It humiliates him to the level of silenceness. This might be a sort of epistemological value of photography. There is no greater damage than if the prey is killed. It is better that it escapes and walks free, and the hunter marches off in the anxiety of defeat, which is fine. Yes, it could well be a punctum, but it is important that it would be an intensely intimate punctum.What’s eating the hunter is not what’s eating the spectator. It’s a double feast. Rather post-modernist, isn’t it?! On another occasion I wrote that despite of the fact that photos are created as a momentary fulfilment and refer to the moment of inspiration, they still carry

with them a context which positions them into a readable unit. An author’s photograph, at least in my case, does not tend to explain and is always above that – just barely revealing a hunch of a certain phenomenon or thought, which the author constantly stresses and that can be observed in the material world in the form of an image. Much more than just a single, individual photograph, it is an overall sensation that authors are creating through their work. The purpose of photography is not dealing with the world literally, nor superficially, but being ready to follow the phenomena that either present themselves understandable to the author at a certain time, or he can accept them intuitively. You said yourself that the basis of your work is an attitude towards the world that is being constructed gradually by everyday experience and eventually manifested in an image. The attitude towards the world is at the same time a basis and a final manifestation of my engagement. Other activities, including photography, are just inevitable and indispensable proceedings inside this process. Naturally, I agree that every photo is but a part of a mosaic. The opus, or – as you put it – work on the whole, then represents a relevant picture about the author’s engagement. However, it should not be forgotten that any long-term actioning has its ups and downs as well as its deviations. Sometimes this happens on the level of an individual series, project, or period, and occasionally such extravagances occur on the level of individual photos. This is not to be neglected – such an opening may serve as an entrance into a secret underground. This is why I do not take authorship too seriously. A complete author’s work is usually a retrospect construct. Like Makavejev commented on the issue (in an interview by Jože Dolmark, in May at Kinoteka), an author can only conditionally be signed under a work. It is because there is always a broader context in which something is crea­ ted, and a wide spectre of people involved who should be mentioned in terms of authorship. Moreover, an author can only be the author of a particular work at a given moment, which is why – as Makavejev puts it – he is equally surprised at any of his former works as the rest of the audience. In that moment, the author is really somebody else, a younger creator, who happens to carry the same name. The signature is thus an ambiguous institution – the person behind it in my case is not a creator but an initiator, somebody making a statement. Whatever happens to that statement in the future is as surprising to him as it is to the audience. The only difference lies in

his memory of the creative event and the payment for an accomplished job. Photography is a kind of archive of more or less credible scenes, „memory“, as you call it. This is a rather serious starting point, especially in the light of photography directly connected to commercial state politics. Examples are known from the eastern communist bloc, where politicians’ group portraits had been masterfully retouched, thus changing the history of a certain period. A somewhat more mythological concept of photography in relation to death is that of Barthes; whereas Derrida wonders about how he should imagine an archive, given that it is in itself a recollection of the present, etc. You choose to shut yourself inside the policy of the medium. Does this mean that your photography is self-sufficient? And if it does, in what sense? Could you elaborate a little? Whenever I speak about memory in connection to photography, it is usually in reference to artefacts performing the role of souvenirs. Souvenirs in themselves cannot change or replace the event, at best they try to describe it. Photography is a trigger of past recollection and mentality to those there present. To others it may represent a museum artefact, a statement arousing a certain degree of fiction. The levels and dominants here depend on the context – be it documentary photography, an author’s statement, etc. At the same time we need to understand the photographic motive. In my case it originates in the above mentioned stance towards the world. Consequently I understand the motive as a kind of elementary orientation of the photographer towards a certain scene or object world, as you mentioned earlier on. The motive behind the image is therefore the motivation of its creator, his enthusiasm about making a statement. I hate to interpret the motive as the signifier, i.e. the objects presented, or as the scene that the photo is supposed to report about. Concerning these issues, I sometimes declare myself as trying in the name of emancipation of the photography from the media production ideology. I realize it may sound pretentious but it is basically a similar idea to how to clear the medium of its service-bound representative function. Moreover, this does not apply exclusively to the field of photography – it considers a wider social engagement. Photography is far from being self-sufficient in my own creative work. It is a trivial activity which is essentially included in my belief system: it stems out of it and constitutes it retroactively. Because of its ability to constitute I


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devote much of my time to it. What is then the thing that enables me to fasten myself into the world? Rather than self-sufficiency I would talk about the self-referentiality of photography. As banal as it sounds, it is in fact an incredibly fun business. You mentioned your practice policy. What about the policy of representation, of copy and original, of photo edition? Acknowledging such rules helps to establish a certain order in the art market. With regard to your experience, do you think these concepts are respected in Slovenia? I wouldn’t make any general comments, I can only speak about my own work. The rules that you mentioned are part of the entire execution and presentation of the work. It is not insignificant how a photo is pinned onto a wall, what the execution of the exhibition is like, or the enlargement technique, the light, the equipment. All these contribute to the statement that the author is making. They are not the key to the statement, but definitely its fundamental part. In my work I dedicate quite a lot of attention to the execution as such, usually observing the rules set by the art institutions in the broadest sense of the word. If I have relevant arguments against them, I deviate from these rules. For example, when I notice that following the rules is a mere formal gesture, resulting in the repetition of the behaviour of successful creators. This normally stands in the way of formulating an authentic statement, a deliberate and truthful gesture. Turning back to the starting point: the apparatus of presenting one’s work, like you mentioned, is a matter of tradition. Much like the creative criteria. In this field I am personally very inclined to tradition. Concerning these issues I often quote Jeff Wall, who says that any artistic activity is exposed to extremely demanding criteria, set by those who have already succeeded. Wall goes on to explain how these criteria are defining the area of possibility for creative work, if it should be acceptable and positively evaluated. The artists’ ambitions are ephemeral in their outlook, while the criteria for art remain relentless at all times. I have read your veristic description of the exhibited photographs, placed beside the other texts. What does it mean to the exhibition itself and who is it intended for? The description of the exhibited works was originally intended for the media. The announcements are ordinarily expected to give a description of the exhibition, what will be showing and who is the author. Considering that the objects in questions do not incite great polemics, nor do they need an explanation or entrance text to prepare the visitors for the exhibition, I decided to communicate to the media exactly what they will be able to see. Instead of reproductions, we sent them consistent accounts of the exhibited photos. A truly sincere gesture. The text had already been prepared, so I included it in the exhibition. The visitors are offered a memoir to seen images. Instead of using telephone recordings or catalogue reproductions, they can return to the images with the help of these depictions: they can evoke the exhibited images into their memory – but these will be memory constructs, which is amazing! Isn’t that the most that a creator can achieve? For his statement to be imprinted in the memory of the visitor, and eventually become acclimatized, transformed and living a life of its own?! What is your attitude towards theory; is it relevant to your photographic practice? Is it even right to talk about a solely photographic practice? I understand theory as an in-depth thought, as a system of attaching creative work onto humanism. From such a perspective theory is obviously relevant to my curiosity about the world and consequently photography. There are people who practise in-depth thinking very successfully, and I look up to their work and texts. I try to understand them, equally important to everyday banalities. Theory is actually quite practical. It is hard to distinguish it from practice, because I cannot imagine what would remain. They are one and the same thing, the only difference is in the system and the terminology. Everything else comes down to a personal decision, the steps that the creator and the thinker take. It seems that your work touches various spheres, it’s interdisciplinary. Especially when you refer to the “exercise in patience”, which is on the border of contemplation. I imagine these are long since intertwined

inside you, but still – is it a part of the creative process or a lifestyle? It would be hard to call it a lifestyle, since this will only show in retrospect. I don’t know how I live, but I am aware that the creative process can have huge, imperialistic appetites in everyday life. Some people are conscious of it, others aren’t, some are comfortable with it, others aren’t. There are housewives that make up lunch menus every day, as they go along, and with joy, or invent new games to motivate their children. The creative process is just like authorship. Some are paid for it and others are not. Photographic creativity is often labelled with inappropriate terms like madness, obsession, death … As if the truth remains once again subordinate to epistemology. Contrarily, photography also always represents that part that maybe wishes to remain hidden, since it often stems from the world of concepts and patterns that are only evaluated in surpluses. Also, what is it that man fears more than insanity and madness? Photography in itself is a complex enough phenomenon, hence it needs not be explained on another level to evoke fascination. You say that you are “preoccupied with photography”; it has a different connotation than a more populist expression “obsessed with photography”, does it not? Of course! There is no obsession, fatality or mission involved. One has to be modest. There were so many people walking this ground before us, and so many more are still to come. I have no intention of owning photography by declaring it as an indispensable part of my life. The photographs I take mostly occur by chance. Out of all the media that I have experienced, it probably suits me best because of its seeming obviousness and conceptual elusiveness. It keeps humming and creates a sort of tense condition in the image. That works for me. Its surface tension, namely. At the same time I am fascinated by the performance of photographic production. It could be one of the crucial arguments in favour of choosing this medium. Not just the image, but the creation of the image, and everything that stays with it/inside it because of this activity; as well as everything that does not hold

Savin Japan (skica) / Savin Japan (sketch) 2009 inkjetprint 40 x 50 cm edicija / edition: 5

on for unknown reasons, and may only survive in the memory of those present. Yes, I am preoccupied by photography, because I delve into its structure and scope. I am curious whether we can exhaust one another. I have no intention of establishing an esoteric relationship to the medium, or a fetishist one to technology. At work are fascination, enthusiasm, amateurism, actually. From this point of view I am an amateur, a fan, a follower – if this is what qualifies an amateur, than I am one. When you speak about your work, you choose your words carefully and deliberately. Does your work start at the level of words? The words come later. They are usually rather disturbing. Words are needed for media announcements, press releases, opening speeches and accompanying texts, for lectures and interviews; words are key elements in applying to calls for services that finance the creative work, etc. such words cannot be avoided and they are too deeply infiltrated in my work. You were probably referring to something else – personal, intimate words which help the creation of thought and understanding of the world. These I cannot and will not avoid. I have stepped into them and remain as their guest. Tanja Verlak


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TENSION FIELD Artists Ivan Blažev, Tomaš Blonski, Ranko Dokmanović, Jan Durina, Vlado Elias, Mario Furcak, G.R.A.M., Christoph Grill, Živko Gvozdanić, Robert Jankuloski, Jelena Jeruša, Daniel Kariko, Damjan Kocjančič, Stevan Kojić, Damir Krizmanić – Kriza, Sofija Silvia, Jože Suhadolnik, Goran Škofić, Antonio Živkovič

V zadnjih desetletjih so bili v številnih evropskih državah ustanovljeni centri umetniške fotografije, med katerimi so se nekateri začeli razvijati na področju amaterske fotografije, drugi pa na področju likovne umetnosti. Njihova prizadevanja so pomembno prispevala k temu, da se je fotografija začela obravnavati in ceniti kot umetniški izraz. Vendar pa države vzhodne in jugovzhodne Evrope v primerjavi z državami, ki so fotografijo kot umetniški izraz sprejele kmalu po 2. svetovni vojni, zaostajajo v razvoju na tem področju. Razvoj institucionalne sfere v regiji vzhodne in jugovzhodne Evrope je bil razmeroma počasen, z redkimi specializiranimi javnimi institucijami na področju fotografije (Hiše fotografije v Bratislavi in Budimpešti so prej izjeme kot pravilo). Kljub temu pa sta v tem delu Evrope prisotni močna tradicija in zelo živahna mreža amaterskih in fotografskih klubov, ki so se razvili v sedanjo sodobno fotografsko sceno. Namen projekta Tension Field je zagotoviti informacije o razmerah in stanju umetniške fotografije v regiji, ki so jo močno zaznamovala dogajanja v 80. in 90. letih prejšnjega stoletja. Večina fotografskih umetnikov v tej regiji namreč izvira iz klubske scene v zgodnjih 80. letih prejšnjega stoletja. Njihovi začetki so del fotografskih tradicij in občutljivosti, ki se je razvila kot posledica socialno-političnih okoliščin obdobja tranzicije. Hkrati pa ti umetniki ostajajo odprti do trendov na področju fotografije in širše umetniške scene ter jih tudi pozorno spremljajo. Izražajo tako tradicionalne in tudi bolj konceptualne pristope, kar pomeni, da zlasti fotografi mlajše generacije sami sebe obravnavajo kot “umetnike, ki uporabljajo fotografski izraz“. Projekt Tension Field se osredotoča na nekatere od teh vidikov: lokalne in regionalne fotografske tradicije ter načine njihove rabe; pogoje za delo, na katere vpliva politika na področju kulture; ključne vidike kulture in pomembne razvojne smernice ali vplive mednarodnega razvoja; medregionalne trende in medsebojne vplive. Projekt Tension Field močno poudarja celovite dialektične postopke raziskovanja, s katerimi predstavlja identifikacijo sodobnih fotografskih razvojev in trendov. Gostujoči kustosi iz partnerskih mest so nominirali tri do štiri fotografske umetnike, pri čemer vsak od nominirancev zastopa svojo lokalno fotografsko sceno. Poleg zgoraj omenjenih vidikov je nominacija osredotočena na umetniško kakovost in izraznost. Na podlagi teh predlogov glavni kustos oblikuje razstavo, pri čemer upošteva vse ustrezne usmeritve in ključne teme, poleg tega pa poskrbi za upoštevanje ter prikaz vidikov mednarodnega povezovanja. Lokalni in medregionalni vidiki se združijo z namenom, da se omogoči vpogled v sodobno umetniško fotografijo vzhodne in jugovzhodne Evrope. S povezovanjem lokalnih virov znanja je splošni namen projekta preučitev tranzicijskega obdobja na področju umetniške fotografije in določenih lokalnih razmer, ki služijo kot modeli za širše obravnavanje te teme. Projekt Tension Field združuje kustose iz šestih držav (Avstrija, Hrvaška, Makedonija, Srbija, Slovaška in Slovenija) v partnerstvo, ki pomeni prvi korak v nadaljnjem kartiranju in mreženju v tej regiji. ENG In the last decades, in many of the European countries, centres for art photography have been established. Some have been originated from amateur photography, others have been developed in the context of fine art. Their efforts resulted in the fact that photography is finally being considered and respected as a medium of art. However, in the East / South East Europe the situation is still underdeveloped when compared to the countries, which embraced photography within established arts soon after the WWII. There has been relatively

Curators

slow progress in the institutional sphere in the SEE region with very rare specialized public institutions for photography (Houses of Photography in Bratislava and Budapest are more exemptions from the rule). However; there was a strong tradition and very vivid, disperse amateur and photo-club scenes in this part of Europe, which has evolved into present contemporary photography situation. The aim of the Tension Field project is to inform about the current condition and status of the photo art scenes in the region after developments in 80–90-ies, which have led to the present state. Majority of the photo artist here have emerged from club scenes in early 80-ies, having roots in local photo traditions, shaping sensibility for local socio-political circumstances in transitional period, but in the same time being open (and informed) to actual trends in photography and to broader art scene. They have reflected both traditional and more conceptual approaches, which directed especially younger photographer to perceive themselves in the recent period as “artists using photography”. Some particular aspects are being focused within this “tension field” such as local and regional photo traditions and their implementations, cultural- politics affected working conditions, cultural key aspects and apparent tendencies of development or influences by international developments and transregional trends and mutual effects. The Tension Field project puts a great importance to a comprehensible dialectic process of research, which is identification of developments and trends of contemporary photography. Guest curators from partner cities have nominated 3–4 photo artists, who should be exemplary for the local photo art scene. Beside the aspects mentioned above, the focus for this nomination is of course on artistic quality and expressiveness. Based on these proposals, the main curator has developed the exhibition by considering all relevant tendencies and core themes. Furthermore, aspects of international crosslinkage and trans-border cooperation are observed and illustrated. Local and supra-regional aspects are combined to provide an insight into contemporary photo art in the South / Eastern / Central-European region. By connecting local sources of knowledge, overall project aims to examine the transitional period in the field of art photography and to focus on particular local situations and take them as models for broader treatment of the subject. Tension Field project has joined curators from six different countries (Austria, Croatia, Ma­ cedonia, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia) in a partnership, functioning as an initial step into continuous “mapping” and networking in the region. Dejan Sluga

Max Aufischer and Gerhard Gross from Kulturvermittlung Steiermark – Cultural City Network Graz Sabina Salomon from Museum of Modern and Contemporary Arts, Rijeka Zoran Petrovski from Museum of Contemporary Arts, Skopje Zuzana Lapitkova from Central European House of Photography, Bratislava Svetlana Mladenov from Museum of Contemporary Art Vojvodina, Novi Sad and Aleksander Bassin and Dejan Sluga from Photon Association, Ljubljana Christoph Grill (Aut): iz serije / from the series Shortstalks, 1996–2010


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Tension field je mednarodni projekt, ki raziskuje obdobje tranzicije od lokalnih foto klubov v osemdesetih do aktualnega stanja stvari na področju sodobne fotografije v regiji Srednje in Jugovzhodne Evrope. Koordinator in producent projekta je Photon – Center za sodobno fotografijo iz Ljubljane. Projekt je podprt s strani ECF – European Cultural Foundation. Tension Field is an international project exploring the transition period; from 1980’s local photo clubs, to the current state of affairs in the field of contemporary photography for the East and South-East Europe. The coordinator and producer of the project is Photon – Centre for Contemporary Photography for Central and South-East Europe, Ljubljana. The project is supported by the ECF – European Cultural Foundation. Jože Suhadolnik (Slo), iz serije / from the series Ostanki dneva / Remains of the day, 2000

Goran Škofič (Cro), iz serije / from the series Neon Sky, 2009


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P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. Zavod P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. v Sloveniji podpira neodvisno produkcijo knjig umetnika, organizira razstave, pripravlja seminarje, predavanja, predstavitve, delavnice ter izdaja nove edicije knjig umetnika. Od leta 2004 je z javnimi razpisi izbral in izdal knjige Andrejke Čufer, Mateja Stupice, Jaka Železnikarja, Jureta Engelsbergerja, Mladena Stilinovića, Zore Stančič, Dejana Habichta, Boštjana Puclja, Vlada Marteka. Ob tem je izoblikoval zbirko knjig umetnika, ki danes obsega preko 120 enot domačih in tujih avtorjev. Knjiga umetnika je kot umetniška forma predvsem fenomen 20. stoletja. Odigrala je pomembno vlogo v avantgardnih praksah, dadaizmu, surrealizmu, fluxusu in pop artu. Tudi v Sloveniji ima bogato tradicijo – predvsem od OHO-jevskih knjig iz šestdesetih let dalje. Knjiga umetnika je umetniško delo, izvedeno v formi knjige. Vključuje oblikovanje, tipografijo, tisk, vezavo, različne materiale in medije. Umetnik največkrat sodeluje oziroma nadzoruje vse faze knjižne izdelave. Njihove oblike so raznovrstne: zvitki, upogibanke, predmeti v škatli, tridimenzionalni objekti. Zavod P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. deluje na dveh lokacijah, P74 in KAPSULA. Ena izmed pomembnih dejavnosti ter programskih smernic P74 je podpora mladim umetnikom in kustosom ter postavitvam prvih samostojnih razstav, mednarodna žirija pa podeljuje tudi nagrado skupine OHO za mlade umetnike. Stalnica programa je tudi podpora in razstavljanje knjige umetnika in mednarodno sodelovanje s kustosi in s sorodnimi prostori iz Berlina, Madrida in Dunaja. KAPSULA je specializirana knjigarna knjig umetnika in umetniških publikacij ter projektni prostor, namenjen aktualni sodobni vizualni in intermedijski produkciji. Deluje od marca 2008 dalje. KAPSULA ponuja publikacije Zavoda P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. in več drugih evropskih neodvisnih založnikov (MOTTO Zuerich, Pa/PER Bruselj, Space Poetry Kopenhagen, Half Letter Press Chicago, idr.). KAPSULA v podhodu Ajdovščina predstavlja dejaven poskus oživljanja v zadnjih letih močno zapostavljenega dela Ljubljane. Vzpostavitev novega razstavnega prostora je del obsežnejšega projekta Slovenska cesta, ki ga je zasnovala Mestna občina Ljubljana.

KAPSULA v osnovi nima preveč strogo načrtovanega programa. Kakšne dogodke lahko pričakujemo v letošnjem letu? Program bo v letošnjem letu malo bolj umirjen kot lani, razstave bodo tudi dalj čase odprte. V letošnjem programu gostimo samostojni intermedijski projekt dua Small but dangers, samostojno razstavo Uroša Potočnika, projekt hrvaške umetnice Lare Badurine in samostojno razstavo avstrijskega umetnika Huberta Kostnerja. KAPSULA bo tudi eno od prizorišč druge izdaje festivala knjige umetnika. Pripravili bomo tudi več krajših predstavitev, projekcij, pogovorov, tematskih večerov ipd., ki se bodo odzivali na aktualno dogajanje v Ljubljani. Lani ste septembra in oktobra v Ljubljani organizirali Konvencijo Blind Date, prvi mednarodni festival knjige umetnika in umetniških publikacij. Konvencija Blind Date je bil velik organizacijski zalogaj. Potekala je na več prizoriščih: v Galeriji Kresija, KAPSULI, Centru in Galeriji P74, v Galeriji Jakopič in v Umetnostni galeriji Maribor, kjer smo pripravili predavanje. Osnovna ideja festivala je knjigo umetnika kot vizualni medij približati širši publiki, jo popularizirati. Prva izdaja festivala je bila zelo uspešna in odmevna. Prepričala je lahko vse skeptike, da je produkcija knjig umetnika zelo bogata in raznovrstna in je nastajala v dvajsetem stoletju kot samostojen, včasih tudi kot alternativni medij. Pred kratkim sem nekje na internetu zasledila zanimivo razlago, kaj knjiga umetnika ni: They are not children's books. They are not sketch books. They are not diaries. They are not blank books. They are not exhibition catalogues. They are not reproductions of a body of an artist's work. They are not art books (a common misnomer). Dokaj preprosta in točna označba. Največkrat se knjigo umetnika zamenjuje z umetniško monografijo. Na kratko: knjiga umetnika je umetniško delo v formi knjige. Ustvarja specifičen prostor; stene prostora so “zvrnjene” v strani knjige, kot bi v prostem prevodu citirali Marka Pogačnika, pionirja knjige umetnika pri nas.

Tadej Pogačar je umetniški in poslovni direktor.

Kaj za vas pomeni knjiga umetnika? Kako je s trgom za knjigo umetnika pri nas?

Znani ste po številnih projektih z mednarodnim dometom, zlasti po že dobro poldrugo desetletje trajajoči zgodbi P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. Muzeja.

Knjiga umetnika je medij, ki je živel vzporedno s številnimi gibanji in umetniškimi smermi dvajsetega stoletja, dokler se ni osamosvojila in postala samostojen vizualni medij z lastno zgodovino. Zanimiva je njena neekskluzivnost, demokratičnost, do-it-yourself logika, alternativna distribucija ipd. Večkrat v zgodovini umetnosti je knjiga umetnika predstavljala alternativno formo umetniškega izražanja. S knjigami umetnika se v zadnjih letih predstavljajo tudi zini, cenene fotokopirane samozaložniške publikacije, ki jih poznamo iz časa punka poznih sedemdesetih do zinov različnih subkultur osemdesetih in devetdesetih. Za vse te publikacije na Zahodu obstaja velik interes in številni zbiralci. Pri nas, kot vemo, ne premoremo niti zbiralcev za sodobno umetnost, kaj šele za knjigo umetnika ali zine. Pred šestimi, sedmimi leti smo pričeli s prvimi javnimi razpisi za novo knjigo umetnika. S prvimi donacijami in izmenjavami smo pričeli oblikovati tudi lastno zbirko. Sledilo je oblikovanje izobraževalnega programa, ki ga imenujemo Seminar knjige umetnika – z delavnicami, predavanji, pogovori ipd. Od leta 2008 sodelujemo na mednarodnih sejmih knjig umetnika, od Pariza, Berlina, Londona, Bruslja do New Yorka. Prav sejem v New Yorku je največji in najstarejši. Ker smo edini založnik knjig umetnika v regiji, je sodelovanje na sejmih še posebej pomembno. To je način informiranja o lastni produkciji in tudi najpreprostejši način distribucije. P74 v marcu praznuje štirinajsto obletnico delovanja. Ob tem pripravljamo veliko razstavo, ki govori o aktualnih temah medija knjige umetnika. Vključevala bo tudi video, risbo, fotografijo ipd. Gre za predstavitev fenomena Eda Rusche, enega od pionirja knjige umetnika na Zahodu. Razstavo je pripravil nemški umetnik in avtor knjig umetnika Michalis Pichler. Primerna tema za praznovanje štirinajste obletnice.

P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. Muzej in Zavod P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. sta globalni instituciji. Delujeta mednarodno in lokalno. Naše kolege v tujini še vedno zanimajo naše specifike, naše strategije delovanja. Letos bomo sodelovali z grškim, nemškim in srbskim kustosom ter nevladnimi in vladnimi organizacijami na Dunaju, Muenchnu, Oslu, Londonu, Novem Sadu itd. Kaj je posebnost Galerije P74 in Kapsula? Galerija P74 je nastala pred štirinajstimi leti kot zelo specifičen prostor, ki ga vodi umetnik. Že s tem se razlikuje od ostalih nevladnih institucij, ki jih vodijo umetnostni zgodovinarji ali kustosi. Drugi prostori umetnosti so z leti oblikovali svojo publiko, svoj krog privržencev. Slej ko prej so postala ekskluzivna in zaprta, predvsem do prihajajočih mladih generacij umetnikov. P74 je spremljala že več generacij – skratka, ni generacijski ali tematski prostor. V prvih letih smo poseben poudarek namenjali širitvi znanja in izmenjavi. Najpomembnejše so bile delavnice, ki so jih pripravljale starejše generacije umetnikov za mlajše generacije. Ob tem so se še spoznavali. Izkušnje lokalnega znanja so izjemno pomembne in želeli smo jih prenašati in hkrati ustvarjali medgeneracijsko povezovanje in sodelovanje. Svet umetnosti je izjemno ekskluzivističen, izključevalen in rasističen. Zavestno smo delovali v nasprotju z vsemi njegovimi osnovnimi pravili. P74 zato tudi nima stalne publike. Umetniki, ki aktivno soustvarjajo program, vedno/vsakič pripeljejo svojo publiko.


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ENG The P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E Institute in Slovenia works as a supporter of independent artist book production, organizer of exhibitions, seminars, lectures, presentations, workshops and as a publisher of fresh editions of artist books. Since 2004 it has, by way of public calls for proposal, selected and published books of Andrejka Čufer, Matej Stupica, Jaka Železnikar, Jure Engelsberger, Mladen Stilinović, Zora Stančič, Dejan Habicht, Boštjan Pucelj and Vlado Martek. Alongside, a collection of artists’ books has been formed, offering over 120 units of local and foreign authors. The artist book as an art form is foremost a 20th century phenomenon. It has played an important role in the avant-garde practice, Dadaism, surrealism, fluxus and pop art. It has a distinct tradition even in Slovenia – mostly from the OHO Group books from the 1960s onwards. The artist book is a work of art, executed in the form of a book. It includes design, typography, printing, binding, various materials and media. Most of the times the artist participates in or supervises every phase in the making of the book. These come in a variety of forms: scrolls, folders, objects in a box, three-dimensional objects. The P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E Institute operates on two sites, P74 and KAPSULA. One of the major activities and program directions of P74 is supporting young artists and curators, and organizing their first solo exhibitions. An international jury also presents the OHO Group award to young artists. Another regular feature of the program is the support to and exhibition of artist books and international cooperation with curators and related associations from Berlin, Madrid and Vienna. KAPSULA is a specialized bookstore for artist books and art publications, and a project space for the ongoing contemporary visual and intermedia production. It has been active since March 2008. KAPSULA offers publications published by the P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E Institute and several other European independent publishers (MOTTO Zürich, Pa/PER Brussels, Space Poetry Copenhagen, Half Letter Press Chicago, etc.). KAPSULA at the Ajdovščina underpass (Ljubljana) is an active attempt at the revival of an increasingly neglected part of Ljubljana over the last couple of years. A new exhibition space was established as part of a larger project called Slovenska cesta (The Slovenska street), devised by the municipality of the city of Ljubljana. Tadej Pogačar is the art and managing director. You are known for numerous projects of international scope, especially for the story of the P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E Museum lasting nearly two decades. The P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E Museum and the P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E Office are both global institutions. They act internationally as well as locally. Our colleagues from abroad are still interested in our specifics, our working strategies. This year we will be working with curators from Greece, Germany and Serbia, and both government and non-government organizations from Vienna, Munich, Oslo, London, Novi Sad, etc. What is it that is special about the P74 Gallery and Kapsula? P74 was founded fourteen years ago as a very specific space run by an artist. This fact alone makes it different from other non-government institutions that are run by art historians or curators. Other art locations have formed their own audiences through the years, their circle of followers. Sooner or later they became exclusive and closed, especially towards the emerging younger generations of artists. P74 has been following several generations – it is not a generation- or theme-bound space. In the first years we focused mainly on expanding our knowledge and on exchange. Workshops were the most important, held by older generation artists for the younger ones. They were getting to know each other alongside. The experience of local knowledge is of major importance and we wanted to transfer it and simultaneously create a connection and cooperation between different generations. The art sphere is extremely exclusivist, ostracizing and racist. We have consciously been working against all its basic principles. That is why P74 does not have a steady audience of its own. The artists who are actively engaged in the creation of the program bring their own audience every time.

In general, KAPSULA doesn’t follow a strictly planned program. What kind of events can we expect to see this year? This year’s program is paced slightly slower than the last year’s, the exhibitions will stay open longer. We will be hosting an independent intermedia project by the Small but dangers duo, a solo exhibition by Uroš Potočnik, a project by Croatian artist Lara Badurina and a solo exhibition by Hubert Kostner from Austria. KAPSULA will also be one of the settings of the second artist book festival. We are further holding several short presentations, screenings, discussions, thematic events, etc. linked to the current events in Ljubljana. Last September and October you organized the ‘Blind Date Convention’ in Ljubljana, the first international artist book and art publications festival. The Blind Date Convention was quite a handful in terms of organization. It was set on a number of locations: the Kresija gallery, KAPSULA, the P74 center and gallery, the Jakopič gallery and the Maribor Art Gallery (UGM), which hosted a lecture. The basic idea of the festival was to bring the artist book as a visual medium closer to the general public, to popularize it. The first edition of the festival was a great success and attracted a lot of attention. It managed to convince all the skeptics that the artist books’ production was a rich and versatile one, having been formed in the 20th century as an independent or sometimes an alternative medium. A short while ago, I came across an interesting definition on the Internet, of what an artist book is not: They are not children’s books. They are not sketch books. They are not diaries. They are not blank books. They are not exhibition catalogues. They are not reproductions of a body of an artist’s work. They are not art books (a common misnomer). A rather simple and accurate label. Most often artist books are confused for art monographs. Shortly: an artist book is a work of art in the form of a book. It creates a specific space; the confinements of this space “topple” into the pages of the book – paraphrasing Marko Pogačnik, the pioneer of the artist book in Slovenia. What does the artist book mean to you? Where does the artist book stand on the Slovene market? The artist book is a medium that lived alongside numerous art and other movements of the twentieth century, until it gained its autonomy and became an independent visual medium with a history of its own. What is interesting is its non-exclusiveness, democratism, its doit-yourself principle, alternative distribution, etc. Many times in the history of art the artist book represented an alternative form of artistic expression. Over the last couple of years artist books are also being presented by zines - low-budget, self-published photocopied publications, known as such from the punk era of the late seventies to the zines of various subcultures of the eighties and the nineties. There is great demand and a lot of collectors for all these publications in the West. Slovenia, on the other hand, does not even have contemporary art collectors, much less artist books or zine collectors. Six or seven years ago we launched the first public calls for proposals, for a new artist book. The first donations and exchanges helped us form our own collection. The next step was the formation of an educational program called ‘the artist book seminar’, with workshops, lectures, discussions, etc. Since 2008 we have been participating in international artist book fairs from Paris, Berlin, London, Brussels to New York. The New York fair is the largest and oldest one. Since we are the only artist book publisher in the region, it is all the more important to be present at these events. It is a means of informing about our own productions as well as the simplest way for distribution. P74 marked its fourteenth anniversary in March. On this occasion we organized an extensive exhibition concerning the current topics of the artist book medium. It also included videos, drawings, photography, etc. It was a presentation of the Ed Rusch phenomenon, one of the pioneers of the artist book in the West. The exhibition was curated by German artist and artist book author Michalis Pichler. A becoming theme to celebrate the fourteenth anniversary. Katja Kremenčič

PARASITE: P74 in galerija Kapsula, Beli sladoled, Ladja norcev / P74 and Kapsula Gallery, White ice cream, Ship of fools, 2010 (foto / photo Dejan Habicht)


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Boナ。tjan Drinovec, Postmoderni ト考ovek / Post-modern man, foto arhiv KIBLA 2010 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boナ。tjan Lah


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Boštjan Drinovec Postmoderni človek Post-modern man Kipar Boštjan Drinovec, ki od leta 2008 poučuje kiparstvo na Akademiji za likovno umetnost in oblikovanje v Ljubljani, v svojem življenjepisu takoj ob podatku o akademski karieri zapiše, da je “ustvarjalec Metelkove Mesta”. Ta podatek sprva zveni obstransko, navidezno pripoveduje zgolj o tem, da se kiparjev atelje nahaja na lokaciji Avtonomnega kulturnega centra Metelkova. Toda vendarle informacija skriva mnogo več kot to. Boštjan Drinovec je pomembno zaznamoval podobo Metelkove mesta in Metelkova je gotovo zaznamovala kiparja. Boštjan Drinovec je kipar, ki je leta 1999 v fasado Galerije Alkatraz umestil kopijo grškega kipa Davida. Ta urbani pejsaž je postal tista podoba, po kateri Metelkovo prepoznamo njeni uporabniki. Boštjan Drinovec pa je tudi kipar, ki z načinom produkcije ter likovnostjo in vsebino svojih projektov izraža eno od različic 'metel­ kovske drže'. Podoba Metelkovca je ena tistih podob, ki jo vsi razumemo, a je nihče ne more do konca razložiti. Moč jo je pripisati “družbenim subjektom na presečišču dominantnih kultur, kulturne industrije, množične kulture, borbe za prostor, borbe za kulturno hegemonijo in pravico do svobodnega ustvarjanja,”1 vendar jo je težko opredeliti natančneje. Metelkovska drža ni nikdar popolna odslikava realnega trenutka Metelkove, vendar pa je konstruirana iz elementov stvarnosti, naknadno ponotranjena in vpeljevana nazaj v realno na način, s katerim si “alternativna scena uprizarja Metelkovo.” Za dela Boštjana Drinovca je značilna ena od inačic te 'metelkovske drže'. Njegova dela niso izraz direktnih političnih izjav, vendar pa so z njimi prežeta na več nivojih. V produkcijskih okvirih je zanje v veliki meri značilno izhodišče D.I.Y. (naredi sam), ki je prepoznavno na vseh ravneh Metelkove mesta, na drugi pa ga je moč povezati tudi z idejo gojenja metjejskega znanja, ki postopno, a precej gotovo izginja iz vedno bolj profesionaliziranega (in posledično industrializiranega) sveta vizualne umetnosti. Skulptura Kakofonični generator ustvarja mešanico urejenih in kaotičnih ritmov, Posttetris, množica v tri dimenzije prestavljenih elementov računalniške igre Tetris, ki jih lahko obiskovalci razstave poljubno zlagajo, a jih ni nikdar moč zložiti v enotno površino, ter prepoznavna monumentalna jeklena lego skulptura, ki je lastno glavo prijela pod roko, so komentarji družbe, ki obkroža kiparja. Kakofonija zvokov, ki jih proizvaja skulptura, odgovarja kakofoniji sodobnosti, vrvežu velemest in kaosu raznolikih oblastiželjnih družbenih prepričanj, ki se med seboj ne uspejo uglasiti, ali pa jim to uspe le za kratek čas. Na podoben način je zasnovan Posttetris, kjer so elementi zasnovani tako, da skorajda onemogočijo sestavljanje. Skulptura pa, pravi avtor, vendarle “omogoča celo vrsto kombinacij, ki ustvarjajo pestrost vizualnega doživetja in presegajo izkušnjo urejenosti ter sestavljivosti.” Motiv skorajda človeške figure Postmoderni človek, ki jo gledalec Zahodnega sveta gotovo prepozna kot podobo proizvoda industrije otroških igrač, le da tokrat svoje glave ne nosi na ramenih, je razumljiva na prvi pogled.

1  Neven Korda Andrič, Alternativna kulturna produkcija, diplomsko delo / diploma thesis, Ljubljana 2008, str. / p. 5.

Na komentar sodobnih družbenih vprašanj pa skulpture ne kažejo zgolj z motiviko in tematiko, ampak so njihov enako zgovoren element tudi materiali in likovne forme, ki jih sestavljajo. Napetost, ki se ustvarja med bleščečim jeklom in spoliranim plastičnim rumenilom glave Lego figure, ali videz najdenega in do urbanega videza brušenega podstavka v nasprotju s precizno tehnologijo instrumenta, ki biva na njem, ustvarjajo kakofonijo materialov in površin. Ta vizualno podpira in se prepleta z vsebinsko plastjo skulptur. Motivika, tematika, material in površina so med seboj v sozvočju. Ko opazujemo D.I.Y. dovršenost Drinovčevih skulptur, nas površina in mate­ riali seznanjajo z 'Metelkovsko držo', ko pa razmišljamo o njihovem sporočilu, to postane jasno le prek oblik, struktur in površin, ki skulpture sestavljajo. Likovno in pomensko sta na razstavi Kakofonični generator v sozvočju. ENG The sculptor Boštjan Drinovec who has been teaching sculpture at the Academy of fine arts and design, Ljubljana since 2008 credits himself in his CV, just alongside his academic career, with being “a creator of Metelkova Mesto”. At first, this might seem an obsolete fact, seemingly telling us only that the sculptor's atelier is to be found in Metelkova Autonomous Cultural Centre. Yet there is more contained in it. Boštjan Drinovec has had a significant impact on the image of Metelkova Mesto, and Metelkova has certainly marked him in return. Boštjan Drinovec is the sculptor who in 1999 placed a copy of the Greek sculpture David on the Alkatraz Gallery façade. The urban landscape became the central image of Metelkova as recognised by its users. Furthermore, Boštjan Drinovec is the sculptor whose kind of production as well as visual and thematic aspects express a “Metelkova attitude”. The image of Metelkovec (i.e. someone to do with Metelkova) is the type of image we all understand, yet no one knows how to explain it thoroughly. It can be attributed to “social subjects appearing at the intersection of dominant cultures, cultural industry, mass culture, struggle for space, struggle for cultural hegemony and the right to free creation,”1 but difficult to define in more detail. The “Metelkova attitude” is far from being a perfect reflection of the current Metelkova moment. Rather, it is constructed of elements of reality, later to be internalised and again introduced to the reality in the manner that is used by “the alternative scene to stage Metelkova”. Typical of Boštjan Drinovec is a variant of “Metelkova attitude”. His works are no expression of direct political statements, but permeated by them at several levels. As regards production frameworks, they are to a large extent characterized by the DIY approach, which can also be identified at all levels of Metelkova mesto, but can also be related to the idea of maintaining the métier knowledge, which has been gradually but plainly disappearing from the increasingly professionalized (and thereby industrialised) world of visual arts. The sculpture Cacophonous generator, producing a mixture of organised and chaotic rhythms, Posttetris, an abundance of Tetris computer game elements arranged in three dimensions for visitors to combine them, al-

though they can never be combined into a uniform surface, and a recognisable monumental steel Lego sculpture holding its head below its arm: they all comment on the society surrounding the sculptor. The cacophony of sounds produced by the sculpture responds to the cacophony of contemporaneity, the hustle and bustle of big cities, and the chaos of diverse power-seeking social believes that keep failing to harmonise themselves or only manage to do it for a short period of time. Posttetris is of similar layout, its elements having been designed so as to practically prevent combining. However, according to the artist, the sculpture still “enables a range of combinations that produce a variety of visual experience and exceed the experience of being organised and combinable.” Clearly understandable at first sight is the motif of the nearly human figure Post-modern man, which is surely recognised by a Western visitor as the image of a toy industry product, even if his head is placed somewhere else than his neck. It is not only their motifs and topics that comment on contemporary social issues, equally telling are the sculptures' materials and the art forms composing them. The tension created between the shiny steel and polished plastic rouge of the Lego figure head, or the appearance of the found base cut to acquire the urban look as opposed to the precise technology of the instrument posed on it, all this creates a cacophony of materials and surfaces. This then further supports the thematic layer of sculptures and combines with it. When observing the sculptures made to perfection by Drinovec in a DIY manner, the surface and materials introduce us to the “Metelkova attitude”. However, when considering their message, this can only become clear through the forms, structures and surfaces composing the sculptures. At the exhibition Cacophonous generator, the aspects of art and meaning are very much harmonious. Petja Grafenauer


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Robot Dreams

V nasprotju s suhoparno definicijo iz slovarja, po kateri je “robot elektronsko vodena naprava, ki enakomerno opravlja vnaprej programirana, pogosto človekovemu zdravju škodljiva dela”, je percepcija robotov v polju kulture in umetnosti bolj zanosno idealistična. Robot kot nadomestek človeka ali celo njegova konkurenca je nič kolikokrat obdelana tema znanstveno fantastične literature in filma 20. stoletja, ki sta nemalokrat tematizirala ultimativno umetno inteligenco, stroj z miselno močjo, ki bi lahko človeka nadomestil tudi na višji in ne zgolj produkcijski ravni. Čeprav se je del utopične (ali distopične) vizije 20. stoletja z napredkom tehnologije uresničil, roboti tudi v začetku 21. stoletja niso samozadostna bitja, ki bi bila sposobna delovati brez človekovega posredovanja. Znanstveno fantastični pisec Isaac Asimov je v svoji zbirki kratkih zgodb z naslovom 'Robot Dreams' ustvaril robota Elvexa, ki je sanjal človeške sanje. Zaradi njegove “motnje” in identifikacije s človekom ga je njegova stvariteljica in skrbnica pri priči uničila. To literarno delo iz leta 1986 je služilo kot iztočnica istoimenske razstave v graškem Kunsthaus, ki predstavlja vpogled v delček sodobne produkcije v polju robotske umetnosti in njenih historičnih referenc. Tematiziranje fenomena robotov skozi prizmo umetnosti je v kontekstu te skupinske razstave usmerjeno v dokaj heterogeno obravnavanje tehnološke umetnosti, ki se pogosto nanaša na vzore iz preteklih temeljnih del polja znanstvene fantastike. Rekonstrukcija skulpture oziroma scenskega elementa robota Marie iz kultnega filma 'Metropolis', ki ga je Fritz Lang prvič predstavil leta 1927, je tako odlična iztočnica za razumevanje obsežne postavitve. V komunikativnem in ilustrativnem muzejskem duhu – razstavo sta s skupnimi močmi pripravila Kunsthaus iz Gradca in Museum Tingely iz Basla1 – so na ogled postavljena dela z raznorodnimi vsebinskimi in formalnimi izhodišči, ki se iz različnih zornih kotov nanašajo na ključno besedo – robot. Najsi gre tu za povsem mehanske priprave, poskuse vzpostavljanja komunikacije z obiskovalci, video projekcije ali objektne instalacije, je rdeča nit razstave močno povezana s fascinacijo nad visoko tehnologijo in utopično mislijo o človekovi interakciji s strojem. Po analogiji se je robotska umetnost v polju likovnega na ravni praktične tehnološke aplikacije začela razvijati sredi 50. let prejšnjega stoletja in je pospešeno naraščala do današnjega trenutka, ko je – kot vsa umetnostna produkcija – postala množična. Po prelomnih projektih Akire Konayame (1955) in Nicolasa Schöfferja (1956), ki sta v svoje delo neposredno vključila avtomatsko vodeno oziroma programirano pripravo, se je robotska umetnost razmahnila predvsem v 60. in 70. letih. 'Robot K-456' (1964) tandema Nam June Paik in Shuya Abe je predstavljal samostojno entiteto, ki je bila zmožna igranja na klavir, medtem ko je Edward Ihnatowicz z delom 'The Senster' (1969) ustvaril robota, ki je taval naokrog po galerijskem prostoru in se ob pomoči senzorjev odzival na zvok in premike obiskovalcev. V okviru razstave v Kunsthaus sta bili omenjeni deli na svojstven način reflektirani iz perspektive poznejšega časa. Nam June Paik se je kot pionir novomedijskih praks svojega časa znašel med poglavitnimi artfakti razstave. 'Andy Warhol Robot' iz leta 1994 je del serije instalacij, ki v značilnem duhu zdrave ironije obravnavajo sodobno tehnologijo ter svet množičnih medijev. Analogna skulp1  Robot Dreams, 9. 10. 2010 – 20. 2. 2011 Kunsthaus Graz, Universalmuseum Joanneum Kuratorji / Curators: Katrin Bucher Trantow, Peter Pakesch, Andres Pardey, Roland Wetzel Koprodukcija / Coproduction with Museum Tinguely, Basel. In cooperation with steirischer herbst.

tura robota privzema najznačilnejše elemente produkcije Andyja Warhola – pločevinke juhe Campbell in škatle mila Brillo – ter v kombinaciji z devetimi barvnimi televizorji, ki ponavljajo te iste motive, in razvitimi filmskimi trakovi, izkazuje moč množičnih medijev, ki ustvarjajo in zgodovinijo ikonične podobe. Umetnik mlajše generacije Niki Passath je ustvaril robotskega pajka, ki navzlic svoji naravi programiranega stroja povzema vzorce človeškega obnašanja: mobilna priprava se združuje v skupine in z navideznim zanimanjem reagira na premike obiskovalcev, jih zasleduje in se postavlja v vlogo opazovalca. Apokaliptičen pogled na skupino robotskih pajkov vzbuja skoraj srhljivo vzdušje, ki pripravi posameznika, da se jim začne iz vljudnosti in nelagodnosti umikati. Skozi video dokumentacijo je predstavljen eden najpomembnejših protagonistov sodobne umetniške robotike, Stelarc, ki na neposreden način performativnih akcij svoje telo postavlja v odnos s strojem. V performansu 'Third Hand', premierno izvedenem leta 1980 na Japonskem, se je avtor s svojim telesom podal v neposredno interakcijo s strojem, ki je postal podaljšek njegove fizične in mentalne identitete. Na ta način je avtor postal hibridno bitje, človek-stroj, ki skozi lastno intimno dojemanje reflektira poskuse, ambicije in dosežke bliskovitega tehnološkega napredka v smeri medicine in genetike. V popolnoma analognem duhu se v svet nad-organskih bitij podaja John Bock z delom 'In the Shadow of the Maggots', dolgometražnim umetniškim filmom z očit­ nimi referencami na vplivni film 'Frankenstein' iz leta 1931. Bock skozi skrbno koreografijo gibov uprizarja odnos med duhovnikom, znanstvenikom in androidom ter znanstveno delovanje prenaša na raven sodobne alkimije. Svojo vizijo človekove odvisnosti od tehnološke animacije predstavlja Walter Pichler s pripravo 'TV-Helm' (1967), čelado, ki človeku omogoča neprestano mobilno spremljanje televizije, s čemer avtor iz perspektive svojega časa reagira na naraščajočo moč tega medija. Sodobnejši odziv na to isto tematiko je z instalacijo 'The Prison' podal Jon Kessler z mizansceno interaktivno pripravo, ki se odziva na vsakdanji svet sodobnega človeka in njegovih tehnoloških pripomočkov. Avtorjeva ideja izvira iz opazovanja potnikov javnega prometa v New Yorku, ki so po večini popolnoma okupirani s svojimi mobilnimi napravami. Razstava 'Robot Dreams' se bolj kot v slavljenje dosežkov visoke tehnologije kritično obrača na reflektiranje posledic njenega bliskovitega razvoja. Če je pionirska doba robotike namigovala na pozitivne in negativne posledice prihajajoče tehnološke prevlade, jo novejša dela neposredno reflektirjo v luči trenutne stvarnosti. Obiskovalec lahko zlahka spozna, da so se nekatere vizije znanstvene fantastike 20. stoletja že zgodile, zato umetniki opozarjajo na stranske učinke – individualizacja posameznika znotraj družbe, prevlada množičnih medijev in okoljevarstvene posledice tehnološkega razvoja. Kljub herojskemu razvoju se tehnologija še vedno izkazuje kot izjemno krhka, na kar so opozarjali številni nedelujoči elementi razstave, ki so obiskovalca prikrajšali za bistvo nekaterih razstavljenih del. Kljub temu pa je postavitev soočila različne generacije ustvarjalcev in omogočila izbrani pregled robotske umetnosti, ki je še vedno v polnem zamahu tehnološkega in konceptualnega razvoja.

Razstava / Exhibition view, foto / photo JJ Kucek John Bock, In the Shadow of the Maggot, videoinstalacija / videoinstallation, 2010, Courtesy Klosterfelde, Berlin; Anton Kern, New York, Foto / Photo Jan Windszus

Niki Passath, Zoe, 2010 Instalacija / Installation, Courtesy of the artist, foto / photo Niki Passath


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Stelarc, Third Hand. Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, 1980 Tretja roka, interaktivna instalacija / Interactive Installation, Courtesy of the artist (foto / photo Simon Hunter)

Maria (replika robota iz filma 'Metropolis' Fritza Langa / Replica of the robot figure from 'Metropolis' by Friz Lang), 1927/1988 (Vir / Source: Friedrich-Wilhelm-Murnau-Stiftung)


folio / volume 3 (2011) / / 110

Niki Passath, an artist of the younger generation, created a robot spider, which follows patters of human behaviour despite having the nature of a programmed machine: a mobile device forms groups and reacts to movement of visitors with an apparent interest, following them and assuming the role of an observer. An apocalyptic view of a group of robot spiders creates an almost sinister mood, making one to start backing away politely and with a sense of unease. By means of video documentation, the exhibition presents Stelarc, one of the most important protagonists of contemporary art robotics, who explores the relation between his body and a machine in a straightforward way through performance events. His performance ‘Third Hand’, shown for the first time in Japan in 1980, was a direct interaction of the author’s body with a machine, which became an extension of his physical and mental identity. This way, the author became a hybrid creature, man-machine, who reflects on attempts, ambitions and achievements of the swift technology development in medicine and genetics by comprehending it all on an intimate level.

Razstava / Exhibition view, foto / photo JJ Kucek

ENG In contrast to the dull dictionary definition of a robot as “an electronically controlled machine steadily performing pre-programmed tasks that can have a harmful effect on human”, the perception of robots in the field of culture and art is more passionately idealistic. Robot as a substitute for humans or even their competition is an ever-discussed topic in science fiction literature and film of the 20th century, which often dealt with the ultimate artificial intelligence, a machine with mental capacity which could replace a human on a level higher than merely a production one. Even though with technological development parts of the utopian (or dystopian) vision of the 20th century became a reality, at the beginning of the 21st century robots are still far from being self-sufficient creatures capable of operating without human intervention. In his collection of short stories “Robot Dreams”, science fiction author Isaac Asimov created a robot named Elvex, which dreamed a human dream. Due to its “disorder” and identification with humans, its creator and caregiver immediately destroys it. This fiction title from 1986 was an inspiration for an exhibition with the same name. Taking place in Kunsthaus in Graz, the show gives an insight into a fragment of contemporary production in the field of robotic art and its historical references. At this group exhibition, explorations of the phenomenon of robots through art focus on a rather heterogeneous discussion about technological art, which often refers to examples from earlier works that comprise the canon of science fiction. A reconstruction of the sculpture or a prop of Maria, a robot from Metropolis, the cult 1927 film directed by Fritz Lang, is therefore an excellent starting point to comprehend the vast display. In a communicative and illustrative museum spirit, the exhibition – a collaboration of Kunsthaus Graz and Museum Tingley from

Basel – comprises works of diverse content- and formrelated designs, which all refer, from different aspects, to the key word, i.e. robot. Be it entirely mechanical devices, attempts to establish communication with visitors, video screenings or object installations, the leitmotif of the exhibition is closely connected to fascination with high technology and a utopian thought about human’s interaction with a machine. By analogy, in the domain of fine art robotic art started to develop on the level of practical technological application in mid 1950’s, and has grown very quickly since, up to the present moment when it is becoming – like all art production – mass art. After the crucial projects of Akira Konayama (1955) and Nicholas Schöffer (1956), who incorporated automatically controlled or programmed devices directly into their work, robotic art saw its biggest growth in 1960’s and 1970’s. ‘Robot K-456’ (1964) by Nam June Paik and Shuya Abe was an independent entity capable of playing the piano, while ‘The Senster’ (1969) by Edward Ihnatowicz is a work featuring a robot who wanders around a gallery, responding to sound and movement of visitors using its sensors. At the exhibition in Kunsthaus, the two works mentioned are reflected on in a unique way from the perspective of their succeeding times. As a pioneer in new-media practices of his time, Nam June Paik is one of the principal artefacts of the exhibition. ‘Andy Warhol Robot’ from 1994 is a part of an installation series dealing with modern technology and the world of mass media in the signature style of good irony. An analogue sculpture of a robot assumes the most typical elements of Andy Warhol’s production – Campbell’s Soup Cans and Brillo Soap Pads Boxes – and, combined with nine colour television sets that keep repeating these same motifs, and unrolled motion picture films, indicates the power of mass media, which create iconic images and make them history.

With his work ‘In the Shadow of the Maggot’, a featurelength art film with obvious references to the influential 1931 film ‘Frankenstein’, John Bock enters the world of super-organic creatures entirely analogue-style. With a precise choreography of movement, Bock illustrates the relation between a priest, a scientist and an android, bringing scientific efforts to the level of modern alchemy. Walter Pichler presents his vision of a human dependence on technological animation with a device called ‘TV-Helm’ (1967), a helmet that enables one to constantly watch television also when in movement. Thus, the author reacts to the growing power of this medium from the perspective of his time. A newer reaction to the same issue was provided by Jon Kessler with his installation ‘The Prison’, featuring an immersive interactive device that responds to everyday life of humans today and their technological devices. The author got the idea while observing passengers of the New York public transport, most of whom are completely immersed in their mobile devices. More than a celebration of achievements of high technology, the exhibition Robot Dreams is a critical approach to reflections on the consequences of its swift development. If the pioneering period of robotics indicated positive and negative consequences of the coming technological domination, the newer works are an immediate reflection on it in the light of the current reality. A visitor can easily acknowledge that some of the visions of science fiction of the 20th century have already become reality, which is why artists draw attention to the side effects – individualisation of a person within a society, the domination of mass media and environmental impacts of technology development. Despite the heroic progress, technology still seems extremely fragile, a case proven by numerous non-functioning elements of the show, which deprive visitors of the essence of some of the exhibited works. Nevertheless, the display brings face to face different generations of artists, and provides a selective overview of robotic art, which is still in full swing of technological and conceptual progress. Miha Colner


jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!! • it was amazzziinngg!! • Odličan lineup!!! • ouwrajt! • lepe! • učer je blo DOYAYA!!!!!!!! še zmer k seb prhajam ... • Zakon! Hvala lepa, svetsko. • !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • zgleda da ste se mel fajn! • wooooohoooooooooooo, kdo rabi predskupine, če so NMN! • aaaaaa, končno nekaj dobrega :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa • hudooooo you made my day :))) • top shit! top shit!!! • v nasmehu Tomaža Pengova.... • New York dance-floor! :) • “you‘re my lollipop/ I wanna cream on top.“ • oooo: Hacke!  • zakon :) • oh yeah! super! • :D • kul :) • ampak res, šiška! lupčeke! • hvala, hvala... vračamo nazaj :* • Waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • !!!! • se že veselim ;) • obvezni pouk • Eden boljših lansko leto! ;) • Tudi če, že to da delate na tem, me zelo veseli :) • Wau!! Začel gledat tole zelo skeptično, končal čist navdušeno!! • ... wow! ... :) • Komaj čakam! • aaaa, ne morem verjet. bravo! • to mi deli! • It was perfect! • ou yes it was! and a little bit gay too :D • Super je blo! • zakon! max of positive energy :) • ličnice me bolijo od smeha ... ta dva sta nora :D love them so much!! • mislim da se bomo vidli :D • kaaaaj :D če je to kšna šala zdele... :P • wooooo! :O • oooooooo super, se definitivno vidmo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :D • kul... točn to sm rabla zdele... • Ka ste fuknjeni!? to je prehudo ;D • Že to bo raztur - pripravite jetra! • odlično! • oooooohhhhhh!!!!! Finally!!!! They are the BEST!! • great!!!!!!!! wooooohuuuuuuu!!!!!! • Nais. • Hvala! kul :D • a se hecate? noro! :) • resno? ZELO ZA • ohoho, packe :).... čestitke kompanjonke :D • TO!! • pošteno :) • uuu wiiii!!!! :))))) • YEES!!! • dreams come true. • gruvi ... •  nisem si mislila, da ju bom spet vidla in to v Lj! • Lepič • of cooourse : ) • yeaaahhhhh, young gudis bubis... • enako, enako! :) •  • Woohoo :D • yeah, that works with women all the time... :> • i wanted to go to this show sooooo bad! • UAU! • aja zakon, sej to grem pa jutr poslušat :D hvala ti • :) :) :) :) :) :) :) :) • zaaaaakon koncerrrt reees!!! :D • dobr koncert • super koncert, lahko še kdaj, pls :D • superca res. • odlični! bolje zvenijo live, kakor pa na plati:) • suuuuper je blo! • noro hudo včeri! • v živo so res neopisljivo dobri ;) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa....finally :))) • pridemoooooo....! • NAJBOLJŠIIIIIIIIII KONCERT. • jeee komej čakaaaamo:)) • AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!!!! :D • ooo to bo pa veselo !!! • jeeeej še en dan :) • uuuuuuuuu yeah! • fuck yes! • niceeeeeee... • tole je vrhunsko • in komaj cakam koncert....wiiiiiiii • Dbest! Res super!! • ZA_vedno_odprto!;) • a je še kaj kart??? Pa kje se jih kupi??? • hvala!!! pol se pa vidimo! woohooo :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!! • it was amazzziinngg!! • Odličan lineup!!! • ouwrajt! • lepe! • učer je blo DOYAYA!!!!!!!! še zmer k seb prhajam ... • Zakon! Hvala lepa, svetsko. • !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • zgleda da ste se mel fajn! • wooooohoooooooooooo, kdo rabi predskupine, če so NMN! • aaaaaa, končno nekaj dobrega :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa • hudooooo you made my day :))) • top shit! top shit!!! • v nasmehu Tomaža Pengova.... • New York dance-floor! :) • “you‘re my lollipop/ I wanna cream on top.“ • oooo: Hacke!  • zakon :) • oh yeah! super! • :D • kul :) • ampak res, šiška! lupčeke! • hvala, hvala...vračamo nazaj :* • Waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • !!!! • se že veselim ;) • obvezni pouk • Eden boljših lansko leto! ;) • Tudi če, že to da delate na tem, me zelo veseli :) • Wau!! Začel gledat tole zelo skeptično, končal čist navdušeno!! • ... wow! ... :) • Komaj čakam! • aaaa, ne morem verjet. bravo! • to mi deli! • It was perfect! • ou yes it was! and a little bit gay too :D • Super je blo! • zakon! max of positive energy :) • ličnice me bolijo od smeha ... ta dva sta nora :D love them so much!! • mislim da se bomo vidli :D • kaaaaj :D če je to kšna šala zdele... :P • wooooo! :O • oooooooo super, se definitivno vidmo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :D • kul... točn to sm rabla zdele... • Ka ste fuknjeni!? to je prehudo ;D • Že to bo raztur - pripravite jetra! • odlično! • oooooohhhhhh!!!!! Finally!!!! They are the BEST!! • great!!!!!!!! wooooohuuuuuuu!!!!!! • Nais. • Hvala! kul :D • a se hecate? noro! :) • resno? ZELO ZA • ohoho, packe :).... čestitke kompanjonke :D • TO!! • pošteno :) • uuu wiiii!!!! :))))) • YEES!!! • dreams come true. • gruvi ... •  nisem si mislila, da ju bom spet vidla in to v Lj! • Lepič • of cooourse : ) • yeaaahhhhh, young gudis bubis... • enako, enako! :) •  • Woohoo :D • yeah, that works with women all the time... :> • i wanted to go to this show sooooo bad! • UAU! • aja zakon, sej to grem pa jutr poslušat :D hvala ti • :) :) :) :) :) :) :) :) • zaaaaakon koncerrrt reees!!! :D • dobr koncert • super koncert, lahko še kdaj, pls :D • superca res. • odlični! bolje zvenijo live, kakor pa na plati:) • suuuuper je blo! • noro hudo včeri! • v živo so res neopisljivo dobri ;) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa....finally :))) • pridemoooooo....! • NAJBOLJŠIIIIIIIIII KONCERT. • jeee komej čakaaaamo:)) • AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!!!! :D • ooo to bo pa veselo !!! • jeeeej še en dan :) • uuuuuuuuu yeah! • fuck yes! • niceeeeeee... • tole je vrhunsko • in komaj cakam koncert....wiiiiiiii • Dbest! Res super!! • ZA_vedno_odprto!;) • a je še kaj kart??? Pa kje se jih kupi??? • hvala!!! pol se pa vidimo! woohooo :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!! • it was amazzziinngg!! • Odličan lineup!!! • ouwrajt! • lepe! • učer je blo DOYAYA!!!!!!!! še zmer k seb prhajam ... • Zakon! Hvala lepa, svetsko. • !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • zgleda da ste se mel fajn! • wooooohoooooooooooo, kdo rabi predskupine, če so NMN! • aaaaaa, končno nekaj dobrega :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa • hudooooo you made my day :))) • top shit! top shit!!! • v nasmehu Tomaža Pengova.... • New York dance-floor! :) • “you‘re my lollipop/ I wanna cream on top.“ • oooo: Hacke!  • zakon :) • oh yeah! super! • :D • kul :) • ampak res, šiška! lupčeke! • hvala, hvala...vračamo nazaj :* • Waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • !!!! • se že veselim ;) • obvezni pouk • Eden boljših lansko leto! ;) • Tudi če, že to da delate na tem, me zelo veseli :) • Wau!! Začel gledat tole zelo skeptično, končal čist navdušeno!! • ... wow! ... :) • Komaj čakam! • aaaa, ne morem verjet. bravo! • to mi deli! • It was perfect! • ou yes it was! and a little bit gay too :D • Super je blo! • zakon! max of positive energy :) • ličnice me bolijo od smeha ... ta dva sta nora :D love them so much!! • mislim da se bomo vidli :D • kaaaaj :D če je to kšna šala zdele... :P • wooooo! :O • oooooooo super, se definitivno vidmo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :D • kul... točn to sm rabla zdele... • Ka ste fuknjeni!? to je prehudo ;D • Že to bo raztur - pripravite jetra! • odlično! • oooooohhhhhh!!!!! Finally!!!! They are the BEST!! • great!!!!!!!! wooooohuuuuuuu!!!!!! • Nais. • Hvala! kul :D • a se hecate? noro! :) • resno? ZELO ZA • ohoho, packe :).... čestitke kompanjonke :D • TO!! • pošteno :) • uuu wiiii!!!! :))))) • YEES!!! • dreams come true. • gruvi ... •  nisem si mislila, da ju bom spet vidla in to v Lj! • Lepič • of cooourse : ) • yeaaahhhhh, young gudis bubis... • enako, enako! :) •  • Woohoo :D • yeah, that works with women all the time... :> • i wanted to go to this show sooooo bad! • UAU! • aja zakon, sej to grem pa jutr poslušat :D hvala ti • :) :) :) :) :) :) :) :) • zaaaaakon koncerrrt reees!!! :D • dobr koncert • super koncert, lahko še kdaj, pls :D • superca res. • odlični! bolje zvenijo live, kakor pa na plati:) • suuuuper je blo! • noro hudo včeri! • v živo so res neopisljivo dobri ;) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa....finally :))) • pridemoooooo....! • NAJBOLJŠIIIIIIIIII KONCERT. • jeee komej čakaaaamo:)) • AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!!!! :D • ooo to bo pa veselo !!! • jeeeej še en dan :) • uuuuuuuuu yeah! • fuck yes! • niceeeeeee... • tole je vrhunsko • in komaj cakam koncert....wiiiiiiii • Dbest! Res super!! • ZA_vedno_odprto!;) • a je še kaj kart??? Pa kje se jih kupi??? • hvala!!! pol se pa vidimo! woohooo :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!! • it was amazzziinngg!! • Odličan lineup!!! • ouwrajt! • lepe! • učer je blo DOYAYA!!!!!!!! še zmer k seb prhajam ... • Zakon! Hvala lepa, svetsko. • !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • zgleda da ste se mel fajn! • wooooohoooooooooooo, kdo rabi predskupine, če so NMN! • aaaaaa, končno nekaj dobrega :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa • hudooooo you made my day :))) • top shit! top shit!!! • v nasmehu Tomaža Pengova.... • New York dance-floor! :) • “you‘re my lollipop/ I wanna cream on top.“ • oooo: Hacke!  • zakon :) • oh yeah! super! • :D • kul :) • ampak res, šiška! lupčeke! • hvala, hvala...vračamo nazaj :* • Waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • !!!! • se že veselim ;) • obvezni pouk • Eden boljših lansko leto! ;) • Tudi če, že to da delate na tem, me zelo veseli :) • Wau!! Začel gledat tole zelo skeptično, končal čist navdušeno!! • ... wow! ... :) • Komaj čakam! • aaaa, ne morem verjet. bravo! • to mi deli! • It was perfect! • ou yes it was! and a little bit gay too :D • Super je blo! • zakon! max of positive energy :) • ličnice me bolijo od smeha ... ta dva sta nora :D love them so much!! • mislim da se bomo vidli :D • kaaaaj :D če je to kšna šala zdele... :P • wooooo! :O • oooooooo super, se definitivno vidmo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :D • kul... točn to sm rabla zdele... • Ka ste fuknjeni!? to je prehudo ;D • Že to bo raztur - pripravite jetra! • odlično! • oooooohhhhhh!!!!! Finally!!!! They are the BEST!! • great!!!!!!!! wooooohuuuuuuu!!!!!! • Nais. • Hvala! kul :D • a se hecate? noro! :) • resno? ZELO ZA • ohoho, packe :).... čestitke kompanjonke :D • TO!! • pošteno :) • uuu wiiii!!!! :))))) • YEES!!! • dreams come true. • gruvi ... •  nisem si mislila, da ju bom spet vidla in to v Lj! • Lepič • of cooourse : ) • yeaaahhhhh, young gudis bubis... • enako, enako! :) •  • Woohoo :D • yeah, that works with women all the time... :> • i wanted to go to this show sooooo bad! • UAU! • aja zakon, sej to grem pa jutr poslušat :D hvala ti • :) :) :) :) :) :) :) :) • zaaaaakon koncerrrt reees!!! :D • dobr koncert • super koncert, lahko še kdaj, pls :D • superca res. • odlični! bolje zvenijo live, kakor pa na plati:) • suuuuper je blo! • noro hudo včeri! • v živo so res neopisljivo dobri ;) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa....finally :))) • pridemoooooo....! • NAJBOLJŠIIIIIIIIII KONCERT. • jeee komej čakaaaamo:)) • AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA!!!! :D • ooo to bo pa veselo !!! • jeeeej še en dan :) • uuuuuuuuu yeah! • fuck yes! • niceeeeeee... • tole je vrhunsko • in komaj cakam koncert....wiiiiiiii • Dbest! Res super!! • ZA_vedno_odprto!;) • a je še kaj kart??? Pa kje se jih kupi??? • hvala!!! pol se pa vidimo! woohooo :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!! • it was amazzziinngg!! • Odličan lineup!!! • ouwrajt! • lepe! • učer je blo DOYAYA!!!!!!!! še zmer k seb prhajam ... • Zakon! Hvala lepa, svetsko. • !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • zgleda da ste se mel fajn! • wooooohoooooooooooo, kdo rabi predskupine, če so NMN! • aaaaaa, končno nekaj dobrega :))) • jaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa • hudooooo you made my day :))) • top shit! top shit!!! • v nasmehu Tomaža Pengova.... • New York dance-floor! :) • Waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • “you‘re my lollipop/ I wanna cream on top.“ • oooo: Hacke!  • zakon :) • oh yeah! super! • :D • kul :) • ampak res, šiška! lupčeke! • hvala, hvala...vračamo nazaj :* • !!!! • se že veselim ;) • obvezni pouk • Eden boljših lansko leto! ;) • Tudi če, že to da delate na tem, me zelo veseli :) • Wau!! Začel gledat tole zelo skeptično, končal čist navdušeno!! • ... wow! ... :) • Komaj čakam! • aaaa, ne morem verjet. bravo! • to mi deli! • It was perfect! • ou yes it was! and a little bit gay too :D • Super je blo! • zakon! max of positive energy :) • ličnice me bolijo od smeha ... ta dva sta nora :D love them so much!! • mislim da se bomo vidli :D • kaaaaj :D če je to kšna šala zdele... :P • wooooo! :O • oooooooo super, se definitivno vidmo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :D • kul... točn to sm rabla zdele... • Ka ste fuknjeni!? to je prehudo ;D • Že to bo raztur - pripravite jetra! • odlično! • oooooohhhhhh!!!!! Finally!!!! They are the BEST!! • great!!!!!!!! wooooohuuuuuuu!!!!!! • Nais. • Hvala! kul :D • a se hecate? noro! :) • resno? ZELO ZA • ohoho, packe :).... čestitke kompanjonke :D • TO!! • pošteno :) • uuu wiiii!!!! :))))) • YEES!!! • dreams come true. • gruvi ... •  nisem si mislila, da ju bom spet vidla in to v Lj! • Lepič • of cooourse : ) • yeaaahhhhh, young gudis bubis... • jeeeej še en dan :) • VIVA POZITIVA. KINO ŠIŠKA. • WWW.KINOSISKA.SI


ORTO je na letošnjem SOF-u (Slovenskem oglaševalskem festivalu) osvojil nagrado Znamka leta, ki je bila v zgodovini festivala prvič podeljena. Nagrado prejme blagovna znamka, ki v okviru festivala zbere najvišje število točk, točke pa se pridobijo na podlagi podeljenih nagrad. ORTO je bil prepoznan kot blagovna znamka, ki je v letu 2010 najbolje izkoriščala oglaševalsko ustvarjalnost. Poleg Znamke leta smo osvojili tudi dve Veliki nagradi (Grand Prix nagradi) v skupini Plakati, za plakat ORTO lepljiva umetnost ter v skupini Celostne oglaševalske akcije akcija “Ne verjemi!” ORTO. Poleg Velikih nagrad smo zlato osvojili tudi v kategoriji Inovativne oblike komuniciranja za akcijo Orto TapeArt. V srebrni noči

smo osvojili še srebrno nagrado za delo Ne Verjemi! ORTO, v kategoriji Film, nagrajena pa je bila tudi avtorska glasba Muzka vedno in povsod, katere avtor je Zlatko. ORTO je v lanskem letu v Slovenijo pripeljal TapeArt in tako spodbudil mlade, da komentirajo vse, kar se dogaja okoli njih. ORTO mladim omogoča, da živijo po svoje! Nam, ustvarjalcem blagovne znamke, pa vedno znova predstavlja izziv, da odkrivamo zanimive, neznane, sveže oblike komuniciranja in da tudi s pomočjo ORTA ostanemo še naprej mladi. ORTO že devet let S SRCEM ustvarjamo Si.mobilovci ob pomoči naših številnih partnerjev, ekip v agencijah Luna, ZenithOptimedia, Sonce, Aragon, FM, VBG, Multipraktik ... Posebna zahvala vsem TapaArtistom in ekipam: Kitsch Nitsch, 1107, Fejzo, Jurij Lozič, Tilen Sepič, Žiga Artnak, Subtotal, Luka Uršič, Petar Perčič, Stella, Sigmund.

ŽUR Z RAZLOGOM – 10 dogodkov v manj kot 7 letih Si.mobil se je v sponzorski strategiji za mlade v letu 2004 osredotočil na napredne, subkulturne dogodke z elektronsko in dance glasbo, skozi katere se je želel približati ORTO generaciji. Ideja o lastnem dogodku, ki se dogaja na prostem in je brezplačen za vse obiskovalce, se je še v istem letu realizirala v dogodku “Žur z razlogom”, katerega cilj in poslanstvo pa nista zgolj in samo zabava. Žur z razlogom ostaja skozi vsa leta zvest svojemu poslanstvu – spodbujanju socialnega čuta med mladimi, premagovanju apatije do družbeno odgovornih tem, širjenju misli, da je NASILJE OUT in dejanjem, ki to misel podpirajo!

Zadnja dva dogodka v Mariboru, univerzitetnem središču in bodoči kulturni prestolnici Evrope, sta zgolj nadaljevanje in širjenje uspešne zgodbe osveščanja mladih o problematiki nasilja. Glasba je pomemben del identitete blagovne znamke ORTO, ki se razvija skupaj z uporabniki in okoljem, v katerem bivajo, ustvarjajo in se družijo. Tudi zaradi tega oder mariborskega Žura z razlogom pozdravlja glasbeno fuzijo in ponuja prostor za glasbo, ki zveni osvežilno. Medtem ko ljubljanski oder tradicionalno zaseda elektronska glasba izpod prstov DJ Umeka. V devetih dogodkih smo skupaj z mladimi in partnerji zbrali več kot 175.000 evrov. Vse od leta 2006 je prejemnik donacije društvo Beli obroč Slovenije, ki zadnji dve leti z zbranimi sredstvi opremlja in tudi odpira prijazne sobe v Sloveniji.

Prijazne sobe so namenjene otrokom in mladostnikom, ki so se znašli v kazenskih postopkih kot žrtve kaznivih dejanj in zaradi travmatičnih izkušenj težko spregovorijo o dogodkih, ki so jih zaznamovali. Prostori na policijskih postajah in sodiščih ne dajejo zadostnega občutka zaupanja in varnosti, zato se žrtve težko odprejo in opišejo dogodke. Ob upoštevanju pravil kazenskega postopka se slikovni in zvočni zapisi pripovedi v prijaznem okolju uporabljajo kot dokazno gradivo, žrtvam pa so tako prihranjena večkratna neprijetna zaslišanja. Vsi simpatizerji poslanstva “Nasilje je out” lahko skozi vse leto s

poslanim sporočilom SMS s ključno besedo BELIOBROC na 1919 donirate 1 evro društvu Beli obroč. Obiskovalci dogodkov pa s poslanim sporočilom SMS prispevate vstopnino z namenom v višini 1 evra. Več informacij na www.orto.si/ zurzrazlogom in www.facebook. com/zurzrazlogom. Nasilje je out. Foto: Žiga Intihar, Klemen Kopitar, Jan Prpič, Multipraktik


Si.mobil d.d., Šmartinska 134b, SI-1000 Ljubljana.

the Ljubljana stage is traditionally home to electronic music from the fingertips of DJ Umek. In the nine events we managed, together with young people and partners, to collect over €170.000. Since 2006 the recipient of the donation has been the Slovenian Beli Obroč Association, which uses the collected funds to furnish and open child-friendly interview rooms all over Slovenia. PARTY WITH A CAUSE – 10 Events in Just Under 7 Years When setting the sponsoring strategy for young people in 2004 Si.mobil focused on advanced subculture electro and dance music events to get closer to the ORTO generation. The idea of our own open-air event, free for all visitors, became a reality the same year with the “Party with a Cause” event, which does not count entertainment as its only goal and mission.

ORTO was the recipient of the Brand of the Year award at this year’s Slovenian Advertising Festival SOF, the first time the festival gave out this award. The award goes to the brand, which gathers the highest score at the festival, with points given for each award received. ORTO was recognized as the brand that exercised advertising creativity the best in 2010. Along with the Brand of the Year we also won two Grand Prix awards, one in the Posters category for the ORTO tape art poster, and the other in the Advertising Campaign category for the “Don’t believe It!” ORTO campaign.

Additionally we also received the Golden Award in the Innovative Types of Communication category for the ORTO TapeArt campaign, and in the silver night a Silver Award in the Film category for “Don’t Believe! ORTO”. In addition, the music created for the campaign Music Always and Everywhere by Zlatko received a special award. Last year ORTO brought TapeArt to Slovenia, encouraging young people to comment on everything happening around them. ORTO allows young people to live their own way! And to us, brand creators, it always presents a challenge to discover interesting, as yet unseen, fresh

forms of communication, and to use ORTO to remain young some more. ORTO has been created WITH HEART by Si.mobil employees, with the help of numerous partners, teams at Luna, ZenithOptimedia, Sonce, Aragon, FM, VBG, Multipraktik … Special thanks goes to TapeArt-ists and crews: Kitsch Nitsch, 1107, Fejzo, Jurij Lozič, Tilen Sepič, Žiga Artnak, Subtotal, Luka Uršič, Petar Perčič, Stella, Sigmund.

Party with a Cause remains loyal to its mission of promoting social awareness among young people, overcoming apathy regarding socially-responsible topics, spreading the idea that VIOLENCE IS OUT, and acts that support this idea! The last two events in Maribor, the university hub and the future European Capital of Culture, are merely a continuation and expansion of our successful story of raising awareness about the problems of violence among young people. Music is an important part of the ORTO brand identity, as it evolves together with the users and the environment they live, create and hang out in. This is also the reason that the stage of the Maribor Party with a Cause welcomes musical fusion and provides a place for refreshing music, while

Child-friendly interview rooms are intended for children and youths, who are victims of violent crimes in police procedures, and have a hard time speaking of the traumatic events that marked their lives. Rooms at police stations and courts do not give a sufficient feeling of safety and trust, so it is harder for victims to open up and speak. In accordance with the provisions of the criminal investigation procedures, the video and audio recordings of their interviews in a friendly environment are used as evidence in court, and the victims are spared numerous unpleasant hearings. Everybody supporting the “Violence Is Out” message can send a text message with the keyword BELIOBROC to 1919 and donate € 1 to the Beli Obroč Society throughout the year. And event visitors can send a text message to purchase a € 1 entrance fee with a cause. More information at www.orto.si/ zurzrazlogom and www.facebook. com/zurzrazlogom. Violence is out. Photo: Žiga Intihar, Klemen Kopitar, Jan Prpič, Multipraktik

2010 20.sof


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Titanik potopljen še tretjič The Titanic sinks for the third time Spomin je še kar svež, ko so po svetu krožili posnetki objokanih deklet, mam in žena, ki so pred petnajstimi leti množično drle v kina in objokovale smrt filmskega princa na belem konju v podobi Leonarda DiCapria. Zanje je pomenil namišljeno izpolnitev nikoli izpolnljivih sanj o ljubezni, ki je tako goreča, da ne ugasne niti v ledenih vodah Severnega Atlantika, o svobodi od šovinističnega moža in spon tradicionalizma, ki jim krojijo usodo. Ladja na poti v deželo sanj se je potopila, a nihče ni jokal za stotinami mrtvih v tragični nesreči, ampak zgolj za njim – enim in edinim. Ko se je torej Titanik potopil prvič na začetku 20. stoletja, je to bila velika tragedija, ko se je potopil drugič na filmskem platnu pred prelomom tisočletja, je to pomenilo epsko zmago za pravega princa te zgodbe, kapital. Še vedno najuspešnejši film vseh časov, ki je ob vložku 200 milijonov dolarjev samo v kinih zaslužil več kot milijardo, je kapitalizmu odprl čisto nove, neslutene možnosti neomejene potrošnje in enormnega zaslužka. Vsaj tisti trenutek se je zdelo, da se luksuzna križarka kapitalizma, proti kateri je originalni Titanik videti kot plastični čolniček v banjici nebogljenega dojenčka, nikoli ne more potopiti. Kapital bo za veke vekov ostal eden in edini, vsi ostali, ki na tej nori in nevarni vožnji izpadejo, ker pač niso dovolj ambiciozni in predani oplajanju dobička, pa ne štejejo, tako kot potniki na filmskem Titaniku. Spomin je še kako svež na množice – dekleta, mame in žene, fante, očete in može – ki so v kina po svetu drle letos januarja, ne objokane, ampak odločene, da bodo tega princa v podobi svetovnega kapitalizma, ki je že zdavnaj padel z belega konja v njegov gnoj, končno potopile v globine svetovne zgodovine. Ugotovili so, da je ta tako nerealno goreča ljubezen sumljiva, da sta princ in šovinistični mož ista oseba, da luksuzna križarka ni najbolj idealna izbira pri plutju v deželo sanj in da se zaradi enega in edinega ne sme žrtvovati vseh ostalih. Tako se je Titanik potopil še tretjič in z njim tudi ideja o totalni kulturni razprodaji in nebrzdanem, brezmejnem

potrošništvu, saj ga je po petnajstih letih po gledanosti na dan svetovne premiere s tretjim dokumentarnim filmom v svoji seriji, imenovanim Premik naprej, prehitel filmski in finančni palček, a idejni velikan, ki iz dneva v dan raste v globalno kritično maso, gibanje Zeitgeist (theZeitgeistMovement.com). Gibanje, ki se je osnovalo okrog idej futurističnega misleca Jacqua Frescoja, je svoj projekt strokovno razdelalo s sociološkega, tehnološkega, psihološkega in okoljskega vidika, predvsem pa je v njem močna duhovna in etična komponenta, kjer so ljudje dejansko obravnavani kot enaki, na podlagi česar je oblikovana tudi popolnoma horizontalna struktura delovanja. Frescojev Projekt Venus, jedro gibanja Zeitgeist, se zavzema za gospodarsko, socialno in okoljsko uravnoteženo družbo in za trajnostno ter na podlagi obnovljivih virov bazirano ekonomijo. Gibanje je od leta 2007, ko je izšel prvi film Zeigeist, pridobilo več milijonov privržencev in stotine aktivističnih skupin po vsem svetu, ki na lastno pest, s pomočjo sodobnih tehnologij, prostovoljcev in brez finančnih botrov zelo uspešno širijo svoje ideje in miselnost. “Tekoče družbene spremembe se lahko uresničijo le, ko sta izpolnjeni dve okoliščini. Prvič, vrednostni sistem ljudi, ki sestoji iz naših razumevanj in prepričanj, mora biti posodobljen in spremenjen z izobraževanjem in premišljenim pogledom vase. Drugič, okolje, ki obkroža ta sistem vrednot, se mora spremeniti tako, da podpira nov pogled na svet. Interakcija med posameznikovim sistemom vrednot in okoljem pa je dejavnik, ki vpliva na posameznikovo vedenje. Na primer, v naši kulturi je 'etika' v resnici stvar stopnje, saj naš družbeni sistem zagovarja in nagrajuje tekmovalnost in lastne interese. Tak pogled ne le 'vodi' k odklonskemu vedenju ... pravzaprav ga neposredno ustvarja. Pokvarjenost je norma v naši družbi in večina ljudi je niti ne vidi, saj družba podpira tovrstno vedenje. Zato je obravnavano kot pravilno in normalno,” vztrajno na izkrivljen kapitalistični pogled na

družbo opozarja gibanje in o tem ozavešča milijone po vsem svetu. Tudi v Sloveniji smo skoraj natančno pred letom dni dobili slovensko izpostavo gibanja, imenovano društvo za trajnostni razvoj Duh časa (Zeitgeist.si), ki se je takoj močno aktiviralo na različnih področjih družbene problematike. Rezultati so prišli hitro, saj Slovenija postaja ena najmočnejših gonilnih sil tega gibanja v Evropi, ki ima svoje lokalne izpostave in prostore zbiranja po večini večjih krajev po Sloveniji, omenjeni film Zeitgeist: Premik naprej pa si je pri nas na dan svetovne premiere 15. januarja ogledalo skoraj dva tisoč ljudi, skoraj tisoč pa še na dodatnih projekcijah v naslednjih dneh. V Mariboru je pomembno zbirališče gibanja postal Udarnik, kjer si je film skupno ogledalo okrog petsto ljudi, zdaj pa se na mesečni ravni tam odvijajo tudi sestanki in druženja, kjer se planira delo za naprej. Čeprav se tega ne zaveda, se tako morda Titaniku kapitalizma bliža še četrti, množice upajo, da končno popolni brodolom, pri katerem bo v ledeni vodi mrtvega oceana golih številk in odstotkov utonil zgolj princ, potniki pa se bodo z roko v roki rešili na drugačno ladjo, ki jo bo poganjal nov duh časa.


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ENG The memory still lives of images of teary-eyed girls, mothers and wives, which the world was surrounded with fifteen years ago as these women swarmed into movie theatres and lamented the death of the on-screen Prince Charming portrayed by Leonardo DiCaprio. For them, he stood for imaginary realisation of the never realisable dream of love so ardent that no ice-cold waters of the Northern Atlantic can destroy it, of freedom from a male chauvinist husband and fetters of traditionalism which decide their fate. On its way to the dream land, the ship sank, but no-one cried over hundreds of victims of the tragic accident; it was only him – the one and only. As Titanic sank in early 20th century for the first time, it was a great tragedy; as it sank for the second time on screen just before the break of the millennium, it was an epic victory of the true prince of the story: capital. For capitalism, the still most profitable film of all times, which turned a 200 million dollar investment into over a billion in box office sales alone, opened up new, unforeseen ways of unlimited consumption and enormous profits. At that time at least, it seemed the luxurious cruise liner of capitalism, compared to which the original Titanic loo­ks like a plastic toy boat in a helpless baby's bathtub, could never sink. Capital will remain the one and only, forever and ever; while the rest, those who cannot keep up with this mad and dangerous ride because they are simply not ambitious enough and committed to the goal of maximising profits, do not count, just like passengers of the on-screen Titanic did not. The memory is very much alive of the masses – girls, mothers and wives, boys, fathers and husbands – who swarmed into movie theatres in January this year; not teary-eyed but determined to put an end to this prince portrayed by global capitalism, who has long fallen off his white horse into its muck, and drown him in the depths of world history at last. They realised this so unrealistically ardent love was suspicious, that the prince and the chauvinist husband were the same person, that the luxurious cruise liner was not the most perfect choice for sailing into the dream land and that the one and only was not reason enough to sacrifice the rest.

Thus, Titanic sank for the third time, and with it the idea of a complete cultural sell-out and unbridled, unlimited consumerism. After fifteen years it was beaten in the number of viewers by the Zeitgeist movement (theZeit­ geistMovement.com), a movie industry and financial midget and an intellectual giant growing into a global critical mass day after day, at the world premiere of Moving Forward, the movement’s third documentary in a series. The project of the movement which is based on the ideas of futurist thinker Jacque Fresco, deploys experts to discuss sociological, technological, psychological and environmental aspects, but emphasized above all are the spiritual and ethical components, treating people truly equally, which served as grounds for the construction of a completely horizontal operational structure. Fresco’s Venus Project, the core of the Zeitgeist movement, advocates an economically, socially and environmentally balanced society and sustainable, renewablesbased economy. Since 2007, when the first Zeitgeist film was released, the movement gained millions of followers and hundreds of activist groups worldwide, who are very successful in disseminating their ideas and mindset using their own initiative, modern technology, volunteer potential, but no financial godfathers. “Fluid social change can only materialize if two circumstances are met. One, the human value system, which consists of our understandings and beliefs, must be updated and changed through education and thoughtful introspection. Two, the environment surrounding that value system must change to support the new world view. The interaction between a person’s value system and their environment is what influences human behavior. For example, in our culture, ‘ethics’ is really a matter of degree, for our social system promotes and rewards competition and self-interest. This perspective doesn’t just ‘lead’ to aberrant behavior ... it creates it directly. Corruption is the norm in our society and most people do not see this, for since the society supports this behavior, it is considered right and normal ...” With words like this, the movement keeps drawing attention to the distorted capitalist view of the society, raising awareness of millions worldwide.

Almost exactly a year ago, Slovenia got its own country chapter called Zeitgeist Slovenia, Sustainable Development Association (Zeitgeist.si), which immediately took action with regard to various social issues. Results were quick to follow, and with local branches and meeting points in most of larger towns in the country, Slovenia is becoming one of the strongest driving forces behind this movement in Europe. Nearly two thousand people saw the aforementioned film Zeitgeist: Moving Forward on the day of its world premiere screening on 15 January, and almost a thousand more at additional screenings in the following days. In Maribor, the Udarnik movie theatre has become an important meeting point for the movement. About five hundred people in total saw the film there, while the theatre is now also a place for monthly meetings and gatherings, where plans are made for future activities. Although unaware of it, the capitalist Titanic may hence be facing yet another shipwreck, its fourth one, which masses hope to be the ultimate. This time, the only one to drown in the freezing waters of the dead ocean of shee­r figures and percentages will be the prince, whereas passengers will find rescue, hand in hand, on a different ship, one propelled by a new spirit of time. Žiga Brdnik

Ilustracija / Illustration Tilen Lebe


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André Eckardt Animacija je že po svoji naravi najbolj interdisciplinarna umetnost If not the ultimate art, animation has the most interdisciplinary approach by nature Mednarodni festival animiranega filma Animateka vsako leto posveti posebno pozornost izbrani nacionalni produkciji animiranega filma. V žarišču zadnje, sedme edicije, je bila nemška. Selektor omenjenega programa je bil André Eckardt, direktor Nemškega inštituta za animirani film (Deutsches Institut für Animationsfilm) v Dresdnu. Njegov obširen izbor je bil razdeljen v osem programskih sklopov, ki so zajeli stoletno zgodovino nemškega animiranega filma – od mejnikov nemškega eksperimentalnega filma do filmov, ki so bili posneti v komercialne namene. Za nemške animirane filme, ki ste jih izbrali za predstavitev stoletne zgodovine nemške animacije, je značilen širok razpon tehnik. Nam lahko na kratko predstavite nekatere od zanimivejših. Veliko filmov, ki sem jih izbral za različne programske sklope, uporablja klasične animacijske tehnike, kot so na primer animiranje risb, lutk, peska ter silhuet in izrezljank. Nekateri od filmov uporabljajo nova digitalna orodja, a sta tako njihova estetika kot naracija zelo blizu klasičnemu animiranemu filmu. Poleg teh pa sem v svoj izbor vključil še številne filme, ki po definiciji sicer ne bi bili označeni kot animacija, a upravljajo z gibljivimi podobami na način, ki je včasih celo bližje izvorni ideji animacije. Pri animaciji mi je všeč prav to, da lahko posegaš v podobo na takšen način, da ustvariš nekaj novega, česar v vsakdanjem življenju ne bi mogel dejansko posneti. Schmelzdahin – skupina filmarjev in umetnikov, ki je ustvarjala v Bonnu v osemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja – je na filmski trak učinkovala s kemikalijami, včasih pa so ga tudi zakopali v zemljo in po nekaj tednih spet vzeli ven. Strogo vzeto so bili filmi seveda uničeni, a zaradi naključnih kemičnih in fizičnih procesov so se pojavile zelo lepe podobe razkroja, ki so včasih presenetljivo blizu poslikanim filmom Stana Brakhagea. Navdušen sem nad alkimistično idejo, ki je v jedru umetniškega delovanja skupine Schmelzdahin – ustvarjati z nepredvidljivim, raziskovati neznano in s tem upodobiti nekaj lepega. Filmi Bastiana Clevéja so tej ideji s svojo strogo formalno organizacijo ravno nasprotni. Film Empor na primer prikazuje obris velemesta, ki je posnet z večkratno – celo dvanajstkratno – ekspozicijo. Vertikalno gibanje v filmu ustvarja vtis nenehnega pomikanja navzgor, čemur se v nemščini reče “empor”. Na samem koncu filma Clevé naredi občuten obrat in nenadoma spoznamo, kakšen učinek je imela optična iluzija na naše fizično počutje. Na nek način smo dizorientirani. Film pripoveduje predvsem o dojemanju gibanja prek vida, manj pa o sami vsebini fotografije. Tudi projekt Blinkenlights, ki sem ga vključil v svoj izbor, je dober primer seganja onkraj meja klasične animacije. Lahko bi ga označili kot mešanico performativne in interaktivne instalacije, ki se dogaja v realnem času. Leta 2001 so umetniki uporabili prednjo stran stavbe v centru Berlina, ki se imenuje Učiteljeva hiša, kot ogromen ekran. Številna okna pisarn so s pomočjo računalniškega programiranja razsvetlili z notranje strani. Gledalci pred stavbo pa so lahko pošiljali sms sporočila, ki so bila nato prevedena v podobe. Zame je to briljantna sodobna verzija filma Normana McLarena New York Lightboard iz leta 1961.

Nastanek abstraktnega filma v Nemčiji v zgodnjih 20. letih je bil tesno povezan s sočasnim mednarodnim raz­vojem v upodabljajoči umetnosti in filmu. V tem oziru velja posebej izpostaviti Walterja Ruttmanna in Hansa Richterja. Umetniški zaledji Ruttmanna in Richterja sta zelo pomembni. Oba sta bila slikarja in s pomočjo filma sta želela razširiti svoj umetniški izraz in razviti umetniški jezik, s katerim bi odgovorila na določena estetska vprašanja. Animirani film je bil – kot medij, ki je vezan na čas – primerno sredstvo za vizualizacijo gibanja in glasbe. Ruttmann je iskal umetniške poti, s pomočjo katerih bi se ognil statičnemu slikarstvu, za povrh pa ga je močno zanimala glasba. Na nek način je torej nemška filmska avantgarda sledila zelo sodobnemu konceptu intermedijske umetnosti, se pravi združevanju različnih umetnosti kot so slikanje, glasba in film. To je zelo jasno vidno že v samih naslovih filmov: Lichtspiel Opus I, II, III (Filmski opus I, II in III) Walterja Ruttmanna in Symphonie Diagonale (Diagonalna simfonija) Vikinga Eggelinga. Hans Richter je bil aktiven v dadaističnem gibanju, ki je v veliki meri uporabljalo kolažno tehniko za umetniško izražanje. Tudi animirani film je sledil dokaj podobnemu načinu razmišljanja. Richterjev film Inflation (Inflacija), ki govori o družbeni in ekonomski krizi v poznih dvajsetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, je tako mešanica igre, filmskih trikov in animacije. Ta film je posebej pomemben, ker označuje premik proti politično angažiranemu animiranemu filmu. Ta navezava na druge vizualne umetnosti se je ohranila vse do danes, le da je v zadnjih letih slikarstvo in kiparstvo zamenjala medijska umetnost. Nam lahko malo predstavite ta odnos skozi zgodovino. Animirani film je bil od nekdaj stičišče različnih oblik umetnosti. Ne glede na vrsto animacije – naj gre za lutke ali risano animacijo, figurativno ali abstraktno animacijo – je bila njena zgodovina vedno tesno povezana z drugimi umetnostmi, kot so na primer kiparstvo, slikarstvo, arhitektura, ples, fotografija, glasba ipd. Z ozirom na različne tipe animacije, ne bi govoril o “nadomeščanju”, temveč o “vključevanju” ostalih oblik umetnosti. Če animacija ni kar ultimativna oblika umetnosti, pa je po mojem mnenju zagotovo že po svoji naravi najbolj interdisciplinarna. Dandanes narašča število umetnikov delujočih na področju animacije, ki prihajajo iz polja računalniškega inženiringa, grafike, klubske kulture. Razvijanje umetniških idej je pri njih tesno povezano s tehničnimi izzivi; razvijajo na primer lastno programsko opremo, ki jim omogoča sveže umetniške izraze. Kot primer bi lahko omenili berlinsko skupino medijskih umetnikov visomat. Drug zelo zanimiv primer omenjenega interdisciplinarnega pristopa bi bilo ustvarjanje Roberta Seidela. Njegov film _grau (Sivina) po eni strani spominja na abstraktne slike, ustvarjene z digitalno animacijo, obenem pa je videti tudi kot krhki koščki fotografirane skulpture ali pa povečane biološke oblike. V resnici pa je uporabil fotografije, magnetno-resonančne in rentgenske posnetke človeškega telesa. Bežne trenutke avtomobilske nesreče je podaljšal v čustveno in tehnološko zelo impresivno spojitev podobe in zvoka, ki deluje obenem kot simfonija in kakofonija. Seidel je pred študijem medijske umetnosti na Weimar Bauhaus University študiral biologijo

v Jeni. Zdi se mi, da četudi tega ne vemo, v njegovem ustvarjanju lahko opazimo zanimanje za biologijo. Tako je na primer leta 2008 na fasadi Filogenetskega muzeja v Jeni združil animacijo s svetlobnimi podobami bioloških oblik in struktur, ki spominjajo na obsežno muzejsko zbirko o evoluciji. Kot ste omenili, je od samih začetkov nemške animacije prisotna tudi navezava na glasbo. Oskar Fischinger je v svetovnem merilu pionir v vizualizaciji glasbe oziroma zvoka prek animacije. Rudolf Pfeninger je raz­ iskoval sintetični zvok … Kot je večinoma znano, je močan razvoj v tej smeri v Nemčiji prekinil prihod nacional-socialističnega režima na oblast leta 1933. Z izjemo nekaj del Hansa Fischingerja in Herberta Seggelka, je v Nemčiji ta “tradicija” ponovno oživela šele v devetdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, ko se je razširila abstraktna elektronska glasba. Ta vrsta glasbe je seveda potrebovala drugačno podobje kot ga imata na primer pop in rock glasba, pri katerih video spoti večinoma prikazujejo nastopajočo skupino. Na eni strani so bili umetniki, kot na primer člani skupine Oval, ki niso digitalno ustvarjali le svoje glasbe, ampak tudi vizualno podobo zanjo. Tovrstne spote bi lahko imenovali vrnitev k starim mojstrom, s hkratno močno navezavo na digitalno dobo. Na drugi strani pa so umetniki kot Michel Klöfkorn in Oliver Husain, ki sta se vrnila h klasični tehniki animiranja predmetov, da bi vizualizirala tople, elektronske zvoke skupine Sensorama. Za njihov spot Star Escalator (Tekoče stopnice do zvezd) sta tako animirala vrsto garažnih vrat, ki se odpirajo in zapirajo v sozvočju z ritmi glasbe. Produkcijsko oz. ideološko imajo animacije, ki ste jih izbrali, zelo različne predznake – od povsem neodvisnih, eksperimentalnih filmov, reklamnih filmov v službi kapitala in propagandnih političnih filmov do družbeno kritičnih animacij. Nam lahko poveste več o začetkih komercialnih animiranih filmov, ki so – predvsem v tehničnem smislu – prinesli tudi številne inovacije. Animacija Der Sieger. Ein Film in Farben (Zmagovalec. Film v barvah) Walterja Ruttmanna tako npr. velja za prvi nemški abstraktni barvni oglasni film. Večina reklamnih sporočil poskuša slaviti nove, inovativne stvari. In najboljši način, da so pri tem uspešna, je seveda ta, da tudi sama delujejo inovativno. Vsebina in embalaža se morata ujemati, reklama pa mora tudi pritegniti našo pozornost. Animacija je zelo hiter, odziven medij; vanj so vključena najnovejša umetniška dognanja, obenem pa nenehno teži tudi k tehničnemu izpopolnjevanju. Obe strani imata torej skupne točke. To je veljalo že za začetke nemške animacije. S tem v zvezi je potrebno omeniti producenta in režiserja Juliusa Pinschewerja. Posebej v dvajsetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je uspešno povezoval podjetja z animatorji, kot so bili Walter Ruttmann, Lotte Reiniger, Rudi Klemm in drugi. Pod produkcijskim okriljem Pinschewerja je bil narejena tudi prva nemška zvočna reklama, imenovana Die chinesische Nachtigall (Kitajski slavec). Ustvarjanje reklam je bilo za mnoge umetnike, tako kot danes, pomemben vir zaslužka. Sodelovanja med oglaševanjem in animacijo je dandanes ogromno. Izpostavil bi le delo Raimunda Krummeja. Njegova minimalistična risba je zelo igriva in izvrstno


ponazarja spreminjanje perspektive in prostora. Njegovi avtorski filmi so izstopajoči in prepoznavni – dve kvaliteti, zaradi katerih je njegov “stil” zanimiv tudi za svet oglaševanja. Njegove reklame, ki jih je produciralo podjetje ACME Filmworks iz Hollywooda, so bile zelo uspešne. Delo v oglaševalski industriji je lahko, kot pravi Raimund Krumme, dobra izkušnja; ker imaš pri reklamah na voljo le nekaj sekund, je namreč potrebno presoditi, kaj je pomembno in kaj je mogoče izpustiti. Težave pa se začnejo, ko se umetniki ne uspejo izmotati iz kolesja ustvarjanja reklam in izgubijo lastno vizijo. A ustvarjanje reklamnih oglasov je lahko tudi zelo frustrirajoča izkušnja, saj je animator zadnji v verigi, za naročnikom in agencijo, ki je odgovorna za celotno oglaševalsko kampanjo in se včasih obilno vmešava v delo umetnika. Odličen primer uspešnega sodelovanja komercialne in umetniške animacije pa je Studio Film Bilder v Stuttgartu. Pruducirajo avtorske filme priznanih režiserjev kot so Andreas Hykade, Gil Alkabetz, Phil Mulloy, Daniel Nocke, Ged Haney, ki pod okriljem studia obenem ustvarjajo tudi reklame in televizijske nanizanke. Kakšni so ostali načini financiranja v Nemčiji? Mnogo nemških ustvarjalcev animiranega filma ima poleg ustvarjanja reklam druge zaposlitve – so na primer scenski slikarji v gledališču in operi, oblikovalci, ilustratorji, razvijalci računalniških igric ipd. Čeprav situacija seveda ni zadovoljiva, bi vseeno lahko dejali, da ima Nemčija relativno dokaj dober sistem skladov. Če je na primer določen animirani film zelo uspešen – je uvrščen na pomembne festivale, dobi nagrade – prejme referenčne točke, ki se jih upošteva, če njegov ustvarjalec zaprosi za sredstva za svoj naslednji projekt pri Nemškem zveznem filmskem skladu. Poleg sklada na zvezni ravni obstajajo tudi finančna telesa zveznih dežel, pa tudi regionalne in občinske institucije in skladi. Sliši se, kot da je možnosti veliko, a obenem je potrebnega veliko produkcijskega in administrativnega dela za vsote, ki so včasih dokaj nizke.

Diagonalna simfonija / Symphonie Diagonale / Diagonal Symphony Viking Eggeling Nemčija/Germany, 1921, 16 mm, nemi/silent, 6'40''

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Kaj pa negativne plati? Ker je bil studio državni, je moral biti vsak film uglašen z načeli vladajoče socialistične stranke. Kot posledica je obstajala cenzura, ki so jo izvajali na različnih stopnjah produkcije – najprej je moral biti odobren sam scenarij, šele nato si lahko naredil film, občasno pa so bile tudi vmesne razprave. Na koncu so morali cenzorji odobriti še končno verzijo filma; občasno so zahtevali popravke ali pa prepovedali film. Včasih so bile njihove odločitve nerazumne in težko je bilo vnaprej napovedati, ali bo film odobren. Tako so bili odobreni nekateri filmi, ki so prikazovali ostro satiro ali odkrito kritiko slabih razmer v NDR. Po drugi strani pa so bili prepovedani filmi, ki niso tako odkrito ali sploh niso kritizirali. Pogosto zato, ker naj bi bil njihov umetniški izraz preveč formalističen, posebej na vrhuncu socialnega realizma v petdesetih in šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja. Celo socialistično orientirana umetnika kot sta Bruno Böttge in Kurt Weiler, ki sta iskala nove načine umetniškega izraza na področju animacije silhuet in lutk, sta morala nenehno braniti svoje umetniške ideje. Bolj formalistična ali celo abstraktna dela so bila problematična zato, ker cenzorji niso zares vedeli, kako ravnati z njimi, saj so sama po sebi veljala kot subverzivna, bali pa so se tudi domnevnih skritih sporočil za občinstvo. Najslabše jo je odnesel film Kontraste (Kontrast) Sieglinde Hamacher izleta 1982. Medtem ko drugih filmov enostavno ni bilo dovoljeno predvajati, je bil negativ tega filma, ki temelji na zgodbi Hansa Christiana Andersena, dejansko uničen.

Muratti napada! / Muratti greift ein! / Muratti Attacks! Oskar Fischinger (Tolirag Berlin) Nemčija/Germany, 1931, 16 mm, 3’

Razmere v NDR so bile podobne kot v večini socialističnih držav, kjer je obstajal državno podprt in politično nadzorovan, centraliziran sistem studiev. Tako kot sta obstajala ločena studia za igrani in dokumentarni film, je obstajal tudi specializirani studio za animacijo – t. i. DEFA Studio für Trickfilme. Deloval je od leta 1955, ko je bil ustanovljen v Dresdnu, do leta 1990 in zaposloval do 250 ljudi. Socialistični studijski sistem je imel tako svoje prednosti kot slabosti. Umetniki so imeli zaposlitev, plačo in varno življenje. Nadvse dragoceno je bilo, da so imeli sredstva za ustvarjanje, zelo pomembno pa je bilo tudi, da so imeli na voljo čas, potreben za ustvarjanje animiranega filma. Menim, da je to še vedno moč opaziti v filmih DEFA studia, predvsem v njihovi obrtni dodelanosti in v dovršenosti detajlov.

Inflacija / Inflation Hans Richter Nemčija/Germany, 1928, 35 mm, 2’30’’

Kakšen je bil način produkcije animiranih filmov v Vzhodni Nemčiji?


Einmart Lutz Dammbeck (DEFA) Nemčija/Germany (GDR), 1981, 35 mm, 15’


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André Eckardt, direktor Nemškega inštituta za animirani film (Deutsches Institut für Animationsfilm) v Dresdnu Ena od pozitivnih plati je bilo tudi dejstvo, da je bilo veliko animatork. Četudi ženske ustvarjalke niso nič izjemnega na področju animacije, je bil v DEFA studiu zares zaposlen nenavadno visok delež režiserk. Pripovedovale so zgodbe in bile so finančno neodvisne. Sicer ne bi šel tako daleč in trdil, da je bil njihov pogled feminističen. A kakorkoli že, številni filmi problematizirajo uradno proglašeno enakovrednost žensk v družinskem in družbenem življenju – posebej kritični so do tradicionalnega, patriarhalnega pogleda. Zanimivo si je tudi podrobneje ogledati, na kak­šen način sta v animiranih filmih iz DEFA studia prikazana žensko telo in seksualnost, predvsem v primerjavi s sočasnimi filmi iz zahodne Evrope. Za zaključek je potrebno omeniti še, da je v NDR poleg studijskega sistema DEFA obstajalo še okoli dvajset zasebnih filmskih podjetij, ki so ustvarjala predvsem industrijske, izobraževalne in komercialne animirane filme, pa tudi filme, ki so jih naročile televizijske mreže. Peter Blümel oziroma njegov Studio 66 je ustvaril številne vmesne filme za serijo Sandmann. Poleg tega so v sedemdesetih in osemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja številni umetniki za svoje umetniško raziskovanje uporabljali filme, posnete z 8mm kamero. Kar se tiče animacije, so pogosto uporabljali slikanje ali praskanje neposredno na film; čudovit primer je film Here Comes the Sun Helge Leiberg, v katerem se prepletajo dokumentarni posnetki puščobne urbane krajine Dresdna, živobarvno slikanje na film, posnetki plesnega nastopa in jazz glasbe, v kateri Archie Shepp prepeva o svobodi.

Kontrast / Kontraste / Contrast Sieglinde Hamacher Nemčija/Germany (GDR), 1982, 35 mm, 5’

V času druge svetovne vojne je tudi na področju animacije obstajala politična propaganda – tako pronacistična kot protibritanska; taki sta na primer Tobisova animacija John Bull in Nöten (John Bull v stiski) in Der Störenfried (Zgaga) Hansa Helda. Podobno kot v prvi svetovni vojni, so tudi nacionalso­ cialisti uporabljali film za vojno propagando. Obstajale so animirane oglasne kampanje za varčevanje denarja, ki bi okrepil državo, pa tudi take za skrbno ravnanje z obleko, hrano in energijo v obdobju pomanjkanja. Veliko podjetij, ki je imelo oddelek za animacijo, je delalo poučne filme za vojsko; nekateri od teh so bili celo stereoskopsko risane animacije. Nemška animacija pa je seveda sodelovala tudi pri propagandnih bitkah. Tobis je tako na primer, podobno kot Julius Pinschewer v prvi svetovni vojni, upodobil Angleža kot grabežljiv, šibak, posmeha vreden lik imenovan John Bull. Der Störenfried (Zgaga) Hansa Helda pripoveduje o gozdnih živalih, ki združijo moči proti lisjaku, proti kateremu se bojujejo na zelo vojaški način – na primer z osami kot vojnimi piloti. Film so prikazovali v kinu tik pred novicami o uspehih nemške vojske. Film Heinza Tisch­ meyerja Vom Bäumlein, das andere Blätter hat gewollt (O drevesu, ki je hotelo imeti drugačne liste) iz leta 1940 pa je primer antisemitske risane animacije, ki na podlagi zlorabe pesmi nemškega pesnika Friedricha Rückerta, ustvari tipično nacionalsocialistično karikaturo Juda, ki z drevesa krade zlate liste. Del propagandne strategije je bila tudi ambicija osnovati lasten nemški Disney studio. A Deutsche Zeichenfilm GmbH ni bil tako kvaliteten, da bi lahko tekmoval z občudovanim ameriškim animacijskim velikanom. Vojna je nepreklicno končala kratkotrajen obstoj podjetja, ki mu je uspelo narediti le en kratek film. Klein Hansi (Mali Hansi) pripoveduje o udomačenem ptičku, ki živi v kletki, iz katere pobegne sledeč koketni ptičici. A zunanji svet je sovražen in nevaren, zato se slednjič srečen vrne v kletko, kjer najde svojo varno “domačijo”.

Wolfgang Urchs pa se je v začetku šestdesetih v satirični animaciji Die Gartenzwerge (Vrtni palček) norčeval iz gospodarskega čudeža Zahodne Nemčije. Leta 1949 je v Nemčiji prišlo do delitve na dve nemški državi. Zahodna Nemčija je postala ekonomsko zelo vplivna v zelo kratkem času. V petdesetih in šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je veljala za “ekonomski čudež”, obdobje pa so imenovali “debela leta”. V tistem času je bilo veliko potrošnih dobrin dostopnih vse več ljudem. Kakorkoli že, nekateri zahodnonemški umetniki so opazili, da ob tej ekonomski rasti ni bilo nikakršnega napredka na področju kulture. Tako na primer ni bilo nobene refleksije dvanajstih let nacionalsocializma. Obstajalo je nagnjenje, da se na vse skupaj preprosto pozabi in se usmeri na prihodnost. Urchsov Die Gartenzwerge (Vrtni palček), ki ga je ustvaril skupaj z Borisom von Borresholmom in Petrom Schamonijem, je zelo kritičen portret te dobe. Obstajala pa je tudi mlada generacija umetnikov, ki so na področje animacije vnesli uporniškega duha šestdesetih. Helmut Herbst je bil ena najpomembnejših osebnosti. Med študijem slikarstva v Parizu se je seznanil z zgodovino umetniškega filma, po vrnitvi v Hamburg pa je ustanovil lasten studio Cinegraphik, kjer je veliko eksperimentalnih filmarjev in umetnikov ustvarilo svoja dela. Uporabljali so zelo preproste animatorske tehnike, na primer kolaž in izrezljanke, da bi na ta način čim hitreje in čim bolj jasno izrazili svoje umetniške in politične vizije. Kakšni trendi pa se nakazujejo v sodobni nemški animaciji? Če obstaja kakšen “trend”, bi ga imenoval “raznolikost”. Oddelki za animacijo na filmskih in umetnostnih akademijah sledijo različnim strujam, pogosto pod vplivom profesorjev, ki so tudi sami priznani avtorji animiranih filmov. Zaradi že omenjene prežetosti animacije z ostalimi oblikami umetnosti, tehnologijo in znanostjo, narašča njena raznolikost. Ta delno izvira tudi iz “internacionalizacije” nemške animacije. Nazadnje, a ne najmanj pomembno: k sreči smo prestali otroška leta digitalizacije, ko smo videli veliko digitalnih animacij, a ne prav dosti dobrih filmov. Danes številni ustvarjalci s pridom uporabljajo nova orodja in jasno jim je, kako z njihovo pomo-


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čjo izpopolniti umetniško vizijo, obenem pa se ponovno zavedajo tudi vrednosti klasične animacije. ENG Each year, Animateka International Animated Film Festival pays special attention to a chosen national animated film production. The focus of the latest, seventh edition was on Germany. The programme in question was selected by André Eckardt, Director of The German Institute for Animated Film (Deutsches Institut für Animationsfilm), Dresden. His wide selection was divided into eight programme sets embracing the hundred year history of German animated film – from turning points in German experimental films to films made for commercial purposes. The German animated films that you chose to present the 100-year history of German animation feature a wide range of techniques. Could you briefly present some of them? Many films in the programmes use classical animation techniques – like animating drawings, puppets, sand, as well as silhouette and cut out figures. There are also a lot of films that use new digital tools but their aesthetics and narratives are very close to classical animated films. However, apart from those I also included a number of films that, by definition, wouldn’t be regarded as animation, but that work with the manipulation of moving images in a way that is sometimes even closer to the original idea of animation. This is what I especially like about animation – you can interfere with the images and create something new, which you couldn’t film or shoot in real life. Schmelzdahin, a filmmakers and artists group that worked in Bonn in the 1980s, treated films with chemicals or buried them in the ground and after some time they dig them out again. In a sense, the films got “destroyed”, but the results are these beautiful images of destruction coming from accidental chemical and physical processes and they are sometimes very close to Stan Brakhage’s painted films. I love the alchemist idea behind Schmelzdahin, to work with the unpredictable,

to research the unknown and to depict it as something beautiful. Bastian Clevé's films are quite the opposite with their strict formal organisation. Empor shows a shot of a city skyline that was exposed up to twelve times. The vertical movements in the film give the impression of a constant upwards- (German “empor”) movement. By the very end of the film, Clevé makes a significant change, and you realise how the optical illusion has had a physical effect on you. You somehow feel disoriented. The film tells a lot about the reception of movement through the eye and not so much about its photographic contents. The project Blinkenlights is another good example from the programmes that goes far beyond classical animation. You could describe it as a mixture of performative, interactive, real time processing installations. In 2001, the artists used the front side of the “House of the Teacher” in the centre of Berlin as a giant screen. The many windows of the office building got illuminated from the inside of the building based on software programming. Also, the audience outside could send text messages, which were translated into images. For me it is a brilliant 21st century version of Norman McLaren’s New York Lightboard from 1961. The emergence of abstract film in early 1920s Germany was largely related to concurrent international developments in fine arts and film. In this respect, Walter Ruttmann and Hans Richter should be mentioned particularly. Ruttmann’s and Richter’s artistic backgrounds are very important; they were fine art artists whose idea it was to use film in order to widen their artistic expression and to develop an artistic language for particular aesthetic questions. As time based media, animated film was the appropriate means for visualising movement and music, for instance. Ruttmann had been looking for artistic ways to get away from the static paintings; in addition he had a very strong interest in music. So, in a sense, the German film avant-garde followed a very modern cross-media concept, i.e. bringing together different arts like painting, music, and film. This was clearly expressed by the film titles themselves: Lichtspiel Opus I, II, III (Lightplay

Sivina / _grau / Grey Robert Seidel Nemčija/Germany, 2004, Beta SP, 10’

Opus I, II and II) by Walter Ruttmann or Symphonie Dia­ gonale (Diagonal Symphony) by Viking Eggeling. Hans Richter was involved with the Dadaist movement, which to a great extent used the technique of collage for its artistic expression. The animated film follows a quite similar line of thought. His film Inflation is a combination of live-action, film tricks, and animation and deals with the social and economic crisis in the late Twenties. Richter’s film is especially remarkable because it illustrates a move towards a politically engaged animated film. This dependence on other visual arts has been preserved until now, with painting and sculpture having been replaced by media art in recent years. Could you dwell on how this relation has developed through history? Animated film has always been the meeting point for all the different forms of fine art. Be it puppet or drawn animation, be it figurative or abstract – in the history of animation there have always been strong ties to arts like sculpture, painting, architecture, dance, photography, music etc. With regard to animation in all its different forms, I would not talk about the “replacement” of other forms of art but about the “inclusion”. If animation is not the ultimate art, it at least has the most interdisciplinary approach by nature, I think. Nowadays, a growing number of contemporary artists who work in the field of animation have backgrounds in computer engineering, graphics, club culture. The development of artistic ideas is immensely connected with engineering challenges, for example the development of special software to achieve a particular artistic expression. With regard to this one should mention the visomat media artist collective in Berlin. Another highly interesting example of the above-mentioned interdisciplinary approach is the work of Robert Seidel. His film _grau (Grey) reminds of abstract painting realised with digital animation, at the same time looking like fragile bits of a photographed sculpture and biological forms in close up. Actually, he used photos, MRT and


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X-ray images of the human body. He stretched the fleeting moments of a car accident to a very emotional and technologically impressive image and sound merger, which appears symphonic and cacophonic at the same time. Before his studies of media art at Weimar Bauhaus University, he studied biology in Jena. Even not knowing this fact, one can see his interest in biology as an impact on his work, I think. With his light installation at the facade of the Phyletic Museum in Jena in 2008, he again combined animation with light images of biological forms and structures reminding of the museum’s remarkable collection of objects of evolutionary evidence. As you mentioned, German animated film has been strongly related to music from its very beginnings. Oskar Fischinger is a pioneer of world-scale in presenting music/sound visually through animation. Rudolf Pfenniger explored synthetic sound... As is mostly known, this strong development in Germany was interrupted when the National Socialist regime took power in 1933. Apart from the few works by Hans Fischinger and Herbert Seggelke, it was not earlier than the 1990s that German animation saw a resurgence of this “tradition”. It was the time when abstract electronic music was spreading around a lot. This kind of music of course needed a different imagery than rock and pop music, which mostly relies on clips showing a performing band. On the one hand, there were artists like the members of the Oval group who not only generated digitally their sounds but also the images to visualise their own music. Maybe you could call those clips an advanced return to the old masters while having a strong tie to the digital age. On the other hand, there were artist like Michel Klöfkorn and Oliver Husain who returned to the very classical technique of object animation to visualise the warm, electronic sounds of Sensorama. For the clip Star Escalator they animated several garage doors opening and closing according to the rhythm of the music track.

Empor, Bastian Clevé, Nemčija/Germany (FRG), 1977, 16 mm, nemi/silent, 9’47’’

As regards production and ideology, the animations you have chosen are extremely diverse – from entirely independent, experimental films, advertisements in the service of capital and political propaganda to socially critical animations. Could you expound on the beginnings of commercial animated films, which also brought much innovation – particularly in technical terms. The animation Der Sieger. Ein Film in Farben (The Victor) by Walter Ruttmann is thus considered the first German abstract colour promotional film. Many commercials try to praise new, innovative pro­ ducts. The best way to do this successfully is of course to have a commercial that looks innovative itself. Contents and package have to match, and the commercial has to be an eye catcher. Animation is a very quick model to integrate the latest artistic developments but also it is constantly looking for technical progress. So, both sides have something in common. This was already true in the early years of German animation. With regard to that, the producer and director Julius Pinschewer has to be mentioned. Particularly in the 1920s, he successfully brought the industry together with animation artists like Walter Ruttmann, Lotte Reiniger, Rudi Klemm and others. Being produced by Pinschewer, the first German commercial Die chinesische Nachtigall (The Chinese Nightingale) with sound was made. Like today, making commercials was an important means for many animation artists to earn their living. The collaboration of advertising and animation is a huge field nowadays. Here, I would just like to highlight the work of Raimund Krumme. His minimalist drawing animation is very playful and excellent in working with perspective and space. It makes his auteur films exceptional and recognisable – two qualities that make his “style” interesting for the commercial world. As a result, he has been doing very well with commercials, which were produced by ACME Filmworks in Hollywood. According to Raimund Krumme, working in the commercial field can be a good experience, because one only has a few se­conds time and therefore has to focus on what is essential and what needs to be left out. The trouble starts when artists fail to get out of the spinning wheel of doing commercials again and they lose their own artistic vision. Making commercials can also be a very frustrating experience because the animation artist is the last chain link: first after the client and second after the agency that is responsible for the entire advertising campaign and that sometimes interferes quite a lot with the animation part. The studio Film Bilder from Stuttgart is an excellent ex-

Mesto v plamenih / Stadt in Flammen / City in Flames, Schmelzdahin, Nemčija/Germany (FRG), 1984, 16 mm, 5’

ample of combining commercial and artistic animation. They produce auteur films by renowned directors like Andreas Hykade, Gil Alkabetz, Phil Mulloy, Daniel Nocke, and Ged Haney who have also worked on behalf of Film Bilder for commercials and TV series.

ties, but it means a lot of managerial and admini­stration work sometimes resulting in pretty low sums.

What are some other types of funding in Germany?

The situation in the GDR was similar to most socialist countries with their politically supported and controlled, centralised studio system. Just like there was a separate studio for feature film, one for documentary etc., there was one studio that specialised on animation. This studio, DEFA Studio für Trickfilme, was founded in Dresden in 1955 and closed in 1990 with up to 250 people working there. The socialist studio system had its advantages and disadvantages. Artists had employment, salary and a secure living. It was also really precious to have resources and, very importantly, the necessary time for making an animated film. One can still recognise this in the DEFA films because of the high level of craftsmanship and elaborate details, I should say.

Apart from making commercials, many German animators have other professions, like scene painters in theatres and opera houses, designers and illustrators, game developers etc. Although the situation is clearly not satisfying, one could still say that Germany has a comparatively good funding system. For instance, if a film is very successful – taking part in important festivals, winning awards –, it is given reference points, which are taken into account if the filmmaker applies for funding with the German Federal Film Board for the next film project. In addition to federal funding institution, there are länder funding bodies but also regional and community institutions and foundations. This sounds like many possibili-

What was the production of animated films like in the GDR?


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André Eckardt, Director of The German Institute for Animated Film (Deutsches Institut für Animationsfilm), Dresden campaigns for saving money to strengthen the country, but also for being careful with clothing, food and energy in the years of shortage. Many companies with animation departments made instructional films for the military; some of them were even stereoscopic drawn animations. German animation of course took part in the propaganda warfare. Tobis depicted Great Britain, as Julius Pinschewer had done in WW I, as a greedy but weak mock figure called John Bull. Der Störenfried (The Troublemaker) by Hans Held shows how animals of the wood unite against a fox and fight him in a very military fashion, e.g. with wasps as combat pilots. The film was shown in the cinema right before the newsreel about the successful German forces at war. Heinz Tischmeyer's Vom Bäumlein, das andere Blätter hat gewollt (Of the little tree which wished for different leaves) from 1940 is an example of anti-Semitic drawn animation. Misusing a poem by the German poet Friedrich Rückert, the film shows a typical NS-caricature of a Jew who steals golden leafs from a tree. It was part of the propaganda strategy to establish Germany’s own Disney company. Still, Deutsche Zeichenfilm GmbH did not have the necessary qualities to compete with the admired US animation giant. The war put an ultimate end to the company’s short time of existence. Their only short film release Klein Hansi (Small Hansi) tells the story of a domestic bird that lives in a cage and once escapes to follow a flirting female bird. But the outside world is hostile and dangerous, so Hansi very happily returns to its cage where it finds its safe “Heimat”. In early 1960s, Wolfgang Urchs used his satirical animation Die Gartenzwerge (The Garden Dwarves) to make fun of the Western Germany economic miracle.

Blinkenlights: učiteljeva hiša / Blinkenlights: Haus des Lehrers / Blinkenlights: House of the Teacher Blinkenlights, Nemčija/Germany, 2001, digital, 11’

And what were negative aspects? Since it was a state studio, every film released had to be in tune with the mind-set of the governing socialist party. As a result, there was censorship at different levels of production – first, the script had to be approved, only then the actual film production could start, and sometimes there were in-between discussions. Finally, the finished film had to be approved by censors, who would possibly ask for changes or ban the film. Sometimes the decisions were quite ridiculous and one couldn’t say in advance whether a film would be accepted or not. Allowed were some films that delivered a biting satire or frank criticism of bad conditions in the GDR, whereas other films criticised less or not at all. One reason for bans for example was the reproach of being too formalistic, especially during the heyday of socialist realism in 1950s and 1960s. Even the socialist minded artists like Bruno Böttge and Kurt Weiler, who looked for new ways of artistic expression in the field of silhouette and puppet animation, constantly had to defend their artistic ideas. The problem with more formal or even abstract work was that the censors could not really handle it, regarding it per se as subversive or suspecting hidden messages for the audience. The worst case was with Kontraste (Contrast) by Sieglinde Hamacher from 1982. While other films simply were not allowed to be shown, the negative copy of this film, which was based on a story by Hans Christian Andersen, was ultimately destroyed.

animation directors with the DEFA studio. They were storytellers, they were economically independent. I would not go so far as to say they expressed a feminist point of view. However, there are several films that raise questions about the officially claimed equal position of the woman in family and social life – especially criticising the traditional male point of view. In addition, it is interesting to have a closer look on how the female body and also sexuality were depicted in several animated films from DEFA in comparison with Western European films from those days. As a final note, it is important to mention that besides the DEFA studio system there were also about 20 private film companies in the GDR mostly producing industrial and training films, commercials as well as films commissioned by TV broadcasters. Peter Blümel and his Studio 66 for example made a number of animated in-between stories for the Sandmann series. In addition, a lot of fine art artists used 8mm films for artistic experiments in the 1970s and 1980s. With regard to animation, they often used the technique of painting or scratching directly on film; Helge Leiberg's Here Comes the Sun is an excellent example, mixing documentary shots of bleak urban areas in Dresden, colourful paintings on film, shots of dance performance and jazz music with Archie Shepp singing about freedom.

One of the positive aspects was also the fact that there were a lot of woman animators.

What about political propaganda during World War II? There were both pro-Nazi and anti-British propaganda; examples of this are John Bull in Nöten (John Bull in Trouble) by Tobis and Der Störenfried (The Troublemaker) by Hans Held.

Whereas female artists are not exceptional in the field of animation, there was an unusually high rate of female

Like in World War I, the National Socialists also used film for war propaganda. There were animated advertising

In 1949 Germany became divided in two opposing states. Western Germany developed into a very strong economical power in a very short period of time. In the 1950s and 1960s it was the country of the “the economic wonder” and the time of the “fat years”. At that time, a lot of consumer products became available to more people. However, some of the Western German artists saw the economic growth, but also they noticed the standstill in the cultural development. There were for example no critical debates about the twelve years of National Socialism; the tendency was to forget and just look ahead. Die Gartenzwerge (The Garden Dwarves) by Urchs, who made it together with Boris von Borresholm and Peter Schamoni, is a very critical portrait of that era. There was also a young generation of artists who worked in the field of animation in the spirit of the rebellious 1960s. Helmut Herbst was one of the most important figures. While studying painting in Paris, he got acquainted with the history of artistic film. When he returned to Hamburg, he started his own studio cinegraphic where a lot of experimental filmmakers and artists produced their own films. They used very simple animation techniques such as collage and cut outs, in order to articulate very quickly and clearly their artistic and political visions. What are the trends in contemporary German animation? If there was a “trend”, then I would call it “diversity”. Animation departments at film and art academies in Germany follow different profiles, often influenced by the teachers who themselves are renowned animation artists. As mentioned, the increased pervading of the art of animation and other arts, technology and science results in a great variety. It also originates in the “internationalisation” of German animation. Last but not least, we luckily passed the infant years of digital animation when we saw a lot of digital animation but not many good films. Nowadays, many animation artists really know how to work with these tools and have clue about how to further their artistic vision with these means, and they have again become aware of the value of classical animation. Maša Ogrizek


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Sezona 1 / Season 1 (2010/2011) Obisk / visitors 22.000 www.udarnik.eu

™™filmske projekcije skupaj/ film projections total

364

™™eksperimentalne projekcije, eksperimentalni video in film / experimental projections, experimental video and film

71 ™™dokumentarni filmi / documentaries 27 ™™animirani filmi / animated films 10

31

™™celovečerni filmi / full-length films

™™a-v dogodki v živo/ live audio-video events ™™športni filmi / sport films

7

12

™™študentski filmi, predstavitve / student films, presentations

8

Zavod Udarnik Partnerji in sodelovanja / Partners and cooperations Slovenska Kinoteka ¦ AGRFT Ljubljana ¦ ALUO Ljubljana ¦ Visoka šola za umetnost Nova Gorica ¦ Mednarodni festival Animateka ¦ MKC Maribor ¦ Mednarodni festival računalniške umetnosti MFRU ¦ KID KIBLA ¦ KIBLIX, festival za umetnost odprte kode ¦ Festival DA:NE:S ¦ Društvo in Mednarodni festival Magdalena ¦ Cankarjev dom in LIFFe ¦ Društvo za razvoj filmske kulture ¦ Mednarodni festival Kino Otok ¦ Festival Grossman ¦


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Nič ne bomo rekli, pa tudi tiho ne bomo! 25 ™™video predavanja/ video lectures 13 ™™kinotečni filmi / cinematheque films

™™koncerti in dj-seti, klubski večeri / concerts and dj-sets, club nights

19 ™™delavnice / workshops 4 ™™razstave / exhibitions 10

45

™™diskusije / discussions

™™predstave / performances (shows)

5

™™predstavitve festivalov / presented festivals

13

™™dijaški kulturni dnevi / highschool students' culture days

5

Mednarodni festival Maribum ¦ FUNDACIJA SONDA ¦ SCCA Ljubljana ¦ Društvo ALPHAVAWE ¦ Društvo Hedonističnih Kreativcev ¦ KD Center Plesa ¦ Zavod uho; oko: ¦ Narodni dom Maribor ¦ Kulturni dnevnik ¦ Art Kino mreža Slovenije ¦ Kino Dvor ¦ ...


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Evelin Stermitz Dilema o podobi ženske The women’s image dilemma Evelin Stermitz se poleg umetniške dejavnosti v raziskovalnem delu ukvarja z umetnicami v medijih in novomedijski umetnosti in z vprašanji feminizma in spola.

umetnosti nekatera dela, ki se posvečajo vidikom spola, ne pridejo do širše publike, ker preprosto ne odsevajo moških pogledov, zaradi česar se ne skladajo s splošno veljavnimi koncepti.

Leta 2008 je osnovala ArtFem.TV – interaktivno televizijo za umetnost in feminizem (www.artfem.tv) in si s tem projektom na IX. mednarodnem festivalu podobe na univerzi Caldas v kolumbijskem Manizalesu leta 2010 prislužila posebno omembo.

Dilema o podobi ženske od sedemdesetih dalje ter prej, pozneje in naprej

Njena dela s področja medijev in novomedijske umetnosti so bila velikokrat razstavljena na feminističnih razstavah in drugih razstavah v okviru drugačnih kontekstov, v katere je želela infiltrirati feministične ideje in s tem širiti feministični diskurz. Kakšen koncept se skriva v ozadju projekta Cinéma Féministe? Kolektiv son:DA me je povabil kot selektorico mesečnega niza projekcij v Kinu Udarnik v Mariboru, moja glavna zamisel pa je bila, da filmski niz razdelam v smislu prenosa ženskih video in filmskih del s spletne platforme ArtFem.TV in virtualnega spleta s pretežno posamičnimi pogledi v realni prostor, kjer je ob ogledu možen kolektiven pogled, pa tudi da spodbudim in razširjam feministični diskurz kot javni diskurz v kontekstu kinematografa. Ime Cinéma Féministe je nastalo na podlagi nekdanjega francoskega gibanja Cinéma Vérité, mi pa smo ga preoblikovali v okviru feminizma, s čimer hočemo pokazati, da se video in filmska dela približujejo realnosti ženske oziroma ženskemu dojemanju kulture. Cinéma Féministe podobe prikazuje z ženske perspektive, kar ne izključuje moškega pogleda. Ženski pogled v vizualni kulturi je sicer vzpostavljen na podlagi moške predeterminacije, saj se le moškemu pogledu pripisuje moč določanja. Cinéma Féministe ima opraviti z ženskimi vprašanji, kar pa ne izključuje trditev o zmotnih pogledih na življenje in identiteto ženske ter zmotnem stanju osnovnih družbenih vprašanj. Od sedemdesetih dalje je s feministično filmsko kritiko in analizo v okviru feminističnega kontrafilma namreč prišlo do premika pri ustvarjanju ženskega pogleda v produkciji filmskih in video del in pri ustvarjanju različnih identitet za žensko gledalstvo. Kaj dejansko je platforma ArtFem.TV in kako je konceptualno osnovana? ArtFem.TV sem leta 2008 ustanovila v sodelovanju z mnogimi umetnicami kot obliko ženskega umetniškega in feminističnega projekta interaktivne televizije in kot kiberfeministično akcijo. Z vse večjo količino spletnih video del, ki jih predstavlja, izpostavlja ženske in umetnost. Razumemo jo lahko kot gibanje, ki nasprotuje moškemu umetniškemu sistemu in moškemu medijskemu aparatu – internetu, pa tudi kot obliko subverzivne spletne televizije. V zadnjih letih razvoja se je jasno pokazal pomen poudarjanja ženskih video in filmskih del v kontekstu ženska – spol – mediji – podobe – in tako dalje, kot lahko opazimo na različnih predstavitvah na raznovrstnih mednarodnih konferencah in prizoriščih. Na tem področju obstaja dolga teoretska tradicija, vendar pa se o njej večinoma razpravlja v okviru feminizma, zato jo je treba premakniti iz pretežno feminističnih krogov. Po mojih izkušnjah se namreč feministične ideje zdijo zanimive predstavnikom obeh spolov. Poleg tega se postavlja vprašanje: Zakaj se morajo ženske vedno prilagoditi idejam in strukturam, ki so še vedno moške in služiti kot poblagovljeni konstrukti? Mar si ne želijo ubesediti svojih mnenj, vizij in pomembnih vidikov? Posebej na tehnokratskem področju filma, medijev in novomedijske

Kibernetični prostor – internet in ArtFem.TV, kako se to sklada? Ko govorimo o kibernetičnem prostoru kot o konkretni lokaciji delovanja, dogajanja in formulacij, lahko na ArtFem.TV gledamo kot na prostor artikulacij ženskih umetnic v okviru spletnega medijskega konteksta, in sicer s postavljanjem vprašanj o prostoru za ženska vprašanja v naši multimedijski družbi. Vprašanja “prostora” ni postavila samo Virginia Woolf leta 1929 v delu Lastna soba, temveč tudi kiberfeministke ob koncu istega stoletja. Art­Fem.TV ima opraviti z ustvarjanjem prostora za ženska vprašanja in aktivno uporabo medijskega interneta. Kar je najpomembnejše, je prepoznati oblikovanje subjekta v družbenem okolju, naj bo realno ali virtualno. Primer artikulacije v takšnem prostoru v naši multimedijski družbi je izoblikovan v performativnem videu “I Exist” (2001)1 avtorice Michelle Handelman. Prikazan je kot stanje pretirane stimulacije, v katerem sama nastopa pred kamero, hkrati pa kot ponavljajoča se podoba med posameznimi posnetki nastopa v kameri, v okviru popačenih časovnih etap in delčkov, razdeljena, a hkrati v toku med hkratnim nahajanjem izven medijske podobe in znotraj nje, kot podoba sama. Očitno je, da imamo v hipermedijski družbi poplavo podob v različnih medijskih oblikah, to pa vpliva na oblikovanje razcepljenega posameznika v množični pretirani ponudbi, a ker medije tradicionalno oblikujejo moške oblastne strukture, tudi internet oblikuje moške poglede na predstave o ženskah in utrjuje tradicionalno binarno spolno medijsko strukturo, ki je daleč od tega, da bi bila spolno uravnotežena. Vse to je vplivalo name, da sem na umetniški način ustvarila drugačno spletno estetiko, tako da sem opustila splošno “družbo spektakla” – če se navežem na misli Guya Deborda.2 Kako ste osnovali koncept za spored vsakega programa Cinéma Féministe? Nekateri mesečni programi so bili nabrani na podlagi preteklih idej, ki so se mi porajale v okviru polja zanimanja kot področja ali pojavi, na katere od sedemdesetih dalje vpliva tradicija feministične umetnosti, druge projekcije pa sem izbrala, ker se mi je zdelo pomembno, da javno razpravljamo o njih kot o trenutnih umetnostnih gibanjih, kot na primer skupina subRosa, pa tudi projekcija mednarodnih kolažev v okviru FemLink. Feministična video umetnost je od sedemdesetih dalje postala zelo pomembna za umetnice, saj umetniških medijev, ki so vzniknili v sedemdesetih, praktično skupaj z drugim valom feminizma, niso obvladovale moške predstave, 1  Michelle Handelman, I Exist (2001), video http://artfem.tv/ id;4/action;showpage/page_type;video/page_id;IEXIST_michelle_handelman_flv/. 2  Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, London: Rebel Press, 1983, prvi natis/first print: La société du spectacle, Paris: Buchet-Chastel, 1967.

ki izvirajo v tradiciji umetnostne zgodovine, kot to velja za slikarstvo in druga področja, poleg tega pa je postalo mogoče, da se ženske izražajo v performativnem kontekstu. Dejansko pa program Cinéma Féministe, ko ga pripravljam, rada uskladim tudi s trenutnimi širšimi okoliščinami in v skladu s konceptom Cinéma Vérité s tistim, kar bi pritegnilo občinstvo. Tako bomo na primer imeli projekcijo z naslovom “moški”, ki ima opraviti z ženskim pogledom na nasprotni spol, pa tudi z vključitvijo moškega spola. Cinéma Féministe bi dejansko moral pokazati, da feminizem ni le stvar za ženske, ampak za ljudi vseh spolov. Še vedno v povezavi s pojmom feminizma na nek način obstajata star strah in zavračanje, ker je dobil oznako zatiranja moških in boja z njimi, to pa vsekakor ni res, saj gre preprosto za enakost spolov v dojemanju naše družbe. Kje je feminizem bil, kje je trenutno in kam gre? Feminizem je danes širok pojem z mnogimi različnimi usmeritvami, izvira pa iz političnih bojev pred sto leti. V osnovi gre za humanistično gibanje, ki pa je skozi zgodovino dobilo negativne oznake, ker je seveda šlo za boj proti moškim predstavam o zatiranju in izkoriščanju žensk, namesto da bi jih priznali kot enakovredne posameznike in subjekte. In ker so vsi mediji večinoma moški, je feminizem komajda imel priložnost, da bi pridobil pozitivne konotacije, celo napade je doživljal, zato se ga povezuje s seksizmom in nanj gleda povsem ironično, celo dandanes, v 21. stoletju. Vendar pa je feminizem dejansko družbeno in politično vprašanje, povezano s temeljnimi človekovimi pravici. Kam feminizem gre, je torej družbena paradigma vseh družb na svetu.

Nedavno je prišlo do večjega institucionalnega premika v smislu priznavanja feminističnih umetnic iz sedemdesetih z razstavami na prizoriščih, kot so Centre Pompidou, MUMOK na Dunaju in različne lokacije v ZDA, vendar pa je tisto, kar to dejansko opisuje, getoizacija feminističnih idej kot oblike umetniške zgodovinske tendence in kot oblike ločenega kanona. Kakšna je bila, je in bo vloga feminizma? Vloga feminizma kot političnega gibanja je določiti pozicijo ženske v naši družbi, vendar gre lahko zelo daleč v smeri kiberfeminizma, postfeminizma, veliko pa ima tudi opraviti z dojemanjem našega sveta v splošnem. Feminizem se ukvarja tudi z mnogimi vprašanji, ki pravzaprav niso primarno ženska. V zadnjih desetletjih pa je postal izjemno teoretičen in vpliven. Na srečo se za koncepte feminizma zanima vse več ljudi moškega spola, zaradi česar se diskurz širi in odmika od svoje binarnosti, ki ga je zaznamovala v sedemdesetih. Gledano v celoti gre za razkrivanje oblastnih struktur, zato feminizem lahko vidimo kot filozofijo proti zatiranju, ki ga lahko opazimo na mnogih področjih naših družbenih problemov, dejansko pa imajo mnoge druge discipline koristi od feminističnih idej. Kakšna bo vloga feminizma v prihodnosti, je močno odvisno od trenutnih in prihodnjih generacij in njihovih ambicij v smislu reflektiranja in spreminjanja družbenih


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težav. Trenutno je poleg drugih vprašanj pomemben tudi post- in neo-kolonialni diskurz, tudi v okviru biotehnološke in genetske industrije, ki v veliki meri vplivata na telesa in življenja žensk. Omenjali ste, da je umetnostni sistem še vedno strukturiran po moško. Kako to razumete in mar ne gre tu za osrednjo pravico do “drugačnosti” ženskih umetnic kot takšnih? Pravzaprav ne gre za pravico do “drugačnosti”, ki bi jo določala kakršna koli vrsta biološkega spola, ampak gre za “drugačnost” v družbenem spolu – za družbeno konstruiran spol, ki ima več stoletno zgodovino, vendar je v zadnjih desetletjih postal svobodnejši in začel v večji meri podpirati ženske. Če se vrnemo k znanemu in pogosto citiranemu članku Linde Nochlin iz leta 1971: “Zakaj ni nobenih izjemnih umetnic?” avtorica doda, da bi se kar sam ponudil odgovor: “Izjemnih umetnic ni zato, ker ženske niso sposobne izjemnosti.” 3 Pri tem gre za vprašanje pripisovanja izjemnosti historično izoblikovanemu moškemu geniju in dostopu do ustrezne izobrazbe na vseh področjih, kar je v zadnjih desetletjih pridobilo enakopraven pravni status, ne pa tudi celovitega podpornega in spodbujajočega statusa v realnosti, ki jo doživljamo. Zato je ta “drugačnost” še vedno vprašanje dojemanja ženske kot subjekta v naši družbi na splošno, zasebni problemi iz sedemdesetih pa so še vedno politični problemi. Kje pa so danes skriti vsi ženski geniji? Nedavno je prišlo do večjega institucionalnega premika v smislu priznavanja feminističnih umetnic iz sedemdesetih z razstavami na prizoriščih, kot so Centre Pompidou, MUMOK na Dunaju in različnih lokacijah v ZDA, vendar pa je tisto, kar to dejansko opisuje, getoizacija feminističnih idej kot oblike umetniške zgodovinske tendence in kot oblike ločenega kanona. Vseeno pa danes drži trditev Linde Nochlin: “Pomembno je, da se ženske soočijo z realnostjo svoje zgodovine in svoje trenutne situacije, ne da bi se ob tem opravičevale ali poveličevale povprečnost.”4 Ko opazujete situacije v filmskih delih, kako jih postavite v feministični kontekst? Koncept, ki je za feminizem pomemben, je, da je družbena “resničnost” spremenljiv konstrukt.5 In ker so filmska dela kulturni artefakti, prikazujejo tudi kulturni konstrukt ženskosti, katerega podobe ustvarjajo pomen na način, ki je patriarhalno opredeljen. Filmske podobe, kot vsake druge, preko dialektičnega procesa tvorijo in spreminjajo zavest. Film lahko beremo kot dinamičen tekst, zakoreninjen v kontekst družbenih odnosov, kot ga vidimo v semiotični filmski analizi in v diskurzivnem pogledu. V tem smislu je za procese pomena pomemben tudi psihoanalitični vidik Lacanove teorije, pa tudi Marxova teo­ rija o moški materializaciji ideologije. V tem kontekstu so videi in filmi, ki jih ustvarjajo ženske na feminističnem področju, sami po sebi kontra dela, ali povsem preprosto dela z drugačnimi pogledi in tematikami kot artefakti z moško usmerjenimi pogledi. Gledano v celoti gre za to, kako se pomen vizualno realizira in pokaže ter kakšne vrste spolnih oblastnih odnosov te podobe pravzaprav zastopajo. Če pogledamo na primer reklame za Milko na slovenski nacionalki, lahko vidimo, kako osladno je prikazana ženska kot mati, poleg tega pa asociira na obupano, depresivno gospodinjo, ki jo opogumljajo in držijo pri življenju le njeni otroci, ki ji prinesejo čokolado. S tem je bil povezan tudi oglas na veleplakatih, na katerem ji je skupaj z otroki mož prinesel čokolado v posteljo, ko se je zjutraj prebujala. Če na to pogledamo v okviru rangiranja položajev v družini, nizek status ženske v družinski strukturi nekako postane očiten in podobo lahko le pomilujemo. No, morda je primer s čokolado Milka nekoliko preveč preprost in lahko pove še več, tudi v okviru slovenskega postsocialističnega konteksta, vendar v spolno konstruiranih podobah v oglaševanju in drugje obstaja takšen status quo. Kako vidite konstrukcije “ženskega” spola v medijih v prihodnosti?

štejejo – kdo živi, kdo umre in za kakšno ceno – ta politična vprašanja uteleša tehnokultura. Na noben drug način se jih ni mogoče lotiti.”6 Če se torej zgodovina ponavlja in predstavlja resničnosti, ki jih digitalna tehnologija ojača, žensko telo in s tem povezana politika spola služita kot umetna fantazija, ki podpira moško družbo in so ju celo ustvarile moške roke na podlagi moških misli. Ta dihotomija – ki jo spodbuja gospodarstvo – vpliva na nadaljnje generacije prihodnjih družb in prihodnjih kultur, medtem ko se zdi, da je digitalna doba brez konca. Podobe podpirajo družbe in njihovo kulturo, hkrati pa družbi in njenim kulturam zagotavljajo reference, saj živimo v medijski in multimedijski družbi. Kar se tiče medijev in njihovih rezultatov v obliki družbenih procesov, ne samo kot mehanskih naprav, se jih pogosto navaja kot ključen vpliv na spreminjajoče se kulturne vrednote in družbene prakse v globaliziranem svetu. Mediji lahko zagotovijo razloge za dejanja, procese, ideje in rezultate, njihovo posredovanje pa je mogoče izraziti v družbenih, političnih, ekonomskih, moralnih in kulturnih vprašanjih družbenega pomena, vključno s takšnimi koncepti, kot so identiteta, spol in moč. Te medijske rezultate vsiljujeta in podpirata gospodarstvo in tržna produkcija, s čimer podpirata in utrjujeta tradicionalni, starodavni diadni sistem podob moškega in ženske in njegovo politiko spolov, s tem ko izključuje pojem družbenega spola in morebitno osnutje prihodnjega tretjega spola v smeri družbe brez družbenega spola. ENG Besides her artistic work, Evelin Stermitz’s research work focuses on women artists in media and new media art, as well as on feminist and gender issues. She founded ArtFem.TV – Art and Feminism ITV (www. artfem.tv) in 2008 and received a special mention for the project at the IX Festival Internacional de la Imagen, University of Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, in 2010. Her works in media and new media art have been exhibited widely within feminist exhibitions as well as within mixed gendered exhibitions of other contexts to infiltrate them with feminist ideas and to broaden the feminist discourse. What is the concept behind Cinéma Féministe? Actually, son:DA invited me to curate the monthly cine­ ma series at Kino Udarnik in Maribor, and the main thought was to follow up a cinema series in the sense of bringing the women's video and film works out from the online platform ArtFem.TV and the virtual Internet, where the perception is mainly single, into the real space, where a collective perception to view them is possible, and also to encourage and broaden the feminist discourse as a public discourse in a cinematic context. The name Cinéma Féministe itself was constructed based on the former French Cinéma Vérité movement and now modified with feminism as an idea of showing video and film works nearing a woman’s reality or rather a woman’s perception of culture. Cinéma Féministe is showing images from a female perspective, which does not exclude the male gaze, of course, because the female gaze is constructed out of the male predetermination in visual culture since only the male gaze is associated with the power to determine. But despite this, Cinéma Féministe has to do with women’s issues, which again does not exclude the claim on the misperceptions of a woman’s life, identity, and mis-conditions of principal societal issues. Since the feminist film criticism and analysis from the 1970s onwards, it came to a shift of creating a female gaze in producing film and video works, and also in creating different identities for the female spectatorship as a feminist counter cinema. What actually is ArtFem.TV and how is it created conceptually?

4  Ibid.: p. 233.

ArtFem.TV has been founded in 2008 by myself and many participating women artists as an idea of a wo­ men’s Art and Feminism ITV project and as a cyberfeminist action. It has been growing steadily in its represented online video works to highlight women and art. It can be understood as a counter movement to a male art system and the male media machine Internet, also as a form of subversive online television. During the years of its development, the importance of highlighting wo­men’s video and film works became obvious, which can be seen based on different presentations at

5  Glej/See: Camera Obscura Collective, Feminism and Film – Critical Approaches, v/in: Amelia Jones (Ur./Ed.), The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader, New York: Routledge, 2003, pp. 234–239; p. 235.

6  Donna Haraway, Donna Haraway – Quotes, The European Graduate School, http://www.egs.edu/faculty/donna-haraway/ quotes/.

Donna Haraway pravi: “Feministična zanimanja so znotraj tehnologije, ne le retorični pokrov. Tu govorimo o sobivanju – med različnimi znanostmi in vrstami kulture, med organizmi in napravami. Mislim, da vprašanja, ki res 3  Linda Nochlin: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?, v/in: ARTnews, Let. 69, no. 9, January 1971, pp. 22–39, 67–71, ponatis v/ reprinted in: Amelia Jones (Ur./Ed.), The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader, New York: Routledge, 2003, pp. 229–233; p. 230.

various international conferences and venues within the context of women – gender – media – images – and so forth. There is a long theoretical tradition within this field, but actually mainly discussed within the feminist context and it has to be brought out of these mainly feminist circles. In my experience, people of all genders find feminist ideas interesting. In addition, the question is: Why do women always have to adjust to the ideas and structures that continue to be male, serving as a commodified construct? Don’t they have their own opinions, visions and important aspects to articulate? Particularly in the technocratic field of film, media and new media art, some works that address gender aspects don’t make it to the wider audience, simply because they are not reflecting male ideas and therefore do not come along with common concepts.

The women’s image dilemma since the 1970s and before and later and further Cyber Space – the Internet and ArtFem.TV, how does this come along? When dealing with cyberspace as a concrete space of action, happenings and formulations, ArtFem.TV can be seen as a space of articulations of women artists within the net-media context, where questions are raised about the space for women’s issues in our multi-mediated society. The question of ‘room’ was not raised only by Virginia Woolf’s writing “A Room of One’s Own” in 1929, but also by cyberfeminists toward the end of the same century. ArtFem.TV has to do with creating space for female agendas and using the media Internet in an active way. But what is most important, that is to acknowledge the formation of a subject in a social space, whether real or virtual. An articulation of existence in such a space within our multi-mediated society is formulated in the performance video “I Exist” (2001)1 by Michelle Handelman. It displays the state of over-stimulation, in which she is acting towards the camera and at the same time within the frames of the camera, within distorted time laps and fractations as a recurrent image, divided but also flowing between being outside the media image and simultaneously inside the image, being the image itself. There is an obvious overflow of images in various forms of media in our hyper-mediated society, influencing the construction of a fractured individual within multiple overbidding. However, since all media are traditionally formed within male power structures, the Internet constructs male visions of images of women and stabilizes the traditional binary gendered media structure that is far from being gender balanced. All this has influenced me in creating a different net-aesthetics by artistic means and leaving the general “Society of the Spectacle” behind — in reference to thoughts of Guy Debord2. How did you conceptualize the programme of each Cinéma Féministe series? Some of the monthly programmes have been collected together from former ideas which came to me within my field of interest as areas or phenomena influenced by the tradition of feminist art since the 1970s, and other screenings were chosen, because they seemed important to be discussed publicly as current movements in art, for example the subRosa group, or screening the international collages of FemLink. Since the 1970s, feminist video art has become very important to women artists. This artistic medium, that emerged together with the second wave of feminism, was therefore not occupied by old male notions originating in the tradition of art history, e.g. painting; etc.; also it became possible for women to act out in a performative context. But with regard to the Cinéma Féministe programming I actually like to adjust the programme also to broader circumstances of the given time and in a Cinéma Vérité concept, to where the audience would feel to be attracted. So in April, for example, there was the screening under the title “Male”, which has to do with the female gaze on the opposite gender, but also with the inclusion of the male gender. Cinéma Féministe should actually show that feminism is not only a matter for women, but for people of any gender. Somehow, there is still this old fear and rejection of the term feminism, because it became labelled as the oppression of and fight against the ’male’, which is definitely not true, because it is simply about gender equality in the perception of our society.


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Where was, is and will be feminism? Emerging from political struggles a hundred years ago, feminism nowadays is a broad term with many different directions. In principle, it is a humanist movement, but it acquired negative labels in the course of time, because, naturally, it was a fight against male ideas of social suppression and exploitation of women and not really re­ cognizing women as equal individuals and subjects. And since all media are mainly male media, feminism has hardly had the chance to get connoted positively and even got attacked, therefore it has been associated with sexism and seen with plain irony, even nowadays in the 21st century. But in fact feminism is a social and political issue related to principal human rights. And where feminism will be, is therefore a social paradigm of societies in our world.

Lately it came to a major institutional shift of acknowledging feminist artists from the 1970s in exhibitions such as at the Centre Pompidou, MUMOK Vienna, and others in the U.S, but what it actually describes is a ghettoization of feminist ideas as a form of an art historical tendency and as a form of a separate canon. What was, is and will be the role of feminism? The role of feminism, as a political movement, is to determine the position of the woman in our society, but it can go very far toward cyberfeminism, postfeminism, and also has to do with the perception of our world in general. Feminism is also dealing with many issues that actually are not primarily female, and in the last decades became highly theoretical and influential. Fortunately an increasing number of male gendered people find interest in the concepts of feminism and broaden the discourse, to lead away from the binary discourse of the 1970s. All in all it is about the disclosure of power structures and feminism can be seen as a philosophy against suppression that can be found in many fields of our societal problems. Actually, many other disciplines have benefited from feminist ideas. What the role of feminism will be, depends strongly on the current and future ge­ nerations and their ambitions to reflect and change the societal issues. Currently, besides other issues, the postand neo-colonial discourse is important as well, also within the biotech and genetic industry, which has a major impact on women’s bodies and their lives. You’ve mentioned that the art system is still male structured. How do you perceive this and isn’t it a major claim on the ‘otherness’ of women artists in ge­ neral? In fact it is not a claim on the ‘otherness’ described by any form of sex, but it is a form of ‘otherness’ of the gender – the socially constructed sex, which has its history of many centuries, but became more liberated and supportive toward women during the last decades. When going back to the famous and often quoted article by Linda Nochlin of 1971, “Why have there been no great women artists?” she mentions that the self-implied answer would be: “There are no great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.”3 It is a question of ascribing greatness to the historically constructed male genius and of having access to adequate education in all disciplines, which of course in the last decades became equal in its legal status, but not throughout its supportive and encouraging status of experienced reality. Therefore this ‘otherness’ is still a question of the perception of a woman as a subject in our society in general, and the personal problems from the 1970s are still political problems, because: “Where are all the female geniuses hidden nowadays?“ Recently there has been a major institutional shift of acknowledging feminist artists from the 1970s in exhibitions at the Centre Pompidou, MUMOK Vienna, MOCA Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, and at various other venues. How­ever, what it actually describes is the ghettoization of feminist ideas as a form of tendency in art history and as a form of a separate canon. This sentence by Linda Nochlin from 1971 is still accurate nowadays: “What is important is that women face up the reality of their history and of

their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity.”4 When viewing the situation in film works, how do you set it in a feminist context? Regarding feminism, an important concept is, that social ‘reality’ is a changeable construct. And since film works are cultural artefacts, they also demonstrate a cultural construct of femininity with images which generate meaning in a patriarchally defined mode. Film images, like all images, form and transform consciousness in a dialectical process. The film can be read as a dynamic text embedded in the context of social relations, seen in a semiotic film analysis and a discursive view. In this regard, the psychoanalytic aspect of Lacan’s theory is also important for processes of signification and so is

Marx’s theory of male materialisation in ideology.5 In this context, video and film works produced by women in a feminist field are per se a counter work, or simply work with different perspectives and issues than artefacts with male centred viewpoints. All in all it is about how meaning is visually realized and manifested, and what kind of gendered power relations these images actually represent. Even if you watch the simple ‘Milka’ commercials on the Slovenian National Television, you can see how sappy a woman as a mother is depicted, also associated with a desperate, depressive housewife only encouraged and kept alive by her children who bring her a chocolate. There was also a related billboard ad, where even the husband together with the children brought chocolate to her bed when she was waking up in the morning. Somehow, if you consider this in terms


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of ranks within the family, the low status of a woman in the structure becomes obvious and the image is to pity. Well, maybe the ‘Milka’ chocolate example is a way too plain and tells even more, also within the Slovenian postsocialist context, but this is the status quo of gendered image constructions in advertisements and elsewhere. How do you see future constructions of the ‘female’ gender in media? Donna Haraway declares: “Feminist concerns are inside of technology, not a rhetorical overlay. We’re talking about cohabitation: between different sciences and forms of culture, between organisms and machines. I think the issues that really matter — who lives, who dies, and at what price — these political questions are embodied in technoculture. They can’t be got at in any

other way.”6 Therefore, if history repeats itself, representing realities enhanced by digital technology, the female body and its gender politics serve as an artificial fantasy supporting a male society, even having been created by male hands out of male minds. This dichotomy — enforced by economy — has an impact on further generations of future societies and future cultures, as the digital era seems to be never-ending. Images support societies and their cultures, but images also give references to societies and their cultures since we are living in a media and multi-mediated society. Regarding media and their outcome as social processes, rather than only mechanical devices, media are often implicated as a major influence over changing cultural values and social practices in the globalised world. Media can provide reasons for acts, processes, ideas and results, and their mediation

can be expressed in social, political, economic, moral and cultural issues of societal significance, such as identity, gender and power. These media results are forced and supported by economy and the market production, supporting and stabilizing the traditional, ancient dyadic image system of male and female and its politics of the sexes by excluding the term gender and possible drafts of a future third sex towards a non-gendered society. Miha Horvat


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VELI AND AMOS live in magazines

Zadeva:  Fwd: saturday. Pošiljatelj:  “Veli Silver” <mr.velisilver@gmail.com> Datum:  Tor, Februar 15, 2011 7:43 pm Prejemnik:  “son:DA” <sonda@mail.kibla.org> Prioriteta:  Običajen ok.thats it. > for the foto of the sheep we should get bigger 1. and ask Boštjan Lah to make a copy with all fotos from exibition anyway. kiss v . a > 2011/2/12 son:DA <sonda@mail.kibla.org> > >> hej guys. >> bellow are the questions and intro into the interview for magazine folio. i would also need two(2) images to go with interview. would be great if you could send me the answers as soon as possible aka anyway please and urgently befor Veli comes back and we transport the artworks from kibla. thanks in advance and take carte. lp. m(son:DA)

Veli & Amos, Jewbox, tehnična podpora / technical support Marc Dusseiller (SGMK), Mirko Podpečan, Boštjan Čadež foto arhiv KIBLA 2011 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah


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>> >> >> >> INTERVIEW. >> Now is winter 2011 aka an interview with Veli and Amos. Or trying to do a long interview, a complex one, a philosophical aka on the other side staring just a speedy dialog, a fast talk with short questions and quick answers, with as many questions as possible and as quick as possible. So. Let's try the second version and think aka don't think. Just answer and will see where we'll go next. Thanks Veli and Amos aka let's go and yes, let's do it in english and yes, welcome to KIBLA. The answers to following questions will be publish soon. See you all aka to begin: > > Street? Its raw. >> Gallery? Museums. >> Trains? Romantik. >> Artist? Sitting and thinking,sometimes just sitting. >> Producer? Money money money. >> Curator? Sex. >> Theory? Ask Miha(son.da). >> >> Education? Art School Graffiti Life. > > Drawings? Your 1st outline is always needed. > Bureaucracy? We need a secretary. >> Filling up papers? Making our own papers. >> >> Police? No comment. >> Men? Men are dangerous. >> Ladies? Got 2 many got to learn to say no. >> Technology? Call Mark from Nano Schmano or Bosh(fsk). >> Graffiti? R.I.P. >> >> Blu? He is Blu dabadeedabeeda.. >> Banksy? From England.. >> West bank wall? Time will tell. >> >> Colours? Just metallic. >> Style wars? The best Graffiti movie untill now. >> Street domination? No Respect. >> Safari? Not so much Zoo. >> Veli and Amos live on streets?Its also raw. >> Veli and Amos live in galleries? When did you make 2000 dollars in a month or go to Paris?


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Veli & Amos, V živo v galerijah / Live in galleries, foto arhiv KIBLA 2011 / KIBLA photo archive, foto / photo Boštjan Lah

Bilo je poletje 2010 in do enega izmed naslednjih odstavkov oziroma do “zime 2011” so se zgodile spodnje vrstice, za katere sta zatrdila, da jih bosta lahko uporabila šele čez 20 let. Če odgovorim s citatom, ki ga iz kultnega filma “Style Wars” ponavljata-mo, oziroma vsi naenkrat zdaj: “just follow the outline”. Kje naj začnem? O umetniku Veliju Silverju in o ustvarjalcu Amosu Angelesu, o slikarjih in filmarjih, režiserjih ter dokumentaristih oziroma o preseljeni logiki zunanjih, mestnih in uličnih intervencij v kontekst galerijskega prostora, o enostavni in kompleksnejši interaktivnosti, o inovativnem slikarstvu in o stenski risbi oziroma o zvočni kulisi in dokumentacijski fotografiji, o sproščenosti, enostavnosti in direktnosti sodobne umetnosti oziroma kompleksnosti življenja in kritiškem diskurzu, o neki šali in o solzah ter o studiu39+ oziroma o anti-vsemu hkrati? Kje naj začnem in kako naj najdem tisto cifro, ki kot odgovor na vprašanje bistva poganja njega, njiju, vse? Kaj in kakšen je motor ter kaj in kako se stvari, zgodbe, koncepti poganjajo? Kako kategorizirati, arhivirati in definirati kreativni vulkan, ki je ob gorečem znaku razmišljal kot o prostorsko specifičnem 3D pisanju, o minljivosti, o ognju, strasti in destrukciji? O globalnem segrevanju, spektaklu, govornem slengu, o ljudeh, o življenju in o smrti? O naravi in o biti zvezda za 5 minut? Pravijo, da po navadi na njihove otvoritve pridejo bivše bejbe in da je kul, če jih kdo drug zabava ter da ju zanima ikonografija in njeno čaščenje. Premišljuje se sistem, ki se bori proti grafitom in kot izziv se postavlja sam vizualni spektakel. Pripravlja se in konstruira se objekte, mobilne objekte, ki prihajajo v in zapuščajo galerije. In da. Živi in dela se z ter na ulici. Dobesedno. Zna se postaviti na njo in ob njo, torej zna se jo opazovati, antropološko

in sociološko raziskovati ter umetniško analizirati. Nekoč smo debatirali o spontanosti, ki se jo ob preveč konceptua­ lizacijah-kontekstualizacijah in ujetostih v umetnostno zgodovino ter teorijo izgublja. Dejstvo je, da se zna pasti v omamen delirij in ekstazo. Da se hkrati preveč in premalo dela, da se zna in se ne zna reducirati. Vulkan, ki je že (pre)večkrat postavil ogledalo celotni urbani kreativi in anti-vulkan, ki je pogledal nasprotnemu oziroma drugačnemu sistemu življenja v oči. Dejanska ena in druga stran, za in proti, plačati ali ukrasti, biti zunaj ali obsedeti s potetovirano množico izobčencev. In seveda, tisti zid med dvema poloma. Zid, na katerem je dolga in modra linija čez vso njegovo zgodovino. Zid, ki je površna in hkrati kompleksna sinteza. Zid, na katerem so skupinske podmornice, povezovalni vlaki in odkriti spolni organi v tvoj obraz. Zid, ki deli in povezuje, zid, ki si predstavlja in sanja obratnost ter reprezentira način trenutnega oziroma sodobnega življenja s puško. Način življenja generacije iz konteksta, kjer ni prostora za polikano retoriko in politično korektnost ter za nerazumevanje kontemplacijskih obredov, ampak se zmedeno prepletata in jasno povezujeta vzhodna in zahodna obala, teza in anti-teza, intelektualno konceptualiziranje s huligansko spontanostjo. In moje vprašanje njima ter instituciji, ki goji svoje konvencionalne rituale: “zakaj se sploh potrebuje nek tako sistemski tekst, neko klasično obliko, v bistvu neko konformistično dejanje?” Če poskušam razumeti premišljevanje sistema, ki se bori proti grafitom oziroma če naivno poskušam iskati odgovor o alternativah in drugačnosti oziroma v bistvu celo drugosti, dejanskih skokov v to, kar počne pragmatična masa, ni in ne bi smelo biti. V skladu s tem, kaj mi eli-mos-ov način življenja in metoda preživetja ter njuna umetniška dela spo-

ročajo, povprečnosti sistemske (beri sodobne) umetnosti in način njenega delovanja odpade in hkrati ... Hkrati se jo in se sistem res lahko le na ta način premišljuje, predeluje, definira in redefinira: umetniški objekti kot so jewbox, ovčke, new york, indijanec in volk, holywood, tiger woods in safari ter oranžna serija in nekatere dokumentacijske fotografije kričijo po nomadskem seljenju od galerije do galerije, od pogleda do pogleda, od duše do duše. Intervju, jaz in Veli in Amos: poskušam narediti dolg intervju, kompleksen, filozofski, hkrati pa začenjam le nagel dialog, hiter pogovor s kratkimi vprašanji in urnimi odgovori, s kar največ vprašanji, ki naj bodo kar najbolj hitra. Torej. Poskusimo drugo različico in mislimo / ne mislimo. Samo odgovarjajta, pa vidimo, kam bomo prišli. Hvala, Veli in Amos, gremo, in, da, dajmo v angleščini, in, da, dobrodošla na kibla-org. Odgovori na naslednja vprašanja bodo objavljeni kmalu. Se vidimo, torej, naj začnem: Ulica? Galerija? Vlaki? Celi avtomobili? Platno? Risba? Slika? Linija? Obris? Umetnik? Producent? Kurator? Teorije? Umetniška šola oziroma akademija za likovno umetnost? Izobraževanje? Birokracija? Izpolnjevanje dokumentov? Sistem? Policija? Moški? Ženske? Tehnologija? Grafiti? Blu? Banksy? Henry? Zid na Zahodnem bregu? Rap? Glasba? Glasbene zvrsti? Barve? Style wars? Style wars 2? Prevlada na ulici? Izven nadzora? Für immer? Bellevue boys? Za vedno in kako daleč? Veli in Amos v živo v galerijah? ENG It was the summer of 2010 and until one of the paragraphs below, i.e. until “the winter of 2011”, the lines below unfolded and with regard to them they claimed only to be able to use them in 20 years. To answer with a quote that they/


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we have been repeating from the cult movie “Style Wars”, or all-together now: “just follow the outline“. Where to begin? On the artist Veli Silver and the creator Amos Angeles, two painters and filmmakers, directors and documentarists, or the logics of external, urban and street interventions moved into the context of a gallery space, on the simple and more complex interactivity, on innovative painting and on mural drawings, or the audio scenery and documentary photography, on easiness, simplicity and directness of contemporary art or the complexity of life, and on critical discourse, on a certain joke and on crying as well as studio39+ or on anti-all at once? Where to begin and how to find the number that, being the answer to the essential question, drives him, them, everything? What is the engine and what is it like, and how are these things, stories, concepts propelled? How to categorize, archive and define the creative volcano that, with the sign on fire, would be thinking of space-specific 3D writing, of transience, of fire, passion and destruction? Of global warming, spectacle, speech slang, of people, of life and of death? Of nature and of being a star for 5 minutes? They say that their openings are usually attended by ex girlfriends and that it is cool to have somebody else there to entertain them, and they are interested in the iconography and the worship of it. The system is being considered that fights against graffiti and the challenge being posed is the visual spectacle as such. It is being prepared, objects are being constructed, mobile objects that enter galleries and exit them. And, yes. It is being lived and worked with the street, on the street. Literally. It might be set on it, beside it, therefore the street might be observed, might be explored anthropologically and sociologically, and analysed artistically. Once we

debated on spontaneity, which is getting lost in the increasing number of conceptualisations-contextualisations and entrapments in art history and theory. The fact is that one might go into intoxicating delirium and ecstasy. That it might be worked too much and too little at once, that it might be reduced or might not be reduced. The volcano that has been holding a mirror to the complete urban creativity (too) often, and the anti-volcano that has looked the opposite, i.e. different system of life in the eye. The actual one side and the other, for and against, to pay or to steal, to be outside or to linger with the tattooed crowd of outcasts. And, naturally, the wall between the two poles. The wall featuring the long and blue line throughout its history. The wall that is a surface and at the same time a complex synthesis. The wall featuring group submarines, connecting trains and exposed genitals in your face. The wall that separates and connects, the wall that visualises and dreams the inverse, and represents the mode of current, i.e. modern living with a shotgun. The mode of life of a generation taken from a context where there is no room for polished rhetoric or political correctness, neither for misunderstanding the rites of contemplation, rather, featuring a confused intertwining and clear connection of the East and the West coast, of thesis and antithesis, of intellectual conceptualisation and the hooligan spontaneity. And my question to them and to the institution that breeds its conventional rituals: “Why is such a systemic text needed at all, why such a traditional form, actually a conformist act of a kind?” When trying to understand how the thoughts of the system fighting against graffiti, i.e. when trying naively to find the answer on alternatives and being different, or, actually, even on otherness, there are no and should be no actual

plunges into what the pragmatic mass are doing. In accordance with what the eli-mos style of life and method of survival as well as their artworks communicate to me, the mediocrity of systemic (i.e. contemporary) art and its mode of operation are out of the question, but still ... Still, this is the only way to think the art and the system, to process, define and redefine them: art objects such as jewbox, little sheep, new york, the indian and the wolf, hollywood, tiger woods and safari as well as the orange series and some documentary photographs screaming for nomadic wanderings from gallery to gallery, from look to look, from soul to soul. An interview, me and Veli and Amos: trying to do a long interview, a complex one, a philosophical one, on the other hand starting just a speedy dialog, a fast talk with short questions and quick answers, with as many questions as possible and as quickly as possible. So. Let's try the second version and think / don't think. Just answer and we see where we go next. Thanks, Veli and Amos, let's go, and yes, let's do it in english and yes, welcome to kibla-org. The answers to the following questions will be published soon. See you all aka to begin: Street? Gallery? Trains? Whole cars? Canvas? Drawing? Painting? Line? Outline? Artist? Producer? Curator? Theory? Art school aka fine arts academy? Education? Bureaucracy? Filling up papers? System? Police? Men? Woman? Technology? Graffiti? Blu? Banksy? Henry? West bank wall? Rap? Music? Musical genres? Colours? Style wars? Style wars 2? Street domination? Out of control? Für immer? Bellevue boys? Forever and how high? Veli and Amos live in galleries? Miha Horvat


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Mehki terorizem Soft terrorism Pripoveduje Marko Brecelj iz Društva prijateljev zmernega napredka Told by Marko Brecelj of the Association of friends of reasonable progress Pradogodek mehkega terorizma, pa takrat še nisem vedel, da je to to, se je zgodil v stari elektrocentrali, ki jo je odprl Školč okrog novega leta s svojo pribočnico, ki je zdaj tudi v Državnem zboru. Kot minister in državna sekretarka sta imela sprejem. Prišel sem z Arijano. Tam smo imeli nek kulturni program, okrog nas so hodili kelnerji in jaz sem bil v eni uri že dobro nabasan. Z miz, bilo jih je dosti, sem začel jemati čokolatine in sem na osem metrov Franka Jurija zadel v sence s prvim strelom in potem sem vedel, da mi ni treba več vadit. Petru Tomažu Dobrili, ki ima visoko čelo, sem ga zabasal direktno na čelo, z roko. Še nekaj časa sem izvajal take poteze, noben me ni premlatil in potem je Arijana rekla, da bi bilo dobro, če se odmakneva od tod. Ubogal sem jo in ko sva šla mimo državne sekretarke, me je podražila in rekla: “A, nje se pa ne upaš, kaj!?” (Arijana intervenira: Ni res! Popadel me je moj smisel za enakopravnost med spoloma! Ti si ciljal samo moške, a veš, jaz pa sem rekla: “Kaj pa ženske?”) V glavnem, imel sem še eno tortico v žepu, na izhodu je stala državna sekretarka v usnjenem plašču. Pozdravil sem jo in ji razmazal tortico po plašču. “O,” je rekla, “jaz si pa tega nisem zaslužila,” ker je bila korektna in vestna uradnica in naklonjena državna sekretarka. Potem me je sicer pekla vest in čez nekaj časa sva to poglihala. Za Franka Jurija pa me ni nikoli pekla vest. To je bil v bistvu prvi mehkoteroristični dogodek. Drugi dogodek, ki je bil neprimerno bolj konceptualno pripravljen, bolj osmišljen in sploh ni bil tako spontan, pa je bil Antonu in Pohorskemu bataljonu. Ta drugi performans je bil leta 1999, ko je prišel papež na Betnavo pred tistih 300.000 ljudi in sta ga sprejela Janez Drnovšek in Milan Kučan in vse je bilo oh in ah in vsi so bili tam. Naša mehkoteroristična ekipa je prišla tja, žgano pijačo smo morali pustiti pri vratih. Oni Poljak je ravno začel uporabljati svojo slovenščino, ko smo šli noter. Opremljeni smo bili kot eni čudni katoliki z baloni. Pihali smo balončke, ministrantki so skakali za njimi. Bilo je perfidno, posmehljivo … Prisrčno morbidno. Potem smo se sprehodili med njimi, nihče nas ni oviral, čeprav smo bili čudni katoliki z baloni. Vsi novinarji so bili na medu, nas ni nihče opazil, edino policaji nam niso dovolili hoditi po sredini. Drugi del performansa pa smo šli posnet na Tri žeblje na Pohorje, kjer je bila zadnja bitka Pohorskega bataljona. Tam smo naredili praizvedbo nove pesmi Antonu in Pohorskemu bataljonu, ki jo izvajam jaz s harmonikašem (primerna pa je tudi za zborovske izvedbe). Pred nekaterimi borci in nami smo to izvedli. Potem je začel padati dež. To je bil temeljito pripravljen performans, besedilo in melodija sta bila napisana vnaprej, vse skupaj smo izvedli in posneli v enem dnevu. Naredili smo mehkoteroristični filmček, ki ga ne dispečiramo. To je stvar, ki je nočemo dajati od sebe, ampak jo plasiramo s seboj, ne pa da bi jo štancali in naredili komercialni izdelek. Ravno ko je moj oče umrl, smo bili s tem materialom v Splitu. S posnetki smo bili na Nizozemskem, v Nemčiji, na Poljskem, v Srbiji in Črni gori. Leta 1999 je bil torej prvi mehkoteroristični dogodek, ki je bil dognan. Bil je popolnoma neopažen, če pa bi ga danes dali na televizijo, bi bil še vedno močan udarec. Tisti ljudje, ki so razumeli pomen Pohorskega bataljona, to cenijo. Neka starejša gospa, ki je slišala to pesem, me je globoko pohvalila. Novinarstvo nas ni opazilo. Mehki terorizem mora imeti odmevni prostor. Odmevni prostor te akcije je pač tisti avditorij, ki mu pokažemo posnetek, kjer pesem zaigramo. Potem je prišla jesen 2001, ko se je zgodil teroristični napad na TWC v New Yorku. Tako mehko se je zabadal noter tisti avion v upočasnjenem posnetku, kot v eno torto. Na Društvu prijateljev zmernega napredka se nam je začelo kazat, da leta in leta (takrat smo imeli za seboj že dve petletki) pepelkujemo v tem klubu pravzaprav v razmerah, ko smo bili mi socialni problem, projekti pa so

se razširili, klub je napredoval in imel svoj odmevni prostor. Mediji so blokirali uporniško kulturo, bogati študentje (Klub študentov Občine Koper) pa so začeli misliti na to, kako nas bojo izrinili. Imeli so 60 milijonov na leto, mi pa jih še do lanskega leta nismo dosegli niti dvajset. Keš so imeli, nas pa so obtožili, da smo brez idej, da smo leni in da zlorabljamo prostore v privatne namene. Ta trenutek je občina hotela izkoristiti za poseg v uravnavanje te ‘’napetosti’’, ki so bile sprožene med mladino. Niso pa računali na energičnost naše obrambe. Jaz znam dobro napisat, urednik Primorskih novic mi je odgovor objavil na istem mestu, kjer je bil objavljen udarec proti nam. Tisti, ki so hujskali, se niso oglasili, ker se niso hoteli izdati, tisti, ki so bili nahujskani pa niso znali odgovoriti. Župan ni hotel priti na našo desetletnico, prišel pa je Matjaž Hanžek. Sledili so trije, štirje tedni intenzivnega obračuna, to je bil tudi ene vrste performans, ki ga do tega trenutka še nisem štel za takšnega. Ta obračun me je zelo izčrpal in razočaral, me je pa zainteresiral za politiko. To se je dogajalo v decembru, mi pa smo že pred tem spopadom slutili, da se nekaj nabira, slutili smo ta oklep, in se odločili, da bomo začeli bolj aktivno posegat v dogajanje. Že konec septembra smo začeli z mehkoterorističnimi akcijami. Najprej smo podelili Šeligovega P-tiča. Ministrici za kulturo in Kraljevi smo na sprejemu v Filharmoniji podelili ročno izdelano okusno torto, ki je imela na vrhu Šeligovega P-tiča. Šembrek iz Železnikov je vključil sireno, Šulc iz Kranja je metal petarde po hodniku, jaz pa sem kričal en tekst, nosil torto ter rekel: “Tukaj imate Šeligovega P-tiča in si ga dajte v usta, vi, gospa Kraljeva in tudi vi, gospa ministrica.” To je bil naš performans. Ona potem ni vzela tiste torte, s Krpanom smo jo odnesli na Kersnikovo in so jo pojedli študentje. To je bil prvi mehkoteroristični performans z nekaj malega odmeva v medijih. Druga akcija je bila manj posrečena. V času psihoze z antraksom smo šli z maskami na pošto in smo hoteli v ovojnice sipati neke praške ter pisati ministrici za kulturo. Napisali smo ji, da ne jebemo tega njenega razpisa, da je elitističen. Oni pa v jok zaradi tega, seveda. Mišljena je bila blokada razpisa. Na pošti nismo smeli fotografirat, nas so izgnali, bilo pa je organizirano, notri nas je bilo več skupin, tako da to v svojem spominu štejem kot mehkoteroristično akcijo. Akcija Sumljiva pošta na sumljiv razpis je bila torej slabo dokumentirana in neodmevna, je pa spadala v ta post TWC-jevski čas. Potem smo šli takoj še z eno, v času sejma študentarije v Ljubljani. To pa je bil napad na ameriško ambasado in slovensko vlado. Šli smo iz Cankarjevega doma, kjer smo si naredili papirnate aviončke, ki so bili sami za sebe že izdelek. Na eni strani je bila ta pesem, na drugi strani pa naš stripzid o Bushu, ki hodi v Afganistan. Sledil je napad z aviončki. To smo posneli. Akcija je doživela odmevček v Delu, ki nas kasneje ni več hotelo spremljati. Potem pa smo novembra v Kopru udarili na Grizolda, ki je bil takrat obrambni minister. Prišel je reklamirat Nato. Šli smo in napisali “SUONATO PER LA NATO” (Samo ne­ umni za Nato) na zid. V drugem delu pa smo ga šli ovirat z zeljanjem, tako da bi moral skakat čez. Pa so ga peljali okrog, tako da so skakali samo občinarji in županov pratež. Akcijo je pokrila televizija. V tem času so nas že napadli študentje, mi pa smo s temi akcijami sprožili več odmeva kot prej s celoletnimi aktivnostmi. Mislili so, da so se nam že zamajala tla pod nogami, ker so Primorske novice akcijo Suonato per la Nato zavestno opisovale kot negativen pojav, češ, “res, kako si lahko privoščijo popisat eno 40 let staro fasado, kakšen odnos do mesta pa je to?” Že naslednji dan so naročili popravilo fasade, jo v 24 urah popravili in meni naložili plačilo 70 jurjev. To je bil moj najdražji performans.

Potem je prišlo do tega obračuna, tvor je počil, jaz sem študente tudi sam izzival. Posledica moje razvpitosti je bil intervju na televiziji, v katerem so me obravnavali kot kulturnega delavca, ki je lahko govoril o problemih urbanega jedra, o kulturni oživitvi itn. Takrat sem treščil po študentih, da je bilo kar groza, da nimajo dvojezičnih napisov, recimo. Potem so skočili v luft in si rekli, “zdaj ga pa bomo!”. Pa ga niso. Je bilo že januarja jasno, da se morajo umakniti. Moji močni strici so tudi prišli v igro. Jožef Školč v liberalni stranki se je pozanimal navzdol, kako je kaj s tem, Miloš Pavlica je bil podpredsednik Združene liste pa je dal na dnevni red kolegija točko M&KC Koper, Hanžek mi je prišel pomagat … Generalnega načrta za našo marginalizacijo pa niso opustili. Takrat nas je začela zanimat politika, ko smo videli, kako to funkcionira. Formalno nas je zanimala že prej. Mladino smo pozivali, naj se zanima za lokalno politiko, naj sodeluje na volitvah. Jaz sem platonsko kandidiral za župana in dobil nekaj procentov. Nismo pa vedeli, kako se sprejema občinski proračun, niso nas zanimala razmerja moči … Od takrat, ko smo bili napadeni, pa nas je začela stvar prekleto zanimati. V januarju je naredila napako ministrica za kulturo in me je povabila na svoj novoletni sprejem v Halo A. Akcija Kitajski cesar v Hali je dokumentirana in je prva, ki je močno udarila v medijih. Takrat smo požrli približno polovico njenega medijskega odmeva. Na ta obred romanja ali hodočašća so me stokilskega nosili na posebej za to priliko pri mizarju naročenih nosilih. Stala so 35 jurjev. Vse je bilo v redu, samo jaz nisem bil dovolj pripravljen in nisem nič nesramnega rekel. Nisem imel kakega stresalnika, da bi jo streslo, ko bi ji stisnil roko ali kaj takega. Organizacijsko so me stvari prehitele. Bil sem nepripravljen tekstovno, a kamere so prvič lezle direktno v nas. Karkoli bi rekel, bi se zapičilo masam v glavo, vse bi objavili. “En softič je ven izpadel,” je rekel Kramaršič Jaša. Samo jaz sem bil zadovoljen, zunanji okvir je bil, en posmeh je bil noter, zmanjkalo pa mi je za sporočilo, ki bi ga vsi posneli. To je pač ena izkušnja. Cela prireditev je bila odurna, odtujena. Šank je vodila tvrdka Trst je naš. Na tem sprejemu sem, ko sem šel na sekret, poškropil z vodo esenesovca Jelinčiča, ki je ravno govoril za televizijo. Tako očitajoče me je pogledal s tistimi plavimi očmi, dosti rodov čiste zgodovine njegovih prednikov me je prebodlo, in ko sem se vrnil mi še ni bilo zadosti in sem ga vprašal, če hoče še kaj. Je rekel, da noče nič več, tako da zahvaljujoč njemu ni prišlo do incidenta. Kasneje nas niso več povabili na nobeno veselico. Nismo bili primerni za zveličanje, ker smo bili samo še v projektih, v programih pa nismo več hoteli niti mogli sodelovati. Na osnovi spoprijema za prostor M&KC v Kopru in odnosa do Ministrstva za kulturo me je zapustila kakršnakoli sentimentalnost. Prvič smo dobili odziv v centralnih medijih, mehkoteroristična akcija je imela poln resonančni odmev. Dobro, gremo naprej. Zdaj sem že vedel, kaj hočem. Bil sem popolnoma suveren v tehnologiji, pustil sem se inspirirat dogajanju in vskočit vanj. Naslednja prilika je bila, ko so mi telefonirali iz Rdečega križa, da imajo neke Amerikance, ki bi radi pomagali, malo pospravljali pa to. “Super,” sem rekel, “koliko jih imaš?” “Dosti, sto jih imam,” je prišel odgovor. “Daj mi jih sto,” sem rekel. In sem že izračunal, kako jih bomo mehko ugrabili, peljali z avtobusi na mineštro, v muzej sodobne zgodovine in jim povedali, da mi ne rabimo njihove pomoči, ker pač njihova vojska dela tisto, kar nam ni všeč. “Lahko pa komuniciramo, jemo, vse to. Vidite, da smo se skupaj proti fašizmu borili, na tem mestu je padel vaš padalec …” Naredil sem program njihovega osveščanja, ne pa njihove pomoči in samoreklame, da bojo rekli, kako so dobri, da jih bojo prišli fotografirat in da bojo naši obrtniki kleli in pljuvali po tleh, zato ker so jim odžrli biznis. Sto bi bilo le


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Redosled mehkoterorističnih akcij

Novinarstvo je bilo brez ene izjeme osredotočeno na papeža, Drnovška in Kučana. 19. september 1999, Antonu in Pohorskemu bataljonu, Maribor Each and every journalist focusing their attention to the Pope, Drnovšek and Kučan. 19 September 1999, To Anton and the Pohorje Battalion, Maribor

19. september 1999 Antonu in Pohorskemu bataljonu, Maribor 1. oktober 2001 Podelitev Šeligovega P-tiča, Ljubljana 16. oktober 2001 Bombardiranje ameriške ambasade in slovenske vlade, Ljubljana 24. oktober 2001 Sumljiva pošta na sumljiv razpis, Ljubljana 7. november 2001 Suonato per la Nato, Koper 11. januar 2002 Kitajski cesar v Hali, Ljubljana 27. marec 2002 Marincirana sreda, Koper 19. – 20. april 2002 Raz vrata, Beograd 24. april 2002 Pozdrav osvoboditeljem, Koper 15. maj 2003 Neslišna šola pokanja, Koper 15. avgust 2003 Tapisonirano vnebovzetje, Koper 20. avgust 2003 Rode nazaj v Vatikan, Koper 27. september 2003 Eko zamenjava, Koper 15. oktober 2003 Vatentat, Koper 11. januar 2004 Izbrisani v Dražgošah, Dražgoše 22. januar 2004 Degustacija, Koper Akcije so izvedli Društvo prijateljev zmernega napredka (Koper), Kulturno društvo Rov (Železniki), Alternativno kulturno društvo Izbruh (Kranj) in Zavod Pekarna (Maribor) v različnih kombinacijah in številu.

Andraž Šulc (Izbruh) je vrgel papirnati bombnik proti dvorišču ameriške ambasade. 16. oktober 2001, Bombardiranje ameriške ambasade in slovenske vlade, Ljubljana Andraž Šulc (Izbruh) throwing a paper bomber to the US Embassy courtyard. 16 October 2001, Bombardment of the US Embassy and the Slovene Government, Ljubljana

preveč in smo se zmenili za pet komadov. Prišli so, na pojasnitev sem povabil še Pop TV. Črncem sem povedal, da so bili mehko ugrabljeni in jim razložil vidike našega možnega sodelovanja. Bili so tukaj, v Galeriji mensa numero due, midva s Feotom sva obrnila okrog mizo s sporočilom … Vest je zmanipulirala Pop TV. Iz samega posnetka je jasno, da sem z njimi ravnal lepo in spoštljivo, oni pa so tako skrajšali in obrnili, kot da sem se poigral z nedolžnimi ljudmi. Tak je bil vtis. Oni so bili res smešni, ko so butasto gledali v napis “THANK YOU BUT / WE REFUSE YOUR HELP.” Niso se znašli, neuki fantje. Tisto, kar pa sem jaz njim govoril, tisto je bilo lepo. Poudaril sem, da mi spoštujemo njihovo človeško pripravljenost, da nam pomagajo z rokami in z možgani, na zunanjepolitičnem nivoju pa mi ne moremo sprejeti njihove pomoči, in da jih vabimo na mehko ugrabitev, da gremo kaj pojest, da pa si pomagat ne bomo pustili od njih. Tega niso hoteli razumeti, oni iz Pop TV pa so to obrnili, da je bilo videti, kot da se je Brecelj ponorčeval z enimi ubogimi zamorci, ki niso nič krivi. Manipulaciji se itak ne moreš nikoli izogniti, vendar je bil cel dogodek tako jasen v svoji govorici, da popolna manipulacija ni bila možna. Lahko so premaknili akcent, ampak trenutka, ko se miza obrne in ko oni bolščijo v mizo, tega pa niso mogli sleči, ker je bilo tako ostro. Ljudje so razumeli sporočilo in so se z njim strinjali. Dosegli smo daleč največji odmev do takrat.

Po dokončanju napisa “Zelje nas v NATO pelje”, tik pred zeljanjem. 7. november 2001, Suonato per la Nato, Koper After finishing the banner reading “Zelje nas v NATO pelje” (To NATO with cabbage), moments before the cabbage event. 7 November 2001, Suonato per la Nato, Koper

Feo je pred nami pel kitajsko pesem, cesarja so me odnesli proti gospe Rihterjevi. 11. januar 2002, Kitajski cesar v Hali C, Ljubljana Feo in front singing a Chinese song; I as the emperor being carried towards Ms Rihter. 11 January 2002, Chinese Emperor in Hala C, Ljubljana

Tukaj je lok mehkoterorističnega aktivizma doživel vrhunec, sledile so še tri akcije: Tapisonirano vnebovzetje, ki je imelo daleč najdaljši odmev v Sloveniji in je seglo tudi na Hrvaško. To je bil mednarodni uspeh, največji slovenski uspeh in tudi meddržavni incident, ker je Vatikan zahteval pojasnilo od lokalnega sodnika za prekrške. Potem je bil Vatentat, ko sem sam šel na Rupla s sedemmilimetrsko cevjo in sem ga nastrelil v faco na štiri metre na proslavi prve obletnice Univerze na Primorskem. To je bilo ena na ena, čisti solo prodor in mogoče najbolj efekten od vseh. Imel je drug scenarij. Dve kameri sta mislili, da bom najprej z bodico preluknjal en balon na stropu, da bojo vsi pogledali gor, potem pa bi nastrelil Rupla. Samo jaz nisem izdelal tistega žebljička, televizijski kameri sta se obrnili navzgor in me nista snemali, samo moj kamerman, ki ni dobil navodil, je snemal mene. Stupidnost take prireditve je velika. Res kraljevska. Vse so mi lepo pripravili, jaz sem samo vskočil. To je bil solo prodor. Ta je po svoji moči mogoče najboljši. Ni bil popoln, manjkala je tista tinta, ki čez nekaj časa izgine. Ljudje so se namreč delali, da ni bilo nič, ampak če bi Rupel imel liso na obrazu, potem to ne bi bilo mogoče. Samo nikoli se ne more vse čisto posrečiti, se pa nekaj naučiš. Že dolgo nisem sistematično delal na tem, tisto pomlad pa smo sovražnika, ki smo ga premagali v decembru, z vsakim udarcem zabili globlje. Bilo je čisto jasno, da nismo ne brez fantazije, da nismo niti leni in da tega prostora ne uporabljamo za privatne namene. Vsak performans je imel odmev. Eden od teh je bil tudi Pozdrav osvoboditeljem. Gor na Štajerskem so nas naučili pokat s temi velikimi sodi, pa smo ob petih zjutraj, preden je ameriška letalonosilka izplula, šli na vrh Markovca in jim pokali z možnarji v slovo. Nikoli prej in nikoli kasneje nisem bil na naslovnici Primorskih novic. Sledili so napadi v Dražgošah. Vodja aviacije mehkega terorizma Aleš Žumer-Šembrek, ki je že prej samostoj-

Marinci spremljajo izpis besedice BUT (“Thank you, BUT we refuse your help”). 27. marec 2002, Marincirana sreda, Koper The marines watching the word BUT being written (“Thank you, BUT we refuse your help”). 27 March 2002, Marineted Wednesday, Koper

no napadel na istem mestu na isti prireditvi, je vlekel za seboj napis nad šest tisoč ljudmi, ki so bili zbrani na proslavi, in spet smo prodrli na Pop TV. Napis se je glasil: “IZBRISANI V ZRAK? / PAHOR V IRAK!” Na tej proslavi smo promovirali izbrisane, kar se je marsikomu zdelo zelo neokusno in so se do nas obnašali agresivno. Sledil je poskus degustacije zaporov, kjer smo izbrisane želeli inštalirat v zapor, da bi preizkusili prvo noč. Samo nismo imeli verig, da bi se pritrdili na radiatorje in cevi, ker bi nas potem morali priti z žagami odžagat. Akcija je imela odmev, ni se pa posrečila. Lahko govorim še o drobirju, ki ni v tem časovnem loku. Recimo, ko je bil izvoljen novi župan, sem kot občinski svetnik prišel na sejo z zavito roko (ta slika je zdaj tudi v Pretorski palači), češ Nič rokovanja in nič aplavza. To je bilo moje sporočilo. V zadnjih dveh letih smiselno vgrajujem mehkoteroristične prijeme v svoje nevladovalno delo, v delo za nevladni sektor. S tem povem določene zadeve, jih promoviram. Recimo 17. aprila, ko nam je Gorazd Perenič, bivši državni sekretar za javno upravo kot pogajalski skupini povedal, da nas ne jebe. Prinesel sem cvetje, bil je ravno čas cvetenja češenj, in ga dal na mizo za okras. Ko smo uvideli, da bomo morali zapustiti sestanek, šlo je za slovo brez rokovanj, sem začel luščit veje in posipat cvetje po nas in potem tudi po njih, vsi smo bili v češnjevih cvetovih. In potem je Perenič, mlad fant, nima trideset let, rekel, da upa, da ne bo gospod Brecelj davkoplačevalcem (spet ti davkoplačevalci!) naložil tega čiščenja. Ni razumel, da to sploh ni umazano, ampak okrašeno! Drugi performans, neposredno povezan z njim, pa je prišel na drugo stran Dela v velikem formatu. Prodal sem Gorazda Pereniča na licitaciji v Kudu France Prešeren. Sam sebi, ker ga nihče ni hotel kupit, sem ga prodal za štiri jurje. To je bil vrtni palček, sposojen, prej mi je padel še na tla, tako da mi ga je Mojca Dobnikar pomagala zlepit. Zdaj sva ga z Arijano odpeljala v Budimpešto na poskusno delo v inozemstvo. Reči hočem, da mehkega terorizma ni konec, nikoli pa ni bil potegnjen ven iz konteksta časa. Samo življenje inspirira mehki terorizem, on ni v prvem planu, v prvem planu je samo delo, sam boj za to delo, mehki terorizem je le orodje. Nekako se ne moreš izogniti temu, da mediji zabrišejo glavni poudarek, glavni šus, vendar sem prišel do tega, da je možno zadevo koncipirati tako, da čim medij poroča o njej, ostrine ne more zabrisat. Pri Tapisoniranem vnebovzetju je to čisto jasno. Zaglušitev zvonov lahko še tako obračaš, dejstva ne moreš spremeniti. Zapisala Alenka Pirman marca 2006. Nadaljevanje mehkoterorističnih akcij v naslednji številki časopisa FOLIO. ENG The primal event of soft terrorism, although I did not know it was it at the time, took place in the old power station, which was opened by Školč around the new year’s day in company with his entourage, who is now in the National Assembly. As the minister and the state secretary they held a reception. I went there with Arijana. We had some cultural programme, waiters moved about, and within an hour I was loaded. I started taking chocolates off the tables, which were in abundance, and from a distance of eight metres I hit Franko Juri in the temples with my first shot, which was a clear indicator that I no longer needed to practice. With Peter Tomaž Dobrila, who has a high forehead, I smashed a chocolate with my hand directly to his forehead. I kept executing moves like these – nobody battered me – until Arijana said we had better go. I listened to her and as we walked past the state secretary, she teased me saying: “With her you don’t have the nerve, do you!?” (Arijana intervenes: Not true! I was suddenly struck by my sense of gender equality! You only aimed at men, you know, and I said: “What about women?”) Anyway, I had another chocolate in my pocket, and the state secretary was standing at the exit in her leather coat. I greeted her and daubed the chocolate over her coat. “Well,” she said, “I didn’t deserve this,” because she was a fair and conscientious official and a well-disposed state secretary. I felt guilty afterwards and some time later we called it quits. But I have never felt guilty about Franko Juri. This was in fact the first soft-terrorist event. The second event, which had an incomparably better developed concept, its meaning defined, and was nowhere so spontaneous, was To Anton and the Pohorje Battalion. This second performance took place in 1999, when the pope came to Betnava to appear in front of those 300 000 people, and was welcomed by Janez Drnovšek


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and Milan Kučan, oh’s and ah’s all around, and everyone was there. Our soft-terrorist team came and had to leave booze at the entrance. As we went in, the Pole had just started to use his Slovene. We were supplied with balloons like some weird Catholics. We blew up the balloons and altar boys chased them. It was perfidious, scornful ... Amicably morbid. Then we made our way through the crowd and nobody stood in our way although we were weird Catholics with bubbles. All journalists had stuck to honey, so nobody noticed us, only the police would not let us walk down the middle. To record the second part of the performance, we went to Trije žeblji in Pohorje, the site of the last battle of the Pohorje Battalion. There we had a premiere performance of a new song entitled Antonu in Pohorskemu bataljonu (To Anton and the Pohorje Battalion), which I perform in company with an accordionist (while a choir version is also possible). We did it in the presence of some partisan veterans and ourselves. Then it started to rain. This was a thoroughly planned performance, with music and lyrics written in advance and everything performed and recorded in a single day. We made a short soft-terrorist film, which we don’t distribute. This is something we don’t want to give out; we launch it for ourselves instead of pushing it and making it a commercial product. My father died just as we took this material to Split. We also took the recording to the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Serbia and Montenegro. So the first completed soft-terrorist event happened in 1999. It was entirely overlooked, and if it was shown on television today it would still be a strong blow. The people who understood the importance of the Pohorje Battalion appreciate that. An elderly lady who had heard the song, praised me highly. The journalist crowd did not notice us. Soft terrorism must have its territory of resonance. Each audience we show this recording and play the song to is the territory of resonance for this operation. Then came the autumn of 2001, and with it the terrorist attack on WTC in New York. That plane cut into it so softly in slow motion, like in a cake. Members of the Association of friends of reasonable progress started to realise that we had been playing a Cinderella in our club facilities for years (we had had two quinquennials by then), in conditions in which we were a social problem, while the range of projects expanded, the club developed and had its resonance. The media obstructed rebel culture, and wealthy students (Students’ Association of Koper) began to think of the ways to drive us out. They had 60 million a year, while we had not even got to twenty by last year. They had cash and accused us of being uninspired, lazy and of abusing the facilities for private purposes. The municipality wanted to use this moment to interfere and ease the “tension” arising with the youth. But they did not count with how vigorous our defence would be. I can write a good piece, and the editor of Primorske novice published my reply on the same spot the attack on us first appeared. The instigators remained silent not to give themselves away, and those instigated did not know how to reply. The mayor would not come to our decennial, but Matjaž Hanžek did. There were three or four weeks of an intense battle after it; it was a performance in a way although I haven’t seen it as such to date. I found this battle exhausting and disappointing, but it encouraged my interest in politics. This went on in December, and we had felt something building up before this clash; we had felt the chains and decided to start intervening in what was going on more actively. Back in end September we began with our softterrorist operations. First we conferred Šeligo’s Bird to the Minister of Culture and Ms. Kralj at a reception in the Philharmonic Hall. It was a delicious home-made cake with Šeligo’s Bird on top. Šembrek from Železniki turned on a siren, Šulc from Kranj was throwing firecrackers around the hallway, while I loudly recited a piece of text and said: “Here you have Šeligo’s Bird, to stick it in your mouth, Ms. Kralj, and you, as well, Ms. Minister.” This was our performance. She wouldn’t take the cake; Krpan and I took it to Kersnikova, where students ate it. This was the first soft-terrorist performance with some resonance in the media. The second operation was less successful. During the anthrax psychosis we went to a post office carrying masks, and wanted to pour some powder in envelopes to send them to the Minister of Culture. In a letter we said didn’t give a fuck about her tender, because it was elitist. They turned on the waterworks, of course. What we wanted was to obstruct the tender. We were not allowed to take photos at the post office; they drove us out, but we were well organised and there were several groups of us, so in

retrospect I see this as a soft-terrorist operation. Suspicious mail for suspicious tender was badly documented and had no resonance, but it fit to this post-WTC period. We then embarked on another one straight away, during a students’ fair in Ljubljana. It was an attack on the US Embassy and the Slovene Government. We started in Cankarjev dom, where we made ourselves paper planes, a product in itself. One thing was this song, and the other our comic wall on Bush going to Afghanistan. Then a paper-plane attack followed. We filmed it. The operation had a slight resonance in Delo, which would no longer cover us later. In November, we targeted Grizold, the then Defence Minister, in Koper. He came to promote Nato. We went there and wrote “SUONATO PER LA NATO” (Only the stupid support Nato) on the wall. As part two we wanted to block his way with cabbage, which he would have to hop over. But they took him a different route, so local councillors and the mayor’s train were the only ones hopping. The operation was covered by TV.

Beograjski komunalec na Likovni akademiji narezuje znamenita slovenska črna vrata. 19.–20. april 2002, Raz vrata, Beograd A Belgrade workman at the Arts Academy cutting into the famous black Slovene door. 19-20 April 2002, Door-gy, Belgrade

This was already the time of students’ attack, and with these operations we had more resonance than with a whole year of activities before that. They thought we were losing foothold, because Primorske novice had consciously called our operation Suonato per la Nato a negative phenomenon, saying “what were they thinking smearing a 40-year-old façade like this; what kind of an attitude towards the town is this?” The next day a façade repair was ordered, which was carried out within 24 hours, and I got a bill for 70 grand. This was my most expensive performance. Then there was the battle, the ulcer broke, with a help of my provocations of the students. The consequence of my notoriety was a television interview, in which I was addressed as a cultural worker who could speak about problems of urban population, cultural revival, etc. At that point I struck out at students like mad, saying they don’t have bilingual signs, for instance. They went off at the deep end, saying “now we’ll get him!” But they didn’t. In January it became clear they would have to step back. My powerful godfathers stepped in the game. Jožef Školč of the liberal party made some inquiries about it down the line, Miloš Pavlica, who was a deputy head of the social democrats, put M&KC Koper on the party meeting agenda, Hanžek stepped in to help... But the overall plan for our marginalisation was not abandoned. When we saw how it functions, we became interested in politics. Formally we had been interested in it before. We encouraged young people to be interested in local politics, to vote. I had platonically run for mayor and won a few percent. But we hadn’t been familiar with the pro­ cess of adopting the municipal budget, we hadn’t been interested in power relations... But as we were attacked, all this became damn well interesting. In January, the Minister of Culture made a mistake of inviting me to her New Year’s reception in Hala A. The Chinese Emperor operation in Hala is documented and is the first one to have resounded in the media strongly. We snatched about half of her media attention. They carried my hundred-kilo body to this pilgrim ceremony on a litter, custom-made by a carpenter specially for this occasion. It cost 35 grand. Everything was fine, except that I wasn’t prepared well enough and I didn’t say anything rude. I didn’t have a shaker to shake her as I greeted her, or anything like this. I was not on top of things organisation-wise. I was unprepared text-wise, but cameras were straight in our faces for the first time. Anything I would have said, would have slapped masses directly in their faces, anything would have been published. “The softie is out,” said Kramaršič Jaša. I was the only one to be satisfied; there was a framework, with an instance of derision inside, the only other thing I would have needed was a message, which everyone would have recorded. It is an experience. The whole event was horrendous, alienated. The bar was managed by the enterprise Trst je naš (Trieste is ours). As I went for a piss at the reception, I sprayed Jelinčič of the national party, who was just giving a statement for television, with water. He looked at me so reproachfully with his blue eyes, a whole line of his pure ancestor history pierced me; and when I came back I still wasn’t happy, so I asked him if he wanted anything else. He said he didn’t want anything else, so thanks to him there was no incident. I have never been invited to festivities again. We were not salvation material, as we have only done projects since, and we wouldn’t and couldn’t perform at these events either. fotografije iz video arhiva Društva prijateljev zmernega napredka Koper / photos from video archive Association of friends of reasonable progress Koper

Počilo je po prebujenju vseh bolnikov v bolnišnici med ameriško ladjo in nami. 24. april 2002, Pozdrav osvoboditeljem, Koper The bang came after all patients in the hospital between the US ship and us had woken up. 24 April 2002, Salute to Liberators, Koper

Ivan Volarič-Quasimodo s socialističnim tapisonom prevezuje kembelj. 15. avgust 2003, Tapisonirano vnebovzetje, Koper Ivan Volarič-Quasimodo tying up the clapper with a Socialist carpet. 15 August 2003, The Carpeted Assumption, Koper

SLO TV je bilo ravno pet sekund tega prizora predolgih in sem poklical Pop TV. 20. avgust 2003, Rode nazaj v Vatikan, Koper Five seconds of this event were too much for the national TV, so I called Pop TV. 20 August 2003, Rode back to Vatican, Koper

S Feotom sva predlagala ekološko zamenjavo: Popoviča iz zapora, Starmana pa noter. 27. september 2003, Eko zamenjava, Koper Feo and I suggesting an eco swap: taking Popovič out of prison and putting Starman in. 27 September 2003, Eco Swap, Koper


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Timeline of soft-terrorist operations 19 September 1999, To Anton and the Pohorje Battalion, Maribor 1 October 2001, Conferment of Šeligo’s Bird, Ljubljana 16 October 2001, Bombardment of the US Embassy and the Slovene Government, Ljubljana 24 October 2001, Suspicious Mail for Suspicious Tender, Ljubljana 7 November 2001, Suonato per la Nato, Koper 11 January 2002, Chinese Emperor in Hala, Ljubljana 27 March 2002, Marineted Wednesday, Koper 19-20 April 2002, Door-gy, Belgrade 24 April 2002, Salute to Liberators, Koper 15 May 2003, Inaudible School of Firing, Koper 15 August 2003, The Carpeted Assumption, Koper 20 August 2003, Rode back to Vatican, Koper 27 September 2003, Eco Swap, Koper 15 October 2003, Cottonslaught, Koper 11 January 2004, The Erased in Dražgoše, Dražgoše 22 January 2004, Degustation, Koper Operations were carried out by the Association of friends of reasonable progress (Koper), Cultural Association Rov (Železniki), Alternative Cultural Association Izbruh (Kranj) and Pekarna Institute (Maribor) in various combinations and numbers. As a result of the combat for M&KC Koper facilities and the attitude of the Ministry of Culture, I was left with no sentimentality whatsoever. We were present in the national media for the first time, the soft-terrorist operation resounded fully. Good, moving on. At that point I knew what I wanted. I used technology very confidently; I let myself being inspired by what was going on and intervene. The next opportunity arose when the Red Cross called me that there were some Americans willing to help out, do some cleaning and so on. “Great,” I said, “how many do you have?” “A lot, I have a hundred of them,” was the answer. “Give me hundred,” I said. And there I was, plotting how we would softly abduct them, take them to the museum of contemporary history by bus for a stew, and tell them we don’t need their help because their army is doing something we don’t like. “But we can communicate, eat and all that. You see, we fought fascism together, one of your paratroopers died on this spot...” I developed a programme of their awareness-raising, not of their help and self-promotion so they could say how good they are, so that they would be photographed and that our craftsmen would curse and spit about them eating away at their business. But a hundred was too many, so we settled for five. They came, and I invited Pop TV to be there for the explanation. I told the blacks they were being softly abducted, and explained the aspects of our possible cooperation. They were here in the Gallery mensa numero due, and Feo and I turned around a table with a message... Pop TV manipulated the news report. The footage clearly shows I treated them nicely and with respect, but they cut it and edited it to look like I had played with innocent people. That was the impression. They looked really funny staring daftly at the message that said “THANK YOU BUT / WE REFUSE YOUR HELP.” They were baffled, those ignorant boys. What I said to them, this was nice. It was: we really respect your human willingness to help us using your hands and brains, but we can’t accept your offer of help at the level of foreign policy, so we invite you for a soft abduction, to grab something to eat, because we won’t let your help us. They would not understand this, and Pop TV turned it around to look like Brecelj had made fun of some poor innocent niggers. You can never avoid manipulation, of course, but the whole event was so straightforward in its expression that it did not allow for a complete manipulation. They could move the accent, but they could not strip the moment of the table turning around and them gawking at it, because it was so sharp. People understood the message and agreed with it. We had our biggest resonance until then. This was where our span of soft-terrorist activism reached its peak, which was followed by three more operations: The Carpeted Assumption, which had by far the longest-running resonance in Slovenia, reaching Croatia, as well. This was an international success, the biggest success in Slovenia and an interstate incident, with Vatican demanding an explanation of the local misdemeanor judge. It was followed by a Cottonslaught on Rupel with a seven-millimetre hose, with which I shot his face from a distance of four metres at a commemoration of the first anniversary of University of Primorska. It was one to one, a pure solo dribble, perhaps the most effec-

tive of all. Originally, it had a different scenario. Two cameras thought I would burst a balloon on the ceiling with a spine first so that everyone would look up, and then shoot at Rupel. But I hadn’t made that nail, so when the two television cameras turned up they were not on me; the only one to film me was my cameraman, who had no instructions. Stupidity of such events is immense. Truly royal. They made everything ready for me, all I did was jump in. This was a solo dribble. By its power it is perhaps the best kind. It was not perfect; what lacked was that special vanishing ink. People acted like nothing had happened, but if Rupel had had a spot on his face then this would not have been possible. All never goes well, but you do learn a lesson. I hadn’t worked on this systematically for quite some time, but that spring we hammered our enemy, the one we had defeated in December, deeper with each blow. It was very obvious that we were neither uninspired or lazy, nor were we using the facility for private purposes. Each performance had resonance. One of them was Salute to liberators. Up in Štajerska, we learned how to fire these big barrels, so before the US aircraft carrier left port we climbed Markovec at five in the morning and said our goodbyes by firing mortars. I had never appeared on the cover of Primorske novice before, and never again.

Na proslavi je nastopalo samo LDSovstvo in me je pestilo identitetno vprašanje. 15. oktober 2003, Vatentat, Koper With no-one except Liberal Democrats performing at the ceremony, I had an identity crisis. 15 October 2003, Cottonslaught, Koper

Then came attacks in Dražgoše. Soft terrorism head of aviation Aleš Žumer-Šembrek, who had made a solo attack at the same event on the same spot before, skydived pulling a banner over six thousand people gathered at the commemoration, and we made it to Pop TV again. The message on the banner read: “THE ERASED-SMACK? / PAHOR TO IRAQ!” At this commemoration, we supported “the erased”, which many people found tasteless, so they behaved aggressively towards us. What followed was an attempt at prison degustation, in which we wanted to put the erased in prison so they could experience their first night there. We just didn’t have chains to tie ourselves to radiators and pipes so that they would have to come saw us off. The operation had resonance, but did not succeed.

Povabljenemu občinskemu svetniku in vatentatorju so mi morali najti sedišče. 15. oktober 2003, Vatentat, Koper Search for a seat for me as an invited member of the municipal council and a cottonslaughter. 15 October 2003, Cottonslaught, Koper

I can also mention some other scraps outside this timeframe. For instance, when a new mayor was elected, I came to a meeting of the municipal council with my hand bandaged (a photo of it is displayed in the Praetorian Palace), as if to say ‘No handshakes and no clapping’. This was my message. Over the last two years, I have been incorporating softterrorist methods into my non-governmental work, into my work for the non-governmental sector. This is how I tell certain things and advocate them. Like I did on 17 April, when Gorazd Perenič, a former State Secretary at the Ministry of Public Administration, told our negotiation team he didn’t give a fuck about us. I had brought some flowers – it was during cherry tree flowering – and put them on the table as a decoration. When we realised we would have to leave the meeting – it was a no-handshake goodbye – I started to pick blossoms off branches and sprinkle them all over us and over them, so we were covered in cherry blossoms. And then Perenič, a young boy of less than thirty, said he hoped Mr. Brecelj would not have taxpayers (not taxpayers again!) bear the cost of cleaning. He did not understand it was not dirt at all, it was decoration! A second performance, directly related to this one, has found its way to the second page of Delo, large format. At an auction in KUD France Prešeren I sold Gorazd Perenič. I sold him for four grand to myself, because nobody else would buy him. It was a garden gnome, a borrowed one, and I had dropped it so Mojca Dobnikar had to help me tape it back together. Arijana and I later took it to Budapest for a work trial abroad. What I am saying is that soft terrorism is not over, but it has never been taken out of the context of time. Life alone inspires soft terrorism; soft terrorism is not the focus, work and struggle for this work are the focus, while soft terrorism is merely a tool.

Trenutek preden je oslinjena kroglica vate poletela Dimitriju Ruplu v zaslužno faco. 15. oktober 2003, Vatentat, Koper Moments before a chewed cotton wool ball hit Dimitrij Rupel in his deserving face. 15 October 2003, Cottonslaught, Koper

Aleš Žumer Šembrek je izkoristil nepozornost policistov, ki sta ga nadzorovala. 11. januar 2004, Izbrisani v Dražgošah, Dražgoše Aleš Žumer Šembrek using the moment of distraction of the police officers in charge of him. 11 January 2004, The Erased in Dražgoše, Dražgoše

You cannot seem to avoid the media blurring the main emphasis, the main punch, but I have realised it is possible to make a concept in a way that the media can never take away its edge if they report about it. The Carpeted Assumption made this very clear. You can twist words about the silencing of bells however you like, but the fact remains. Written down by Alenka Pirman in March 2006. To be continued in next Folio.

Padalec se je obrnil, Pahor pa je še vedno govoril tisočim, zbranih v Dražgošah. 11. januar 2004, Izbrisani v Dražgošah, Dražgoše Skydiver turning around during Pahor’s ongoing speech for the thousands who gathered in Dražgoše. 11 January 2004, The Erased in Dražgoše, Dražgoše


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Umetniško-družabni permakulturni vrt – KK4 Permacultural art-social garden – KK4 ZAMISEL Na ulici Kneza Koclja stoji pod hišno številko 4, nasproti stavbe Elektro Maribor, historičen paviljon z ravno streho. Ob njem se na zahodu vzpenja visoka slepa fasada stare Lekarne, na vhodu pa mimo objekta po Ključavničarski ulici vodi prehod proti Židovski ulici. Prostor nad pritličnim paviljonom predstavlja torej urbano “škrbino” in to škrbino bi se, glede na afiniteto lastnika do boemskega in kulturnega življenja mesta, bližine Narodnega doma in mestnega središča, dalo izkoristiti za posebne vrste začasnih urbanih in umetniških doživetij. Še več, v precej hrupnem predelu mesta, kjer ni nobenega zelenja, bi se dalo tik nad ulico ustvariti javni zeleni atrij. V njem bi bilo poleg umetnosti in druženja možno preizkušati in spoznavati principe urbane permakulture, načine inovativne pridelave hrane v mestu. THE CONCEPT On Kneza Koclja street 4, across Elektro Maribor building, there is a historical pavilion with a flat roof. On its western side, slopes the steep empty facade of the old pharmacy and in front of its entrance a passage leads to Židovska street, passing the building on Ključavničarska street. The space above the ground-floor pavilion thus represents an urban nook, which could – considering the owner’s affinity for the city’s bohemian and cultural life, and the vicinity of Narodni dom and the city center – be used for special types of temporary urban and art happenings. Moreover, in this rather noisy part of the city with no greens, a public green atrium could be set up right above the street. Besides art and socializing it could also serve as a place for testing and learning about the principles of urban permaculture, as well as innovative ways of food production inside the city. ARHITEKTURA VRTA Da bi iz sedanjega nekoristnega prostora naredili urbano zavetje s svojo lastno mikroklimo, bi bilo potrebno nad obstoječim vencem paviljona postaviti montažno, parapetno steno. Ta bi morala biti dovolj masivna in visoka, da bi uspešno dušila hrup prometa in zajela svetlobo in toploto z juga. Dostop z ulice bi bilo mogoče brez večjih težav urediti iz Ključavničarske ulice s preprostimi enoramnimi stopnicami preko malega obstoječega atrija. Obstoječo pločevinasto streho bi bilo potrebno zaščititi red poškodbami in nad njo urediti ravno pohodno površino brez reber. Nad njo bi bilo vsaj v enem delu smiselno postaviti večnamensko pergolo, ki bi služila zbiranju vode, senčenju in gojenju rastlin. 3-dimenzionalno pokrajino vrta bi dopolnjevali s sistemom visokih gred po obodu vrta, kjer je to po rabi prostora in po statiki smiselno. Visoke grede bi hkrati bile tudi elementi vrtnega pohištva. Slepo fasado stavbe Lekarne bi bilo smiselno izkoristili za vertikalni vrt oziroma umetniška in druga vizualna sporočila, vezana na dogajanja v vrtu. THE GARDEN’S ARCHITECTURE To create an urban shelter with its own microclimate out of the existing unused space, we would have to construct a partition wall above the existing pavilion garland. It would have to be tall enough and massive enough to silence the traffic noise and capture the light and warm from the south. Access from Ključavničarska street could easily be enabled by means of a simple, single flight of stairs over the existing small atrium. The tin roof would have to be damage-protected and a flat, smooth walking surface would have to be placed above it. It would be wise to install a multi-purpose pergola over at least part of the roof, which would serve for collecting water and provide space and shade for cultivating plants. The three-dimensional garden landscape would be supplemented by a system of raised beds along the garden rim, where it should prove reasonable according to space use and statics. The raised beds would at the same time function as elements of garden furniture. The pharmacy’s empty facade could well be used as a vertical garden, or artistic and other visual messages involved with the activities in the garden.


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IZVEDBA Pri izvedbi bo potrebno poiskati načine, materiale in tehnike, ki bodo omogočale preprosto in ekonomsko nezahtevno izvedbo. Izvedba bi morala biti izobraževalne narave po principu “learning by doing”. V osnovi so za izvedbo predlagane 'low-cost' in 'low-tech' tehnike gradnje, ki temeljijo na ponovni uporabi industrijskih in pol-industrijskih izdelkov ter naravnih materialov. Tako naj bi se protihrupni zid izdelal iz slamnatih bal, streha bi se zaščitila z Dravskim prodcem, vanj pa bi se vkopale industrijske palete iz lesa. Takšen pod iz palet v nasutju bi omogočal odvodnjavanje vrta, osnovno pohodno površino in temelje za stebre pergole. Iz palet bi bilo mogoče izdelati tudi zabojnike visokih gred in osnovo za vrtno pohištvo. THE EXECUTION For the execution of this project we would have to search for ways, materials and techniques allowing for a simple and economic solution. The execution should be educational in nature, following the “learning by doing” principle. Fundamentally we have suggested low-cost and low-tech building techniques based on re-using industrial and semiindustrial products and natural materials. The noise barrier would be made from hay bales, the roof protection from Drava river gravel, with industrial wood pallets sinked into it. Such a pallet-surfaced ground would provide for garden drainage, a basic walking surface and a foundation for the pergola pillars. The pallets could also be used to make the raised beds' containers and a basis for the garden furniture. Ira Zorko & Andrej Jakil Ljubljana – Maribor, 2011

GRADIVA 15 m3 prodca – drenažno nasutje strehe 125 Euro palet – pod, temelji, grede, pohištvo 150 slamnatih bal (35 x 50 x 100) – proti hrupna stena 120 tekocih metrov okroglega lesa – pergola 15 m3 humusa, komposta in zemlje – grede 50 m2 filca, folije, jute – izolacija visokih gred 150 sadik – vzpenjavke, zelišča, zelenjava (po sadilnem načrtu)

MATERIALS 15 m3 gravel – roof drainage material 125 Euro pallets – floors, foundations, garden beds, furniture 150 hay bales (35 x 50 x 100) – noise barrier 120 running meters of round wood – pergola 15 m3 humus, compost and soil – garden beds 50 m2 felt, foil, jute – isolation of raised beds 150 plants – climbing plants, herbs, vegetables (according to the planting schedule)


FOLIO volume 3 (2011)  

Magazine for contemporary art, culture and the joy of life

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