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C E R T I F I C A T E The present design thesis is here by approved as creditable work on the approved subject carried out, presented in a manner sufficiently satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a pre-requisite to the degree for which it has been submitted. it is to be understand that by this approval, the understood that by this approval, the undersigned does not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn there but to approves the study only for the purpose for which it has been submitted & satisfy him as to the requirement laid down by Institute of Architecture, H.N.G. University, Patan, Gujarat, India.

AR.BHAUMIK PATEL Professor (Academic Supervisor) Institute of architecture H.N.G. University, Patan

AR.MAYANK PATEL Director in Charge Institute of architecture H.N.G. University, Patan


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The Music of Architecture

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE HEMCHANDRACHARYA NORTH GUJARAT UNIVERSITY PATAN-384265


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First & Foremost I offer my sincerest gratitude to my guide, Mr Bhaumik Patel, who has supported me throughout my thesis with his patience and knowledge whilst allowing me the room to work in my own way. I attribute the level of my understanding to his encouragement. I would like to extend Special Thanks to my Family for their painstaking efforts and critical comments to inspire & keep me on the Path. My Family let me do my work on my time when they disturbed their own work. There were so mess with my things but my family bear all of my unscheduled things. My Family has always been a source of Support, and their patience and love has got me where I stand today. I thank my brother Vismay Dave owes a large part of understanding on Music, through his work & experience in it. We had enriching discussions and for providing me with all information required for the Case Studies.

I also thank Mr. Tarun Chotaliya, who helped me in making Model.

I would like to acknowledge Thesis Committee of H.N.G. University, Patan for the generous assistance & grass route information provided during the Study, which constructed the base of the Study. Last but not the least, I would like to express my heartfelt acknowledgement to all those whose name could not be mentioned here but they have helped me directly or indirectly in making endeavour of mine, a satisfying effort on my part. KHUSHALI SHUKLA

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ABSTRACT This thesis is about architecture’s role in filtering and forming experiences through perceptions of built environments. Though architects are not charged with addressing physiological conditions of human, we are Responsible for shaping the built environments and therefore we should be aware to the physiological reactions that occur as products of our environments. Architecture is important because of the people who interact with it. Without them the building would be massive and hollow sculptures’ believe building are supposed to live and breathe and transform to accommodate human life. My thesis will be inspired by the architecture that enhances the human experience by built environment. In my thesis the main design tool is music because I believe that the music is the best medium to produce different types of experiences in all other art forms. The consideration of music and architecture as sister arts has a long history, in spite of the fact that they occupy opposite ends of the spectrum between the immaterial and the material. The intuition that allows us to even consider architecture as ‘frozen music’ or music as ‘Melted architecture’ comes from a deep and ancient understanding that, in its very essence, architecture exceeds building, as music exceeds sound.

“Creating Architecture derived from musical and architectural elements and their patterns allows the creations of formal and spacial structures best suited to musical related functions and experience of music itself.” SOUNDSCAPE

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CONTENTS PREFACE FRAMEWORK CHAPTER-1

Thesis Question

CHAPTER -2 Theory

CHAPTER -3 Precedence

CHAPTER -4 Concept & Design Process

CHAPTER -5 Details

CHAPTER -6 References

INTRODUCTION OF EXPERIENCES - MUSIC - ARCHITECTURE

SUPPORTING THEORY-RELATION BETWEEN MUSIC & ARCHITECTURE ZUMTHOR - ANDO - CASE STUDIES ELEMENTS OF MUSIC & ARCHITECTURE - DESIGN TOOLS -DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

HOW ELEMENTS ARE USED - PROPORTION - RHYTHM - LIGHT - MATERIAL - COLOUR BIBLIOGRAPHY - ONLINE REFERENCE - ARTICLES

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PREFACE Being the most powerful form of Communication, music innately triggers the inherent Emotions each individual has. Music has the all-encompassing quality to free one’s self from all anxieties created in this modern epoch. If we can understand the way music as cognition triggers our sensations to reach an emotional response, then we can apply such knowledge in architecture using the rudiments of music to trigger the same emotions. Manipulation of form and space is how an emotional response can be reached in architecture to produce the attainable sensation within the viewer or inhabitant. Using harmony, proportion, rhythm, and composition to be die conductor of manipulating within the architectural design work will produce the similar passions we experience in music. The facility to harness these principles is a music therapy centre, where as the many psychological sensitivities in such a facility can be addressed in a manner to produce appropriate emotions. Architecture is fundamentally about helping others this facility type is a direct outreach to the community in the experience of music & architecture. The context was chosen due to its relationship with an urban setting and adjacent relationship the site has with many recreational activities. Having a site in west Ahmedabad seemed to be little far but it allows the communities to know more about the music and give a platform to local artists.

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FRAMEWORK CHAPTER-1

THE FIRST CHAPTER HAS THE FUNCTION OF A MORE ELABORATE INTRODUCTION ON WHAT IS THE ROLE OF EXPERIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE AND THE WAY MUSIC IS USED AS A DESIGN TOOL AND THE RELATION BETWEEN MUSIC & ARCHITECTURE.

CHAPTER -2 THE SECOND CHAPTER TAKES A CLOSER LOOK AT THE THEORY BEHIND EXPERIENCING SPACE IN MUSIC & ARCHITECTURE.

CHAPTER -3 THE CHAPTER THREE WILL ANALYSE PRECEDENCE THAT BESPEAK THE

POSSIBILITY OF DESIGNING FOR EXPERIENCING MUSIC & ARCHITECTURE.

CHAPTER -4 THE CHAPTER FOUR WILL THROW LIGHT ON THE DESIGN CONCEPT AND THE RELATION ESTABLISHED BY MY RESEARCH.

CHAPTER -5 THE CHAPTER FIVE INTRODUCE CONCEPT & DESIGN IN DETAILS THAT

APPLICATION TO ADDRESS EXPERIENCE OF ARCHITECTURE ALL WILL AS THE EXECUTION OF THE MUSICAL APPRECIATION CENTRE FOR THE PUBLIC.

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CHAPTER 1 THESIS QUESTION INTRODUCTION

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CHAPTER 1 Thesis Question

What place does the human experience have in design process...? Placing human experience of space at the centre of the design is inherently problematic. How does a designer respond to something that is unpredictable, varied and intangible? Especially when attempting to remove personal experience but rather explore an experience that readily empathetic? It is easy in such cases to fall into the trap of trying to impose experience rather than trying to understand user experience for what it is and allowing it to shape the design process and the results. The question is than Aries, How then, can an architect begin to approach this question about addressing human experiences in design process??

“The architect is a sort of theatrical producer, the man who plans the setting for our lives. Innumerable circumstances are dependant on the way he arranges this setting for us. When his intentions succeed, he is like the perfect host who provides every comfort for his guests so that living with him is a happy experience.”(1)

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(1)“ExperiencingArchitecture” by ArchitectSteen Eiler Rasmussen

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction Experiences in Architecture: As a practice and as a product, architecture has always been a way of creating a building or structure. Buildings provide shelter for human life and the events that unfold as a part of it. Whether it is residential housing, commercial storefronts, industrial parks or any place in between, architecture has been utilized in various ways to solve the problem of housing different activities. In an effort to take care of these common situations, the structure or aesthetic design of a building has often been forgotten about. This may be due to a variety of reasons, including a lack of time, money, or even a lack of interest. This is unacceptable and needs to change. Architecture is an integral part of people’s lives and need not be forgotten about. Well-designed architecture is crucial to man’s contribution to society, his character, and his development. Those who produce architecture should strive to go beyond the mundane aspect of mass produced buildings and attempt to create unique, memorable experiences. Buildings need to be more than just a skeleton of structural materials designed to enclose a space. Buildings need to become a place and thus architecture, in the true sense of the word. There must be specific qualities to a structure that separate it from an ordinary space and transform it into a place. These places are more than just the purely functional elements of a building, but rather, they are somehow unique and memorable. By viewing architecture as more than a structure, it is capable of being thought of as a form of art.

“The interplay between the world of our bodies and the world of our dwelling places is always in flux. We make places that are an expression of our haptic experiences Even as these experiences are generated by the places we have already created. Whether we are conscious or Innocent of this process, our bodies and our movements are in constant dialogue with our buildings…This critical Interaction of body form and movement with architecture Deserves careful attention.”(2)

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(2)“Body, Memory and Architecture” by Kent C. Bloomer, Charles W. Moore


Experiences in Architecture:

“We put thirty spokes together and call it a wheel; But it is on the space where there is nothing That the utility of the wheel depends. We turn clay to make a vessel; But it is on the space where there is nothing That the utility of the vessel depends. We pierce doors and windows to a make a house; And it is in these spaces where there is nothing That the utility of the house depends. Therefore, just as we take advantage of what is, We should recognize the utility of what is not.” -Lao-tzu. Tao te ching. 6th century bc.

Architecture is concerned with the design, arrangement, and manipulation of the physical proper ties of space. While the visual experience of the built environment is one of the most impor tant elements of experiencing a space, the soundscape of that place plays an equally crucial role in this experience. Listening, as well as looking, must be made a par t of design analysis and criticism. Architecture as a Sequence of Harmonic Spaces: Py thagoras was the f irst to establish the notion of musical ratios, believing that music could be represented as pure mathematical ratios, which are the ratios of the cosmos. Renaissance architects used these musical ratios in their architecture because they believed that “as man is the image of God and the propor tions of his body are produced by divine will, so the propor tions in architecture have to embrace and express the cosmic order.” (4) The impor tant factor in this method is propor tion. Architecture as a Musical Instrument: The architecture of a musical instrument relies on both materialit y and enclosure of a def ined space for sound to be able to resonate throughout the body of the instrument. If architecture is seen as a musical instrument, then the sounds that are generated and manipulated within the space becomes a par ticipant in the whole architectural experience. The important factor in this method is acoustics.

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(4)“Architecture Principles in the Age of Humanism”by Rudolf Wit tkower

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction Experiences in Music: The word Music is derived from Greek word “Moesia” which is the name of the god of poetry, literature and music in ancient Greek. Music is described as the art of expressing emotions by voices. Sound and rhythm are the most important factors of it. It is also the knowledge of sound combination in a way that is pleasant and leads to pleasure and mental revolution. Predecessors have described music as follows: It causes knowledge of human existence and heals the soul. Music is the intangible expression that shapes the outcome of feelings. It has the potential to ‘shape’ how a particular audience will feel to a given idea. Now dynamic would modern day epic filing be if it were not for die power of music to transfer the ‘mood’ of the scene. Music has been shown to effect many aspects of our physical bodies when subjected to it. Our pulse often follows the beat of a song, especially if it is slower than our heartbeat; our breathing becomes repetitious of the rhythm established; music exercises a powerful influence on muscular activity in accordance to the character of the melodies employed. However, the relation of music to emotions has been a fairly Recent investigation. This is due to this fact that our knowledge of cognition and what anatomical stimuli are affected by music was not fully developed until the past few decades. According Hanslick, a music philosopher, emotions have been linked and ascribed to images and associations aroused in the mind by music.

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Sweet sounds, oh, beautiful music, do not cease! Reject me not into die world again. With you alone is excellence and peace, Mankind made plausible, his purpose plain. Enchanted in your air benign and shrewd, With limbs a-sprawl and empty faces pale, The spiteful and the stingy and the rude Sleep like the scullions in the fairy-tale. This moment is the best the world can give: ‘i he tranquil blossom on the tortured stem. Reject me not, sweet sounds; oh, Iet me live, Till Doom espy my towers and scatter them, A City spell-bound under the aging sun. Music my rampart, and my only one. -Edna St. Vincent Millay, On Hearing a Symphony by Beethoven


Experiences in Music: Music as an Inspiration for Architecture: Many artists, musicians, and writers have experienced sensations where sound triggers visual stimuli like colour or shapes, like colour or shapes. This phenomenon is called Synesthesia, or the mapping of one sense onto another. In “Hearing Architecture” from Experiencing Architecture,Rasmussen describes how designing for sound can enrich the experience of a building. Rasmussen examines how buildings and spaces of the Renaissance period, churches in particular, were designed as instruments that were used to enhance the music during ceremonies. Christopher Janney, an architect and jazz musician, combines both disciplines to create what he calls “sound sculptures”. By incorporating the use of sound and light into a number of design installations, Janney has begun to introduce a new type of architectural experience.“I think that the general idea as an architect is to add another layer of material within space.” (5) To be able to translate one art form into another, reinterpretation through deconstruction is needed in order to understand the otherwise hidden abstract qualities that the original art form possesses and to apply it to the other. An analysis is thus performed and rationalized, and an algorithm or an equation is used for translation. The important factor in this method is deconstruction.

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(3)“Art & Architecture” by Schulz Dornburg ,(4) By Christopher Janney, an architect and jazz musician

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction FROM FROZEN MUSIC TO LIQUID ARCHITECTURE: For many years musicians ,architects and countless others have been interested in the similarities shared between architecture and music. More than one has a reference to “Architecture as frozen music� been made. Many architect in fact have used music and music theory to Create architecture,while many musicians have used their music pieces of architecture to help create music. If one were to study architecture and music they would begin to understand the numerous shared between the two art forms. Reference to these connections seen at the very foundation of architecture and music,the sharing of structure :Rhy thm,harmony,balance,proportion etceteras. There is a connection seen in basic theory of mathematics and geometry,such as golden section,which can be Applied to the creation of both the arts. It was pythagoras and plato, during Classical Greek times who were among the first to develop theories interweaving mathematics,geometry and Architecture. During the renaissance architectural theorists used music to help define architectural concept and until rather recent times it was felt to be skilled architect one should be schooled in the art of music.

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Although this connection seem quite strong and well Understood there are still individuals whom believe architecture should remain architecture and music,They do not believe in any great Connection and feel architecture and music should remain void of each other. I personally do believe in a connection between music and architecture and intend to explore this connection through my thesis project. But it is not the intention of this thesis project to attempt to persuade others to believe in a connection,between the two,nor is it to try to reinforce the connection itself,Simply this project is an exploration into a fields of my personal interest, Music. I am interested in music and feel this is a chance to start studying and learning more about it. I also feel that because of the close connection between music and architecture a positive relationship can be formed which can use the two to build off one another creating stronger conceptual ideas.


FROM FROZEN MUSIC TO LIQUID ARCHITECTURE: The thesis project on a conceptual level is using music to create architecture,while using architecture to conversely effects the creation of music. The intention of this investigation is to create a more visually interesting, cognitively challenging project while retaining the capacity for good acoustic qualities. This will be done through the manipulation of several basic organisational elements of music. This organisational structure will be used to create architectural experiences of space & form. I believe this will accomplish several goals. First,It will allow me the opportunity to satisfy my interest in exploring music. Secondly,by using architecture and music I feel I can create a structure which bridges across the boarders of cultures and bring diverse individuals together. And lastly,I believe this will create a more visually interesting and expressive architectural form representative of music. This all culminate to form the spaces and forms found in a proposed Music Appreciation Centre.

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CHAPTER 2 SUPPORTING THEORIES LE CORBUSIER BRUCE GOFF LOUIS I. KAHN STEEN EILER RASMUSSEN

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CHAPTER 2 Supporting Theory LE CORBUSIER: In his architectural revelation Towards a New Architecture in 1927, Le Corbusier revealed to the world what architectural Standards would be for the next several centuries and was Perhaps the greatest Architectural literature piece in the 20th Century. In the book, he gives various definitions of architecture: As they apply to affecting our senses. “Architecture is a thing Of art, a phenomenon of the emotions, lying outside questions of construction and beyond them. The purpose of architecture is...to move us. Architectural emotion exists when the work rings; within us in tune with a universe whose laws we obey, recognize and respect. When certain harmonics have been attained, the work captures us. Architecture is a matter of harmonies, it is a pure creation of the spirit.” He later goes on to state that Architecture is present if it has aroused the viewer’s emotions. Le Corbusier’s ‘ringing harmonies’ were to be later established in 1948 with his Le Modulor in which the Golden Section was used to obtain dimensions from the human figure to govern all means of measuring. “Architecture only exists when there is a poetic emotion. Architecture is a plastic thing. I mean by ‘plastic’ what is seen and measured by the eyes.”” Le Corbusier pushes the distinction: between what construction entails and what architecture entails. It is the ability to create emotional spaces that specifies the difference between the two.

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From Experiencing Architecture Reading Through John Cage’s Writings, 2011-2012


BRUCE GOFF Speaking of nature, Goff shapes the correlation between music and architecture by fundamentally establishing the existence of freedom within the two art forms. In the composition of music, the freedom given reminded goff of the same freedom inherent in the understanding of nature - as a free composition. the mysterious qualities of music further emphasized die relationship as to how the secrets of a well crafted song arc not given up so easily and sometimes requires quite a few hearings of; certain pieces to understand it at all. Goff holds Debussy, a composer of the early 20th century to be the greatest musician / artist of all time. Goff points out that his success is due to the great range of feeling the man possessed. This allowed Debussy to express an emotion simply and directly through music. To translate music from one art form to another was to deny the existence of each art form. “I think that is not only dangerous from the standpoint of the composition changing so much in our understanding and feeling, but I don’t like the idea of; one art form grafted off of another. I like each art to exist in its own right, according to the same basic principles, perhaps, but each through its own medium, and means of expression. And one not so dependent on the other.” A masterful artwork cannot be reproduced in hopes of retaining the inert existence of the ’masterful’ within the art form. Each art form holds to its own the innate qualities that identify the work as beautiful simply because it is of a certain medium, a certain dimension, a certain time frame, a certain epoch The basic ideas of composition as seen in music helped Goff to realize architectural compositions indirectly. “I still feel that music has pointed out to me more clearly some of the basic ideas of composition than architecture has, because it seems more abstract, and i haven’t had it tied down for me in an architectural solution” Bavinger House, designed by Bruce Goff

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CHAPTER 3 PRECEDENTS STUDIES THERMAL VALS-PETER ZUMTHOR CHICHU ART MUSEUM -TADAO ANDO THE CHURCH OF LIGHT -TADAO ANDO

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CHAPTER 3 Precedence THERMAL VALES ANALYSIS: History Oldest hotel dates from 1893. It was replaced by a complex in 1960, which was again renovated in 1996. Social Environment Resists against the contrived social environment of spa, or resort. User Though part of the Alps geographical region, it is not stitched into a local community. Part of an older hotel complex, creating a new appendage that appears old through the use of time worn aesthetics. Location Eastern flank of the Valserrhain River Valley in the Swiss Alp Vals gneiss that was quarried 1000 m up valley and built back into the same slope. Entrance is embedded within the slope. Series of continuous geometric caves meander through the earth and emerge. Light & Shadow A solid gneiss block defines each block of program Long fissures on one edge of the ceiling plane wash the walls with top-light Ethereal daylight is filtered down into the steamy baths.

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Perceptual Psychology

There is an intended change in perception from the front edge of the building, showered in daylight, to the back of the site, which is surrounded by narrow caves. Yet the front is sequentially experienced last.


Water Natural spring waters, heated at 30 degrees C, feed the spa. Ground 1200 meters above sea level; set into the slopes of Valserrain Valley. Movement Bath walls layered vertically with stacked stone forming strata from floor to wall to ceiling Seamless transition between each surface contributes to the monolithic quality. Environmental Psychology Places for Intimacy: Intimate environments created by hollowed out area between doorways Ambiguity allows for personalization of spaces Architectural Conclusions Manfred Sak describes Zumthor’s architecture as a matter of philosophy, structure, and organization of qualities, be they haptic or visual. “He wishes his buildings to be developed from a set task, from their purpose, designed for the place in which they stand and into whose surroundings they emerge, gradually becoming one with that place and built from materials which are most closely associated with the task”.

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Precedence CHICHU ART MUSEUM ANALYSIS: History Permanent display of spatial art Social Environment The island location requires visitors to be deliberate about visiting the museum. User The museum is not particularly designed per age, race, or gender. Location Located in Naoshima, Kagawa, Japan. The island is comprised of the remains of a terraced saltpan. The site is 9,990 sqm and the building footprint is 2,573 sqm. Light & Shadow The building uses natural daylight to lead visitors into the depths of the museum. Lighting inside certain exhibition areas is delicately controlled and manipulated to create desired effects. Within the Walter De Maria exhibition space, a long east-west skylight allows light to slice across the room during the course of the day.

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Water The building creates a north-south axis, facing the sea. It’s location on the island makes it an object within the sea. Ground The building is completely underground, blending in with its earthen surroundings. Movement The entry sequence takes people through an ascent before passing through the entrance tunnel. The entrance tunnel gradually descends below grade, with only the sky visible overhead. Rooms are a series of horizontal and vertical descents differentiated by the quality and quantity of light flowing through the spaces. Perceptual Psychology The entrance tunnel is intentionally set 6 degrees off the vertical, so that the sensation of descending into the earth is perceptible by ground, wall, and sky. Phenomenology The journey commences above ground, assimilating to the visitor’s disposition, but then slowly taking him on a gradual immersion into a sensory-specific experience.

Architectural Conclusions Ando’s museum might represent a gradual approach to sensory deprivation as a means of heightening an experience. This method meets people at their sensory level and slowly immerses them into his world, where they become gradually affected by the minimalists

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Precedence THE CHURCH OF LIGHT ANALYSIS: History The blind wall facing the congregation, its back toward the outside, is particularly reminiscent of the Chinese blind wall facing the street in most building types. Additionally, the spaces that comprise the church represent a series of imbricated squares, as is common in Chinese architecture. Social Environment Much of Chinese architecture is a series of closed worlds, represented by strict geometry - either the square to represent earth of circle to represent heaven. User The church is non-particular to race, age, and gender. Though, it is a Christian church;it represents a western religion while implementing eastern traditions. Location It is a small building, northwest of Osaka, hidden by pine trees and submerged within nature. Light & Shadow The smooth texture of the concrete invites light to play across the surface. Vertical slots cut into the walls and channels cut out of the ceiling allow light to wash the vertical horizontal planes. Water No use of water. Rather, Ando’s Church of the Water uses water in lieu of light to enhance the sensory experience. Ground The concrete floor seamlessly runs up and becomes the walls and ultimately the ceiling.

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Movement Ando uses walls to contain space. The massive concrete walls are poured on site, acting as fixed elements containing space. On the exterior, there is a double skin involving two layers of variably thick concrete and insulation. By vibrating the concrete mixture and using a particular slump,Ando is able to render a smooth, almost textile-like concrete. Environmental Psychology Ando’s work eliminates anything extraneous which might divert one’s attention from the essential quality of the space. He uses simple geometry, cubes, cylinders, bar concrete walls, solid-void, light-darkness.

Architectural Conclusions Ando makes several important points about the nature of our architectural environments. “It is only when we ourselves experience the richness of emptiness directly in Spaces...that the psychological reality implicit in the assertion is fully registered” . Ando conveys through the medium of architecture that humans cannot live in chaos, that architecture has a responsibility to create an ordered world and provide affirmation for the human existence.

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CHAPTER 4 CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS MUSICAL ELEMENTS ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS RELATIONS BETWEEN THESE ELEMENTS OF TWO ART FORMS

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CHAPTER 4 CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS CONCEPT: Now the part which is the heart and soul of the thesis experience, the concept and the design process. “Creating Architecture derived from musical Patterns allows the creations of formal and spatial structures best suited to musical related functions and experience of music itself.” That is much easier said than done. Even after all the research conducted on music I still possess a great lack of knowledge concerning music and all that is associated with it, beginning the design was not so easy. I knew what I wanted to accomplish but how I was actually going to do this was not so Apparent. Reticle, creative and expressive in form and space. All of which was derive from music and able to communicate to architecture and music. The newly created forms and spaces would then combine to form the music apparition centre. First, let me refresh everyone’s mind concerning what it was I wanted from this thesis exploration. This thesis project was an attempt to create an architectural experience based from a dialogue creates an architecture and music.

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It was the thesis intention to have this dialogue creates something that was unlike anything I had ever done, something more theoretical, creative and expressive in form and space. All of which was derive from music and able to communicate to architecture and music. The newly created forms and spaces would then combine to form the music apparition centre. Let me start by explaining what the thought process at the outset of this project was. The first attempt at creating Architecture from music was based on trying to obtain a more technical and physical connection between music and Architecture. This Is a connection conceived from known principles of music and architecture. An example of this concept would use rhythmic patterns associated with musical elements to create a different way of using rhythms found in Architecture. I actually meet with relative success when approaching the design from this angel, but this success was more at a conceptually level only.


This approach was based around my interest of the physical make up of a piece of music. I should explain that this physical make up is what I think of as a layering and pattering effect created by different sounds heard in music. When listening to a piece of music I like to try and hear the different elements of music. It is this conglomeration of individual elements which overlap and combine to form a whole piece of music. The elements and layering I am referring to are, the different sounds and feelings created by the instruments and vocal used to create the piece of music. Within a piece of music there range anywhere from a single instruments to a 100 piece orchestra creating different sound patterns. It is this layering and combination of elements that is interesting to me. I intrigued by the idea of having many different individual elements coming together to form one unified and beautiful piece of art.

Although the instruments and vocals create different sounds and feelings they are all based on different elements like RHYTHM & MELODY, TONE COLOUR, TEXTURE, DYNAMICS & HARMONY, TEMPO, PITCH and DIFFERENT GENRES and which are able to allow for individual freedom and various experiences while holding all pieces together. I began thinking of a way to derive, from musical elements of this type which could be translated into architectural terms. These elements would be the conceptual equivalent to the ideas stated above, the creation of these elements which allows for freedom and experiences of individual parts while holding an entire object together.

“THE IDEA IS TO CREATE A WORLD FOR THE AUDIENCE TO ENTER WHERE ARCHITECTURE MAGNIFIES THE EXPRESSIVE DIMENSIONS OF MUSIC AND SOUND.� -ELIZABETH MARTIN SOUNDSCAPE

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CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS CONCEPT: To begin solving this conceptual idea I started learning to analyse music for these elements. What developed out of this thinking was a simple understanding of how, in music there are certain patterns seen throughout an entire musical piece. I started reading about these elements and go to the people who knows music very well and then I got to know that this pattern is made of the Beat and interval used for Rhythm in the musical piece. Then there was Harmony what I found in every musical piece which is used to add feelings in every musical piece and it enhances the object. The next I found Tone colour, I learnt guitar so there I know what tone colour is let me explain tone colour is the different types of a sound by vocal or instruments or body percussions. And after understanding the theories I know what is texture as elements, Texture is the element which shows the combination of different sound. Don’t get confuse between Tone colour and Texture, Tone colour is the various sound and Texture is a Combination of various sounds which includes solo instruments or vocals and group of them and polyphonic sound are also the part of this elements. Then the next element I found in musical piece is Dynamics which shows the volume of the sounds, either it is loud, very loud , soft or very soft we can know from this element. In technical term they call it Crescendo and Decrescendo.

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The next element is Tempo which denotes the speed of the beat and its indications are designated by large, slow, steady, moderate, fast and very fast. This the last thing I noticed that Knowing the unique style traits of particular historical eras can greatly enhance your musical experiences by offering clues about what the composer was trying to express, and what you should listen for when hearing a piece, Those are different musical styles or musical genres. Some of them are Blues, Classical, Country, Electronic, Folk, Jazz, New age, Reggae and Rock.


CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS

CONCEPT

Then I started exploring many Architectural Elements. There I found five Elements which are related to the Elements of music I studied. Those are FORM,COLOUR,MATERIAL,LIGHT & SHADOW AND ARCHITECTURAL STYLES.

In which form is related to the Musical element Rhythm and melody

Architectural Element Colour related to the Harmony. The Material which is vary important element in spatial design is related to the Musical Element Tone colour And very important Element Light and Shadow is related to the Musical Element Dynamics. And finally Architectural styles related with Musical Genres. FORM WITH RHYTHM & MELODY COLOUR WITH HARMONY In Architecture colours are Used To enhance The Space In The same way Harmony is used to enhance the music. We have different gradients in colours & each effects differently while In music there is harsh & soft notes which effect the same way to Human beings.

In Architecture Form are made of two basic elements SPACE & VOID and from this elements the pattern is created. In music the Rhythm & Melody are such objects which are made of -INTERVAL & BEAT and they also create patterns so that I think both of them are related to each other.

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MATERIAL WITH T ONE Material are Used in Architecture as per their unique effect on user as in Music there is a tone colour which means the sound of different musical elements which are used as per their need. Both of them are specific elements of the Architecture and Music. LIGHT & SHADOW WITH DYNAMICS Light and Shadow are used in Architecture to emphasise the space. More the light and shadow can give a specificity effect to the space in Musical sense dynamics does the same. Dynamics emphasise the musical piece with its volume’s Up and down. KHUSHALI SHUKLA

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 31

ARCHITECTURAL STYLES WITH MUSICAL GENRES Architectural style are evolved from the history since now The music styles also evolves gradually with time and in both of the arts New styles are derived form old classical styles. In Musical terms this style are known as Musical Genres.


CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS THESIS PROGRAMME OVER VIEW

My thesis project conceptually is an exploration into the creation of architecture from musical elements. The thesis programs to be used as a guideline for the projects physical and functional requirements which are born out of the conceptual exploration of elements of music and architecture. In this project that manifestation is a Music Apparition Centre. The programmatic functions making up this centre are a series of sound recording studios, music studios, sound lab, music library, performance & practice spaces and a variety of other spaces. The entire complex occupies an area of 170M X 120M on a site located in Ahmedabad , Gujarat. My thesis program also gives an in depth look at all spaces included in the Music Appreciation Centre .Within each space,the program address issues concerning design criteria,users,activities, primary relation to other spaces ,furnishings and equipment,lighting ,acoustics,material. These criteria are based off of the overall programmatic design philosophy as established by the program,which are stated below.

DESIGN CRITERIA: The purpose of the thesis is to explore the creation of Architecture from the elements of music and Architecture. The centre will be a place where Architecture and music physically come together to create space and forms. I want the music to effect the creation of architecture while architecture is effecting to exploring the music. This will be done by using concepts found in music to derive architecture,some of which could be rhythms,melody,dynamics,tone colour and the genres of music. The facades of the centrum will reflect music through positive and negative spaces create rhythmic patterns. Because of the different types of music heard at the centre there will be a combination of many musical and architectural elements all of which will be brought together to form one balanced and united element.

These sketches were looking at moments of intersection and how it affected interior and exterior conditions. I was also looking at informal qualities of the space

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CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS THESIS PROGRAMME OVER VIEW USERS: The goal of this facility is to provide services to as many people as possible, with focus in individuals lacking the money necessary to rent recording time in most studios. Along with recording,individuals using the centre will have the opportunity to perform live in various settings will be able to live in apartments incorporated into the centre. Bands or individual musicians from all over the Ahmedabad and near cities will come to the centre to use its primary function the recording studios. This individuals will also be able to use the technology in the music library to make connection with large label recording companies. One goal of the centre is to provide educational experiences for students. There will be an out reach program which brings in students and people interested in learning music. These classes will be tough at low or no cost to the students. There will be larger fees for non-students interested in classes. The centre will not be a place just for the recording of music used by bands or musicians,it will also be a place for amy member of community interested in learning music or the process of recording music to come and visit. And with the integration of performance spaces and public spaces there will be a very divers range of people using this centre. Through the service of many there will be created a place of great artistic freedom,expression acceptance with different experiences. Performers will not come to record music and perform live. They will come because the atmosphere which is created by the centre and neighbourhood will help the individuals using the facility tap their own creative spirits. This will be a place musicians come to immerse themselves into a diverse and creative atmosphere,it will be a place to simple be.

KHUSHALI SHUKLA

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 33


CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS THESIS PROGRAMME OVER VIEW These drawings were studies looking at formal qualities of fa thickened skin within circulation spaces. I was looking at the acoustic spaces spilling into the rest of the building.

ACOUSTICS:

Because different music styles call for different acoustic conditions several recording studios will be incorporated into the centre. These studios will vary in size to accommodate from 1 to 50 musicians. Each studio will have its on unique acoustic Quality suited to serve a particular music style. Although the independent studios have different acoustic qualities,within each there will be the ability to alter to some degree acoustic conditions,This can be done through various additions or removals of sound reflective or absorptive materials. The independent studios will have smaller isolation booths used to further change acoustic conditions for the recording process. The performing spaces incorporated into the centre will also need good acoustic properties. These spaces will have the ability to change and adapt to different performances. This ability will allow for the best acoustic conditions for a wide verity of performances. As in recording studio this can be accomplished through the addition or removal of sound reflective or absorptive materials. Along with goods acoustics conditions goes the need for acoustic isolation between spaces. This will ne addressed by the construction techniques used during the building of the centre.

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CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS THESIS PROGRAMME OVER VIEW SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS: Because of all the different acoustic conditions necessary for providing good studio environments relationships between spaces is very important. This importance is also seen at site level. The placement of the individual function housed by the centre must be located with respect to the amount of noise emanating from surrounding sited. The recording studios will ne shielded form the street noise by the other functions of the centre. This introspective placing of recording studios will help create the sound isolation so important in recording music. MATERIALS: The materials used in this facility will serve functions. De pen sing on the spaces used,material will aether serve acoustic needs or they will be used to reinforce the concept of musical expression and experienced material need not only provide acoustic or conceptual ideas they also need to create an atmosphere appropriate to the function of the space they are used in,studio spaces need to be energetic and creative while apartment spaces need to be relaxing and light. What ever the function of the material,all will be brought together to express the notion of diversity,Because the centre will bring many individuals together I want the materials used in the centre to reinforce this idea of acceptances will be accomplished by integrating a large number of different material together

KHUSHALI SHUKLA

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 35

Studies looking at the Music and how to express Music with in my spaces were done during this stage. I also began to think about the architecture creating the Music at moments within the building.


CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS THESIS PROGRAMME OVER VIEW

Study of Musical elements Bansuri ,violin and Guitar from inside this gave me idea that not only Exterior but the interior of the building can be like a Musical Instruments

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CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS ACTIVITY & SPATIAL ANALYSIS

Space Admin & Receptions Recording Studios Rehearsal Room Music Studios Rehearsal Hall Sound Lab CafĂŠ & Lounge Music Library Performance Space

KHUSHALI SHUKLA

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 37

Size (Sq. meter) 300 120 sq. meter (20 x 6) 120 sq. meter (20 x 6) 300 sq. meter (50 x 6) 300 sq. meter (180person) 100 sq. meter 550 sq. meter (200 person) 250 sq. meter (40 computers & sitting) 4240 sq. meter (1200 persons)


CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS ACTIVITY & SPATIAL ANALYSIS RECORDING STUDIOS Functions These spaces provide the media and the technology for creating and producing music, where ideas transfer from mind to music space to sound. There will be six of these studios, with one designated as an experimental room used for teaching and learning how to create music, with classes designed to teach this trade. Activities Creating, producing, recording, writing, singing, and playing music sounds will all be done in these recording studios. Spatial relationships Spaces should be located whereas circulation embraces these studios, possibly centrally located with one per floor. Classes could be held on the top floor to create movement through the building and a chance of interaction with others as well as spaces throughout the building. Performance spaces should branch off of these spaces to create a mixing of ideas and audiences. Special considerations They must provide access for moving equipment in, out, and around these studios (i.e. elevators, door openings, storage, etc.). Selected views into the space are critical to experience the act of creating music within the studios.

Equipment I Furnishings Moveable band equipment will be in this space as well as recording devices such as microphones with acoustical considerations as well. Behavioural considerations The room must be able to accommodate the needs of the function, the ceilings may fluctuate in height and the walls may have angular movements to create the most desirable sounds,

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CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS ACTIVITY & SPATIAL ANALYSIS MUSIC STUDIOS Function These six Music studios will be used for instructive lessons in learning different music techniques as well as privately reserved for practice sessions and smaller more intimate classes. Activities Singing, teaching, learning, creating, and performing are all activities seen throughout the Music Studios. Spatial relationships These spaces will be in adjacency to each other with a common dressing & locker room. The space should feel very open and inviting, the volume of the room should be over exaggerated. One of the studios will be more open to visitors walking by to see the activities going on inside while the other will be a bit more private, perhaps still having silhouettes or shadows of the Musicians through the design materials and innovations. The space should act as a catalyst to Music, more of a back ground to the actual singing itself.

KHUSHALI SHUKLA

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 39

Special considerations I imagine the Music studios could be pulled to an exterior wall allowing for natural light to enter into the space during the day as well as to take advantage of views of the surrounding context. Sounds should be able to mix into the circulation spaces to create an eavesdropping of visitors, create a sense of wonder and interest. Almost like a clip or a teaser that guides you in a direction to see what activity is going on. Equipment I Furnishings This space will be furnished with speaker systems in order to create maximum sounds in the Music studios. The floor area should be open to create maximum space horizontally and also vertically. Behavioural considerations The spaces should allow for the architecture to reverberate sounds into circulation spaces and other selected rooms as well.


CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS ACTIVITY & SPATIAL ANALYSIS PERCORMANCE SPACE

SOUND LABS

Functions This space is used for entertaining and being entertained through music and other performance venues. It will be seen as a means of expression for the performer and allow smaller crowd to enjoy the music. Activities The activities seen here will be performing, listening, dancing, talking, and connecting. These activities depend on and encourage an interaction between the performer and the audience. Spatial relationships The stage and audience will be in close context of each other to create a more intimate setting.Adjacencies will be to the restaurant I bar I cafĂŠ spaces. Circulation space will create framed views of this space as well as unexpected encounters around the stage and performance. The vertical circulation will be in the same area to encourage others to experience and encounter the performances. Special considerations Seating style should be arranged to optimise the views of the stage and the comfort of the occupant. Equipment I Furnishings Specific equipment must be housed in close vicinity depending on the performance taking place. Microphones and other performing devices will be see here.

Functions The function of this space is to experience music and sounds of different kinds, also to sample new music which is created throughout the studios, Activities Activities include listening, sampling, and experiencing music. Spatial relationships Spaces vary depending on sounds, and volume, a possible manipulation of the spaces depending on the sounds being heard. These spaces could be within or next to the circulation spaces throughout the building. Special considerations The rooms are located throughout the building with unique specifications per space. Equipment I Furnishings Headphones, music control systems, as well as technology to create and manipulate the sounds. Behavioural considerations Intended to optimise the experiences of sound.

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CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS ACTIVITY & SPATIAL ANALYSIS MUSIC STUDIOS Function These six Music studios will be used for instructive lessons in learning different music techniques as well as privately reserved for practice sessions and smaller more intimate classes. Activities Singing, teaching, learning, creating, and performing are all activities seen throughout the Music Studios. Spatial relationships These spaces will be in adjacency to each other with a common dressing & locker room. The space should feel very open and inviting, the volume of the room should be over exaggerated. One of the studios will be more open to visitors walking by to see the activities going on inside while the other will be a bit more private, perhaps still having silhouettes or shadows of the Musicians through the design materials and innovations. The space should act as a catalyst to Music, more of a back ground to the actual singing itself.

KHUSHALI SHUKLA

INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 41

Special considerations I imagine the Music studios could be pulled to an exterior wall allowing for natural light to enter into the space during the day as well as to take advantage of views of the surrounding context. Sounds should be able to mix into the circulation spaces to create an eavesdropping of visitors, create a sense of wonder and interest. Almost like a clip or a teaser that guides you in a direction to see what activity is going on. Equipment I Furnishings This space will be furnished with speaker systems in order to create maximum sounds in the Music studios. The floor area should be open to create maximum space horizontally and also vertically. Behavioural considerations The spaces should allow for the architecture to reverberate sounds into circulation spaces and other selected rooms as well.


CONCEPT & DESIGN PROCESS ACTIVITY & SPATIAL ANALYSIS PERCORMANCE SPACE

SOUND LABS

Functions This space is used for entertaining and being entertained through music and other performance venues. It will be seen as a means of expression for the performer and allow smaller crowd to enjoy the music. Activities The activities seen here will be performing, listening, dancing, talking, and connecting. These activities depend on and encourage an interaction between the performer and the audience. Spatial relationships The stage and audience will be in close context of each other to create a more intimate setting.Adjacencies will be to the restaurant I bar I cafĂŠ spaces. Circulation space will create framed views of this space as well as unexpected encounters around the stage and performance. The vertical circulation will be in the same area to encourage others to experience and encounter the performances. Special considerations Seating style should be arranged to optimise the views of the stage and the comfort of the occupant. Equipment I Furnishings Specific equipment must be housed in close vicinity depending on the performance taking place. Microphones and other performing devices will be see here.

Functions The function of this space is to experience music and sounds of different kinds, also to sample new music which is created throughout the studios, Activities Activities include listening, sampling, and experiencing music. Spatial relationships Spaces vary depending on sounds, and volume, a possible manipulation of the spaces depending on the sounds being heard. These spaces could be within or next to the circulation spaces throughout the building. Special considerations The rooms are located throughout the building with unique specifications per space. Equipment I Furnishings Headphones, music control systems, as well as technology to create and manipulate the sounds. Behavioural considerations Intended to optimise the experiences of sound.

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CHAPTER 5 DETAILS & DRAWINGS

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Model:

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Model:

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Model:

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INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 46


Model:

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INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 47


Model:

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INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE,PATAN 48


CHAPTER 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY • Rasmussen, Steen Eiler, Experiencing Architecture • Rykwert, Joseph. The Seduction ofa Place • Egan, M. David. Architectural Acoustics • Riad, Mahmoud, Al Masmaa’ - The Place of Listening (Architecture: City, Music, and Culture), • Xenakis, Iannis, Musique Architecture. • Martin, Elizabeth, Pamphlet Architecture: Architecture as a Translation of Music • Giovannini, Joseph. “City of Music in Rome,” in Architectural Record • Vibha Agarwala ,Music + Architecture: The Spatial Translation of Schenkerian Analysis,Journal of Undergraduate Research • Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin. • Proshansky, Harold. Environmental Psychology • Zumthor, Peter. Atmospheres • Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture • Zumthor, Peter. Three Concepts • Zumthor, Peter. Works: Buildings and Project 1970-1997. • Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Space

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Thesis:Music of Architecture  
Thesis:Music of Architecture  
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