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ordkif;\w&m;cH/ / þodv Yk Qif r[me,uq&mawmfrsm;onf omoemawmfoef&Y iS ;f a&;udk ODpm;ay; aqmif&u G rf rI &Sb d J vspv f sL½Ixm;jcif;? 4if;tzGUJ üyif roef&Y iS ;f olrsm; yg0ifaejcif;? tzGUJ 0ifrsm;udk a&G;cs,&f mü oHCmhqE´ukd rcH,jl cif;? "r®0ed ,r@dKiu f kd tav;rxm;jcif;? tusiyhf sujf cpm;rIrsm; rw&m; qH;k jzwfrrI sm; jynfv h QaH ejcif;? t"r®ukd tumtuG,af y;xm;jcif;? oHCmxktay: tmPmudk tvGo J ;kH pGJ tEdik u f siahf ejcif;? 'Dru kd a&pD pepfuu kd kd rusio hf ;kH bJ tmPm&Sipf epfukd usio hf ;kH aejcif;? &[ef;ysKd tkycf sKyaf &; pepfukd oHCmxk\ av;pm;rIukd rcH,&l jcif;? bGUJ wHqyd o f moemxlaxmifNy;D bk&m;omoemudk zsuq f ;D ae jcif;? pmaypdppfa&;udk abmifcwfNy;D "r®ukd rsuu f , G jf yKxm;jcif;? oHCmxkab;uif;vHjk cKH atmif tum tuG,rf ay;Edik jf cif;? omoemtusK;d udk ro,fy;kd bJ ud, k u f sK;d &Smaejcif;? yxrjyef pmar;yGrJ sm;udk wdik ;f ppf jynfe,fppf cGx J w k í f y&d,wåo d moemudk zsuq f ;D aejcif;? "r®bufrmS r&yfwnfbJ t"r®bufrmS &yfwnf aejcif;? 4if;wd\ Yk vuf½;kH wynfBh u;D rsm;u wdik ;f oljynfom;awGukd tEdik u f siahf ejcif; . . . . .þodaYk om taMumif;w&m;rsm;aMumifh omoemawmfysupf ;D ,d, k iG ;f &jcif;jzpfavonf/ jrefrmouú&mZf 1240 jynfEh pS w f iG f a,mrif;Bu;D OD;zd;k vdiI o f nf &mZ"r®o*F[usr;f udk jyKpck \ hJ / xdkusrf;ü jrefrmhtajccH tkyfcsKyfa&;pnf;rsOf;udk tjynfhtpHk wifjyxm;\/ OD;zdk;vdIifum; ,aeYacwf vlaygif; (1000)ausmf yg0ifí q,fpEk pS f ESpcf ek ;D yg;rS a&;qG&J aom tajccHOya'udk wpfa,mufwnf; a&;qGcJ ahJ om jrefrmEdik if \ H yxrOD;qH;k 'Dru kd a&pDzcifBu;D jzpfav\/ oufO;D qHyikd b f &k ifpepfukd pmay tEkynmjzifh awmfveS cf ahJ om 'Dru kd a&pDawmfveS af &;orm;Bu;D jzpf\/ oljyKpak om 'Dru kd a&pDrmS yHw k l ul;,lxm;onfh rlymG ;'Dru kd a&pDr[kw?f Edik if ?H vlrsK;d ? bmom,Ofaus;rIwEYkd iS hf tH0ifciG u f satmif pDpOfxm; aom ,d;k ',m;ywfysK;d om jzpf\/ oufO;D qHyikd Of ;D zd;k vdiI t f aejzifh oufO;D qHyikd &f iS b f &k ifEiS hf rif;rsK;d rif;EG,f tEÅ&m,fuif;a&;? jynfov l x l k vlt Y cGit hf a&; tjynft h 0 azmfaqmifa&;? Edik if aH wmfBu;D zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufa&; wdu Yk kd a&SU½IO;D wnfí wifjyjcif;jzpf\/ at'D(17)&mpkwGif t*Fvefjynf acwfa[mif;awmfvSefa&; ygvDrefacgif;aqmif Cyomwell (u&Gr;f 0J)u yxrcsm;vfb&k ifukd ao'Pfay;um acgif;jzwfowfc\ hJ / at'D(18)&mpkwiG f jzpfymG ;aom jyifopfta&;awmfyBkH u;D aMumifh oufO;D qHyikd f Louis 14 (vl0b D &k if 14) ESihf rdz&k m;udk jynfov Yl w T af wmfu pufwikd w f ifí acgif;jzwfowfc\ hJ / 'Dru kd a&pDacwfa&pD;aMumif;onf urÇmwvTm;odYk pD;qif;aeay&m jrefrmjynfü oufO;D qHyikd b f &k if pepf awmfvSefa&;ay:aygufcJhaomf xdkbk&ifrsm;uJhodkY tEÅ&m,frjzpfap&eftvdkYiSm rif;rsKd;rif;EG,fudk umuG,fvdkaom apwemaumif;jzifh wifjyjcif;jzpf\/ wdkif;jynfESifhvlrsKd;twGufrSmrl txl;ajymp&m rvdak cs/ OD;zd;k vdiI u f kd tjynft h 0 axmufct H m;ay;cJo h rl mS uif;0efrif;Bu;D OD;aumif; jzpf\/ xdpk epfukd pkz&k m;vwf trsuaf wmf&í S y,fcsvu kd \ f / 1240 ckEpS üf wifoiG ;f &m rvdu k ef mcJo h jzihf 1247 ckEpS üf rif;ESihf wdik ;f jynfwpfcv k ;kH uReb f 0a&mufc&hJ \/ (ndKjr? uke;f abmif&mS yHak wmf? 496 -7)


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