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Bidjovagge Jingyuan Hu & Kari Havnevik


The location

Lakselv

Alta

Tromsø Oslo

Skibotn

Bardufoss

Karasjok

Storslett

Finnmarksvidda

Kautokeino


Bidjovagge

Kautokeino

Bigjovagge copper and goldmine in placed in a green rock belt in Finnmark, on the border of Troms municipality. The mine is about 2,5 km long, and is located 40 km North-East of Kautokeino. The mine has been exploting copper and gold over two periods of time, and is now planning to reopen. The first period of extraction from 1970-1975 the mine was only extracting copper. When Finish Outokumpu acquired the mine in -84 they started to extract a lot more gold, but because of the low copper price on the market they had to close down. Today the Swedish firm Artic Gold AB has bought the mine and is planning to operate by 2013. There has been a protest from the indigenous hearding people in the area together with locals and nature environment directorate. Who will win? Will operation in of Bidjovagge take place, or will the indigenous and environmentalists be heard this time?


Brief History of Norwegian Oil

1950 no one believed there was oil or gas

1959 foundings in Netherland changed people’s mind 1963, he government proclaimed sovereignty over the Norwegian continental shelf.

1971 First oil produced

1969 First commercial discovery

1974 A giant is found Statfjord was proven in the North Sea

1980 Alexanser L Kielland disaster created biggest disaster in Norway’s oil history

1981 Discoveries in the Norwegian Sea

1986 Go for gas

2000 Peak reached 2007 Production start and merge

http://www.olf.no/en/Facts/Petroleum-history/

1977 Bravo blowout

1992 Another pipeline


1950

Sami

?

Swedish Company Bolide 1985

1970 1975

Restart

Finish Company Outokumpu

Stop

Continue

Norwegian Company

production ended Bidjovagge Gruber A/S 1991

Stop

http://www.arcticgold.se/

low gold price

We try to find if there is any influence of the oil industry to mining in Norway, though we did not find any, we believe there must be some impact there.

2010 Restart

Future ?

Swedish Company Arctic Gold

Brief History of Bidjovagge

Start


Here shows the annual production of Grasberg, the biggest gold mine in the world, Super Pit the tenth biggest gold mine and Kittil채, the biggest gold mine in Europe.

Grasberg, Indonesia

Super Pit, Australia

Kittil채, Finnland

http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/243787/20111104/10-biggest-gold-mines-world.htm#page1

How big is Bidjovagge?


http://naturvernforbundet.no/

The backfill of rocks

The backfill of water

Picturs of Bidjovagge Today


Bidjovagge

Reisa Nationalpark

Spring pasture 1

Jorba Spring/Autum pasture 1 Autum pasture 1 Autum pasture 2 Autum/Winter pasture 1

Kautokeino Pollution zone

Enviroment vs. Mining Drilling for minerals in mines mainly happens in the summertime because of the ground in the winter, and makes it hard to drill. When drilling for minerals a lot of dust is created, and chemicals are used to extract the minerals. These chemicals are mixed in with the dust and pollute the area around. The range of damage is uncertain, but it affects large areas around. The water is also polluted, and some of the chemicals could even affect the ground water. In the earlier operation periods in Bidejovagge the consequences of drilling was clearly visual. The pollution affected the lichen in the area, and around 100 000 reindeers in the

area. The conflict between the Sami people and the mining industry is therefore quite hot. Bidjovagge mine is also located in one of the reindeer’s moving path. What will the consequences of a future drilling operation be? It is said that reindeer can easily adapt to new tracks if they are “forced� to change their heading path. Maybe it would be possible to lead the reindeer into creating new paths of moving. And by crossing land that is further away from the mine the land might be less polluted. This could be a solution if the mine is reopend in 2013.


= 5 People = 5 reindeer

5 people/ 1 family

Trym Ivar Bergsmo Boazojahki four seasons with the reindeer people

On average, 5 people (1 family generally) own a group of 2000 reindeers

2000 reindeers


Economy

Participants in the issue of reopening Bidjovagge Politics Mining Indigenous

Fefo Finnmark Property

Statskog

NINA Norwegian Insitute of Nature Reserch

Road management

NIKU Norwegian Insititue for Culture Heritage

KILF Climate and Pollution management

DN Directorat for Nature Management


people Reindeer Properties Infrastructure Environment Arctic Gold AB

Alcaston Exploration AB

The Norwegian Parliament

Nordreisea Municipality

Kautokeino Municipality

Sami parliament

Local residents

Reindeer managmet


Sequence one

Reclaim the area if the mine is not restored

Reopening the Mine

Reopening the mine

The question about reopening the Bidjovagge mine is a hot topic at the moment. Arctic Gold AB in cooperation with Alcaston Exploration AB is planning to reo claim that they have found more minerals to extract. Bidjovagge is located in the middle of a reindeer heading area which provokes the Sami Sidas. In the ques the environmental issue will determine whether or not the mine will be reopened. In order to start operating again Arctic Gold has to pass several political and The new extraction will also affect other participants, and discussions and agreements will take place in order to plan this new operation.


open the mine, and stion of reopening d environmental acts.

Future sequence events

Enclosure of the mine after det reopening

Roots of the issue of Bidejovagge


Sequence two

Reclaim the area if the mine is not restored

Reopening the Mine

Reclaim the area if the mine is not restored

If Actic Gold does not succeed to pass the acts the area is still an issue. Polluted ground, and large scares are left at the area, and who will take responsibil area is grounded in two municipalities, and the Sami has the right to the land. The polluted ground may still be affecting the water and ground water, and closure of the mine in 1991 does not provide enough information on what is actually left of chemicals and other emissions. The environmentalists want t cover the scares of the landscape, but who will be economically responsible?


lity to clean this up? The d the report done on the to clean up the land and

Enclosure of the mine after det reopening


Sequence three

Reclaim the area if the mine is not restored

Reopening the Mine

Enclosure of the mine Arctic Gold may be able to provide enough evidence of existing minerals and pass the emission demand. As they predict today they might be able to o a short period of time according to mining industries. The result will probably be even larger stigmas in the landscape and will they be able to cover th area? Will the same thing happen as for the closure in 1991?


operate in 5-10 years. That is e expense of reclaiming the

Enclosure of the mine after det reopening

Conclusion The scars in the landscape after two periods of mining are still visible. The case of reopening the mine has several opinions and the consequences of restoring are still vague because there is a lack of research on the topic. The area is polluted and scared whether or not the extraction will start again. Is it possible to heal this fractured landscape? I think that should be the main issue of this discussion. Who will reclaim this landscape and fit it in to its natural biosphere? The way I see it the area has no economical fund to be cleaned. By setting up a deal with the future mining company which secure a reclamation fund for the area might be the only way to raise money to increase the natural quality of the area.


Why they are always being found together in the ore deposit? Many ore bodies are the result of late -stage melts of crustal or oceanic crustal rocks. What Silver, Gold and Copper have in common is a relatively low melting point so any late-stage situation can have these metals concentrated together.

Gold(Au) Copper(Cu) 1063 1083 Silver(Ag) 916

Tin(Sn) 232

Zinc(Zn) 419 Lead(Pb) 327

Celsius Degree

Magnesium(Mg) Alluminium(Al) 670 659

http://www.heiszwolf.com/knutselsmurf/Casting/Casting.html http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100216140409AAmQN4G

Iron(Fe) 1530


Total production of each period

How many people involved = 10 people

http://aps.ngu.no/pls/oradb/minres_BH_fakta.Kjerne?p_objid=10819&p_spraak=N

194

6292

6486

Gold

kg

5y-production

5y-production

unkown

Copper 6565

23752

30300

ton

first period first period

second period

future 2013-?

?


Nordfeltet

B- Deposit B- Deposit

B

Nordfeltet Deposit Nordfeltet Deposit

Line of anrikningsverk Line of deponi for avgangsmasser Old gr책berg New gr책berg New gr책berg on old storage Mineralisation Ore Old sand deponi Old opencast

Deposit for avgangsmasser D- Deposit

105 m

D- Deposit

D

http://www.arcticgold.se/Filer/dokument/ovrigt/ Vedlegg-2.-Presentasjon-fra-Rambll-pa-folkemtene-

68 m

Laura Deposit Laura Deposit

Laura

Bijovagge Mine

Deposit areas put into scale


30 000 m3

B- Deposit

10 000 m2

30 000 m3 15 000 m2 Nordfeltet Deposit

165 000 m3

100 000 m2

D- Deposit

640 000 m3

Laura Deposit 108 000 m2

Deposit areas planned masses


Sub surface mine

headframe

Typical subsurface mining

Combination

ventilation shalft main shalft ore pass

stope

Underground mine Sub surface mine

ramp

Combination

ore body

Surface mine

main levels ore pass crusher skip

Surface mine

sump

diamond drilling

ore bin exploration drift


Typical surface mining

dust & noise buffle top soil to storage

bench

backfill by overburden

http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=CBE3CD59-1&offset=4&toc=show http://www.ngu.no

backfill

In Bidjovagge 16 drillings

1956-1975

103 drillings

1985-1993

drilling


Bidjovagge