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Feasability Report - Rinkeby Regeneration of Scandinavian Satellite Towns; From a Self-Contained to a Self-Sustainable Community Yasmin Maria Khan Comprehensive Design Project Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture

Authors Own, Conceptual model of Rinkeby mapping green landscape and criminal activity, )2011)

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


Writtle College

Yasmin Maria Khan BSc Landscape Architecture Dissertation Comprehensive Design Project H460044 Writtle School of Design


Brief This report is a detailed investigation and review of the context of Rinkeby, relating to the “Regeneration of Scandinavian Satellite Towns; from Self Contained to Self-Sustainable Communities�. It aims to investigate and outline immediate and long term planning and development of a site as part of a detailed planned design strategy. The report will evaluate problems and issues of the site and it’s potential for improvement. A conceptual design and design strategies will then be developed, backed up by relevant case studies.

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


Contents 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Methodology 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Site Context and Survey Geographical Context Environmental and Cultural Context Historical Context Recreational and Leisure Facilities Ecology, Hydrology and Topography Land Use Early Planning Development

3

Analysis and Appraisal

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Social Issues and Demographics Public Green Space Circulation, Hard Landscaping and Parking Access by Public Transport Bridges and Underpasses Rinkeby Torg Existing Planning

4 Recommendations 4.1 Aims 4.2 Objectives 5

Case studies

6 Appendix References


1.1 Introduction Scandinavian Satellite Towns, built mainly from the 1950’s-80’s, make up large parts of many Scandinavian towns and cities. In some cities, up to a third of the urban fabric. Initially popular residential areas, the satellite towns of Scandinavia have fallen into decay and disrepair. In some cases, poor construction and building work are to blame for their lack of popularity. In others, it is poor planning by the authorities, disrupting residential areas by later developments or leaving developments unfinished. Satellite Towns were meant to improve living conditions for the working classes, lifting them out of the slums of the cities, and providing them with the opportunity to live in an open, green landscape, while continuing to work in the city. The standards of their new homes were much better than the home they moved from; most people could not afford buying their own flat, so they often rented cramped flats with their extended family, living at landlords’ mercy. The new homes built during the 50’s and 60’s, by government led housing schemes, gave ordinary people the opportunity to buy their own place. Not only was it theirs to own, but these new flats had inlaid water, baths with water closets, kitchens, and 2-3 bedrooms. Fresh air and exercise was seen as so important at the time, that most blocks, with a few exceptions, were also made with balconies which is today seen almost as a luxury with new builds. Town and city centres in Scandinavia today are no longer slums and synonymous with low housing and living standards. They are very popular residential areas; gone are the days of the back yard water pumps and gas burners in place of kitchens. Although it might be difficult to pinpoint exactly when and how this shift occurred, the fact that is has happened is undeniable, and the consequences are obvious: With a few exceptions, flats in satellite towns are less in demand, meaning they are cheaper and therefore often dominated by less resourceful groups of society. Councils often buy flats or rent through housing associations, and satellite towns then fill up with immigrants, unemployed, and handicapped. Marginalized groups, youth crime, gangs and poor education have to many become synonymous with the Scandinavian satellite town. Satellite towns have many complex issues. To blame one single factor for their decline is impossible; the reasons are both physical and social. Correcting the problems that have occurred are difficult when on one hand, it seems like the best solution is to simply bulldoze entire towns, while on the other hand, there is the risk of carrying out regeneration that is simply cosmetic.

1.2 Methodology One of the most important issues to deal with seems to be the residents and their cultural backgrounds, and how that affects the way they see the landscape and the way they interact with it. The landscape of the satellite town, and the natural landscape which most often surrounds it, are not necessarily bad or poor. Often, designs put in place that might have worked anywhere else will fail in satellite towns. Here, residents have traditions and beliefs that make them use the landscape in other ways than they were intended, or than other people would do. For instance, it is in many cultures tradition that men and women dine and socialise separately. Women will most often stay at home, indoors, while men go outside or to a separate, semi-public house. After the day is over, women and children will go outside, provided they have private or sheltered safe spaces to accommodate them. This is of course dependant on weather and daylight, which is significantly different in Scandinavia from other more southern regions.

To carry out this feasibility report, the physical attributes of the site will be analysed through mapping and imagery. The site will be analysed and an inventory carried out, for the specific site as well as for the larger context. To analyse the social issues of the site, reports and statistics will be investigated and looked at in context of the site’s physical layout. At a stage further into the design process, more thorough investigation into social issues of the site will be done. Cultural, behavioural patterns will be looked at to see how they affect movement across the site, as well as comparing them with important meeting places.

The car is another factor playing an important role in the outcome of satellite towns. Many were planned and developed at a time when governments could never have imagined the car playing as important a role as it does today. Areas that were planned without cars in mind struggle to accommodate pedestrians and vehicle traffic, while in areas where traffic and pedestrians have been separated completely, safety, access and circulation have failed to work together. The separation of different uses is also an issue, as it means that surveillance of the street is practically impossible. Planning entire towns with noe open programming og development to add to them later, at a time when cities were expanding so rapidly, has proved difficult to deal with in later times. The challenge when it comes to regenerating Scandinavian satellite towns is to create a functioning, sustainable community in a landscape that fulfills the needs of both present and future residents, with all of the complexities that comes with a shifting population of different backgrounds.

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


FIG. 1 Bing Maps, Stockholm, Satellite 1 (2011)

FIG. 2 Bing Maps, Stockholm, Satellite 2 (2011)

2.1 Geographical Context Stockholm City

Climate

Stockholm is an archipelago situated on the south west coast of Sweden, facing the Baltic Sea to the East. The landscape is dominated by large bodies of water surrounding urban, agricultural and woodland areas. To the west of the City is Lake Mälaren, an area of oustanding natural beauty and with a rich cultural heritage. It is a popular destination with both tourists and locals, and has in many ways become symbolic of the Swedish Summer.

Sweden has a very mild climate, considering its northern latitude, thanks to southern and westward winds. The south of Sweden falls into the category of warm tempered deciduous woodland, while further north the temperature drops, plants are predominantly evergreen and the tundra dominates the landscape. Rainfall is most common during summer and fall, usually in the form of heavy showers. During winter, snowfall dominates the weather in land, while coastal areas affected by warm winds might experience a lot of rain. Temperatures vary greatly depending on the location; north or south of the arctic circle. Temperatures here may vary with as much as 30C. Average temperatures in January is about 0 C in the south of Sweden, while July has an average of 17 C.

Stockholm is a city of opposites, and markets itself as a place where anything, or everything, is possible. They aim to be the “Capital of Scandinavia”, developing Stockholm as a trademark, with it being the cultural, economical and natural centre point of Scandinavia.

The city is centred around the Old Town, or Gamla Stan, a small island in the city centre, dating back to the 13th century. It was originally founded as a defence against attacks from the East, but developed to become a prosperous trading city as well. During the 13th-17th centuries, it was part of the Hanseatic Trading Alliance. Up until the 1980’s, Gamla Stan was still officially referred to as “The City Between The Bridges”. In the late 19th century, the city started expanding rapidly, swallowing up neighbouring small towns and counties. The boom in population and economy after the second world war saw the building of a series of new housing developments, expanding the city further.

Stockholm City Centre FIG. 3 Authors Own, Stockholm County (2011)

Rinkeby, Satellite Town

Midsummer has an average of nearly 19 hours of sunlight, whereas the shortest day of the year, in the middle of winter, has barely 6.


FIG. 5 Moving Cities.Org, Stockholm Snapshots part III (2009)

FIG. 6 Moving Cities.Org, Stockholm Snapshots part 1 (2009)

FIG. 4 Stockholm Summer School, Stockholm Waterfront (2011)

FIG. 7 Tomohomo, No Title (N.A.)

FIG. 8 Bert Relan, Stockholm (2009) Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


2.2 Environmental and Cultural Context

Stockholm’s Nature and Cultural Reserves The map to the left shows all of Stockholms reserves, within the county boundary. The hatched, striped reas show reserves that stretch out of the county’s boundary and further into neighbouring counties. FIG. 9, Stockholm Stad, Reservatskarta (N.A.)

Järvafeltet and Igelbäcken Reserve Key Reserve Boundary Underground Station Construction Works Road Jarvakilen Path Pedestrian/Cycle Path Bridle Path E18 Underpass Archaeological Heritage Site Evergreen Woodland Decidous Woodland Agricultural Land Open Land

FIG. 10 Stockholm Stad, Igelbäckens Kulturreservat (N.A.)

Allotment Wetland Water Body


The Environmental Capital of Europe Stockholm was designated as Europe’s first Environmental Capital in 2010, and aims to be at the forefront of urban, green planning. In 2004 and 2005, 1 billion SEK was granted to Miljömiljarden, a project aimed at developing and improving all of the city’s environmental aspects. Everything from smart energy saving solutions and recycling in public and private sector, to public transport, city bicycle schemes, park maintenance and public awareness. The city’s nature and cultural reserves do not only connect with the city’s green and blue infrastructure, but also connect through neighbouring counties to form large, designated green spaces. FIG. 11 In Stockholm, Stockholm City Bikes (N.A.)

FIG. 12 Patrick Lönnberg, Kista Gård (N.A.)

FIG. 13 Patrick Lönnberg, Kista Gård (N.A.)

FIG. 14 Jsson, Järvafeltet (2009)

Igelbäcken Cultural Reserve As of 2006, Igelbäcken has officially been a Cultural Reserve, aiming to protect the agricultural heritage of the landscape (some sources still refer to it as a nature reserve, in connection to Järvakilen, while others use the term Cultural Reserve). Hästa Gård, in the north of the reserve, is the country’s largest urban farm, and operates on ecological principles. They are responsible for maintaining the agricultural fields and arable land, and have livestock in the form of cows, sheep and goats.

Spread across Igelbäcken, and also Hansta Reserve, are plenty of archeological heritage sites. Rune stones have been found in the area, and the farms themselves make out an important part of the areas cultural heritage. It is possible to move across the site by foot, cycling or skiing, all year round, thanks to paths across the site, including lit paths especially for winter. It is also possible to cross the reserve on horseback, on designated paths. Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


2.3 Historical Context

Military Ground Akalla

Husby

Kista

Tensta Igelbecken Stream

Rinkeby

County Boundary

FIG. 15 Authors Own, J채rvakilen with surrounding Stellite Towns (2011)


FIG. 16 My Life as A Swede, Miljonprogrammet (N.A.)

FIG. 17 Silkeborgs Samhällighet, Närhet till Naturen (2011)

FIG. 18 Henryk Kotowski, Kista Science Tower (2007)

Satellite Towns built under Miljonprogrammet were most often built on the outskirts of town, close to woodland areas, agricultural land or nature reserves. Rinkeby is one such Satellite Town, built on the edge of Järvakilen, a natural and cultural reserve stretching over 7 different counties. The slip of Järvakilen bordering Rinkeby was bought by Stockholm council in the sixties, after being used as a military training ground. Today, it contains Igelbäcken Nature Reserve (Igelbäcken Naturreservat) and Hänsta Nature Reserve (Hänstareservatet), an Oak Woodland.

A series of other satellite towns surround the Nature reserve; Kista, opposite Rinkeby, was meant as a mixed use development to provide Rinkeby’s residents with jobs and other facilities. Today, Rinkeby is a Satellite Townd fallen into disrepair, while Kista, with it’s mixed use and housing developments, has become Sweden’s leading IT centre and is a thriving community.

Miljonprogrammet, The Million Program The term Miljonprogrammet was first coined by the politician Ernst Michanek in 1964, under the slogan “a million homes in ten years”. After 1965, the term was used, in a more watered down version, through party policy. There never existed a Miljonprogram as such, but through party and government policy, the building of one million new homes over the next ten years did actually happen. Today, around 80% of these homes need renovation.

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


2.4 Recreational and Leisure Facilities

FIG. 19 Authors Own, Recreation in and around J채rva (2011)

Heritage Site Race Course Sports Farm Allotment Theatre Nature Reserve Boundary Water Body


FIG. 20 Marjo-Riitta Oksanen, Motorcrossbana i Akalla (2008)

FIG. 23 Thomas Järrel, No Title (2008)

FIG. 21 Yangchenkai, Football Field in Kista (2007)

FIG. 22 Silkeborgs Samhällighet, Nära till Naturen 2 (2011)

FIG. 24 Stockholms Stad, Granholmens Naturträdgårdsförening(2011)

FIG. 25 Sara Jeswani, No Title, (2011)

Recreational Facilities in and around Järvakilen Igelbäcken Nature Reserve has plenty of recreational opportunities to offer. In addition to rambler’s and cyklist’s paths, there are urban farms and allotment gardens spread out across the area. They cater for private persons as well as the general public, and are popular with locals as well as families coming from the rest of Stockholm.

The reserve offers the opportunity to experience nature as well as cultural heritage sites. It is also possible to participate in activities such as motor cross, golf, soccer and cross country skiing.

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


Igelb채cken Culture Reserve

2.5 Ecology, Hydrology and Topography Ortophoto, 2000 Biotope Map 1999, Stockholm City Key

FIG. 26 Stockholm Stad, Igelb채cken Kulturreservat Biotopkarta (1999)

Cultural Reserve Boundary County Boundary Mixed Wood Mixed Evergreen Wood Mixed Decidous Wood Oak Dominated Woodland Planted Woodland Land With Exposed Bedrock Exposed Bedrock Woodland Swamp Woodland Wooded Bog Exposed Bog Dry Grassland Grassland Wet Grassland Land With Scrub Vegetation Agricultural Land Dense Development, Some Vegetation Dense Development, No Vegetation Equal Development And Vegetation Exposed Water Body Water Body, Some Overgrowth Water Body, Floating Vegetation etc.


Biotopes in and around Igelbäcken Reserve The landscape is dominated by previous and existing agricultural acitivty, yet it also has a diverse range of ecosystems such as wetland, deciduous and evergreen woods. Igelbäcken is the most biologically diverse stream in all of Stockholm, and contains species of fish that are rather symbolic of the region. The terrain slopes towards the stream, but there are also areas of “hällmarkstallskog”, a biotope found throughout Scandinavian countries. Raised, exposed bedrock, with a thin layer of soil provide habitat for pine trees, calluna, moss and other hardy, low-nutrient demanding species. This type of bedrock and woodland also dominate smaller areas within the surrounding satellite towns; it is the norm in Scandinavia to preserve this type of terrain, and the species contained there, and build around them, rather than on them.

FIG. 29 Stockholm Stad, Underlagskatarta fär grundvattenskydd (1997)

FIG. 27 Olli Manninnen,Valsjoberget (N.A.)

Sand And Gravel, Infiltration Area Glacial Exposed Bedrock Wetland Large Water Body District Boundary Main Water Course For Surface And Ground Water Roads Running Water Direction of Surface Water Runoff

FIG. 28 County Board of Sweden,No Title (N.A.)

FIG. 30 Silkeborgs Samhällighet, No Title (2011)

FIG. 31 UFredr, Hästa Gård (2011) Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


2.6 Land Use

Land Use Key

FIG. 32 Authors Own, Land Use (2011)

County Boundary Stream/River Body of Water, Sea Body of Water Mixed Decidious, Evergreen Wood Agricultural/Arable Land Open, Green Space High Density Built Up Area Low Density Built Up Area Industrial Area Open Space Water Body Decidous Wood


FIG. 33 Bertil Eriksson, Flygfoto Over Husby (2009)

FIG. 34 Grönlingen I Igelbäcken, Solnedgang Över Igelbäcken (2011)

FIG. 35 Dan Hansson, No Title (2008)

FIG. 36 Hollger Ellgard, Tensta (1971)

FIG. 37 Marjo-Riitta Oksanen, Igelbäcken (N.A.)

FIG. 38 Bellman & Partners, Nettovägen 11 (N.A.)

Igelbäcken Nature Reserve contains a wide variety of habitats and uses; old agricultural fields are maintained to keep the cultural landscape, frog ponds have been established to boost biological diversity and there are plenty of allotment gardens as well as urban farms spread across the site.

South and North of the band of Satellite Towns are large areas of either detached housing development, or industry. Separating Rinkeby from the development to the south is a band of green, open space.

Land Use The Satellite Towns surrounding Igelbäcken Nature Reserve are dominated by densely built residential areas. With blocks of flats in varying sizes and shapes, most of the flats are still the same size and of the same standard. Kista, north of Rinkeby, differs from the rest in that it has more mixed use, combining residential, industrial and commercial developments.

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


2.7 Early Planning Development

Kista

Rinkeby

FIG. 39 Authors Own, Rinkeby and Kista (2011)


“An intense, concentrated and rich environment - - - combining the concrete city’s intensity, concentration and order with the green, open space and freedom of the suburbs, an urban environment with safe, comfortable pedestrian streets and park access. - - - Great consideration for the day-to-day exterior environment, the streets and places one passes through to work, to school or the city centre.” Masterplan for Järva, 1964

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


3.1 Social Issues and Demography Social Life and Safety in Rinkeby Between 2005 and 2009, Rinkeby was the suject of a series of reports monitoring social and safety issues. The reports were made as part of a mapping of living conditions in Järva, monitoring Akalla, husby, Tensta/Hjulsta and Rinkeby at the same time. Svenska Bostäder, who own and run residential areas in Rinkeby, carried out and collected the research for the reports. The reports were based mainly on the inhabitants’ own perception of the area, as basing them solely on police reports and statistics was thought to not provide as accurate a description of the issues on site. Some of the interesting points provided by the residents were:

Residential Areas, Järva 2007 Rinkeby Kista Private Letting

Residents feel isolated from other parts of town by the language barrier Women and children are afraid to go out after dark

Private Ownership

Residents want visible policing of the streets

Council Letting

Places that were considered as unsafe were not necessarily where majority of crime happens, as they were generally avoided Young people in groups are considered threatening In cases of assault, most people knew or were aquianted with their assailant By comparing statistics, one might assume that criminal activity is carried out by a very few people, and of those most are young males. Numbers of crime in Rinkeby compared to the rest of Stockholm are not necessarily higher, but the number of violent assaults are much higher, especially violence towards women. Because of the taboo related to assaults against women, authorities also assume that there are many cases that go unreported. Out of 800 questionnaires issues, 290 were filled in and returned, in the 2009 report. Most of these were women and children.

inh.

Immigrant

Kista Rinkeby FIG. 40 Authors Own, Rinkeby and Kista (2011)

Employed


Unemployment Among Women Background

Age Demographics

0-17

Unemployed

18-24

Immigrant Background Employed

25-44

Swedish

45-64 65+

FIG. 41 Authors Own, Age Demographics (2011)

FIG. 42 Authors Own, Background (2011)

Unemployment Among Women Background

Unemployment Among Men

Unemployed Immigrant Background Employed Swedish

FIG. 43 Authors Own, Unemployment Among Women (2011)

Unemployed Employed

FIG. 44 Authors Own, Unemployment Among Men (2011)

Unemployment Among Men

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


3.2 Public Green Space

FIG. 45 Authors Own, Rinkeby Public Green Space (2011)

FIG. 46 Authors Own, Rinkeby Public Green Space and Criminal Activity (2011)

Exposed Bedrock and Pine Wood, Public Allotment Garden, Private Open, Green Space, Public Crime Water Body


FIG. 47 autostopowicz70, Summer in Rinkeby (2011)

FIG. 48 autostopowicz70, Afternoon (2011)

Public Green Spaces

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Constraints

Rinkeby is surrounded by public, green space. Within the site there are semi-private and public green spaces, some of which cover large areas.

- Open, green spaces within and outside of Rinkeby provide access to nature

- The open and natural landscape is passive and does not engage with the residents

- Linking together existing natural and landscaped green spaces, within and outside of the site, with new landscaped sem-private spaces within the site

- Preserving the natural landscape within the site

Criminal activity is practically non-existing in these areas; they form a cocoon around the residential makeup of the landscape. The idea of “prospect and refuge” reflects this fact. Most people will avoid open spaces, meaning that most activity happens close to residential housing or public spaces. 

- Landscaped spaces and natural, existing landscape create biological and visual diversity

FIG. 49 autostopowicz70, Autumn in Rinkeby (2011)

- Large, open spaces are avoided and therefore disused. In the context of the residents, it has lost it’s purpose

- The scale of the open space

- Working with an already established green infrastructure to improve and further develop the landscape

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


3.3 Circulation, Hard Landscaping and Parking

KM 0

0.2

FIG. 50 Authors Own, Hard Landscaping, Circulation and Parking (2011)

FIG. 51 Authors Own, Hard Landscaping, Circulation and Parking with Criminal Activity (2011)

Hard Landscaping Main Traffic Roads Main Pedestrian Paths/Routes Crime Parking Space


FIG. 52 autostopowiccz70, No Title(2010)

FIG. 53 Jsson, Winter in Rinkeby (2010)

Circulation, Hard Landscaping and Parking

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Constraints

The Satellite Town is flanked by the E18 to the North and East, with connection to the 279 Road to the East. To the South and West is a traffic access road. Together, these roads surround Rinkeby. There are plans to cover the E18, to improve connection to Järva and Kista.

- Separate pedestrian routes and traffic roads

- Large parking spaces create hard, dead surfaces

- Create new landscapes actively using secondary pedestrian paths

- Both established main pedestrian routes throughout the site and secondary paths create an easy network to navigate in

- Separating pedestrian routes, especially main paths, from parking areas means there is a lack of positive surveillance, allowing criminal activity within the space and at the entrance/exit

- New developments allowing changes to layout of parking spaces and paths, especially along the edges of the site

- Main pedestrian routes are “safe”, but secondary pedestrian paths are necessary to access residential buildings and link into the larger network

Main pedestrian routes across the site connect different estates within the satellite town, while secondary paths lead way between buildings and green spaces. Parking space dominates large areas of the hard landscaping.

- Paths arranged according to the terrain create an interesting landscape - Parking spaces separate from pedestrian walkways create a safe environment for pedestrians (especially children, disabled, elderly)

FIG. 54 Jsson, Winter in Rinkeby (2010)

- Access road around the site creates and abrupt boundary, even with underpasses connecting Rinkeby with Järva

- New development along the edges, to create a “softer” less abrupt boundary; taking advantage of planned “lid” on the E18

- Well established network of paths and roads is not easily changed (established pattern of movement) - Layout is often decided by the terrain - Parking spaces are necessary, and cannot be designed out completely. Moving them will only move the problem

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


3.4 Access by Public Transport

KM 0

0.2

FIG. 55 Authors Own, Access by Public Transport (2011)

KM 0

0.2

FIG. 56 Authors Own, Access by Public Transport with criminal activity (2011)

Figure Ground Underground Station Bus Stop Crime Water Body


FIG. 57 autostopowicz70, No Title (2010)

FIG. 58 Patrick Sonestad, Rinkeby (N.A.)

Public Transport Access

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Constraints

Rinkeby can be accessed by bus as well as by the metro system. Buses leave regularly around the site, going towards the city centre or to Kista, while the underground metro station, situated at the Rinkeby Market, allows travellers to access the city centre or other satellite towns further west.

- Public transport allows all residents to connect outside of Rinkeby

- The bus for Kista takes as long to get there as walking the same distance

- Buses cannot access all of the site, as it is pedestrianised

- The metro station in particular allows stockholmers to access J채rva from Rinkeby

- Despite the proximity to Kista, there is no direct metro connection; travellers will have to make an interchange to get there

- Adding a bus stop to the Nort East of the site to accommodate potential development and also help surveille the back of buildings

- Combination of bus and metro system means transport in and out of the site leaves regularly

FIG. 59 Metro map pictures.blogspot, Stockholm Underground Map (N.A.)

- The metro station is situated in the middle of Rinkeby Torg, which is desolate at night

- Look at metro connections; possibilities of connecting Rinkeby and Kista directly or creating a looped line

- Changes in the public transport will have to involve traffic and transport authorities - For obvious reasons, the site of the metro station cannot be easily changed

- There are no bus stops to the north East of the site

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


3.5 Bridges and Underpasses

KM 0

0.2

FIG. 60 Authors Own, Bridges and Underpasses (2011)

KM 0

0.2

FIG. 61 Authors Own, Bridges and Underpasses with Criminal Activity (2011)

Pedestrian Underpass Main Pedestrian Paths/Routes Crime Water Body


FIG. 62 wjywjy, j채rva leaving rinkeby (2011)

FIG. 63 autostopowicz70, No Title (2011)

FIG. 64 Benkt Eurelius,Rinkebystr책ket i dag (N.A.)

Bridges and Underpasses

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Constraints

Rinkeby was planned at a point in time where it had become evident that purely pedestrianized housing developments would be hard to manage; cars were becoming an important part of everyday life, and so developers attempted to separate traffic routes to accommodate both cars and pedestrians. In Rinkeby, this has been done by allowing large car parks and also by separating large roads from pedestrian paths, allowing residents to get around on foot by usind bridges and underpasses, to avoid traffic. 

- Bridges and underpasses make it possible to access J채rva and other areas within Rinkeby without crossing trafficked roads

- Many underpasses lead from residential areas to open spaces, which are avoided

- Underpasses as entrances/gatways into something new

- Underpasses are also bridges, often carrying the load of the road overhead

- Make good use of the terrain

- Underpasses are often seen as unsafe places, and not used

- Underpasses and bridges make the layout of paths and roads possible - Removing bridges means pedestrians will have to cross roads at street level

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


3.6 Rinkeby Torg

FIG. 65 Oggyg, No Title (N.A.)


FIG. 66 Bing Maps, Rinkeby Birds Eye (2011)

FIG. 67 Carsten Malmberg, No Title (N.A.)

Rinkeby Torg

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Constraints

Rinkeby Torg is the satellite town’s market, or square, opened up in 1969. It centres on the metro station and is made up of a hard landscaped square surrounded by commercial buildings of 2-3 floors. Shops and cafès spill from the buildings onto the square, which also rooms a fountain and a few strategic trees.

- Multicultural shops and cafès cater for the residents’ needs and wishes

- All buildings surrounding the square are commcercial, none are mixed use

- Re-developing the entire quare and shopping centre, with the town hall and library, to form a mix-use space

- The owners of the library, town hall, Rinkeby Torg and Gallerian are separate

- Extending shopfronts onto the square make it more inviting and vibrant

- Closed shopfronts and no residential buildings mean the square is empty at night, making it dangerous to use the metro station

In 1996, Rinkeby Galleri, and indoor shopping centre, was opened. It neighbours the square, taking up one of the northern buildings, which also rooms the entrance to the metro station. Until 2008, Rinkeby Torg and Gallerian were owned by Centrumkompagniet, a state owned company. They have since sold it to Boultbee, who now run and own it.

- The shopping centre provides Rinkeby with high street outlets, as well as local market shops - Proximity to the metro station

FIG. 68 Carsten Malmberg, No Title (N.A.)

- The square is clearly separated form other meeting places, such as the local library and town hall

- Consideration of existing infrastructure - Consideration of existing shops and businesses - Investment and funding

- Outdoor space to accommodate events

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


3.7 Existing Planning Vision Järva 2030 outlines the planned vision for Järvalyftet, a program intended to regenerate Järva and it’s surrounding satellite towns. The plan for Järva was made by Stockholm county in 2007, and approved by unison in Parliament, where a plan was laid down for the entire area. The Vision Järva 2030 planning document was made by : Magnus Andersson, State Planning Office Rolf Gävfert, the Traffic Office Torbjörn Johansson, the State Building Office Peter Lundevall, the State Building Office Per-Eric Siljestam, Development Office Aims for Järvalyftet: High living standards and varied urban environment Safety Good education, especially language skills More work places and new business places Objectives for Järvalyftet: Activate and strengthen Järva cultural and natural reserve and the connection to surrounding urban communities New strategic developments Linking together urban communities Connecting the network of streets - where necessary Further develop central circulation routes Disrupt traffic separation - where necessary Strenthen pedestrian paths Use new housing development to strengthen community identity Respectful further development of existing ousing developments


Proposed Residential Blocks along Rinkebystr책ket

Proposed new residential blocks along E18 cover facing J채rva and Kista

Proposed new tower blocks FIG. 69 Stockholm Stad, Conceptual Ideas (2009)

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


4.1 Aims The overarching aim for Rinkeby is to create a sustainable community; a community that sits in a dynamic landscape fulfilling the needs of present residents, without compromising the needs of future residents. A landscape that provides opportunities for community building and developing skills, through interaction with the landscape. To achieve this sustainable community in Rinkeby, there are some main aims and objectives that need to be followed. These aims and objectives could apply to regeneration of other satellite towns as well, but it is important that they take into consideration the specific context of the site, including physical and social issues. Some of the main issues of the site are: The green barrier surrounding the site Traffic barrier surrounding and within the site Hard landscaped areas with no possibility of social surveillance Unclaimed semi-private spaces Crime Unemployment Poor integration The above points are both physical and social; some of the physical issues of the site may contribute to social issues, and the other way around. It is important to take into consideration the cultural and social background of the site’s residents, as they decide how the landscape is used. Aims: To create a safer environment Creating a place that encourages integration and participation Developing a community based and outward looking place These aims are to be achieved through a series of objectives, specific to the site.


Big changes that could affect large areas of the site Developing along the edges, especially to the south and west, towards neighbouring communities. It is important that developing happening here is of a permeable nature. Completely redevoping areas such as Rinkeby Torg. Re-organising the layout and character of areas dominated by hard landscaping such as car parks and access roads with little connection to secondary pedestrian paths.

Re-development Re-development and re-organising Edge Development Re-organising Water Body

KM 0

0.2

FIG. 70 Authors Own, Conceptual Masterplan (2011)

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


4.2 Objectives Creating a safer environment to live in through social surveillance. Restructuring access and circulation in hard landscaping context to create better defensible spaces Developing mixed housing and mixed use areas on the edges of the site and strategically within the site Create engaging landscapes in semi-private spaces, allowing residents to claim outside spaces and interact with the landscape

Integration through participating in community activities and the landscape Mixed use areas that incorporate private and public facilities Giving local residents the opportunity to work with the landscape, maintaining, managing and developing their neighbourhood, with skills they can carry on to work outside of the site as well Spaces that can be claimed and used by everyone, but especially appealing to women and children

A strong community with good connections to the surrounding landscape and neighbouring communities, allowing circulation between the three. Developing along the edges and covering the E18, as well as parts of the main access road Improving public transport, considering new metro connections and bus routes, particularly going towards Kista


FIG. 71 Authors Own, Extrusion (2011)

FIG. 72 Authors Own, Spread Grid (2011)

FIG. 73 Authors Own, Paths and Separation (2011)

FIG. 74 Authors Own, Claiming the Landscape (2011)

FIG. 75 Authors Own, Mixed Use Rinkeby Torg (2011)

These figures show how developing along the edges, as well as shuffling spaces and uses could work within the landscape. Rinkeby is isolated from it’s neighbouring communities, so strategic development along the edges, providing mixed housing and mixed uses could help bridge this gap. Within the site, it is also possible to re-arrange and restructure the layout of hard and soft landscaping, perhaps also breaking up the separation of pedestrian and traffic routes. This could lead to more defensible spaces and for the residents to be able to surveille the street. Creating defensible spaces for the residents to claim as their own is a challenge; it is important that designed spaces appeal to their specific needs and wishes. It would be desirable to create semi-private spaces that engaged residents with the landscape and encouraged them to spread out across the site, also making use of the public spaces within and around the site.

Fig. 71-75 not to scale

participation within the site. The square, or market, is one of the most problematic parts of the site. Completely replacing it with a mix use space, incorporating both residential and commercial houses, with private as well as public uses, might be the best solution. As it is today, public facilities such as the library and town hall are completely separate from the metro station and shopping centre. Encouraging the use of these facilities might become an important part of integration and

Women and children must be considered well when the site is designed and planned for. Although most women in Rinkeby stay at home, they are an invaluable resource; they raise and take care of the children, deciding how the children interact with the landscape and their local community. Giving them space and opportunity to build a strong community is as vital for satellite towns in Scandinavia now, as it was when they were built.

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


5.1 Case Studies

Kvarterloft, Copenhagen One of the main focuses of the project was to regenerate communities through residents’ involvement. The project used social media and interactive tools to get residents involved and attempting to solve problems in different areas. The project relied heavily on residents’ commitment, and was praised for being including with those who volunteered. However, many marginalized groups did not participate and were left on the sideline. Issues like language barrieres and not enough knowledge of how to use social and interactive media tools excluded many groups. The project covered different parts of the city, with different strategies and objectives, some more successful than others. One issue that became apparent underway was that successful strategies had to be changed through the project, as previously marginalized groups left the community. FIG. 76 JDS Architects Maritime Youth House (N.A.)

FIG. 77 Benny Schytte, Vollsmose (2005)

FIG. 78 Kobenhavns Kommune, Lovlig Graffittimur (N.A.)


Ekostaden Augustenborg, Malmo Augustenborg had the highest level of unemployment in Sweden after the decline of heavy industries in the 80’s. The area had a high turnover of tenancies, and the landscaping as well as the buildings desperately needed repairing. The regeneration project involved the residents, letting them bring their ideas and employing local residents to carry out the project. The project has greatly improved the area, creating a sustainable community that also integrates new residents.

FIG. 79 Le Moniteur, Augustenborg Canal (2009)

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


6.0 Appendix Land Use

KM 0

FIG. 80 Authors Own, Lan Use (2011)

0.2

Allotment Garden Igelb채cken Reserve Public Green, Open Space Residential Education Religious Commercial Industrial Public


Ownership in Rinkeby

FIG. 81 Svenska Bost채der, Housing and Tenancy Associations (2006)

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


References Images Fig. 1 Bing Maps, Stockholm, Satellite 1, 2011 [online] http://www.bing.com/maps/default.aspx?q=stockholm&mkt=enGB&FORM=BYFD (Accessed 1.11.2011)

Fig. 9 Stockholm Stad, Naturreservat, N.A. [online] http://www.stockholm.se/KlimatMiljo/Natur-och-parker/Naturreservat-iStockholms-stad/ (Accessed 5.12.2011)

Fig. 2 Bing Maps, Stockholm, Satellite 2, 2011 [online] http://www.bing.com/maps/default.aspx?q=stockholm&mkt=enGB&FORM=BYFD (Accessed 1.11.2011)

Fig. 10 Stockholm Stad, Igelbäckens Kulturreservat, N.A. [online] Available at http://www.stockholm.se/KlimatMiljo/Natur-och-parker/ Naturreservat-i-Stockholms-stad/ (Accessed 5.12.2011)

Fig. 3 Authors Own, Stockholm County, 2011

Fig. 11 In Stockholm, Stockholm City Bikes, N.A. [online] Available at http://www.instockholm.net/StockholmCityBike (Accessed 5.12.2011)

Fig. 4 Stockholm Summer School, StockholmWaterfront, N.A. [online] http://www.stockholmsummerschool.se/ (Accessed 29.11.2011) Fig. 5 Moving Cities.Org, Stockholm Snapshots part III, 2009 [online] http://movingcities.org/movingmemos/stockholm-snapshots-part-3/ (Accessed 29.11.2011)

Fig. 12 Patrick Lönnberg, Kista Gård, N.A. [online] http://hem.bredband.net/lonpat/jarvagardar/kista.html (Accessed 5.12.2011)

Fig. 6 Moving Cities.Org Stockholm Snapshots part 1, 2009 [online] http://movingcities.org/movingmemos/stockholm-snapshots-part-4/ (Accessed 1.12.2011)

Fig. 13 Stockholm Stad, Igelbäcken Kulturrerservat 2, N.A. [online] Available at http://www.stockholm.se/KlimatMiljo/Natur-och-parker/ Naturreservat-i-Stockholms-stad/ (Accessed 5.12.2011)

Fig. 6 Moving Cities.Org Stockholm Snapshots part 1, 2009 [online] http://movingcities.org/movingmemos/stockholm-snapshots-part-4/ (Accessed 1.12.2011)

Fig. 14 Jsson, Järvafeltet, 2009 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/23732186 (Accessed 5.12.2011)

Fig. 7 Tomohomo, No Title, 2011 [online] http://tomohomo.blogg.se/2011/march/miljon.html (Accessed 1.12.2011)

Fig. 15 Authors Own, Järvakilen with surrounding Satellite Towns, 2011

Fig. 8 Bert Relan, Stockholm, 2009 [online] http://www.fotocommunity.com/pc/pc/display/18933874 (Accessed 1.12.2011)

Fig. 16 My Life As A Swede, Mijlonprogrammet, N.A. [online] http://swedishnic.blogspot.com/2008/10/straight-outta-hammerkullen.html (Accessed 5.12.2011) Fig. 17 Silkeborgs Samhällighet, Nära till Naturen, 2011 [online] http://www.silkeborg.se/silkeborg/index.php?option=com_content&view=arti cle&id=67&Itemid=71&05acbaade73b2353795643c4289cafb0=f6e6cfec8d842a92f46fa c28c85f1d6c (Accessed 5.12.2011)

Fig. 19 Authors Own, Recreation in and around Järva, 2011 Fig. 20 Marjo-Riitta Oksanen, Motorcrossbana i Akalla, 2008 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/13319098 (Accessed 7.12.2011) Fig. 21 Yangchenkai, Fotball Field in Kista, 2007 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/4666565 (Accessed 10.12.2011) Fig. 22 Silkeborgs Sanhällighet, Nära till Naturen 2, 2011 [online] http://www.silkeborg.se/silkeborg/index.php?option=com_content&vi ew=article&id=67&Itemid=71&05acbaade73b2353795643c4289cafb0=f6e6cfe c8d842a92f46fac28c85f1d6c (Accessed 7.12.2011) Fig. 23 Thomas Järrel, No Title, 2008 [online] http://www8.idrottonline.se/KorpforeningGreenTeeClub-Korpen/ Foreningen/Kista-Golf/ (Accessed 9.12.2011) Fig. 24 Stockholms Stad, Granholmens Naturträdgårdsförening, 2011 [online] http://www.stockholm.se/-/Serviceenhetsdetaljer/?enhet=b7fa897d22 574a38afa3511bd495bb26 (Accessed 9.12.2011) Fig. 25 Sara Jeswani, No Title, 2011 [online] http://blogs.sweden.se/sustainability/tag/hasta-gard/ (Accessed 9.12.2011) Fig. 26 Stockholm Stad, Igelbäcken Kulturreservat Biotopkarta, 1999 [online] Available at http://www.stockholm.se/KlimatMiljo/Natur-och-parker/ Naturreservat-i-Stockholms-stad/ (Accessed 1.12.2011) Fig. 27 Olli Manninnen, Valsjoberget, 2011 [online] http://naturvernforbundet.no/hedmark/skogvern-i-hedmark/ category2279.html (Accessed 9.12.2011)


Fig. 28 County Board of Sweden, No Title, N.A. [online] http://www.nationalstadsparken.se/default.aspx?id=4422&ptid=0 (Accessed 2.12.2011) Fig. 29 Stockholm Stad, Underlagskatarta fär grundvattenskydd, 1997 [online] Available at http://kartor.stockholm.se/bios/dpwebmap/cust_sth/expl/ geokarta/DPWebMap.html (Accessed 1.12.2011) Fig. 30 Silkeborgs Samhällighet, No Title, 2011 [online] http://www.silkeborg.se/silkeborg/index.php?option=com_content&vi ew=article&id=67&Itemid=71&05acbaade73b2353795643c4289cafb0=f6e6cfe c8d842a92f46fac28c85f1d6c (Accessed 1.12.2011) Fig. 31 UFredr, Hästa Gård, 2011 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/35694995 (Accessed 1.12.2011)

Fig. 35 Dan Hansson, No Title, 2008 [online] http://www.fria.nu/artikel/75433 (Accessed 27.11.2011) Fig. 36 Hollger Ellgard, Tensta, 1971 [online] http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fil:Tensta_1971b.jpg (Accessed 27.11.2011) Fig. 37 Marjo-Riitta Oksanen, Igelbäcken, N.A. [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/20916256 (Accessed 27.11.2011) Fig. 38 Bellman & Partners, Nettovägen 11, N.A. [online]http://www.bellmanpartners.se/sv/Content.mvc/Index/3QQQLGHT1TKS2K5R?ad dress=objekt&type=lokal (Accessed 10.12.2011) Fig. 39 Authors Own, Rinkeby and Kista, 2011

Fig. 52. autostopowicz70, No Title, 2010 [online] . http://www.panoramio.com/photo/42645479 (Accessed 8.12.2011) Fig. 53. Jsson, Winter in Rinkeby, 2010 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/30733655 (Accessed 8.12.2011)

Fig. 42. Authors Own, Background, 2011

Fig. 55. Authors Own, Access by Public Transport, 2011

Fig. . Authors Own, Unemployment Among Women, 2011

Fig. 56. Authors Own, Access by Public Transport, 2011

Fig. . Authors Own, Unemployment Among Men, 2011

Fig. 57. autostopowicz70, No Title, 2010 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/42606892 (Accessed 8.12.2011)

Fig. 45. Authors Own, Rinkeby Public Green Space, 2011 Fig. 46. Authors Own, Rinkeby Public Green Space and Criminal Activity, 2011

Fig. 35 Dan Hansson, No Title, 2008 [online] http://www.fria.nu/artikel/75433 (Accessed 27.11.2011) Fig. 36 Hollger Ellgard, Tensta, 1971 [online] http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fil:Tensta_1971b.jpg (Accessed 27.11.2011)

Fig. 51. Authors Own, Hard Landscaping, Circulation and Pakring with Criminal Activity, 2011

Fig. 41. Authors Own, Age Demographics, 2011

Fig. 32 Authors Own, Land Use, 2011

Fig. 34 Grönlingen I Igelbäcken, Solnedgang Över Igelbäcken, 2011 [online] http://gronlingen.wordpress.com/2011/06/13/solnedgang-overigelbacken/ (Accessed 27.11.2011)

Fig. 50. Authors Own, Hard Landscaping, Circulation and Parking, 2011

Fig. 54. autostopowicz70, No Title, 2010 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/43343624 (Accessed 8.12.2011)

Fig. 40 Authors Own, Rinkeby and Kista Statistics, 2011 Fig. 33 Bertil Eriksson, Flygfoto Over Husby, 2009 [online] http://www.e24.se/pengar/bostad/stora-hyreshojningar-nar-husbyrenoveras_1393135.e24 (Accessed 27.11.2011)

Fig. 49. autostopowicz70, Autumn in Rinkeby, 2011 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/61193405 (Accessed 3.12.2011)

Fig. 47. autostopowicz70, Rinkeby Summer, 2011 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/56565172 (Accessed 3.12.2011) Fig. 48. autostopowicz70, Afternoon, 2011 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/59668853 (Accessed 3.12.2011)

Fig. 58. Patrick Sonestad, Rinkeby, N.A. [online] http://slottet.mine.nu/~bollman/tunnelbana/bla/rinkeby.html (Accessed 8.12.2011) Fig. 59. Metro map pictures.blogspot, Stockholm Underground Map, N.A. [online] http://metro-map-pictures.blogspot.com/2011/08/stockholmtunnelbana-map-pictures.html (Accessed 8.12.2011)

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture


Fig. 60. Authors Own, Bridges and Underpasses, 2011 Fig. 61. Authors Own, Bridges and Underpasses with Criminal Activity, 2011 Fig. 62 wjywjy, j채rva leaving rinkeby, 2007 [online] http://www.flickr.com/photos/xjy/474438027/sizes/m/in/photostream/ (Accessed 8.12.2011) Fig 63. autostopowicz70, No Title, 2011 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/56565112 (Accessed 8.12.2011)

Fig. 68 autostopowicz70, Rinkeby Torg, 2011 [online] http://www.panoramio.com/photo/56565105 (Accessed 1.12.2011) Fig. 69 Stockholm Stad, Conceptual ideas, 2009 [online] Accessed through http://www.jarvadialogen.se/Nyheter/Jarvalyftet-inomSvenska-Bostader/ (Accessed 10.11.2011) Fig. 70 Authors Own, Conceptual Masterplan, 2011 Fig. 71 Authors Own, Extrusion, 2011

Fig 64. Benkt Eurelius, Rinkebystr책ket i dag, N.A. [online] http://www.yimby.se/tag/rinkeby (Accessed 8.12.2011)

Fig. 72 Authors Own, Spread Grid, 2011 Fig. 73 Authors Own, Paths and Sepration, 2011

Fig 65. Oggyg, No Title, N.A. [online] http://oggyg.blogg.se/2009/december/ (Accessed 7.12.2011)

Fig. 74 Authors Own, Claiming the Landscape, 2011 Fig. 75 Authors Own, Mixed Use rinkeby Torg, 2011

Fig 65. Oggyg, No Title, N.A. [online] http://oggyg.blogg.se/2009/december/ (Accessed 7.12.2011)

Fig. 66 Bing Maps, Rinkeby Birds Eye View, 2011 [online] Available at http://www.bing.com/maps/?FORM=Z9LH4#JnE9LnJpb mtlYnklN2Vzc3QuMCU3ZXBnLjEmYmI9NTUuMjA2ODc3MDEwNjI3NSU3ZTEx LjI5MTIyODUzMTg3NSU3ZTQ3Ljk5MzM1MDYzMDQ3MzklN2UtMTAuMzA3OD kyNTYxODc1 (Accessed 5.12.2011) Fig. 67 Carsten Malmberg, No Title, N.A. [online] http://www.verfotosde.org/suecia/imagenes.php?Jakobsberg&id=459 (Accessed 1.12.2011)

FIG 76. redchalkcketch, JDS Architects Maritime Youth House, N.A. [online image] http://redchalksketch.wordpress.com/2011/04/10/maritime-youthhouse-denmark-jds-architects/ (Accessed 18.11.2011) FIG 77. Benny Schytte, Vollsmose, 2005 [online image] http://www.sbi.dk/byudvikling/byfornyelse/midtvejsstatus-for-femkvarterloft/kvarterloft-oget-beskeftigelse-og-mindre-kriminalitet-i-vollsmose/ (Accessed 18.11.2011) FIG 78. Kobenhavns Kommune, Lovlig Graffittimur, N.A. [online image] http://www.friforgraffiti.dk/default.asp?ID=50010300061 (Accessed 18.11.2011)

FIG 79. Le Moniteur, Augustenborg Canal, 2009 [online image] http://www.lemoniteur.fr/191-territoire/article/etudes-decas/600273-concevoir-un-ecoquartier-l-exemple-d-augustenborg (Accessed 18.11.2011) Fig. 80 Authors Own, Land Use, 2011 Fig 81 Svenska Bost채der, Housing and Tenancy Associations 2006 [online] Available at http://www.jarvadialogen.se/Global/Kartor%20och%20 historik/rinkeby_gar.pdf (Accessed 10.12.2011)


Web Sites Familjbostäder web site (2011) Nya Rinkebystråket[www document] (Accessed 25.11.2011) http://www.familjebostader.com/Om-oss/Vara-omraden/Rinkebystraket/ Föreningen Malaren c/o Enköpings Kommun web site (2011) Upplev Malaren [www document] (Accessed 13.12.2011) http://www.malaren.com/files/UpplevMalaren_2010.pdf NE web site (2011) Miljonprogrammet[www document] (Accessed 27.11.2011) http://www.ne.se/miljonprogrammet Rinkeby Centrum Website (2011) Mångfaldens centrum med internationell atmosfär[www document] (Accessed 20.11.2011) http://www.rinkebycentrum.com/web/Bredang_2.aspx StockholmGamlaStan web site (2011) Stockholms Grundande [www document] (Accessed 4.12.2011) http://www.stockholmgamlastan.se/lang_sv/historia/grundandet.php Stockholms Stad web site (2011) Miljömiljarden [www document] (Accessed 2.12.2011) http://www.stockholm.se/miljomiljarden Stockholm Stad web site (2011) Naturreservat i Stockholm Stad [Online] (Accessed 10.11.2011) http://www.stockholm.se/KlimatMiljo/Natur-och-parker/Naturreservat-iStockholms-stad/

Bibliography Sveriges Meteorologiska och hydrologiska Institut web site (2011) Klimatinformation för Avrinningsområden [www document] (Accessed 1.12.2011) http://www.smhi.se/klimatdata/klimatscenarier/klimatanalyser/ Klimatinformation-huvudavrinningsomraden#f=1;p=;i=start;kl=t_;ti=ar_; SvD Näringsliv web site (2011) Miljardrustning- Miljonprogrammet måste renoveras [www document] (Accessed 1.12.2011) http://www.svd.se/naringsliv/miljardrustning-miljonprogrammet-masterenoveras_5186815.svd

Andersson, M., Gäfvert, R., Henriksson, S., Johansson, T., Lundevall, P., Siljestam, P. (2009) Vision Järva 2030 Järvalyftet, Statsledningskontoret Malm, U./Malm Kommunikation AB (2006) Trygghet och socialt liv i Rinkeby Svenska Bostäder Malm, U./Malm Kommunikation AB (2009) Trygghet och socialt liv i Rinkeby Svenska Bostäder

SvD OPINION web site (2011) Förnyelse blev förodelse, [www document] (Accessed 5.12.2011) http://www.svd.se/opinion/brannpunkt/fornyelse-blev-forodelse_5907197.svd Svenska Bostäder web site (2011) Järvadialogen, Om Rinkeby [www document] (Accessed 3.12.2011) http://www.jarvadialogen.se/Pa-gang1/Rinkeby/Om-Rinkeby/ Svenska Bostäder web site (2011) Järvadialogen, Järvalyftet inom Svenska Bostäder [www document] (Accessed 3.12.2011) http://www.jarvadialogen.se/Nyheter/Jarvalyftet-inom-Svenska-Bostader/ Visit Stockholm web site (2011) Gamla Stan, [www document] (Accessed 1.12.2011) http://www.visitstockholm.com/en/To-Do/Attractions/gamla-stan/1856

Yasmin Maria Khan Writtle School of Design BSc Landscape Architecture

Feasability Study  

FEasability Study of Rinkeby, Stockholm

Feasability Study  

FEasability Study of Rinkeby, Stockholm

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