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2008 sabv 13 sNm∆ 1429 P.-A∆¬ 7 1183 taSw 30

Kp≠m \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂X- n¬ Aew-`m-ha- c- pXv kwÿm-\Øv Kp≠m A{I-aß - ƒ s]cp-IpIbpw km[mc-W° - m-cpsS sskzc-Po-hnXw Zpk-la- m-hp-Ibpw sNbvXkm-lN - c- y-ßf - n¬ \n∂mWv Kp≠m {]h¿Ø-\ß - sf I¿i\-ambn t\cn-Sp-∂-Xn\v \S-]-Sn-Iƒ D≠m-h-W-sa∂ Bhiyw kw-ÿm-\Øv i‡-am-bX - v. ap≥ bp Un F^vv k¿°m¿ \S-∏m-°n-bn-cp∂ Kp≠m Hm¿Un-\≥kv d±m-°s∏-Sp-∂-Xn-\p≈ kml-Ncyw CSXp-ap-∂Wn k¿°m¿ krjvSn®Xv cmjv{Sob hnhm-Zß - ƒ°v hgn-sbmcp°n-bn-cp∂p. F∂m¬ bp Un F^v k¿°m¿ \S-∏m-°nb Hm¿Un\≥knse A]m-I-X-Iƒ Hgnhm-°p-∂-Xn-\mWv CØcsamcp kao-]\w X߃ kzoI-cn-®s- X∂v hni-ZoI-cn-®mWv CSXp-ap-∂Wn k¿°m¿ kwÿm-\Øv Kp≠m\nbaw \S∏m-°n-bX - .v kwÿm-\Øv \S-∏m-°nb Kp≠m \nb-aØ - ns‚ Ncn{X ]›m-Øew C{Xbpw hni-Za- m°nbXv kwÿm\Øv Kp≠m \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂X - n¬ s]meokv hogvN hcp-Øn-sb∂ s]meokv hIp-∏ns‚ Xs∂ Npa-Xe - b - p≈ a{¥n Ign™ Znhkw hy‡-am-°nb kml-Nc- y-Øn-emWv. kwÿm-\sØ {Ia-k-am-[m\ \ne N¿® sNøm≥ tN¿∂ D∂X s]meokv DtZym-Kÿ - c- psS tbmK-Øn\p tijamWv Kp≠m \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂X - n¬ s]meokv DtZym-Kÿ - c- psS `mKØv hngvN kw`-hn-®X - mbn B`y-¥c a{¥n tImSn-tbcn _me-Ir-jvW≥ A`n-{]m-b-s∏-´-Xv. s]meokv BIv‰nse 15 hIp∏v {]Imcw Pn√m IeIvSdpsS A\p-aXn Ah-iy-an-√msX Xs∂ Hcp Kp≠ Pn√bn¬ {]thin°p-∂Xv XS-bm\pw AdÃv sNøm\pw sF Pn am¿°pw Pn√m s]meokv kp{]-≠av m¿°pw A[n-Im-cap≈ Imcyw D∂X DtZymK-ÿ¿ hnkva-cn-°m≥ ]mSns√∂ D]-tZ-i\n¿tZ-ihpw kwÿm\ B`y-¥-c-a{¥n \evIn-bn-´p≠v. Ie-ISv ¿am-cpsS A\p-aX - n°v ImØp-\nev°msX \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂X - n-\p≈ Ah-Imiw D∂X s]meokv DtZymK-ÿ¿°p-s≠∂pw a{¥n hy‡-am-°nbn´p≠v. kwÿm\ B`y¥-ca- {¥n ]c-ky-am-bn-Øs∂ \S-Ønb Cu A`n{]m-b-{]-I-S-\-ßsf XpS¿∂v hy‡-am-hp∂ hkvXpX kwÿm-\sØ Kp≠m kwL-ßsf Aa¿® sNøp-∂X - n\v I¿i\amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°p∂ Imcy-Øn¬ kwÿm-\- s]meoknse Hcp sNdp-hn-`m-KØ - n-s\-¶nepw Xmev]c- y-Ip-dh - p-s≠-∂m-W.v kwÿm-\Øv Kp≠m \nbaw \S-∏m-°n-bt- i-jhpw Kp≠m {]h¿Ø-\ß - f - n¬ Imcy-amb Ipdhv A\p-`h - s- ∏-´n-´n-√. Nne Pn√-If - n¬ GXm\pw Kp≠Isf Kp≠m hncp≤ \nb-a{- ]-Imcw IÃ-Un-bn-se-Sp-°p-Iam-{X-amWv s]meokns‚ `mK-Øp-\n∂p≠mb \S]Sn. kwÿm-\Øv h¿[n-®p-hc - p∂ Kp≠m {]h¿Ø-\ß - sf {]Xn-tcm-[n-°p-∂X - n\pw Aa¿® sNøp-∂X - n\pw i‡-amb \nb-aß - f - n-√m-ØX - mWv {][m\ XS- s- a∂ A`n-{]m-bß - ƒ kwÿm-\sØ \nb-a-]m-e-I-cn¬ i‡-am-bn-cp-∂p. kwÿm-\Øv Kp≠m \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂X - n¬ Cu A - `- n{]m-bß - f - pw- i-‡a- mb kzm[o\w sNep-Øn-bn-´p-s≠-∂mWv hkvXp-X. I¿i-\-amb \nb-aw -D-≠m-bn´pw Cu \nbaw ]men-°s- ∏-Sp-∂n-s√-¶n¬ \nb-a] - m-e\w Dd-∏m-°p-∂X - n\v k¿°m-cn¬ \n∂v hninjym kwÿm\ B`y-¥c a{¥nbn¬ \n∂p-Xs∂ I¿i-\a- mb \S-]S- n-Iƒ D≠m-th-≠Xp≠v. kwÿm-\Øv ap≥ Ime-ßf - nepw Ct∏mgpw ]pd-Øph-∂p-sIm≠ncn-°p∂ ]e At[mt-emI {]h¿Ø-\ß - fp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Imcy-ß-fnepw GXm\pw s]meokv DtZym-Kÿ - c - psS klmb kl-Ic - W - ß - ƒ At[m-eI - °m¿°pw X´n∏v kwL-߃°pw e`n-®n-cp-∂X - mb hna¿i߃ Db-cp-∂p-≠v. ]e Xe-ß-fn-ep≈ hna¿i-߃ Db¿∂mepw Cu Zni-bn¬ At\z-jW - ß - ƒ D≠m-Im-dns√-∂X - mWv bmYm¿Yyw. F∂m¬ kwÿm-\Øv Kp≠m \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂X - n¬ s]meokv Xmev]cyw ImWn-°p-∂n-s√∂ hna¿i-ap-∂b - n® kwÿm\ B`y-¥c hIp∏v a{¥n Xs∂ Kp≠m {]h¿Ø\w Aa¿® sNøm≥ s]meokv DtZym-Kÿ - ¿ kzoI-cn°p∂ \S-]S- n-Iƒ Du¿Pn-Xam-°p-∂X - n\p Fkv ]n am¿°pw AXn\p apI-fn-ep≈ DtZym-Kÿ - ¿°pw I¿i\ \n¿tZiw \evInbXv kzmK-Xm¿l-amb \S-]S- n-bm-W.v Kp≠m BIv‰v {]Im-c-ap≈ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ Xzcn-X-s∏-Sp-Øp∂Xn\p≈ \n¿tZiw \evInbXpw kzmK-Xm¿l-amWv F∂m¬ ab°pacp∂v IS-Øv, NmcmbwI-SØv, aW¬ ISØv, kv]ncn‰v ISØv ,lhme CS-]mSv F∂nh XS-bp-∂X - n\v ap¥nb ]cn-KW - \ \evIn-bm¬ kwÿm-\sØ Kp≠m {]h¿Ø\-ßsf hen-sbmcf-hp-hsc {]Xn-tcm-[n°m≥ Ignbpw. kwÿm-\Øv Kp≠m \nbaw I¿i-\-ambn \S-∏m°p-∂-Xn\v s]meokn\v FsX-¶nepw coXn-bn-ep≈ cmjv{Sob CSs]-Se - p-Iƒ XS- a- m-hp-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ B XSkw Hgnhm-°p-∂X - n\pw k¿°m¿ B¿Phw ImWn-°Ww.

]e-Xn¬ NneXv

ao\-am-k-Ønse kqcy≥ taS-®q-Sn¬ Hm¿an°m≥, ao\-am-k-Ønse kqcy≥ F∂ t]cn¬ Hcp Ne-®n-{X-ap-≠v. Adp-]Ø - n-tbgv h¿jw apºv \S∂ Iøq¿ ka-ca- mWv Cu kn\n-ab - psS CXn-hr-Øw. Imk¿t°mSv Xmeq-°n-epƒs∏´ Iøq¿ {Kma-Ønse I¿j-I¿ P∑n-Xz-Øns∂-Xnsc kacw sNbvXp. {_n´ojv s]meokv Incm-X-amb a¿Z\-ßfpw AdÃpw XpS¿∂p. CXn-s∂-Xnsc Bbn-c-Øn-sØm≈m-bn-cØn \m¬]-Øn-sbm∂v am¿®v Ccp-]-Øn-sb-´n\v Iøqcn¬ {]I-S\w \S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp∂ I¿j-I¿ kp∫-cmb F∂ s]meo-kp-Im-c-\p-ambn G‰p-ap-´n. Poh-c-£m¿Yw kp∫-cmb ]pg-bn-te°v NmSn-sb-¶nepw apßn-a-cn-®p.- I-øq¿ {Kma-Øn¬ `oI-c-amb s]meo-kv th´bpw _em-’w-Khpw XpS¿kw-`-h-ßfmbn.- ]n-Sn-°-s∏-´-h-cpsS t]cn¬ s]meokv tIsk-Sp-Øp. hnNm-cW ]q¿Øn-bm-b-t∏mƒ \mep-t]¿°v h[-in-£. -I¿jI-cmb A∏p, A_q-_-°¿, Nncp-I-≠≥, Ip™ºp \mb¿ F∂n-hsc Bbn-cØ - n-sØm-≈m-bn-cØ - n-\m¬∏-Øn-aq∂v am¿®v Ccp-]Øn H≥]-Xn\v IÆq¿ Pbn-en¬ Xq°n-s°m-∂p.

s]mcpƒ Hcp IpSpw-_-Ønse Xf¿®bpw hf¿®bpw B IpSpw-_Ø - nse IpSpw-_n-\n-bn-emWv \n£n-]vXa - m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv. ˛ tjIvkv]n-b¿

I≈kzm-an-am-cp-sSbpw sIm≈-∏-cn-j-I-fp-sS-bpw- kz¥w \mSv hr

µm-Im-cm´v Nn√-d° - m-cn-b√ - . kn ]n Fw t]mfn‰v _yqtdm saº-dm-W-h¿. kn ]n Fw AJn-te¥ym sk{I-´dn {]Imiv Imcm-´ns‚ `mcy-bm-Wv. F≥ Un Sn hnbpsS Aa-c-°mcmb {]Wbvtdmbn-bp-sSbpw At±-lØ - ns‚ `mcy cm[nI tdmbn-bp-sSbpw D‰-_‘ - p-hm-W.v hrµ-bp-sS kz¥w ktlm-Z-cn-bmWv cm[n-Itdm-bv. IqSmsX tI{µw `cn-°p∂ bp ]n F k¿°m-cns\ "K¨t_m´v Untπm-a-knbpw' "Imc‰v B≥Uv ÃnIv t]mfn-knbpw' ka¿Yambn ka-\z-bn-∏n-®p-sIm≠v Xmßn-\n¿Øp∂ {]apJ CS-Xp-]-£-I-£n-bpsS N¶q-‰-ap≈ h\n-Xm-t\-Xm-hm-W-h¿. H∂p-c≠p h¿jw apºv Ah¿ DØ- t c¥y tI{µo- I - c n®v {]h¿Øn-°p-∂, tImSn-I-fpsS A[n-]-\mb Hcp kzman-s°-Xnsc ap≥]n≥ t\m°msX ]S∏p-d∏v \S-Øn. Cu kzman-s°-Xnsc hrµ-bpsSbpw Iq´-cp-sSbpw Btcm-]Ww H´pw \n mc-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. tbmKm-Nm-cy-\m-bmWv Adn-bs∏-Sp-∂-sX-¶nepw ssek≥kn-√mØ At±l-Øns‚ Huj-[-\n¿am-W-im-e-bn¬ \n∂v P\-߃°v sImSp-°p∂ acp-∂p-I-fn¬ a\pjy-cpsS Aÿn-s∏mSn btYjvSw D]-tbm-Kn°p-∂p-s≠-∂m-bn-cp∂p hrµ-bpsS sXfn-hp-kln-Xa - p≈ Btcm-]W - w. CXp-tI´v DØ-tc¥y apgp-h≥ Cf-In-a-dn™p. Aÿn-°-jvW-߃ Ac®v acp-∂n¬ tN¿°p∂ Cu "tbmK-t{i-jvTs\' Xnsc-b√, km£m¬ hrµm-Im-cm-´n-s\-Xnsc! F¥n\v apem-bw-knwKv bmZhpw emep-{]-kmZv bmZhpw hsc Cu tbmKm-Nm-cys\ A\p-Iq-en®v i‡ambn cwK-sØ-Øn. hmZn {]Xn-bm-bn. hrµ H‰-s∏-´p. kz¥w ]m¿´n-bmb kn ]n Fw t]mepw hrµ Db¿Ønb {]iv\Ø - n¬ XWp∏≥ \bw kzoI-cn-®p. _m_m-cmw-tZhv F∂ B kzman C∂v tZio-bh - m-cn-II - f - p-sSbS°w kNn-{X-te-J\ - ß - f - nepw {]i-kvXn-°p-dn-∏p-Ifnepw ]√v apgp-h≥ ImWn®p Nncn-®p-\n-ev°pI-bm-W.v ae-bmfw I≠ AXp-ey-\S- ∑ - m-cn-sem-cm-fmb Xne-I≥ CubnsS Hcp hmcn-I-bv°-\p-h-Zn® A`n-ap-JØ - n¬ tImgn-t°mSv Pn√-bnse Imc¥q¿ tI{µo-Ic - n-®p≈ Hcp ]pXp-kzm-an-sb-°pdn®v Kuc-ha - p≈ Hcp Btcm-]Ww D∂-bn-®ncp-∂p. "]q¿hm-{ia'Øn¬ kp\n¬ Ft∂m at‰m t]cp-≠m-bn-cp∂ Cu "bph-kzman' Ipd®p-Imew apºv \me©v kn\n-aIƒ ]nSn-®n-cp∂p. kn\n-a-I-sfms° F´p-\n-e-bn¬ s]m´nb-t∏mƒ Xne-I\v In´n-bXv apgp-h≥ h≠ns®°v! ]ns∂ ]Xnhv "k∂ym-k-dq-´n-te-°v, lnam-eb - Ø - n-te°v Hcp bm{X! Aev]I - mew Ign™v cp{Zm£ `kva hn`q-jn-X-\mbn P∑{Km-a-Øn¬ s]mßp-∂p. sNdnb Hcm-{iaw ÿm]n-°p-∂p. a°sf kvIqfn-e-b-°msX Kpcp-Ip-e-hn-Zym-`ymkw \evIp-∂p. PohnXw Xs∂-bmWv kn\n-asb sh√p∂ kn\n-asb∂v sXfn-bn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bmWv Cu

kn\n-am-]-cn-XymKn Ct∏mƒ. {_“-Ncyw F∂ \mSy-Øns‚ DS-bm-SI - ƒ Ducn-sb-dn-bm≥ CS-bv°nsS sIm®n-bnse Hcp A`n-km-cn-Im-kZ- \w kµ¿in-®n-cp∂ ap≥ i_-cn-a-e-X-{¥nsb tIc-fo-b¿ ad-∂p-Im-Wn√. HSp-hn¬ am\y-cmb hy‡n-If - S- ß - p∂ Hcp IΩnj\p apºn¬ At±lw a\ v Xpd∂p; X\n°v X{¥hpw a{¥hpw Ip{¥-hp-sam∂pw Adn-bn-√. AsXm-∂p-sam´v ]Tn-®n-´p-an-√. GXmbmepw "sshin- I - X {¥w' ]Tn- ° m- \ mWv

dn®pw \qdp-I-W-°n\v X´m-∑m¿ ]Wn-sb-Sp°p∂ kz¿Wm-`-c-W-\n¿am-W-im-e-sb-°pdn®pw ]s≠ms° am[y-a-߃ dnt∏m¿´v sNbvX-Xm-Wv. ]t£, ]≠sØbpw C∂sØbpw tI{µ-˛k - w-ÿm\ a{¥n-k` - I - f - nse Nne {]ap-J¿ ]mZ-]qP sNøp∂ ]p´-]¿Ønbnse ]c-am-[n-Im-cn°v F¥v kw`-hn-°m≥? Ign™ Znhkw bqØv tIm¨{K-kp-Im¿ im¥n-Xocw KÃv lukv B{I-an-°p-∂Xv Snhnbn¬ I≠n-cp-∂p. Cµn-cm-Km‘n apX¬ \c-

bph]£w F Fw jn\mkv BƒssZ-h-˛-kzm-an-`-‡-cn¬ hen-sbmcp iX-am\w a[y-˛-D-]-cnh¿K-ßf - n¬ \n∂p-≈h - c - t - {X. a[y-h¿K-Øns‚ kl-Pa - mb Ac£n-XX - z-t_m-[a - m-tWm CXn\p ]n∂n¬? ]pdsa hfsc ]cn-jvIrX-cmbn \S-°p-tºmgpw D≈n¬ bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I-Xz-Øn-s‚bpw A‘-hn-izm-k-Øn-s‚bpw tImS-a™v a[y-h¿K-a-\- n¬ ASn™p-Iq-Sn-b-Xp-sIm-≠m-Iptam CXv?]n Sn Ip™p-ap-l-Ω-Zns‚ kn\na t]mepw tXß Fdn™pS®pw ]qP \S-Ønbpw Cd-ßp∂ Ime-at√ CXv? sska¨{_nt´m hmin-tbmsS Xma-kn-°m≥ Xm¬]cyw {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂-Xp-h-sc, Ign™ Ac-\q-‰m-≠mbn Fw F¬ F tlmÃ-ense ]Xn-aq∂mw \º¿ apdn Hgn-™p-InS-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂nt√? sIm®n-bn¬ ]mØpw ]Xp-ßnbpw t]mbsX∂v At±lw ]d-™n-√. e£-°W - ° - n\p hcp∂ `‡-cpsS `mKyw! Ct∏mƒ Fd-Wm-Ip-fsØ Ieq-cn¬ kt¥mjv am[-h≥ F∂ "kzman Bfl-ssN-X\y' ÿm]n® "im¥n- X oc'sa∂ ÿe- a mWv Aim- ¥ n- b psS Hmf- ß ƒ D≠m- ° p- ∂ - X v . \m´n¬ k¿∆-km-[m-c-W-am-bp≈ t]cp-I-fp≠m-bn-cp∂ Cu ]pXp-kzm-an-am-scms° kzman∏´w sI´p-tºmƒ kwkvIr-X] - Z- m-he - n-If - n¬ "`‡n hgn-s™m-gp-Ip∂' s\Sp-¶≥ t]cp-Ifn-Sp-∂X - n¬ Xs∂-bp≠v alm-Im-]S- yw. amXmA-ar-Xm-\-µ-abo "tZhn'bpsStbm _m_m cmw"tZhn's‚tbm Iuam-c-Ønepw buh-\Øn-ep-ap≈ t]cp-Iƒ \m´n¬ km¿h-{Xn-Iamb t]cp-I-fm-bn-cp-∂p. t]cp-am-‰n-b-t∏mƒ tZho-˛t- Zh ]cn-thjw c≠p-t]¿°pw H∂n-®pIn-´n. ]p´-]¿Øn-bn¬ \S-°p∂ efn-X-kz-`mh-ap≈ amPn-°p-Iƒ ImWm≥ P\-e-£-ßfmWv Atßm´v {]h-ln-°p-∂-Xv. AhnsS \S∂ _me-]o-U-\-ß-sf-°p-dn®pw sXfn-bn°-s∏-SmsX t]mb sIme-]m-X-I-ß-sf-°p-

knw-l-dmhp hsc Xmtem-en®p sIm≠p \S∂n-cp∂ N{µ-kzman F∂ s]cnb kzman°p ap≥]n¬ kt¥m-jvam-[-h≥ shdpw XrW-amsW∂v bqØv tIm¨{K-kp-Im¿ Bth-iØ - na¿∏n¬ ad-∂p-t]mtbm? Nmcn-‰n-bmWv C°q-´c - p-sS-sbms° h{Pm-bp[w. AsXmcp Kw`o-c-amb ad-bm-Wv. Cu ad IpØn-s∏m-fn-°m≥ Ct∂-hsc Bcpw ss[cys∏-´n-´n-√. kp\man h∂v DSp-Xp-Wn-t]mepw \jvS-s∏´ Ht´sd ]mh-s∏-´-h¿°v amXm-Aar-Xm-\-µ-abn hoSp-Iƒ \n¿an-®p-sIm-Sp-Øp. \√ Imcyw. shdpw km[m-cW a\pjykv{Xobm-bX - p-sIm≠v kp\man hcp∂ Imcyw ap≥Iq´n ]d-bm≥ Ah¿ "hn´p-t]mbn'. As√¶n¬ B cm£-k-Øn-c-am-e-bpsS Bk-∂mK-a\ - s - Ø-∏‰n ad-∂p-t]m-bn. adhn a\p-jy-kl-P-am-W-t√m. B{‘-bnse hc≠ {Kma-ßfn¬ tImSn-°-W-°n\v cq] apS°n IpSn-sh≈-sa-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-ØXv kmbn-_m-_b - m-Wv. AXn\pw th≠n h∂p Bbn-c° - W - ° - n\v t]cpsS a\p-jym-[zm-\hpw \mkn-°nse {] n¬ \n∂-Sn® Id≥kn-t\m-´p-I-fpw. BƒssZ-h-

߃ ssZh-hp-ambn "Dujvaf - _ - ‘w' ÿm]nt°≠ kabw AXn-{I-an-®n-cn-°p∂p! F¥p-sIm-≠mWv C¥y-°m-cn¬ \s√mcp hn`mKw BƒssZ-hß - f - n-te°pw I≈-kzm-anam-cn-te°pw BI¿jn-°s - ∏-Sp-∂Xv? CØcw BƒssZ-h-˛-kzm-an-`-‡-cn¬ hen-sbmcp iXam\w a[y-˛-D-]-cn-h¿K-ß-fn¬ \n∂p-≈-h-ct{X. a[y-h¿K-Øns‚ kl-P-amb Ac-£nX-Xz-t_m-[a - m-tWm CXn\p ]n∂n¬? ]pdsa hfsc ]cn- j v I r- X - c mbn \S- ° p- t ºmgpw D≈n¬ bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I-Xz-Øn-s‚bpw A‘hn-izm-k-Øn-s‚bpw tImS-a™v a[y-h¿K-a\- n¬ ASn-™p-Iq-Sn-b-Xp-sIm-≠m-Iptam CXv? ]n Sn Ip™p-ap-l-Ω-Zns‚ kn\na t]mepw tXß Fdn™pS®pw ]qP \SØnbpw Cd- ß p∂ Ime- a t√ CXv? sska¨{_nt´m hmin-tbmsS Xma-kn-°m≥ Xm¬]cyw {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂-Xp-h-sc, Ign™ Ac-\q-‰m-≠mbn Fw F¬ F tlmÃ-ense ]Xn-aq∂mw \º¿ apdn Hgn-™p-In-S° - p-Ib - mbn-cp-∂nt√? I\ym-Ip-am-cn-bn¬ Xs∂ NnXm`kvaw \na-÷\w sNø-W-sa∂v iTn-°p-∂h-ct√ \ΩpsS Nne kJm-°f - psS `mcy-am¿? i{Xp-kw-lm-c-Øn-\mbn ImSm-ºp-g-t£-{XØn¬ ]qP-\S- Ø - p-∂h - c - n¬ \mw Xosc {]Xo£n-°mØ ]e-cp-ant√? CsXms° F¥p-sIm≠v kw`-hn-°p∂p? \Ωƒ sIm´n-tLm-jn-°p∂ \thm-∞m\w Ign™ \q‰m-≠ns‚ DØ-cm¿[-tØm-sSØs∂ Nm]n-≈-bmbn ]cn-W-an-®-Xp-sIm≠mtWm? \thm-∞m-\] - m-cº - cyw io{L-KX - nbn-ep≈ ]n≥a-S° - Ø - n-em-sW∂ Imcy-Øn¬ Ct∏mƒ B¿°pw X¿°-an-√. buh-\s - a-Øp∂-Xn\p apºp-Xs∂ \ΩpsS \thm-∞m-\Øn\v AwK-ssh-Ieyw kw`-hn-®p-Ig - n-™n-cp∂p. Fkv F≥ Un ]n°v "PmXym-`n-am\w' IqSp∂p F∂p ]d-™mWv Xm≥ \´p-hf¿Ønb B kmap-Zm-bnI ]cn-jvI-cW kwL-S-\-bn¬ \n∂v 1924¬ {io\m-cm-b-WKpcp cmPn-sh-®-Xv. C∂v B kwL-S\ PmXnsb-°p-dn-®-√msX H∂pw ]d-bm-dn-√. bqtdm-∏n¬ \thm-∞m\w ]q¿W-h-f¿® {]ym]n®v ⁄mt\m- Z - b - L - ´ - Ø n- t e°pw imkv{Xob apt∂-‰-ß-fn-te°pw hf-cp-I-bmWp-≠m-b-Xv. ChnsS \thm-∞m\w ta¬∏d™ Db¿∂ cq]-ßf - n-te°v hf¿∂n-s√∂p am{X-a√ NnX-ep-]n-Sn®v CØnƒ°Æn Ibdn A\p-Zn\w timjn-°p∂ Hcp s]m≈-ac - a - mbn amdn. AXn¬ CS-Xp-]-£-apƒs∏-sS-bp≈ cmjv{Sob ]m¿´n-Iƒ°pw am[y-a-߃°pw kmwkvIm-cn-I-a-fi-e-Ønse Ah-k-c-hmZ hnZq-j-I¿°pw Hcp-t]mse ]¶p-≠v. I]S Bflo-b-Xsb I®-hSw sNøp∂ kt¥mjv a m- [ - h ≥\m- b ¿ ˛ "Bfl- s sN- X \yw' sNmcn™v C\nbpw IS-∂p-h-cpw. ImcWw \mw ]cm-P-b-s∏-´, D≈p-s]m-≈-bmb Hcp kaq-la - m-W.v

Cdm≥ ˛ C¥y _‘-ß-fpsS ASn-th-cp-Iƒ sI kn cmL-h≥

C

dm-\n¬\n∂v ]mInkvXm-\n-eqsS C¥y-bn-te-°p≈ hmX-I-ss]∏v sse≥ ]≤Xn Btem-N\m L´-Øn-em-Wv. Znh-k-߃°p apºv `mc-X-]-cy-S\w \SØnb Cdm≥ {]knU‚ v apl-ΩZv Al-ΩZv \Pm-Zp-ambn C°m-cy-Øn¬ hni-Zamb HutZym-KnI N¿®-Iƒ \S-∂-Xmbn Adn-bp-∂p. C¥ysb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw 740 tImSn cq] sNehp hcp∂ ]≤-Xn-bm-Wn-Xv. ]mInkvXm-\n-eqsS IS-∂p-t]m-cp-∂ `mKsØ ss]∏v sse\ns‚ kpc-£b - n-emWv \ΩpsS Bi¶. s]t{Sm-fnbw, Ccp-ºv, K‘-Iw, sNºv, t{Imssa-‰v, Idp-Øobw, I¬-°cn, D∏v F∂n-h-bpsS \nt£-]m-\p-{Kl kº∂ cmjv{S-amWv Cdm≥. FÆ-\n-t£]w hfsc hym]-Ia - mb cq]Øn¬ Cdm-\n¬ e`y-am-sW-∂mWv J\\ \nK-a-\w. FÆ, {]Ir-Xn-hm-XI DXv]m-Z\ taJ-e-bn¬ bYm-{Iaw temIØn¬ \mepw Bdpw ÿm\-ap≈ cmjv{S-am-WX - v. ]q¿thm‡ ]≤Xn ^e-{]-Za - mbn ]cn-ka - m]vXn {]m]n-°m\n-S-h-∂m¬ Ncn-{Xm-XoX Imew apXse Bfl-_‘w \ne\n¿Øn t]m∂ c≠p hninjvS `q`mK-ßfpsS ]p\ am-K-a-Øn\pw IqSn AXp Ah-kcw \evIm-\n-S-bp-≠v. Cdm≥, A^vKm-\n-kX v m≥, ]mInkvXm≥, `mcXw F∂o cmjv{S-߃ am\-hk - w-kI v m-cØ - n\p ]ucm-WnI ImewsXm´p cq]w sImSpØp-t]m∂ Hc-J-fi-`q-an-bm-Wv. _n kn 2000-˛-Øn\v apºv at[y-jy-bn¬\n∂p h∂ Bcy-∑m-cn¬ Hcp hn`m-Ka - mWv Cdm\nse BZna P\X F∂mWv Ncn-{X-Im-c∑mcpsS ]£w. Cdms‚ hSs° A‰w Imkv]n-b≥ IS-em-Wv. `mcX ]pcmtWXn-lm-k-ß-fn¬ ]cm-ar-jvS-\mb Iiy] al¿jn-bpsS kvacW \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-XmWv Imkv]n-b≥ IS¬ F∂p hnizm-ka - p-≠v. Iiy] tKm{X `c-Wh - p-ambn _‘-s∏´ {]tZi-ßf - mbn Iivao¿, Atbm≤y F∂n-hbpw Adn-bs - ∏-Sp-∂p. {iocm-as‚ aXm-]n-Xm-°-fmb Iuk-eybpw Zi-cY alm-cmPmhpw Iiy-]-s‚bpw At±-l-Øns‚ ]Xv\n AZn-Xn-bpsSbpw ]p\-ch - X - m-ca - m-sW∂v cmam-bWw ]d-bp-∂p. "Iiy-]≥ Zi-cY - \ - mav\m cP-t\y-{µ-\mbv Imiy-]o-Xe XnjvTX - y-[p\m hn[m-Xmth! Xky h√-`-bm-Ip-a-ZnXn Iuk-eybpw Xkym amfl-P-\mbn h∂p Rm≥ P\n-®n-Spw.'(cmam-bWw, _me-Imfiw) ta¬ `mjy-Øn¬\n∂v Iiy-]-tKm-{X k¥m\-amWv cmas\∂p hmbn-s®-Sp-°¬ Ffp-∏-am-Wv. Iiy-]\p ZnXn, AZnXn, Z\p, I{Zp XpS-ßnb `mcy-am-cp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. AXn¬ I{Zphns‚ k¥m-\-]-c-º-c-bm-bn-cn°mw Cdm-\nse Ip¿Zp-Iƒ. Ct¥m Cdm≥ kmwkvIm-cnI ]mc-º-cy-Øns‚ CW°p IÆn-I-fmbn h¿Øn-°p-∂ \nch[n sXfn-hp-Iƒ J\-\m\¥cw Kth- j - I - ∑ m¿°v e`n- ® n- ´ p- ≠ v . Npcp- ° - Ø n¬ s]m°nƒsImSn _‘-ap≈ P\-k-©-b-k-¶-c-amWv C¥y°mcpw Cdm≥Im-cp-sa∂v [cn-®m¬ AXp sX‰m-hm≥ ]mSn√. A\p-\n-anjw am‰-߃°v hnt[-b-am-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ Ime-{]-hm-l-Øn-eqsS IS-∂p-h-∂-t∏mƒ B[p-\nI Cdm≥ a[y-]q¿h Gjy-bnse Hcp apkvenw cmjv{S-am-bn. 1935-emWv Cdm≥ F∂ HutZym-Kn-I-\maw AXp kzoI-cn-®-Xv. apºv t]¿jy-bm-bn-cp-∂p. 1949 apX¬ t]¿jy-sb∂pw Cdms\∂pw AXns\ HutZym-Kn-I-am-bn-Øs∂ kwt_m-[\ sNømw. C¥ysb `mcXw F∂ t]mse. hnhn[ `mj, kwkvImc kwtbm-P\ - X - b - n¬\n∂v Bhn¿`hn® k¶-enX khn-ti-j-X-bp≈ P\-X-Xn-bpsS Bhmk tI{µ-amWv Cdm≥. P\-ßf - n¬ 45 iX-am-\t- Ømfw t]¿jy≥ `mj kwkm-cn-°p-∂p. Ct¥m Cdm-\n-b≥ tKm{X-Øn¬s]´ `mjm-am-[y-a-ap-≈-h¿ GI-tZ-iw 25 iX-am\w hcpw. 30 iXam-\t- Ømfw P\-߃°v Xp¿°n-`mj ssIImcyw sNøm-\dn-bmw. ]s£ Xp¿°n-I-fp-ambn Ah¿°v h¿Kkm-Pm-Xy-an√. Cdm-\n-b≥ hwi-Øn¬s∏´ Ash-kvX≥ `mjbpw kwkvIr-Xhpw At`-Zy-_‘w ]pe¿Øp-∂p-≠v. P\-߃

Imkv]n-b≥ IS¬ apX¬ im¥-kap-{Z-Ønse I\ym-Ip-amcn hsc \o≠p-In-S-°p∂ kzbw kºq¿W cmjv{S-ß-fpsS kwL-SnX Iq´mbva Ata-cn-°≥ A\-[n-IrX A[o-im-[nIm-csØ tNmZyw sNøp-sa∂v Ah¿ \ymb-ambpw i¶n-°p-∂p. ]s£ hn[n Iq´n-bn-W-°m≥ B{Kln-®n-´p-s≠-¶n¬ AXns\ a\p-jy≥ th¿s∏Sp-Øp-∂-sX-ßs\? `mc-XØn¬ ioA ˛ kp∂n kwL¿j߃ krjvSn®p {]iv\w k¶o¿Wam°n {]kvXpX ]≤Xn s]mfn-°m\p≈ Xev]-c-I-£n-I-fpsS KqV{ia߃s°Xn-scbpw CØ-cp-WØn¬ PmK-cq-IX Bh-iy-ap-≠v.

kqcy-hw-i-P-cm-sW-∂mWv \nK-a-\w. Bcy≥ F∂ ]Z-Øn\¿Yw t{ijvT≥ F∂m-Wt- √m. B kz`mhw Ah-cpsS PohnX-ssi-en-bn¬ {]Xy-£h -- p-am-Wv. P\-kw-Jy-bn¬ `qcn-`m-Khpw ioA-ap-kvenw-If - m-Wv. c≠mw ÿm\w kp∂n-Iƒ°pw. blq-Z¿, ss{IkvXh - ¿, kucm-j{v Sob¿ aX-\yq-\-]-£-ß-fm-Wv. ioA Ckvem-ans\ cmjv{S-a-Xambn AwKo-I-cn-®n-´p≠v Cdm≥. Ckvemw aXm-\p-bm-bn-I-fn¬ {]_-e-amb c≠p hn`m-KamWv kp∂n-Ifpw ioAI-fpw. Ah¿ XΩn-ep≈ A`n-{]m-bhy-Xym-k-߃ thZ-{K-Ÿm-\p-im-k-\-ß-fpsS hymJym-\-ßfn¬ \n∂p-¤q-X-am-b-h-b-√. Jp¿B-\n-s\bpw lZokv ]cº-c-I-sfbpw Gsd-°psd sFIycq]y kz`m-h-Øn¬ c≠p hn`m-Khpw Bflm¿Y-ambn ]n≥]-‰p-∂p-≠v. {]hm-Nt- Im-Øc ImeØv Camapw Jeo-^bp-am-Im-\-h-Im-iw {]hm-N-Is‚ ]p{Xn ^mØn-a-bpsS `¿Ømhpw \mem-asØ Jeo-^bp--ambn-cp-∂ Aen°pw ^mØn-a-bn¬ P\n® k¥m-\-]-c-º-cIƒ°pwam{Xam-sW∂ [mc-W-°m-cm-WvioA-Iƒ. Npcp-°Øn¬ {][m-\-ambpw A[n-Imcw kw_-‘n® X¿°-amWv kp∂n˛-ioA hnhm-Zw. ]n∂oSv Cu X¿°w hnizmk A\pjvTm-\-Im-cy-ß-fnte°pw hym]n-®p. F∂m¬ kp∂n-Ifpw ioAIfpw apkvenwIƒ Xs∂-bmWv A\y-cpsS ZrjvS- n-bn¬. `qan-im-kv{X, Imem-hÿm]c-ambn C¥y-bv°pw Cdm\pw \nc-h[n kam-\-XIfp≠v. ]Sn-™m-dv -Xp¿°n, sX°v t]¿jy≥ Dƒ°-S¬, Ham≥ Dƒ°-S¬, hS°v Xp¿°vsa\nkvXm≥, Imkv]n-b≥ IS¬, Ing°v A^vKm-\n-kvXm≥, ]mInkvXm≥. Ch-bpsS CS-bn-emWv Cdm≥ kvYn-Xn-sN-øp∂-Xv. B¬]vkv-˛-ln-am-e-b≥ ]¿hX irwJ-e-bnse {][m\ {]tZ-i-ß-fn-sem-∂mWv t]¿jy≥ ]oT-`q-an. Cdm-\nse G‰hpw Dbcw IqSnb sImSp-ap-Sn-bmWv kap-{Z-\n-c∏ - n¬ \n∂v 4834 ao‰¿ Db-c-ap≈ Znam-h-¥v. kkvX-\n-h¿K-Øn¬s∏´ \qdn-tesd h\y-ar-K-k-º-Øp≠v Cdm-\v. Imkv]n-b≥ IS¬Xo-csØ h\-߃ DjvWt- a-Jem h\-km-Zr-iy-ap-≈h - bm-Wv. tZiob arK-amb knwlw hwi-\m-i-Øns‚ h°nse-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ]p≈n-∏p-en, Im´p-]q-®, sNºp-en, sN∂mbv, Ipdp-\c - n, Igp-X∏ - p-en, Xhn-´p-\n-dØ - n-ep≈ Im´p-]∂ - n, Im´pI-gp-X, Iocn, AÆm≥, apb¬, ap≈≥]-∂n, Im´m-Sp-Iƒ, sNdpam≥, {]hmk kz`m-hn-I-fmb ]e-bn\w ]£n-Iƒ F∂nh Cdm-\n-ep-≠v. `mc-X-Ønepw Ch-sb√mw kpe`w Xs∂. Ggmw \q‰m-≠n¬ apl-ΩZv \_n-(k)bpsS Ckvemw-aX ]p\ÿm]-\sØ XpS¿∂v Ad-_n-IfneqsS Ab¬ cmPy-

ßfn¬ Ckvemw {]N-cn-°p-Ibpw \m´p-Im¿ apkv-enw-I-fm-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu Ncn-{X-kw-`-h-ß-fpsS `mK-ambn t]¿jy Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ hnkvXrX {]tZ-iß - fn¬ CkvemwaXw {]N-cn-°m-\n-Sb - m-hp-Ibpw A∫m-knb Jeo-^a - m-cpsS A[o-\-X-bn-em-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. F Un 762 apX¬ 400 h¿jw _mKvZm-Zm-bn-cp∂p Jeo-^-am-cpsS Bÿm-\w. XpS¿∂v awtKm-fn-b≥ `cW-Øn\pw Xnaq¿ `c-W-Øn\pw t]¿jy hg-ßn-s°m-Sp-t°-≠n-h-∂p. Hcp- hn-[n-hn-tbm-Ksat∂mWw F Un 1501-˛¬ Xt±-iob cmP-hw-i-amb k^mhoZv hwiw A[n-Im-c-Øn-se-Øn. F Un 1502 apX¬ 1736 hsc A[n-Im-c-Øn-en-cp∂ k^mhoZv cmP-hw-i-ÿm-]-I≥ k^n A¬Zo≥ Jeo^ AenbpsS ]mc-ºc - y-ah - I - m-is - ∏-´X - p-aqew ioA- apkvenw `cWw t]¿jy-bn¬ AwKo-Ir-X-am-bn. XpS¿∂v hnhn[ cmP-hw-i߃ t]¿jy `cn-®p. Cdm-\nse jmbvs°-Xnsc ioA-aX Bflob t\Xm-hm-bn-cp∂ Bb-Øp√ Jpssa\n 20-˛mw \q‰m≠ns‚ A¥y-Øn¬ \S-Ønb sFXn-lm-knI hnπ-hßfpw XZ-\p-kr-Xa - mbn \ne-hn¬h∂ P\-Io-b`- c - W kwhn[m-\ß - fpw ka-Im-eo\ kw`-hß - f - m-Wv. `mc-X-Øn¬ kn‘p-\-Zo-XS {]m¥-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ cq]w sIm≠p hf¿∂p-h∂ sshZnI kwkvIm-cØ - n\v lnµp-aXw F∂v \ma-I-cWw sNbvXXv Cdm≥Imcm-Wv. `mc-XsØ A∂p ]m›m-Xy¿ Adn-bm-\n-Sb - m-bXv t]¿jy≥ `mj-bn¬ IqSn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. AXn¬ "k' Imc-an-√. ]Icw "l' Imc-amWp-]-tbm-Kn-°p-I. Aßs\ kn‘p lnµp-hm-bn. IqSp-X¬ ]Sn-™m´v FØn-b-t∏mƒ am[yaw {Ko°p-`m-j-bn-em-bn-cp∂p. AXn¬ "l'Imc-hp-an-√. {]Xn-\n-[m\w "C' Imc-Øn-\mbn-cp-∂p. B {]mXn-\n-[y-Øn¬ \mw C¥y-°m-cm-bnØo¿∂p. thZm-¥-km-cn-I-fmbn Pohn-°m≥ _m≤y-X-s∏´ lnµp-°sf ]c-am¿Y-Øn¬ sshZn-Is - c∂pw lnµp-aX - sØ thZm-¥a - Xw F∂p-amWv kwt_m-[\ sNtø-≠X - v. ]s£ t]¿jy X∂ kw⁄ imiz- X o- I - c n- ° - s ∏- ´ p- t ]m- b n. Aßs\ lnµp-°fpw lnµp-a-Xhpw i_vZ-tIm-i-ß-fn¬ ÿm\w ]nSn-®p. Cdm≥, A^vKm-\n-kvXm≥, ]mInkvXm≥, C¥y F∂o cmjv{S-߃ ka-kX v t- a-Je - I - f - nepw kam-\X kzo-Ic - n-°p-∂Xn-\m¬ tZiob A¥¿tZ-io-b-X-e-ß-fn¬ Ah¿ kJyw tN¿∂p \nevt°-≠h - c - m-W.v AØcw DZy-aß - ƒ°v CSw-tImen-Sm≥ temI-s]m-eokv Na-bp∂ im‡n-I-tN-cn-Iƒ A\h-cXw bXv\n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. `n∂n-∏n®p `cn-°pI F∂ Ah-cpsS \nKqV \b-amWv AXns‚ ]n∂nse NmeI-i-‡n. ^e-kvXo≥ {]iv\-Øn¬ imizX kam-[m\w D≠m-hm-Xn-cn-°m\pw C¥y˛-]mIv kwL¿jw h¿[n-∏n°m\pw Bkq- { Xn- X - a mb \o°w ÿmbn- b mbn \S°p∂Xns‚ t{]c-I-i-‡nbpw as‰m-∂-√. Ielw B`y-¥c-am-bmepw cmjv{Sm-¥c - o-ba - m-bmepw hnI-k\ - sØ XS- s - ∏Sp-Øp-sa∂v Ah¿°-dn-bmw. Cdm≥ ˛ C¥y hmXI ss]∏vsse≥ ]≤-Xn°v Atacn° FXn- c m- W v . AsXms° Ah- K - W n- ® p- s Im≠v ]mInkvXm≥ hgn C¥y-bp-ambn ss]∏p-IW - £ - ≥ \S-Øm≥ k∑-\- p-Im-Wn-°p∂ Cdm≥ {]kn-U‚ v alvaqZv AlvaZv \Pm-Zns‚ DZyaw «mL-\o-ba - m-W.v Imkv]n-b≥ IS¬ apX¬ im¥-k-ap-{Z-Ønse I\ym-Ip-amcn hsc \o≠p-In-S-°p∂ kzbw kºq¿W cmjv{S-ßf - psS kwL-SnX Iq´mbva Atacn-°≥ A\-[n-IrX A[o-im-[n-Im-csØ tNmZyw sNøpsa∂v Ah¿ \ymb-ambpw i¶n-°p-∂p. ]s£ hn[n Iq´nbn-W-°m≥ B{K-ln-®n-´p-s≠-¶n¬ AXns\ a\p-jy≥ th¿s∏Sp-Øp-∂-sX-ßs\? `mc-X-Øn¬ ioA ˛ kp∂n kwL¿j- ß ƒ krjv S n®p {]iv \ w k¶o¿W- a m°n {]kvXpX ]≤Xn s]mfn-°m-\p≈ Xev]c - I - £ - n-If - psS KqV{ia߃s°Xn-scbpw CØ-cp-W-Øn¬ PmK-cq-IX Bhiy-ap-≠.v "aµ a¿Xym, \o XSp-°mbvI[oti-—m-kp-µ-c-am-an- -am-K-a߃' F∂ IhnhN-\-amWv Cdm≥, C¥y, ]mIn-kvXm≥ kulr-Z_ - ‘ hncp≤i‡n-Iƒs°-Xnsc kvarXn-]Y - Ø - n¬ hcp∂ {]Xn-tcm-[i - _ - vZß - ƒ.


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