Explanation of Kitab at-Tawhid Compiled by Abu Hafs
ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤـٰﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ
Introduction All praises are due to Allah, we praise Him, we seek His aid and we ask Him for forgiveness, we take refuge unto Allah against the evils in ourselves and against the badness of our deeds. Those whom Allah has guided no other creature will lead them astray and those whom Allah has misguided no one will guide. I testify that there is no God except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is the slave and Messenger of Allah. The reason way this book is compiled so that it is easy for the student of knowledge to understand and memorize the explanation of the ayat and ahadith mentioned in the book. This compilation is based on a famous book in the field of Aqidah named ‘Kitab At-Tawhid’ author by the great Imam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab, we have complied all the different commentary’s on this book and tried to summarize them in points of benefits so that it is easy to understand. In some of the chapters we have added some extra information for the reader; you will find this in the footnote for the relevant ayah of Quran or hadith. I ask Allah to Reward those who have helped in this work and to make it a means of benefit for myself, those who have assisted in this work and the Readers.
Abu Hafs Abuhafs03@googlemail.com
Author Imam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab
His Life and Mission by Sheikh Abdul Aziz Ibn Abdullah Ibn Baz Imam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab was a great man, an outstanding reformer and a zealous preacher, who appeared in the Arabian Peninsula in the twelfth century 12 A.H. He was educated by his father in his homeland, Oyayna, a village located at Yamama in Najd, northwest to the city of Riyadh. He learnt to read the Qur'an at a very early age and exerted himself in studies and advanced learning at the hands of his father, Sheikh Abdul Wahhab Ibn Sulaiman, who was a great jurisprudent and the Judge of Oyayna. Having attained puberty, the Sheikh travelled to Makkah and then to Medina to learn from learned personalities there. Then he went to Iraq (Basrah) to seek after knowledge. It was in Iraq that he started his mission. There he called the people to Tawhid and the Sunnah of the Prophet (). He announced that it was the duty of every Muslim to follow his or her religion (Islam) strictly in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah. He engaged in debates and discussion with scholars and thus became famous. However, some characterless scholars rebelled against him and he faced some harms and persecutions from them. So, he left Basrah moving towards Az-zubair, then to al-Ahsa, and then finally to Huraymela, where also he faced much suffering at the hands of the wicked because he enjoined the good and forbade the evil and persuaded the rulers to punish the criminals severely. So, some of them even attempted on his life, but Allah saved him. Then he moved to Oyayna, which was then governed by Prince Uthman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muammar, who welcomed the Sheikh with hospitality and promised him all support and help in calling people to Islam. People in Najd at that time lived in a condition that could not be approved by any believer. Polytheism had spread widely; people worshiped domes, trees, rocks, caves or any persons who claimed to be Awliya (saints). Magic and soothsaying also had spread. When the Sheikh saw that polytheism was dominating the people and that no one showed any disapproval of it or no one was ready to call people back to Allah, he decided to labour singly and patiently in the field. He knew that nothing could be achieved without Jihad, patience and suffering. The Sheikh continued calling people to the Path of Allah and guided them to piety, righteousness and love in the cause of Allah. Gradually, the Sheikh became famous in and around Oyayna. People came to Oyayna to meet him from neighbouring areas and villages. He also wrote to many scholars requesting their support and reminding them of their task of helping Allah's Religion and fighting against polytheism. Many scholars from Najd, Makkah and al-Medina accepted his request, while some disagreed with him, reproached his mission, con-
demned him and kept him away. The Sheikh and those with him were in between two types of people; one group consisted of the ignorant people, who knew nothing about Islam and followed deviations and innovations, superstitions, etc. which their forefathers had upheld. The Qurâ€™an says about them, "We found our fathers following a certain way and religion and we will indeed follow their footsteps." The second group, on the other hand, was related to knowledge but responded negatively to the Sheikh because of their envy and also because they were ashamed and afraid that the people would question their integrity, 'why did you keep silent without warning us against such and such evils until Abdul Wahhab appeared?' But the Sheikh carried on patiently seeking the Help of Allah in all matters. He strove hard in studying the Qur'an and reading useful books. He had a special skill of interpreting the Qur'an and deducing from it. He also worked hard in studying the life of the Prophet r and the lives of his companions (radhi allahu anhum). The Sheikh went on teaching and preaching. Gradually, he exerted himself on practically removing polytheism when he noticed that his call to Islam had no effect on some. One day, the Sheikh said to the governor, 'Let us demolish the dome at the grave of Zaid Ibn al-Khatab (Zaid Ibn al-Khatab was the brother of Umar Ibn al-Khattab and a martyr, who died in the fighting against Musailimah Khaddhab in 12 A.H, he was buried and later on people built a dome on his grave). It is erected on deviation and the Prophet r has forbidden building domes or mosques on graves. Moreover, this dome has destroyed the people's belief with polytheism. So, it must be demolished.' The Prince agreed and mobilized an army of six hundred soldiers and marched towards the grave, headed by the Sheikh. As soon as they approached the dome, the people came forward to defend it but when they saw the Prince with his army, they changed their decision. Then the Sheikh took the action of demolishing and removing the dome. Allah removed it by his hands and Al-Hamdulillah, none of its traces remains now. Similarly, there were other domes, caves, trees, etc. that were also destroyed and removed. The Sheikh, thus, continued his mission by words and action, for which he became very famous. Also, one day a woman came to him and confessed that she had committed adultery. After realizing that she was sane, married and had confessed without external compulsion, he gave the order according to the Sunnah that she should be stoned to death as a punishment, as he had now become the Judge of Oyayna.
Meanwhile, the Prince of al-Ahsa (and surrounding villages) feared the Sheikh's position, because committing wrong, robbery, murder, etc, were usual for them. He wrote to Prince Uthman threatening him and demanding him to kill the Sheikh. The Prince approached the Sheikh saying, "the nomad prince has sent me a message to do so and so. We never wish to kill you, but we are afraid of the prince and we are unable to fight him. So if you think you may leave." The Sheikh replied: "I am simply calling people to Islam and to the fulfilment of the testimony of Faith that there is no god except Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Messenger. Whoever holds fast to Islam and upholds it truthfully, Allah will help him and make him ruler of his enemy's countries. And if you endure and be righteous and accept this Religion, then be glad that Allah will help you and protect you from the nomad prince and others. Allah will also give you power over his country and his kinfolk." But Uthman said: "O Sheikh! But we cannot fight him nor can we stand his oppression." So, the Sheikh had to leave Oyayna for Dareyya on foot because Uthman did not even provide him any means of transportation. On reaching Dareyya, the Sheikh stayed in the house of a man who was one of the best personalities in Dareyya, but he feared the prince of Dareyya, Muhammad Ibn Suad. The Sheikh said to him, 'be glad and hope for the best. I am simply calling the people to Allah's Religion, and He will undoubtedly make it victorious.' The news of Sheikh's arrival in Dareyya reached Muhammad Ibn Suad. It is said that his wife first informed him of the Sheikh. She was a kind and pious lady and she addressed her husband saying, 'Here is a great fortune sent to you by Allah. A man who is calling the people to Islam, calling to the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet. What a good fortune! Rush to him and support him. Never resist him or stop him from that.' Muhammad Ibn Suad accepted her advice and went to the Sheikh and made a contract with the Sheikh that he should not leave the country. The Sheikh now settled in Dareyya. People started to come to him for learning from everyplace - from Oyayna, Iraq, Manfooha, Riyadh and other neighbouring places. Respected, loved, supported by the people, the Sheikh arranged lectures on various topics; Creed, the Holy Qurâ€™an, the Qur'anic commentaries, Islamic Jurisprudence and its principles, the Hadith and its terminology, and others. He arranged classes for the public as well as for the selected persons. Thus, he continued his mission and activities of preaching in Dareyya. He wrote to the scholars and rulers establishing his arguments and warning them against polytheism and innovation. Because of his correspondence with scholars and
rulers and his struggling in the cause of Allah, the Sheikh became famous. His mission continued and spread all over the Islamic world and also other countries. It is a known fact that every favour has its envier, as every preacher has his enemies. Allah, the Exalted, said in the Qur'an: "And so We have appointed to every Prophet an enemy - devils among the men and Jinn - inspiring to each other adorned speech as a delusion. And had your Lord willed they could not have done it. So, leave them alone to their fabrication."1 When the Sheikh became famous for his teaching, and his writings received wide popularity among the people, many envious groups emerged as his opponents. One group consisted of characterless scholars who saw the truth as falsehood and falsehood as truth, and believed that building domes and invoking the engraved as pertaining to Islam. The second group was associated with knowledge but was ignorant of the reality of the Sheikh's mission. They simply believed others and kept aloof from the Sheikh. The third group that opposed the Sheikh consisted such people who feared the removal of their positions and ranks. They showed humility so that the supporters of the Islamic mission might not reach them and remove their positions and take over their lands. So, some opposed him in the name of religion, while other opposed him in the name of politics though they hid under the cover of knowledge and religion and exploited the enmity of those scholars who had hated him and accused him of deviation. Sometimes, his opponents argued that he belonged to the Khawarij, at times some criticized him out of their lack of proper knowledge, etc. Thus, the fighting between words continued through debates and arguments. He would write to them and they would reply to him, and he would refute them, and thus numerous questions and answers were accumulated and compiled into volumes. And Al-Hamdulillah, most of them have been published. Then the Sheikh turned to Jihad in 1158 A.H, he wrote to people to enter the field of Jihad and remove polytheism, which existed in their countries. The Sheikh, thus, strove in his preaching and Jihad for fifty years from 1158 A.H. until he died in 1206. He resorted to all methods of his mission - Jihad, preaching, resistance, debates and arguments until people adhered to obedience and demolished the domes and mosques built by them on the graves and agreed to run their affairs in accordance with Islamic Law, discarding all rules and laws which had been applied by their fathers and forefathers. Then after the death of the Sheikh, his sons, grandson and supporters continued his mission and struggle in the cause of Allah. 1
Surah al-An'aam (6): 112
Tawhid2 - Text ِﻭَﻣَﺎ ﺧَﻠَﻘْﺖُ ﺍﻟْﺠِﻦَّ ﻭَﺍﻟْﺈِﻧْﺲَ ﺇِﻟَّﺎ ﻟِﻴَﻌْﺒُﺪُﻭﻥ
And I (Allah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone). (Surah Adh-Dhariyat (51): 56)
- Explanation Benefits that we take from the ayah:
The Jinn and Mankind I obliged to Worship Allah Alone Confirmation of the presence of the jinn, they can see us but we cannot see them in this world
- Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di (may Allah have mercy on him) said: ‘Allah, may He be exalted, created mankind to worship Him and to know Him by His names and attributes, and to enjoin that upon them. Whoever submits to Him and does what is enjoined upon him will be one of those who are successful, but whoever turns away from that, they are the losers. He will inevitably gather them together in the Hereafter where He will reward or punish them for what He commanded and forbade them to do.’3 َّ ﺍﻟْﺠِﻦ- The jinn are part of the creation of Allah. He created them from fire before He created Adam, as Allah says: َﺍﻹﻧْﺲ
ِﻭَﻟَﻘَﺪْ ﺧَﻠَﻘْﻨَﺎ ﺍﻟْﺈِﻧْﺴَﺎﻥَ ﻣِﻦْ ﺻَﻠْﺼَﺎﻝٍ ﻣِﻦْ ﺣَﻤَﺈٍ ﻣَﺴْﻨُﻮﻥٍ ﻭَﺍﻟْﺠَﺎﻥَّ ﺧَﻠَﻘْﻨَﺎﻩُ ﻣِﻦْ ﻗَﺒْﻞُ ﻣِﻦْ ﻧَﺎﺭِ ﺍﻟﺴَّﻤُﻮﻡ 2
Tawhid - with the Salaf and the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah has three divisions:
Tawhid ar-Ruboobiyyah implies: A firm and definite belief that Almighty God alone is the Creator, the Master and Owner, and the Command is for none but Him."
Tawhid al-Uloohiyyah is to single-out God alone for all worship and not to worship anything along with Him, whether it be an angel, a Messenger, a prophet, a pious person, a tree, a stone, the sun, the moon, or other than these."
Tawhid al-Asmaa was-Sifaat is the uniqueness of Almighty God - the Most High - with regards to His Names and His Attributes, by affirming that which God has affirmed for Himself - whether in His Book (i.e. the Qur'an) or by the tongue of His Messenger - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - without Tahreef (distorting the Names and Attributes), Ta'teel (denial of the Names and Attributes), Takyeef (saying how they are), or Tamtheel (making any resemblance with the creation)."
Tafsir al-Sa’di, p. 333
“And indeed, We created man from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. And the jinn, We created aforetime from the smokeless flame of fire”.4 All of the jinn, like mankind, are accountable. Among them there are believers and kuffar, those who obey Allah and those who disobey Him5 Ibn Kathir – ‘To worship Allah is to obey Him by doing what He ordered us to do and to avoid what He has prohibited from doing….’ The verse is showing the importance of Tawhid Uloohiyyah ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻬﻴﺔ Allah is Self Sufficient, He is not in need of His creation but the creation is need of Allah in all their affairs 6 ( ﻋﺒﺎﺩﺓWorship) : Sheikhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said ‘Worship is a collective term for everything which Allah loves and is pleased with from among the sayings and inward and outward actions. likewise loving Allah and His Messenger َﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ , apprehension before Allah and returning repentantly to Him, sincerity in Ad-Deen for Him, patience with His Ordainment, thankfulness for His Bounties, contentment with His Decree, dependence on Him, hope for His Mercy, fear of His Punishment and the like are also part of Al-'Ibaadah due to Allah. ﻰ
al-Hijr 15:26-27 From Usool al-Deen al-Islami, by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri 6Conditions of Worship: Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn ‘Uthaymeen (May Allah have mercy on him) said: 1- Reason o Firstly: the worship must be in accordance with sharia in its reasons. Any person who worships Allah by doing an act of worship that is not done for a reason proven in sharia is doing an act of worship that will be rejected and is not enjoined by Allah and His Messenger 2- Type o Secondly: the act of worship should be in accordance with sharia in its type or nature. 3- Amount o Thirdly: the act of worship must be in accordance with sharia in its amount. If someone were to say that he was going to pray Zuhr as six rak'ahs, would this act of worship be in accordance with sharia? Not at all, because it is not in accordance with it in terms of the amount or number. 4- Manner o Fourthly: The act of worship must be in accordance with sharia in how it is done. If a person does an act of worship that is acceptable in its type, amount and reason, but he goes against sharia in the manner in which he does it, then it is not valid. 5- Time o Fifthly: the act of worship must be in accordance with sharia with regard to its timing 6- Place o Sixthly: the act of worship must be in accordance with sharia with regard to the place where it is done. For example if a person stands in Muzdalifah on the day of ‘Arafah, this standing is not valid, because the act of worship is not in accordance with sharia with regard to the place where it is done. 5
- Textﻭَﻟَﻘَﺪْ ﺑَﻌَﺜْﻨَﺎ ﻓِﻲ ﻛُﻞِّ ﺃُﻣَّﺔٍ ﺭَﺳُﻮﻟًﺎ ﺃَﻥِ ﺍﻋْﺒُﺪُﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪَ ﻭَﺍﺟْﺘَﻨِﺒُﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻄَّﺎﻏُﻮﺕَ
And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Taaghoot (all false deities, etc. i.e. do not worship Taaghoot besides Allah)." (Surah an-Nahl (16): 36)
- Explanation – Benefits that we take from the ayah: Evidence that mankind has not been neglected and left without guidance The people who heard from these Messengers َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢare divided into two groups: 1.
The first, those whom Allah guided to goodness and who responded positively to the guidance of the Messenger َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢand abstained from all that was forbidden to them
2. The second group were forbidden from success and rejected the truth, and therefore they were losers, both in this world and the Hereafter
Allah sent messengers to mankind since shirk appeared among the people of Nuh, who was the first messenger to be sent to mankind, till Mohammed َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢcame and he was the seal of all the messengers
– Ummah the word usually means "community" or "nation, but it also has many different meanings in Quran
Shaykh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shanqeeti (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The word Ummah is used in four senses in the Qur’an: The word Ummah is used to mean a period of time, as in the ayahs (interpretation of the meanings): “And if We
delay the torment for them till a determined term [ila ummatin ma’doodah]”7 It is used to mean a group of people, which is the usual usage, as in the ayahs (interpretation of the meaning): “And for every Ummah (community or nation) there is a Messenger”8 and there are other similar ayahs. The word Ummah is used to refer to a man who is taken as a leader, as in the ayah (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, Ibraaheem (Abraham) was an Ummah (a leader having all the good righteous qualities)”9 The word Ummah is used to mean a way or religion, as in the ayahs (interpretation of the meanings): “Truly, this, your Ummah [Sharia or religion (Islamic Monotheism)] is one religion”10 and there are other similar ayahs. The Wisdom of behind sending Messengers is to invite people to Tawhid and stop people from committing shirk
– the Messenger is on who has divine law revealed to him and whom Allah commanded to spread and teach the people, main reason the sending of messengers was for them to tell their people to worship Allah alone and avoid any false deities ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ
– Imam Ibn Jareer al-Tabari said: ‘Taaghoot refers to everyone who arrogates to himself a position that is befitting only for Allah, and so is worshipped instead of Him, either by forcing others to worship him or by accepting their willing worship. The one that is thus worshipped may be a human being, or a shaytaan (devil), or an idol, or a statue, or some other being’11 َﺍﻟﻄَّﺎﻏُﻮﺕ
Mohammad bin ‘Abdul Wahab mentions 5 heads of the Tawaagheet: Shaytaan: The Devil who calls the people to worship other than Allah. The proof for this is Allah’s saying: “Did I not
1 1 1 1 11
Surah Hood 11:8 Surah Yoonus 10:47 9 Surah al-Nahl 16:120 10 Surah al-Anbiyaa 21:92 8
Ibn Jareer al-Tabari Tafsir (3/21)
command you O children of Adam, that you should not worship the Devil. Verily, he is a plain enemy to you.”12 The unjust ruler who changes the laws of Allah: The tyrannical and oppressive ruler who changes Allah’s rulings. The proof for this is Allah’s saying: “Have you not seen those (hypocrites) who claim to have faith in that which has been revealed to you, and that which was revealed before you, and they wish to go for judgement (in their disputes) to the Taaghoot, when they have been ordered to reject them? But the Devil wishes to lead them far astray.”13 The one who rules by other than that which Allah revealed: The one who judges by other than what Allah has revealed, and the proof for this is Allah’s saying: “And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then they are the disbelievers.”14 The one who claims to have knowledge the unseen: The one who claims to have knowledge of the Unseen, apart from Allah. The proof for this is Allah’s saying: “He alone is the All-Knower of the Unseen, and He does not disclose His Unseen matters to anyone. Except to a messenger whom He has chosen, and then He makes a band of watching guards (angels) to march before him and behind him.”15 Anyone who is worshiped besides Allah, and is pleased: The one who is worshipped apart from Allah, while being pleased with being worshipped. The proof for this is Allah’s saying: “And whoever amongst them says: ‘Verily, I am a God besides Him (Allah)’, then this person’s recompense
1 1 1 1
Surah Yasin: 60 Surah An-Nisa: 60 14 Surah Al-Maa’idah: 44 15 Surah Al-Jinn: 26-27 13
will be the Hellfire. That is the way We recompense the wrongdoers.â€?16
Surah Al-Anbiyaa: 29
- Text -
ﺇِﻣَّﺎ ﻳَﺒْﻠُﻐَﻦَّ ﻋِﻨْﺪَﻙَ ﺍﻟْﻜِﺒَﺮَ ﺃَﺣَﺪُﻫُﻤَﺎ ﺃَﻭْ ﻛِﻠَﺎﻫُﻤَﺎ ﻓَﻠَﺎ ﺗَﻘُﻞْ ﻟَﻬُﻤَﺎ ﺃُﻑٍّ ﻭَﻟَﺎ
ۚ ﻭَﻗَﻀَﻰٰ ﺭَﺑُّﻚَ ﺃَﻟَّﺎ ﺗَﻌْﺒُﺪُﻭﺍ ﺇِﻟَّﺎ ﺇِﻳَّﺎﻩُ ﻭَﺑِﺎﻟْﻮَﺍﻟِﺪَﻳْﻦِ ﺇِﺣْﺴَﺎﻧًﺎ
ﺗَﻨْﻬَﺮْﻫُﻤَﺎ ﻭَﻗُﻞْ ﻟَﻬُﻤَﺎ ﻗَﻮْﻟًﺎ ﻛَﺮِﻳﻤًﺎ
And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour. (Surah Al-Isra (17): 23)
- Explanation – Benefits that we take from the ayah:
The obligation of worshipping Allah Alone Allah commands His servants to be dutiful to parents17, after urging them to adhere to belief in His Tawhid, because a person's parents are the cause of his existence. So he must treat them with the utmost kindness and respect, his father for spending on him and his mother because of her compassion for him.18 On the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Prophet َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢhas said: “Despised and humiliated he is! Despised and humiliated he is! Despised and humiliated he is!” When his companions asked him to whom he was referring, the Prophet َﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ answered: “A person whose parents, or one of them, attain old age, living with him, and they do not cause him to be admitted into heaven.”19
The importance of honouring one's parents are: a. Obedience to Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, b. Obeying and honouring one's parents is a means of entering Paradise, c. Respecting and honouring them brings friendship and love, d. Respecting and obeying them is a way of showing gratitude to them because they are the ones who brought you into this world, e. If a person honours his parents this may be the cause of his own children honouring him. 18 Tafsir ibn Kathir 19 Muslim, Ahmad and Al-Tirmidhee
The meaning of the name of Allah – ُّ ﺍﻟﺮَّﺏAr-Rabb20 (The Lord and Cherisher): This name has been repeatedly mentioned in many verses. Ar-Rabb is the one who nurtures and sustains all of His servants through regulating and governing their affairs and granting them all types of favours and blessings. More specifically, He is the one who nurtures and sustains his sincere friends by correcting and purifying their hearts, souls and manners. This is why their supplications are frequently made with this noble Name because they seek this specific nurturing.
ﻭَﺭَﺑُّﻚَ ﺍﻟْﻐَﻔُﻮﺭُ ﺫُﻭ ﺍﻟﺮَّﺣْﻤَﺔِ ﻟَﻮْ ﻳُﺆَﺍﺧِﺬُﻫُﻢْ ﺑِﻤَﺎ ﻛَﺴَﺒُﻮﺍ ﻟَﻌَﺠَّﻞَ ﻟَﻬُﻢُ ﺍﻟْﻌَﺬَﺍﺏَ ﺑَﻞْ ﻟَﻬُﻢْ ﻣَﻮْﻋِﺪٌ ﻟَﻦْ ﻳَﺠِﺪُﻭﺍ ﻣِﻦْ ﺩُﻭﻧِﻪِ ﻣَﻮْﺋِﻠًﺎ
“And your Rabb is the Ever-Forgiving, Owner of Mercy. Were He to call them to account for what they had earned, surely He would have hastened on their punishment. Instead they have their appointed time beyond which they will find no escape.” [Al-Kahf (18):58]21
- Text ﻭَﺍﻋْﺒُﺪُﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪَ ﻭَﻟَﺎ ﺗُﺸْﺮِﻛُﻮﺍ ﺑِﻪِ ﺷَﻴْﺌًﺎ
Worship Allah and join none with Him (in worship)… (Surah Nisa: 36)
- Explanation – 20
The meaning of Ar-Rabb: Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah states: Rabb – meaning khaaliq (Creator) and Sovereign Owner and the One who controls; so He is the One who created the heavens and the Earth; and He is the One who owns the heavens and the Earth; and He is the One who controls the heavens and the Earth. He, the Most High, said: “Certainly creation and command are His alone.” [Surah al A’raaf (7): 54] And this is His being unique with regards to His creating and His controlling. And He, the Most High, said: “And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the Earth.” [Surah al Jathiyah (45): 27] So in everything from the created things of Allah, there is a sign proving His Oneness and His Perfection. (And His saying) “Rabb il ‘izzah (power and might)” [Surah as Saffaat (37): 180] Meaning: ghalabah (supremacy). And Rabb here has the meaning of ‘one who possesses’ (something) and its meaning is not ‘creator’. And it occurs in the Qur’an with the meaning of Creator and Sovereign Owner and One who controls – except in this place; so the intent here is ‘one who possesses’ only. And it is not possible that it be with the meaning of ‘creator’ (here) since al ‘izzah (power and might) is one of the Attributes of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic; and the Attributes of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic are not created. So it is a must that the intent behind ‘rabb’ in His saying “rabb il ‘izzah” is the One who possesses power and strength, and not Creator (of ‘izzah) since the Attributes of the Rabb are not created. (Tafsir Surah as Saffaat of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah, quoted in Mu’jam at Ta’reefaat p200. Translated by Nasser ibn Najam) 21 Taken from Explanation to the Beautiful and Perfect Names of Allah by Shaykh Abu 'Abdur-Rahman as-Sa'di
Benefits that we take from the ayah:
First we see the obligation of worshipping Allah Alone
Allah includes all forms of worship should be directed to Him only, He does not specifically enjoin a certain act of worship rather this generally includes all acts
The Prohibition of associating partners with Allah – Definition: Shirk22 is ascribing a partner to Allah in terms of His Rububiyyah (Lordship) and Uloohiyyah (worship). The common type of Shirk is the Shirk in Uloohiyyah, which entails supplicating others along with Allah, or dedicating to them worships such as, offerings, vows, reverence, fear, hope, and devotional love. Shirk is the gravest of all sins due to the following: It is resembling the creatures with the Creator in terms of the attributes of Divinity, for he who ascribes a partner to Allah; he in effect resembles him with Him (Allah). This is the gravest injustice. Allah says: "Verily, Shirk is gross injustice."23 Injustice signifies putting a thing in a wrong place. Thus, he who worships other than Allah, he places the worship in a place other than its own, and dedicates it to one who does not deserve it; hence, it is gross injustice. ﻙ
Allah has stated that He does not forgive the one who does now disavow Shirk. He says: "Surely, Allah will not forgive (the sins of) ascribing partners to Him, but He will forgive whatever is short of that to whoever He wishes."24
Shaykh Aboo Bakr Bin Muhammad 'Aarif Khuqayr (d. 1340H) divided shirk into six categories: a. Shirk in Independence (Istiqlaal: affirming two independent gods, like the shirk of the Magians. b. Shirk in Division (Tab'eedh): which is extracting a god from another god, like the shirk of the Christians. c. Shirk in Nearness (Taqreeb): worshipping other than Allah in order to gain nearness to Him. d. Shirk of Taqleed: like the shirk of the later people of the times of Jaahiliyyah. e. Shirk in Causes (Asbaab): to ascribe causes to other than the Power of Allah as the philosophers and atheists do when they say, 'it rained due to the planet tempset (alone)'. Shirk in Needs (Aghraadh): doing actions for other than Allah and this is judged as being sinful as some of the scholars have mentioned. (Kitaan Maa Laa Budda Minhu, p. 31) 23 Surah Luqman (31): 13 24 Surah an-Nisa (4): 48
The Types of Shirk: Shirk is of two types: Major Shirk: Which constitutes apostasy, and condemns the person who practices it to Hell-Fire, and to live therein eternally if he does not relinquish it before death Shirk is devoting an act of worship to other than Allah, such as; supplication, vows, offerings that are made to jinn, graves or Shaytaan. Lesser Shirk: is which does not constitute apostasy, but defects the Tawhid, and is conducive to greater Shirk. It is of two kinds: 1 Obvious Shirk which constitutes of Utterances and
Actions. 2 The hidden Shirk pertains to intentions and wills-
such as acting hypocritically and fame that is, to do a thing which usually is done as a means for seeking nearness to Allah, but does it only so that people commend him for it; such as performing Salat in a perfect manner, or giving charitable gift to be praised, or raising his voice with the Dhikr (remembrance of Allah) or reciting Qur'an for people to hear him and praise him. The Differences between Greater Shirk and Lesser Shirk: The following differences between the Greater Shirk and the Lesser Shirk are deduced from the above mentioned: 1 The Major Shirk establishes apostasy, while the Lesser
Shirk does not establish apostasy 2 The Major Shirk judges the one who practices it to eternal
Fire. Whereas the lesser Shirk does not condemn the one who practices it to eternal life in the Fire if he enters it.
Sheikh Mohammad bin Ibrahim (May Allah have mercy on him) said, ‘ This verse proves the prohibition of all the types of Shirk: 1) Major Shirk (Ash-Shirk al-Akbar) 2) Lesser Shirk (Ash-Shirk al-Asghar) 3) Hidden Shirk (Ash-Shirk ul-Khafy)
Likewise, it is not allowed to associate and angel, a prophet, a righteous person, stones, trees or a jinn as a partner with Allah because these are created things.’25 25
Sharh Kitab at-Tawhid by Sheikh Mohammad bin Ibrahim
- Text -
ﻗُﻞْ ﺗَﻌَﺎﻟَﻮْﺍ ﺃَﺗْﻞُ ﻣَﺎ ﺣَﺮَّﻡَ ﺭَﺑُّﻜُﻢْ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻜُﻢْ ۖ ﺃَﻟَّﺎ ﺗُﺸْﺮِﻛُﻮﺍ ﺑِﻪِ ﺷَﻴْﺌًﺎ ۖ ﻭَﺑِﺎﻟْﻮَﺍﻟِﺪَﻳْﻦِ ﺇِﺣْﺴَﺎﻧًﺎ ۖ ﻭَﻟَﺎ ﺗَﻘْﺘُﻠُﻮﺍ ﺃَﻭْﻟَﺎﺩَﻛُﻢْ ﻣِﻦْ ﺇِﻣْﻠَﺎﻕٍ ۖ ﻭَﺇِﻳَّﺎﻫُﻢْ ۖ ﻭَﻟَﺎ ﺗَﻘْﺮَﺑُﻮﺍ ﺍﻟْﻔَﻮَﺍﺣِﺶَ ﻣَﺎ ﻇَﻬَﺮَ ﻣِﻨْﻬَﺎ ﻭَﻣَﺎ ﺑَﻄَﻦَ ۖ ﻭَﻟَﺎ ﺗَﻘْﺘُﻠُﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻨَّﻔْﺲَ ﺍﻟَّﺘِﻲ ﺣَﺮَّﻡَ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪُ ﺇِﻟَّﺎ ﺑِﺎﻟْﺤَﻖِّ ۚ ﺫَٰﻟِﻜُﻢْ ﻭَﺻَّﺎﻛُﻢْ ﺑِﻪِ ﻟَﻌَﻠَّﻜُﻢْ ﺗَﻌْﻘِﻠُﻮﻥَ ﻧَﺤْﻦُ ﻧَﺮْﺯُﻗُﻜُﻢْ
ۖ ﻭَﻟَﺎ ﺗَﻘْﺮَﺑُﻮﺍ ﻣَﺎﻝَ ﺍﻟْﻴَﺘِﻴﻢِ ﺇِﻟَّﺎ ﺑِﺎﻟَّﺘِﻲ ﻫِﻲَ ﺃَﺣْﺴَﻦُ ﺣَﺘَّﻰٰ ﻳَﺒْﻠُﻎَ ﺃَﺷُﺪَّﻩُ ۖ ﻭَﺃَﻭْﻓُﻮﺍ ﺍﻟْﻜَﻴْﻞَ ﻭَﺍﻟْﻤِﻴﺰَﺍﻥَ ﺑِﺎﻟْﻘِﺴْﻂِ ۖ ﻟَﺎ ﻧُﻜَﻠِّﻒُ ﻧَﻔْﺴًﺎ ﺇِﻟَّﺎ ﻭُﺳْﻌَﻬَﺎ َﻓَﺎﻋْﺪِﻟُﻮﺍ ﻭَﻟَﻮْ ﻛَﺎﻥَ ﺫَﺍ ﻗُﺮْﺑَﻰٰ ۖ ﻭَﺑِﻌَﻬْﺪِ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﺃَﻭْﻓُﻮﺍ ۚ ﺫَٰﻟِﻜُﻢْ ﻭَﺻَّﺎﻛُﻢْ ﺑِﻪِ ﻟَﻌَﻠَّﻜُﻢْ ﺗَﺬَﻛَّﺮُﻭﻥ َﻭَﺃَﻥَّ ﻫَٰﺬَﺍ ﺻِﺮَﺍﻃِﻲ ﻣُﺴْﺘَﻘِﻴﻤًﺎ ﻓَﺎﺗَّﺒِﻌُﻮﻩُ ۖ ﻭَﻟَﺎ ﺗَﺘَّﺒِﻌُﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺴُّﺒُﻞَ ﻓَﺘَﻔَﺮَّﻕَ ﺑِﻜُﻢْ ﻋَﻦْ ﺳَﺒِﻴﻠِﻪِ ۚ ﺫَٰﻟِﻜُﻢْ ﻭَﺻَّﺎﻛُﻢْ ﺑِﻪِ ﻟَﻌَﻠَّﻜُﻢْ ﺗَﺘَّﻘُﻮﻥ
(151) Say (O Muhammad َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ: "Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty - We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to Al-Fawahish (shameful sins, illegal sexual intercourse,) whether committed openly or secretly, and kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law). This He has commanded you that you may understand. (152) "And come not near to the orphan's property, except to improve it, until he (or she) attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person, but that which he can bear. And whenever you give your word (i.e. judge between men or give evidence), say the truth even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfil the Covenant of Allah, This He commands you that you may remember. (153) "And verily, this (i.e. Allah's Commandments mentioned in the above two Verses 151 and 152) is my Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His Path. This He has ordained for you that you may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2)." (Surah An’aam: 151-153)
- Explanation – Benefits that we take from the ayah:
Allah , orders His Prophet Muhammad َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢto call the people to come forth and listen to the Commands of Allah , concerning what has been prohibited for them; and because it is the idolater who most often opposes all good deeds, Allah has begun by warning them to abstain from associating partners with Him
That Shirk is the greatest of sins and that no other deed will be accepted by Allah if there is any association of partners involved in it; and because of its importance, Allah has mentioned it first
The ten basic obligations that are established in these ayats: 1. Allah has warned you that you do not make shirk with Him. That includes any kind of shirk with Allah, any kind of object of worship, no matter how big or small, with Allah. And any kind of action that is directed as an act of worship to Allah and someone else. All of that is prohibited, no matter how big, how relevant, how significant. 2. He has admonished you to be dutiful to your parents. That is by being dutiful to them. Being in their service and protecting them. Keeping all types of harm from them, and obeying them in all issues that are within the permissible range, outside the disobedience of Allah. 3. Our Lord has prohibited us from killing our children in fear of poverty.. Do not fear poverty to the point that you kill your children. For Allah is the One that provides for you and for them. 4. You do not go anywhere near prohibited deeds. Those prohibited acts of disobedience that are done openly and those done in secret. 5. He has admonished you not to murder. The prohibition of murder. Especially if the murdered one was oneâ€™s own relative. 6. The prohibition of the taking of the wealth of the orphan and using it for oneself. The caretaker takes the wealth of the orphan and uses it for himself. That is prohibited. The legislated manner of using that money to invest with it, to increase that money for the orphan. 7. When you do business weigh in full measure and give full volume. When you weigh something in volume with cups and litres and things like that, then measure with full volume. And that is from fairness. And that order is not limited to the size or the weight of the product being sold, but it is all inclusive. And includes an admonition for businessmen to be truthful, to be clear in their sales, do not be deceptive or cheating. That they be clear in their selling. 8. When you give your testimony, when you speak some words, then be fair and just. Even if it is against a close relative. Then be fair and be just, and offer your testimony in truth, and do not hide your testimony, and do not twist your testimony because of your animosity for that person. All of that is from the balance of Islam.
9. Hold to the covenant of Allah by obeying Allah and following
His legislation. Staying away from what He has forbidden you from. And by learning the things in His Book and what His Messenger has come with. 10. This is my path, a straight one, so follow it. And do not follow the other paths as they will divide you away from His path. So Allah in this tenth admonition has ordered us, or admonished us, all of mankind, to follow the path of the Messenger of Allah َﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ. To follow our religion based on the exemplification of the Messenger of Allah ﺻَﻠَّﻰ َﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ. And to abandon all other ways, all other roads and paths that will split you up, that would take you away from the following of the Messenger of Allah َﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ.
- Text Ibn Masood (radhi Allaahu anhu) says: Whoever wants to know the will of Prophet Muhammad َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢsealed with his seal, let him recite these Qur’anic verses,’... Say (O Muhammad َ)ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ: “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from...”’ ending with ‘And verily, this (i.e. Allah’s Commandments mentioned in the above two Verses) is my straight path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths...’” [Surah Al-An’aam (6):151-153]26
- Explanation – 26
Shaykh Sulayman Ibn Abdul Wahhab said: “This report is recorded by At Tirmidhee who graded it hasan, Ibn Al Mundhir, Ibn Abee Haatim, at Tabaranee similarly, and Abu Ubayd and Abd Ibn Humayd reported similarly from al Rabi’a Bin Khuthaym” At Tirmidhee’s wording is: “Whoever takes pleasure in looking at the page which has the seal of Muhammad on it then let these people recite the ayat” and the rest is the same. So it does not contain the word ‘will’. Albani comments after the text with At Tirmidhee, “weak isnaad” Da’eef Sunan at-Tirmidhee
Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud states that had the Prophet َﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ made his will he would of mentioned the above ayat to be followed
This is a reminder from Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud for us to obey the 10 commandments mentioned in these ayat
The commandments of the Prophet َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢare exactly those of Allah for he instructs what Allah commands
The companions were truly amongst the most knowledgeable in understanding the Quran
The commandments mentioned in the previous ayat (Surah An’aam: 151-153) represent the will of the Prophet ِﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪ َﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢ
- Text Mu’adh Ibn Jabal (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: “I was a companion rider of the Prophet on a donkey. The Prophet asked, “O Mu’adh! Do you know Allah’s right on His servants and the right of His servants on Him.’ I replied, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said, ‘Allah’s right on His servants is that they must worship Him (only) and must not worship any besides Him. And the servant’s right on Allah is that He must not punish whoever worships none besides Him.’ I said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Should I not inform the people of this good news?’ He said, ‘Do not inform them of it, lest they should depend on it (absolutely).’”27
- Explanation – Benefits that we take from the hadith:
Reported by Al-Bukhari (#2856) and Muslim (#30)
We see from the above hadith that Allah has rights on His servants, that they the servants should worship Him (Allah) without associating any partners with Him
We also see the right of the servants on Allah, it refers to Allah’s promise to reward His obedient servants out of His bounty the Jannah, to those that worship Him alone
The legitimacy of riding behind another, if it does not overburden the riding beast
The humbleness of the Prophet َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢin sharing his donkey with one of his companions, This is as opposed to what the people of pride and
Arrogance would do in a situation like that
That the sweat of the donkey is not impure
The Prophet َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢused to teach them using questions and answers. By posing a question, giving a chance to the Companions to answer the question, and then answering the question if they needed the answer.
If anyone is questioned about something they do not know then they should say ‘Allah knows best’ we do not add ‘and His messenger’ because the Prophet َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢhas left us now
That the first obligation of the slave towards Allah is to worship Him Alone
That the one who dies believing and practising Tawhid is saved from the torment of the Hell-fire, so long as he does not commit any of the major sins which would cause him to be punished in the Fire.
The desire to give glad tidings to Muslims with regards with things that will make them happy. That’s taken from the initial interest of Mu’adh Ibn Jabal in conveying that knowledge and giving glad tidings. And the Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) did not rebuke him for that, but rather he ordered him not to convey it. But the general idea was there that a Muslim loves to give good tidings to his brothers in Islam.
The permissibility of keeping knowledge secret for the sake of securing a greater interest, although it is mentioned in an authentic Hadith that the Prophet َ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢsaid: "Whoever concealed knowledge, Allah will make him wear a bridle of fire on the Day of Resurrection,"28 there is no contradiction here, because the forbiddance of concealing knowledge in the above hadith is general, while the first Hadith contains an exception to that forbiddance in special circumstances: For it permits one to conceal knowledge if there is a fear that revealing it will cause disorder or trouble in the Muslim community. He told Mu’adh do not convey this, so that the people might lay back or lean back, not do any work, they might relax and do nothing. Because they’ll say, we have Tawhid and that is enough, and therefore there is no need for us to work. A student should display good manners with his teacher. In the hadith Mu’adh was on the back of the donkey riding
Reported by Abu Dawud