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1

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eVHBumõelIkTI 1 cMnYn 4000 kºal

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2

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xageCég

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sgðmniymenHeT. tamry:¨Tws¶I Çma"k§is¶ eLnInis¶È yYneyokkug-eyokNamxageCég

EdlenAmanKMnitCatiniymxÂSgenAeLIy QanmkelbTwkdé²NëècinTSgmUl smnwgCatiyYn CaBUCsasn_xÂSg qÂat BUEkCageyIgeTotpg. etIbk§kumµ¬ynis¶Exµr

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nationale)

Gs'eKalcritCati

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ÇsgðmExµrfµéÈ

nationale)

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nwgGs'xÂwmsarCati

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ebIGs'xÂwmsarCatiehIy (man¨BHBuTìsasnaCaGaT_i) sgðmExµrcºas'CarlaycUleTA

k~¬gsgðmCatiyYnedaymind·gxÂçn e¨JHkmÂSg¨sèbBIsMNak'sgðmyYn ¨tèvEt¨Kbsgût'Tb'min

Q~HmkelIsgðmExµr. enHehIyCadegúémcuge¨kay«nCév^tExµr !!!


3

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KWk~¬geKalbMNgCYybMPÂWeKaledAxÂH@ enAk~¬g«pæk~¬gbJúaExµr nigcg'q¬HbgúajnUve¨KaH elcecjmkBIBYkkumµ¬ynis¶enAk~¬g¨beTs

eTIbxƬM¨bfuyebIkkkaynUvGnus§avrIy_

pæal'xÂçnEdlxƬMVnCYb¨bTH VnEhlqÂgxÂçnägenAk~¬gCYrExµr¨khm k~¬gry:eBl 9 Ex.

tamBit kUnesovePAtUcenH¨Kan'EtCak¨mgGnus§avrIy_ (Album de souvenirs) pæal'xÂçn

mYytUcbu"eNöaH ÉCak¨mgäksarBItMbn'Exµr¨khm.

sUm[kUnäksarenH VnkÂayeTACav^PaKTand*s¶çces¶IgmYy k~¬gkarb¨gçbb¨gçmrvag

ExµrnigExµr k~¬gkal:eTs:bcͬbºn~enH.

eFÃIenAP~MeBj, «f©TI 28 kkûda 1973 Gùsù

ÇÇÇÇÇÜÜÜÜÈÈÈÈÈ


4

«f© 17-18 emsa 1972 eyIgVnTTYlTand÷eNkenAk~¬gxæmcMkarEdleKVneVHbg'ecal.

CaG~kTTYlxus¨tèvelIsn¶isuxnigd÷eNIreyIgxƬM

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enACu÷v^jeyIg kgQÂb 6 É 7 nak'pÂas'evnK~ayam.

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cMgay¨bmaN 7 É 8 Kùmù BI¨sukkn¶çtk~¬gext¶kN¶al. eP¿gedémq~SFÂak'eCakCSrhUt. dl' PUmi eyIgVnCYb¨bTHkgQÂbmYy¨kumeTot manBIrnak'kMBugbriePaKGahar. eyIgVnsÃaKmn_

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garrbs'eyIg[nrNad·g[esaH. eyIgVnCYbs~gkarneyaVy¨kugenH enAra¨tI«f©TI 17

emsa 1972 EteyIgBuMsðal'eQµaH Émuxgaredémrbs' <mit¶> enHeT. erOgrk§akarsm©at'¨Kb'TI

kEnÂg nig¨Kb'kal:eTs:Cav^n&yTI 1 rbs'GgðkarExµr¨khmEdleyIgVnTTYltampÂèv.

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7

nak'.

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bJúaCati.

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¨khmCamYyeyokkug-eyokNamxageCég.


5 dl'Jk'kN¶alG¨Fa¨t

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TTYlTand÷eNklk'sûb'sûl'. «f© 19-20 emsa :

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d·g? .

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GnuesnaFM) embJØakarkgvresnatUc nig mit¶s~gkarneyaVyBIrnak'eTot. mit¶TSgGs'enaH

sEm¶gTwkcit¶esamns§rIkray cMeJHvt¶manrbs'eyIgenAk~¬gCYrrbs'eK. mans~gkarneya-

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e¨JHmit¶enaHFÂab' ÇEbkmuxEbkmat'È (Pasarbs'eKmann&yfaÐ EbkkarN_sm©at') m¶grYcmk ehIy. mit¶enaHVn¨Vb'mkeyIgeTotfa bíèn¨busrbs'eKm~ak'eTot Casaås¶acar´mF´msik§a bzmPUmieQµaH sùtùq Vnrt'cUlmkrYmkmÂSgbd^vt¶n_rbs'eKcMnYn 4 ExmunenHEdr.

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Çes¶csIhnuÈ.

mit¶enaH¨bEhlCayl'fa

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Exµr¨khmeFÃIkarenA¨kug

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PiVlrYbrYmCatikmõ¬Ca nigeyokkug-eyokNamxageCég.


6 e¨JHEteyIgcg'd·gBIkarBitenAk~¬gbJúaExµr

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EP~keBlelakrMlwkBI ǨBlwgExµrÈ m¶g@ùùù .

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eJHrbbsaFarNrd½eyIg. eKecaTfaCa ÇEqûbMerIGaemrikSg Cac¨kBti¶ CaBYkmUlFnniym

eyaFaniymhÃasuis

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Kas' kat'p¶ac'edayGenÂI.


7 eyIgVnmkQb'sMrakenAmuxvt¶mYyenAxagtºègf~l'Cati cMgay¨bEhl 2 Kùm . enA

TIenaH manreTHbgbíènG~k¨sukCae¨cIn Edlrt'ePosxÂçn ÉBYkExµr¨khmCen¿smkdl'TIenH.

bn¶ice¨kaymk manLanh§ßébExµr¨khmmYye¨KOgcgsÂwkeQI ebIkmkQb'enAk~¬gvt¶. enAk~¬g

salaeron nigenAe¨kamkud^elak eyIg¨bTHeXIjkgT&BExµr¨khmÉExµrrNsir§edkelIG¨g·g nIL¬ge¨Jg¨JtdUchÃèg¨becov.

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minsUvniyays¶I manGayu¨bmaN 40 q~S.

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nak'bu"eNöaH EdlkMBugGgð¬ysIuKuyTavenAPUmi¨ksSg-kat'P¬k.

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mansMBt' e¨bgkat GMbil sMBt'ekAsUß Caedém. mnæIrɨkumenHmanPar:sMrab'cat'Ecgd·kCJØèn

²va"n'BItMbn'síagekaHFM (tMbn' 25) É BIsðn'-TenÂVTI ykeTAPUmiPaKBiess edayqÂgkat'tam

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¨bCaksikrenAk~¬gPUmivalelÿg

TTYlGbGrsaTrnwgeyIgxÂSgNas'.

KN:kmµkarrNsir§PUmiVnnSK~aerobcMVyTwkmúèbcMNITTYleyIg

¨BmTSgerobcMra¨tIsilº:


8 tUcmYyEdlsMEdgedaykumara-kumarIenAk~¬gPUmi CUnCakiti¶ysdl'eyIgeTotpg. KWCa«f©d÷bUg

EdleyIgVneXIjTid½PaB«ncMerog nigrVMGgðkarbd^vt¶n_Exµr¨khm. eyIgmank¶IrMePIbnigesa-

mns§CaxÂSgcMeJHem¨tIPaB nigkarykcit¶Tukdak'rbs'bgbíèn¨bCaksikr ehIyeyIgk*Vn EfÂgGMNrKuNedayTwkcit¶sÃamIPk¶inigem¨tIPaBtbteTArkbgbíènTSgGs'enaHv^j.

cit¶Tukdak'rbs'bgbíèn¨bCaksikrmkelIrUbeyIg eyIgxÂH@ Edr.

karyk

hak'eFÃI[mit¶mSgnigshkarIeK¨cENnnwg

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(Vt'sem¶csIhnu)ùùù.

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eyIgswgEtelateTA¨cVc'k kab'ci¨JÍS[Gs'cit¶!!!

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bk§enAk~¬gtMbn') .

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9 ¨Vb'eyIgfa, \¨bEhlCa 4-5 «f©eTot mit¶nwgVnecjd÷eNIreTA ÇGgðkarelIÈ . xƬMVnvay

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eyIgeTACYbG~kd·knSExµr¨khmenAevTikakiti¶yseT.


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bnæab'BIsunærkfarbs'¨bFancat'EcgbuN´mITIgmk

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11 bnæab'BIsunærkfaelak hUß-yn' mk, ¨BHsgô, ÇkmµaPiVlÈ Exµr¨khm, embJØakar

kgT&Bs~gkarneyaVy¨BmTSgtMNagExµr¨khm, embJØakarkgT&Bs~gkarneyaVy ¨Bm

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10 ÓsPa.

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12 enAem"ag 6 nig 15 naTIl©ac eyIgVnmkQb'sMrakenAk~¬gvt¶eKakremot. PUmieKak

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enA¨Bwk«f© 14 ÓsPa eyIgecjd÷eNIredaykg'BI¨sukGmlSgeqõaHeTATisxagtºèg

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enAq©ayBIeyIg

¨bEhl 500 É 600 Em"¨tbu"eNöaH KWenAPUmitSgexµA Eb"kxagekIt. Kat'rs'enACamYy¨bBnìkUn

rbs'Kat'k~¬gPUmiG~k¨suk. ÇGgðkarÈ CYyciJÍwm¨Kçsarelak ecg-sayuMbßn EtBuMTan'hßan

¨bKl'ParkicÍGÃImYy[Kat'eT.

enA«f© 21 ÓsPa evlaem"ag 6 l©ac mit¶ naK VnnSeyIgeTAcUlrYmVyTwkCamYy

elak hUß-yn' enAmat'sæwg. KWenAeBlenHehIy EdleyIgVnCYbmit¶ hg' (eyIg¨sav¨Cav

rkeQµaHedémnigmuxgarcas'BuMelcesaH). Gnu¨bFanPUmiPaKBiess elak rs'-CaeTìa ehA


14 Cati elak gYn-eGg ehA nI (GtItv^sÃkr) elak kuy-Guß÷ ehA Twb (eFÃIkarenAGysµ&yyan kmõ¬Ca) nigs~èlExµr¨khm 3-4 nak'eTotEdleyIgBuMsðal'eQµaH. ¨bBnìelak esog-eV"Es

¨bBnìmit¶ hg' nigmit¶narIkat'edrCaG~kcat'EcgerobcMmúèbcMNIBiessenH.

elak hßU-yn' manGgðrk§m~ak'CaExµrelIenArtnKIrI edértamkarJrCanicÍ.

enA«f©TI 22 ÓsPa eyIgVnCYbBiPak§aCamYyelak Fuc-rin ehA ¨Kin GtItsaås¶a-

car´mF´msik§a Ca¨bFanmnæIrvbºFmáenAPUmiPaKnirtITis EdlmanTItSgenAEkºrTIrYm¨sukGm lSg.

yb'«f©

edaysarmúèbcMNImin¨Kb'¨Kan'

nigedaysareyIgrs'enAe¨kamedémeQIsußb¨T¬bTSg

suxPaBrbs'xƬMkan'Et¨T¬De¨Tambn¶icm¶g@.

PaBTMenrKµankareFÃIrwtEteFÃI[eyIgGp§¬k

xÂSgeLIg@. m´"ageTot nin~akarneyaVytamKnÂgcin¨khm nigp~t'KMniteqÃgniymhYsehtu

rbs's~èlExµr¨khmPaKe¨cInrwtEteFÃI[eyIg¨sgakcit¶y"agxÂSg.

karCYbBiPak§aCahUrEhCa

mYy Çs~èlExµr¨khmÈ k*rwtEteFÃI[eyIgGs'sgôwmfaExµrxageNaH nigExµrxageNH ¨bEhl

CaBuMGaceFÃIkarcrcasMruHsMrYlK~aekIteT.

rbs'Exµr¨khm.

bn¶icm¶g@

eyIgkan'Etyl'nUv²riyabfBit¨Vkd

sMnYrTSgGbºalmaN EdleyIgrkcMeLIyBuMeXIjmansmehtusmpl ²LèveLIg

cUlmk¨bLèkk~¬gcMeLIyTSgenaHehIy. cMeJHeyIg eyIg¨bkan'C÷hrEtmYyrbs'eyIg KWÐ ÇsgðmExµrniglTìikumµ¬ynis¶È minsuIsgÃak'K~aeT. eyIgFÂab'lºgeFÃIkar¨tiHriHxÂH@ mkehIy eTA

elITMnas'FM@ rvagsgðmCatiExµrniglTiì¨khmenH. «f© 26 ÓsPa dl'«f© 3 mifuna 1972 :

enAl©ac«f© 26 ÓsPa mit¶ naK Vn¨Vb'[eyIgerobcM²va"n' edémºIeTAcUlrYmk~¬gmha

sn~iVtbJïvn¶niwgeK. eyIgVnTTYlmug 1, exaGavexµA 1 sMrab' nigesºag (Sac à dos ) exµA 1

BImit¶ naK. enAevlaem"ag 5 l©ac elak rs'-CaeTìa mknSeyIgeTAcUlrYmk~¬gmhasn~iVt

EdlnwgeFÃIeLIgenAk~¬gsalaeron ÇneyaVyÈ enAxageCégtSgexµA. enATIenaH eyIgVnCYb

snænaCamYyvrCnsMxan'@ Cae¨cInEdlVt'xÂçnBI¨kugP~MeBj. ¨Tg' nerat¶m PUris§ra EdlkMBug

QrniyayCamYyelak hUß-yn' Vnsæ¬Hmkcab'«deyIgmuneK. bnæab'mk eyIgk*sMEdgkarKYr

smcMeJH Çsmmit¶È äeTot@ manCaGaTi_elakevCØbNëit CYn-eC¯n nigPriya, elakevCØ bNëit DI-pun ehA Fuk, elak eXog-kaGun, elak ePaK-qay ehA Nag, elak Fuc-rin

ehA ¨Kin, elak Em"n-nIfU ehA dn, elak gYn-eGg ehA TI, elak cnæ-buV¹ ehA xum (GtIt

ecA¨km), elak yU-fan ehA pl (GtItsaås¶acar´), elak esok-twkqay ehA fn, elak

¨sI-dYg ehA Ex (v^sÃkr), elak eD¿n-PIkan ehA rin (¨Kèbe¨g¿n) nigBYkbJïaCnd«TeTot

EdlmanTSgGs'¨bEhl 50-60 nak'.


15 enACu÷v^jsalaeronneyaVy eKmansg'erag 5-6 sMrab'eFÃICakEnÂgd÷eNknigerag

VyFMmYy. mit¶narImYy¨kumTTYlPar:erobcMmúèbcMNI nigf~SsgûèvsMrab'BYkbJïaCnTSgGs'.

eKVnerobcMkmµv^FIdUcteTA KWÐ ral'eBl¨Bwk - em"ag 6 nig 30 naTI

:

¨ss'¨sUbbbr ÉVy

- em"ag 11 nig 30 naTI

:

Vy«f©¨tg'

- em"ag 17 nig 30 naTI

:

Vyl©ac

- em"ag 7 dl'em"ag 11

:

- em"ag 14 dl'em"ag 17

- em"ag 20 dl' 21 É 22

nimYy@ EdleKehAfa ¨bCu÷CévPaB.

:

:

¨bC÷uBiPak§ak~¬gsalaeron

¨bCu÷BiPak§ak~¬gsalaeron ¨bCu÷eFÃIkarTieton

nigsÃ&yTieton

tamBYk

kicÍkarsn~iVtenH erobcMeLIgedayKN:kmµkarrNsir§¨kugP~MeBj Edlmansma-

sPaBdUcteTA :

1- nerat¶m-PUris§ra ehA Ekn

2- evCØbNëit CYn-eC¯n ehA Eb"n

:

:

Gnu¨bFan

:

smaC^k tMNagshCéBkmµkr nig Blkr

3- elak rs'-CaeTìa ehA Cati

:

5- elak ePaK-qay

:

4- elak gYn-eGg

6- G~k¨sI exov-bu"NöarI

:

PUmiPaKBiessrbs'Exµr¨khmenH

¨bFan

smaC^k TTYlbnæ¬kxagsarBtáman

smaCik tMNagnis§it nig bJïaCn

smaC^k tMNagnarI¨bCaFibety´

manPar:¨tçt¨takan'kab'TwkdéCu÷v^jP~MeBj

P~MeBj dUceyaFPUmiPaKBiessrbs'eyIgEdr (RMS).

nig¨kug

enA«f© 27 ÓsPa evlaem"ag 7 ¨Bwk elak rs'-CaeTìa VneLIg¨bkaskmµv^FICUnGgð

¨bCu÷s¶ab' nigcat'EcgerobcMsmaC^kTSgGs' CaBYk@ rYcehIyk*epærsMdéCUneTA¨Tg' PUris§ra.

¨Tg' PUris§ra e¨kayBIVnEfÂgsunærkfasÃaKmn_ nigCUnBrdl'eCaKC&y«nmhasn~iVtmk k* CUnsMdéeTAelak hUß-yn' teTAeTot.

enAk~¬gmhasn~iVtbJïv&n¶enH

hUß-yn'

eKBuMVn¨Vb'[d·gCamunnUvrebobvar:eT.

VneFÃIv^PaKeTAelIsPaBkarN_

enAk~¬gsaklelak

d÷bUgelak

EdlGacCH²TiìBlmkelI

Çbd^vt¶n_È rbs'eK. eKeFÃIv^PaKenH tamrebobv^PaK m"ak§is¶eLnInis¶ (Méthode marxiste léniniste

d'analyse des évènements sociaux) EdlBYkeKVn[t«mÂfa manlkÅN:v^T´asa¨s¶.

bnæab'mk elak hUß-yn' mkeFÃIv^PaKeTAelIsPaBkarN_k~¬g¨suk eTAelIsmõnìPaBnig

yuTìsamKðIrvag¨bCaCn lav-Exµr-ev¿tNam CaBiessenAelIsmõnìPaBrvageyokkug-eyok

NamxageCég nigExµr¨khm. elak hUß-yn' VnbMPÂWGgð¨bCu÷BIC÷hrrbs'bd^vt¶n_eK (Exµr ¨khm) enAk~¬g¨suknigelIqakGn¶rCati.


16 enAk~¬g¨suk elak hUß-yn' VnsarPaBfa enAq~S 1970-71 BYkeyokkug-eyok

NamxageCég (Exµr¨khmniymehAmit¶TI 7 tamC÷hrTI 3 bnæab'BIcin¨bCamanit nigGal'VnI)

VnlYcbÂn'¨TB´smºti¶G~k¨suk C^HCan'lYckab'smÂab'Exµr¨khm ehIy¨Kbsgût'eTAelIkmµa-

PiVlExµr¨khmEmn e¨JHeBlenaH kmÂSgExµr¨khmenAex§ay xÃHGavuF KµankgT&BmSmYn. BYk

eyokkug-eyokNamxageCég VnrwbGUssgût'sgû^nykmas¨Vk'¨bCaBlrd½Cae¨cIn yk

eTAciJÍwmBYkva dUcCaenAtMbn'síag-ekaHFM Caedém. Tal'Etmkdl'cugq~S 1971 eTIbBYkExµr

¨khm ÉExµrrMedaH VnerIbMrHxÂçnmkv^jVn minenAe¨kam²TiìBleyokkug-eyokNamxageCég

eT.

²LèvenH eyIg¨bkan'C÷hräkraC´mÍas'kar xÂçnTIBwgxÂçnCaFM. eyokkug-eyokNamxag

eCég¨tèveKarB¨bCaCnExµrCadac'xat

eKarBGgðkarExµr ehIyCYycºSgedjc¨kBti¶GaemrikSg

nigbrivarva. enHCasMdérbs'elak hUß-yn'. cMeJHsMnYrrbs'xƬMmYyfa

etIGgðkarmankar¨BçyVrm¸xÂHeT

ehIyerobcMv^Fankary"ag

NaEdr cMeJHT&BbreTseyokkug-eyokNamxageCégenAk~¬g¨sukExµr elak hUß-yn' Vn

eqÂIyfa Ggðkarmankar¨BçyVrm¸xÂHEdrk~¬gerOgenH EtGgðkarVn¨bug¨by&t~eCég¨Bçle¨scVc' Gs'ehIy.

elak

hUß-yn'

VnelIksresIrC÷hrrbs'Ggðkarbd^vt¶n_rbs'eKenAelIqak

Gn¶rCati ehIymankareJlfa bk§kumµ¬ynis¶cin nigkUer" eKsuMeronsU¨tBIeyIg (Exµr¨khm)

eTotpg.

cMeLIynigesck¶Isn~id½anrbs'elak hUß-yn' enAEteFÃI[eyIgminGs'sg§&ynigKµan

C÷enOdEdl.

enA«f©bn¶bnæab'mkeTot

Ggð¨bCu÷VnebIk[mankarBiPak§ab¶èreyabl'K~aeTAv^jeTAmk

nigelIksMnYrep§g@ mkecaT. elak ePaK-qay VneFÃIesck¶IraykarN_mYys¶IBIeCaKC&y

«nT&BeK. enAl©ac«f©TI 2 mifuna 1972 elak rs'-CaeTìa VnerobcMnigEfÂgesck¶I¨bkasrYm mYy e¨kamcMNgeCégfa Çesck¶IsMerccit¶«nmhasn~iVtbJïaCn¨kugP~MeBjÈ. enA«f©dEdl

evlaem"ag 6 l©ac eKVnerobcMBiFICb'elogbiTmhasn~iVt.

xÆM¬ePÂcC÷rabfaenA«f©TI 29 ÓsPa elak C&y-Cu÷ (vrmån¶I) EdleTIbnwgecjBIP~MeBjenA

«f© 28 ÓsPa VncUlrYmk~¬gmhasn~iVtenHEdr.

enAra¨tITI 2 mifuna eKVnerobcMra¨tIsilº:mYy sMEdgeday¨kumsilº:PUmiPaKBiess

manrVM Ga«y" cMerog erOgelÅantUc@ . enAk~¬grVM Ga«y" ÉerOgkMEbÂg eyIgBinit´eXIjnUv lkÅN:¨cMEdl

nUvxÂwmsardEdl@

KµanpÂas'b¶èrdUcCa

cMerog

ÇBYkkgQÂbeyIgÈ

rVM

ÇbegûétplÈ kumarQanmux .l. Ga«y"¨tève¨cogtamJk´eBcn_EdleKEtg nigcg¨kg[ KµankarbM«PÂe¨kAeT. CaxÂwmsar KWkarbeJÍIcbeJÍIvNö:Edl¨tèveKC^HCan' ( Les exploités ) man

ÇkMhwgqabeqHÈ CanicÍ. lkÅN:Tn'PÂn' sn¶iPaB mnus§Fmá EdlmanenAk~¬gxÂwmsarsilº: buraNExµr VnE¨bkÂayeTACaeXareXA jak'kån¶ak'. s~èlExµr¨khm¨bEhlmanectnabJÍèl


17 p~t'

Çma"k§is¶È

eTAk~¬glMnSburaNExµreTd·g!

eyIgcab'GarmµN_hak'dUckMBugTs§narVMcin

kumµ¬ynis¶ ÉrVMyYneyokNamxageCég! KYr[segÃKdl'¨BlwgExµr!!

Ö Ö

Ö


18

( «f© 3 mifuna 1972 dl'«f©TI 15 mkra 1973 ) enA«f©TI 3 mifuna 1972 eyIg¨tèv ÇGgðkarÈ cat'[eTAeFÃIkarenAmnæIreXasnakarnig

vbºFmáenAPUmiPaKBiess. mit¶ Qun-sukgYn GtItv^sÃkr Ca¨bFanmnæIreXasnakarPUmiPaK BiessC÷nYselak Cé-KImGan EdlVncgksmÂab'xÂçnenAedémExemsa VnnSeyIgeTAkan'PUmi

E¨sGN¶èg. mnæIrrbs'eyIgsg'enAelITYlmYyxõs' CaPUmicas'EdleKVneVHbg'ecal enA

xaglicvt¶E¨sGN¶ègcm©ay¨bmaN 500 Em"¨t Cab'nwgbrievNeKakexµacE¨sGN¶èg. eBl

eyIgcUleTAdl' smaC^kd«TeTotmankarcab'GarmµN_ykcit¶ Tukdak'nwgeyIgCaxÂSg. ¨kum

rbs'eyIgmansmaC^kTSgGs' 13 nak' PaKe¨cInCav^sÃkr nigCabuKðliksik§aEdlenAe¨kam

{vaTelak rs'-CaeTìa pæal'. elak rs'-CaeTìa CavrCnTI 3 enAPUmiPaKBiess bnæab'BImit¶ suk-FYk nig mit¶ hg' mk. ¨bFanmnæIrVnENnSBn´l'eyIgBIv^n&yrbs'Ggðkar BIrbbrs'enA

k~¬gsemahPaB BIParkicͨbcS«f©EdleyIg¨tèvbMeBj smaC^kTSg 13 nak' ¨tèvEckCa 3 BYk. ¨bFanmnæIrcat'tSgshkarINaEdlmanTwkcit¶esµaH¨tg'nwgGgðkar

manC÷hrneyaVyrwgbuwg

CageK [eFÃICa¨bFanBYk. BYknimYy@ ¨tèvrYm¨bCu÷mYysV¶h_m¶g edémºItamdanBinit´C÷hrK~a

eTAv^jeTAmk eKehAfa ǨbCu÷CévPaBÈ É¨bCu÷eFÃIkarTietonnigsÃ&yTieton. eKnSK~asnµtyk l©ac«f©¨Bhsºti_sMrab' ǨbCu÷BYkÈ nigl©ac«f©GaTit´sMrab' ǨbCu÷¨kumÈ KW¨bCu÷ smaC^k¨Kb'

BYkTSgGs'.

TIkEnÂg-TItSg

edém

mnæIrnimYy@ ¨tèvsg'q©ayBIPUmiG~k¨suk Ekºr¨bPBTwk mansæwg GUr ¨tJMg GN¶ègCa

enAk~¬g«¨BeQIsußb¨Tub

nigenAEkºrval¨sLHNamYy.

eKsg'CaxæmsÂwkTabnwgdéenA

e¨kamedémeQIFM@ manxæmsMrab'eFÃICakEnÂgsMrakd÷eNk xæmsMrab'CapæHVynigxæmep§g@eTot sMrab'CakEnÂgeFÃIkar.

enAk~¬gmnæIreXasnaPUmiPaKBiess

manBumõGk§rGgð¬lIelx

m"asuIn

TajrU"eNGU s¶g'sIulTwkexµAr"UeNGU äksarep§g@ .l. enAEkºrerageFÃIkar eKmanCék bugK&r (Bunker) nigelNd½antUc@ Cae¨cInsMrab'¨CkenAeBlyn¶ehaHmkTMlak'¨Kab'Ebk. smaC^k

TSgGs'¨BmTSg¨bCaCncas'ekµg suTìecHs¶ab'sMelgyn¶ehaHswgEt¨Kb'Fun EdlmanehaH


19 ehIrenAk~¬gTwkdéExµr. ¨Kan'Et¾sUrBIcm©ay ekµg@ Gayu¨bmaN 10 q~Sk*Gacd·gVnPÂamfaCa

yn¶ehaHsegûtkarN_ Éyn¶ehaHTMlak'¨Kab'Ebk et-28.

mnæIrsMrab'kmµaPiVl (¨kbx&Në) sMxan'@ e¨cInsg'enAk~¬g«¨Bs©at'BIPUmitUc@ EdlCa

PUmibEgík ÉPUmimUld½anrbs'eK¨bmaN 1500 Em"¨t. tamkarsegût TItSgrbs'eKe¨cInenA

k~¬g«¨BeQI¨kas'pg enAEkºrvalE¨stUc@ pg edémºIlak'kMVMgkuM[yn¶ehaHemIleXIj nig edémºI[manx´l'GakasecjcUlbribUrN_.

bk§kumµ¬ynis¶kmõ¬CaVnEbgEcktMbn'EdleKkan'kab' CaPUmiPaKFM@ dUcteTA :

1-

PUmiPaKnirtITis rYmbJÍèlext¶kMBt ekaHkug ¨kugsIhnu kMBg'sila taEkv

2-

PUmiPaKbUJáTis rYmbJÍèlext¶¨kecH sÃayerog «¨BEvg kMBg'cam.

3-

4-

5-

kMBg'q~Sg kMBg'sõW Ódugð nigext¶kN¶al 1 PaK.

PUmiPaKJyB´Tis manext¶kMBg'FM esomrab Ót¶rmanC&y bnæayqµar.

PUmiPaKeJFisat'-Vt'd÷bg-«b"lin.

PUmiPaKBiess (eTIbbegûétfµéenAcugq~S 1971) sMrab'¨tçt¨tatMbn'Cu÷v^jP~MeBj.

sBëf©enH PUmiPaKBiesstSgTIbJØakarnigTIcat'karrbs'xÂçn enAk~¬gPUmiPaKnirtITis ¨tg'¨BM

¨bTl'ext¶kMBg'sõWnigkMBg'q~Sg k~¬gsgûat'Jm¨VMbImum Eb"kxagtºègk~¬g¨sukkMBg'¨tLac nig tSgbuKðlikrd½Vlrbs'eKxÂHeTotenAk~¬gext¶kMBg'sõW (¨s¬kbrEst) k~¬gext¶kN¶al (¨suk

kN¶alsæwg-¨suksíag-ekaHFM) 6-

ext¶¨BHv^har sæwgE¨tg mNëlKIrI nigext¶rtnKIrI ¨tèvVnKN:mCηm (KN:

kmµkarkN¶al) «nbk§kumµ¬ynis¶ExµreKVnkan'kab'pæal'. tamEpnTIPUmisaås¶nigyuTìsaås¶

eyIgGacyl'Vnfa ehtudUcem¶cVnCa <KN:mCηm> eKsuxcit¶kan'kab'PUmiPaKTSgGs'enH

pæal'. ext¶TSgGs'enHCamUld½anyuTìsaås¶y"agFM man¨BM¨bTl'Cab'eTAnwgyYn lav «f.

PUmiPaKnimYy@ manEckeTACatMbn' Ca¨suk CaXuM PUmiteTAeTot. elxaFikar ɨbFan

PUmiPaKnimYy@ man²TiìBlxÂSgNas'eTAelIPUmiPaKrbs'xÂçn. KWCaG~kTTYlxus¨tèvTSg¨sug

eTAelIGMNacneyaVyrd½Vl esd½kicÍ-sgðmkicÍ nigeyaFa ÇelxaPaKÈ Ç¨bFanPaKÈ

enH suTìEtCasmaC^kenAk~¬g ÇKN:mCηmÈ pg nigCasmaC^kenAk~¬graCrd½aPiVlrYbrYmCati

kmõ¬CaÈ ( Le GRUNK ) pg. KWCabJïvn¶ Çs~èlExµr¨khmÈ eCégcas'EdlFÂab' ÇCab'nwgclna kumµ¬ynis¶ExµrÈ BIyUrmkehIy ehIyCa ÇbkÅCneBjeljÈ enAk~¬gbk§rbs'eK.

enAPUmiPaKnirtITis vrCnExµr¨khmsMxan'@ manelak CU-eCt Ca¨bFanPaKnigCaGnu

rd½mån¶I«n¨ksYgsuxaPiVl, elak ePaK-qay ehA Nag Cas~gkarneyaVyenAk~¬gkgT&B

nirtITis, elak Fuc-rin ehA ¨Kin (GtItsaås¶acar´mF´msik§a) Ca¨bFanmnæIrvbºFmá nig eXasnakar, tamu"k (eQµaHbd^vt¶n_) CaembJØakarkgT&BPUmiPaKnirtITis. TIcat'karFMrbs'

eKenAk~¬gtMbn'GmlSg. enATIenaH maneVHBumõp§aykaEstmYyeQµaH ǨbCaCnbd^vt¶n_È d·k


20 nSedayelak Fuc-rin pæal'. tMbn'PUmiPaKnirtITisenH manTMhMFMCageKTSgGs' mankMLSgT&B

xÂSgCageK nigman Ǩkbx&NëÈ d·knSsMxan'CageK. tamesck¶IraykarN_rbs'elak

ePaK-qay

eFÃICUnmhasn~iVtenAcugExÓsPa

1972 facMNayk~¬gmYyEx@ sMrab'PUmiPaKnirtITis eLIgdl'Cag 2 lanerol sMrab'buKðlik

rd½Vl nigeyaFaExµr¨khmEdl¨tèvVnk~¬g 1 Ex 135 erol k~¬gbuKðlikm~ak'@.

PUmiPaKBiess enAe¨kamkar¨tçt¨tarbs'elak suk-FYk ehA vn mangarCa¨bFan

PUmiPaKpg CaGnurd½mån¶I¨ksYgsn¶isuxCatipg. bnæab'mkeTotmanmit¶ hg' (eQµaHbd^vt¶n_) mit¶ rs'-CaeTìa ehA Cati.

vrCnExµr¨khmsMxan'@ enAk~¬g ÇKN:mCηmÈ e¨cInCabJïvn¶EdlVt'xÂçnBIP~MeBjenA

cenÂaHq~S 1962 nig 1968 manCaGaTi_ :

-elak exov-sMpn CaÓbnaykrd½mån¶I¨ksYgkarJrCatienAk~¬graCrd½aPiVlrYbrYmCati

kmõ¬Ca nigCaGKðembJØakar«n ÇkgkmÂSg¨bdab'GavuFrMedaHCatikmõ¬CaÈ

-elak saL¬t-sr (vrCnTI 1) CaGKðelxaFikar«nbk§kumµ¬ynis¶kmõ¬Ca

-elak eGog sarI CavrCnTI 2 enAk~¬gbk§kumµ¬ynis¶Exµr

-elak sun-esn CavrCnTI 4

-elak kuy-FYn CaGnurd½mån¶I¨ksYghirJïvtĬ -elak hUß-nwm Card½mån¶I¨ksYgeXasnakar

-elak TIv-Gul CaGnurd½mån¶I¨ksYgmha«pæTTYlbnæ¬kxagerobcMCnbTnigshkrN_

-G~k¨sI exov bu"NöarI Gnurd½mån¶I¨ksYgGb'rMCati vbºFmánigyuvCn -elak CU-eCt Gnurd½mån¶I¨ksYgsuxaPiVl

-elak suk-FYk Gnurd½mån¶I¨ksYgsn¶isuxCati

-elak b"uk eDIskumar Gnurd½mån¶I¨ksYgkarbreTs elak sun-esn nigelak b"uk eDIskumar e¨kayeBlEdlGaCÆaFreyIgenAP~MeBj

p§ayfaVt'xÂçnehIy Vnlak'xÂçnsMg÷enAk~¬g¨kugP~MeBjGs'ry:eBlmYyq~SeTot. enHCaBtá-

manEdleyIgVnTTYlBIvrCnExµr¨khmenAk~¬g«¨B.

cMeJH¨kbx&NëExµr¨khmsMxan'@ EdlVnVt'bg'Cév^tenAk~¬g«¨Bv^j manelak Gußc-

Ev"n (saås¶car´) sÂab'edayCm©W¨KuneJHevon nigelak Cé-KImGan (v^sÃkr) sÂab'edayeFÃI GtÄXatxÂçnägenAPUmiE¨sGN¶èg. enAk~¬gmnæIreXasnakar

eyIgVnrs'enAk~¬grgÃg'smmit¶EdlmanTs§n:bd^vt¶n_sgðm

niymcegí¿tcgíl' nigeqÃghYs¨bmaN. smaC^kTSgenaHe¨cInCayuvCnekµg@ FÂab'CasmaC^k

enAk~¬gsmaKmnis§itExµr ( AGEK ) bMb"nedayeb"kSg.

mnæIrsilº:PUmiPaKBiess sÄitenAEb"knirtIPUmiE¨sòs§I cm©ay¨bmaN 600 Em"¨t.

manyuvCntUc@ nigG~kd·knSsis§TSgGs'Cag 70 nak'enATIenaH EdlPaKe¨cInCakUnksikr


21 manxÂHCakUnvrCns~èlExµr¨khm mankUnelak eGog-sarI nigkUnelak esog-eV"Es Ca

edém.

enAxagekItmnæIreXasnakar¨bmaN 3 Kùmù KWCaxaglicPUmicuget~at¨bmaN 800 mù

manmnæIreBT´FMrbs'PUmiPaKBiess

eBT´enHGac[G~kCm©W

sg'enAmat'GUr¨tg'PUmicas'EdleKeVHbg'ecal.

G~krbYsmkedkB´aVlVnrab'rynak'.

mnæIr

KWenAk~¬gmnæIreBT´enHehIy

EdlelakevCØbNiët CYn-eC¯n, elakevCØbNëit DI-pun, elaksaås¶acar´ eXog-kaGun nigelakv^sÃkr

NUy.

gYn-eGg

enAeFÃIkar

Gmeday¨KèeBT´Exµr¨khmxÂHeTotEdleTIbmkBIha-

mnæIresd½kicÍPaK tSgenAPUmitSgexµA¨bbmat'sæwgEb"kJy&B´vt¶tSgexµA. elak esog-

eV"Es TTYlxus¨tèvelIesd½kicÍPaK elIrfyn¶e¨bI¨Vs'xÂH@ manLanLg'r"UEv&r LankSmIj"¬g Caedém. enACab'nwgmnæIresd½kicÍPaKEb"kxagtºèg mansg'eragCae¨cInsMrab'CYl ÇePÆ¿vcMNUl

fµéÈ EdleTIbrt'ecjBIP~MeBj ehIyEdlmannin~akarneyaVy¨twm¨kbx&NërNsir§ (sIhnu

niym). ÇePÆ¿vcMNUlfµéÈ ¨tèvVnGgðkar ÇbnæM¬stiGarmµN_È mYykEnÂgsin minsUvmanesrI

PaBecjedérrehtrhUteT ehIyk*KµanTTYlParkicÍGÃIFMd÷uBIGgðkarEdr e¨kABIkarkab'Kas'dé dS

d÷NS

ÉciJÍwmman'-Tabn¶icbn¶çc

sMrab'pðt'pðg'CévPaBpæal'xÂçn.

smaC^kenAk~¬gmnæIrd«TeTot

niymcMGkehATIkEnÂgenHfa ÇPUmirNsir§È. elak Em"n-fU nigelak esog-eV"Es CaG~k emIlkarxus¨tèv tamdanemIlePÆ¿vcMNUlfµé. enATIenH eyIgVnCYbBiPak§aCamYyelaksk¶i 4

narIm~ak'eQµaH sU emr"am nigshkarICaGnuesnIy¨tI 2 rUbeTot enAna«f©TI 12 v^cÏika 1972.

vin&yrbs'Ggðkar

v^n&yrbs'GgðkarmanlkÅN:twgrwgxÂSgNas'. KWCav^n&yrbs'kumµ¬ynis¶ EdlCav^n&y

rwgdUcEdk ( Discipline de fer ) eKVnGb'rM p§Sg (Système de dressage ) yuvCnnig¨kbx&Nërbs'eK [eTACaCnkumµ¬ynis¶ (Un communiste ) tamkMrittwgrwgxÂSgeLIg@ CalMdab'. manäksare¨cIn

cg¨kgeday ÇKN:mCÎwmÈ sMrab'ykmkeFÃICaeKaleronsU¨t.

cMeJHsmaC^kmnæIr yuTìCn EdlenA¨sLaj'es¶csIhnuenAeLIy eKBuMTan'hßanebIk

muxbgúajTisedABit¨Vkdrbs'eKeT. eKykEt¨twmeKalkarN_kartsUßk~¬g¨kbx&NërNsir§

mkbgúat'be¨g¿n mkGb'rM KWeKalkarN_bd^vt¶n_¨bCaCati (révolution nationale

)

beJÏatfa Ð ÇeyIgtsUßeFÃIbd^vt¶n_enH edémºIrMedaH¨bCaCatiBInwmc¨kBti¶GaemrikSgÈ .

. eKeVk

bn¶icm¶g@ eKrMkwlcUleTAk~¬g¨Tws¶I bd^vt¶n_ ¨bCaFibety´ bMpuskartsUßvNö: EdlCa

TMnas'sÂab'rs'enAk~¬gvNö: vNö:enAk~¬gsgðmkmõ¬Ca. eKvay¨bharBYksk¶iPUmi BYk¨btikiriya

BYknayTun eKminvay¨bharFM@ eT EteKminEdlbMpus ÉelIktMekIgm¶gNaeT. enAk~¬gCYr¨kb

x&NëExµr¨khmxÂH eKvay¨bhar ÇFatusk¶iPUmiÈ rbs'es¶csIhnuedaycMhr.


22 ¨kbx&NëExµr¨khmNahßanelIksresIres¶csIhnu nwg¨tèveKcat'TukCaG~k¨bqSgnwg

bd^vt¶n_rbs'eK. eKenAcat'Tukes¶csIhnufaCanimit¶rUb«nrbbsk¶iPUmidEdl fÃIebIes¶csIhnu

eTAenAeb"kSgk*eday.

CamYy¨bCaCn mhaCn eKalv^n&yrbs'GgðkarExµr¨khmEdlsMxan'@ CageKKWkuMeFÃI

[b"HJl'dl' ÇmaKáamhaCnÈ Exµr¨khmm~ak'@ ¨tèv¨bkan'GakbºkiriyaTn'PÂn' suPaBrabsar

Cadac'xatCamYy¨bCaCn eK¨tèvkMeTcnin~akareTArk ÇGaCÆaniymÈ eTArk ÇnamWunniymÈ. eK

VnrMlwkCaerOy@ nUvJk´rbs' em"A-esTug EcgfaРǨbCaCnCa¨tI eKCaTwkÈ. Cnbd^vt¶n_

(bd^vt¶n_sgðmniym) mYyrUb@ ¨tèvTukdak'xÂçnCakUnecA¨bCaCn bMerI¨bCaCn[Gs'BIcit¶BIefÂém

ehIy¨tèveFÃIxÂçn[dUc¨bCaCn edémºIeronsU¨tBImhaCn e¨JH ÇmhaCnCa¨bPB«ncMeNHv^CØa EdlminecHrIgs©çtÈ. eKelIkCaJk´esÂakfa ÇeronsU¨tBImhaCn edémºImhaCnÈ EteKVn ¨bkan'C÷hrmYyeTotEdrfa Çmin¨tèvedértamknæ¬ymhaCneBkeTÈ.

k~¬gkarrs'enA edk edér sIucuk es¿kJk' eK¨bug¨by&t~min[EbÂkBI¨bCaCn. Gakbº-

kiriya nigsMdésMedAeTArk¨bCaksikr ¨tèvTn'PÂn'suPaBrabsarCadrab. ehtuy"agenHehIy

eTIbVnCaExµr¨khmeKbgÅ÷[es¿kJk'exµA bg'k¨kma. múèbGahar¨bcS«f© k*min¨tèvsMbUrhUr ehorq©aj'BisarelIs¨bCaCnEdr.

eKÓs§ah_rMlwkdl'sPaB¨kx§t'rbs'¨bCaCnEdlVn

KS¨Tbd^vt¶n_rbs'eK. m´"ageTot karbgÅ^tbgÅ÷min[ Çjak'eTArkq©aj'È enH cUlCayuTìv^FIrbs' eKmYy

edémºITMlab'K~aeK[ecH¨TS¨TnUvkarlMVksBÃEbby"agpg

nigGb'rMxÂçn¨VNnigsti

GarmµN_rbs'eK[eTACa ÇkmµaCéBÈ pg ( Prolétaire ) . dUec~HehIy VnCaenAtammnæIrnimYy@

eKk¨mmanP&BÃvasnaVnbriePaKGaharBIrmuxNas'.

ÇGgðkarÈ Exµr¨khmham¨Vmy"agtwgrwugmin[b"HJl'dl'¨TB´smºti¶rbs'¨bCaCn.

karxUcxilrMelaPelIkUn¨kmuM¨bCaCn nwg¨tèvTTYleTasCaTMgn'. tamkarsegûtCahUrEhmkfa

v^n&yTSgGmºalmaN ¨tèvVneKeKarBGnuvt¶n_VnxØab'xØçnnigs&k¶isiTìiEmn. cMNucmYyeTotEdlCa

ÇskmµPaBcit¶saås¶È

y"ags&k¶isiTiìrbs'Exµr¨khmeTAelI

¨bCaBlrd½ksikr KWCakarCYyTukÅFur:¨bCaksikr. ebImanksikrQWfûat'enAk~¬gPUmi CaBiess

ksikr¨k BYkExµr¨khmeKÓs§ah_nSK~aeTAcak' ÉEckf~S[dl'pæHEtm¶g eTaHCayb'¨Blb'man

eP¿gpðrk¶I. enArdUvPØçrras' dksæèg ¨cètkat' ÉeVkEbn mnæIrnimYy@ ¨tèvcat'smaC^k[eTACYy

eFÃIswgEtral'eBl. kareTAcuH ÇCab'nwg¨bCaCnÈ edémºI ÇbMerI¨bCaCnÈ ¨b¨s&yTak'TgC^t

si~Tìnwg¨bCaCn KWCakarGnuvt¶n_nUv¨Tws¶ImYyk~¬gkarGb'rMBYk¨kbx&NëExµr¨khm.

skmµPaBcit¶saås¶reb¿benH man¨bsiTìPaBnigsIuCe¨mAeTAelI¨bCaCnBit¨VkdEmn

CaCagkarENnSbe¨g¿n¨Tws¶I. ¨bCaCnksikrenAtamPUmimUld½an Edlminyl'GÃIesaHBIerOg

bd^vt¶n_sgðmniym k*cab'¨sLaj'nigKS¨TGgðkarPÂam@ tamry:menaseJÍtnas~iTìis~al.


23 enAk~¬gmnæIr

enA¨Kb'mnæIrTSgGs' Exµr¨khmrs'enACasmUhPaB ( Collectivité) ) eKarBv^n&yrbs'

smUhPaB (v^n&yGgðkar) eKarBeBlevlaeFÃIkarEdlsmUhPaBVnkMNt'Gnuvt¶n_Epnkar¨b

cSsV¶h_ ¨bcSEx EdlsmUhPaBVnelIkeLIg.

smaC^kTSgGs'enAk~¬gmnæIr¨tèveFÃIBlikmµdUcK~a TSgsmaC^kFmµta TSg¨bFan. kicÍkar

BlkmµenH¨tèvVneKcat'TukCacSVc'TImYy sMrab' ÇksagÈ xÂçn[eTACakmµaCéB Cakmµkrman

p~t'cgÃak'eTArkBlkmµ Gac¨TS¨TnwgkarlMVkep§g@ Edlbd^vt¶n_rbs'eKGaceBIb¨bTH. kicÍ karBlkmµGacduslagstiGarmµN_bd^vt¶n_mYyfµéKW stiGarmµN_bd^vt¶n_ stiGarmµN_Cakmµa

CéB stiGarmµN_sgðmniym. BYkExµr¨khmÓs§ah_TUnµanK~aeKfaÐ Çbd^vt¶n_rbs'eK enAman karbt'EbnlMVkevTnateTAeTotÈ (La révolution disait Mao Tsé Tung suit un chemin toujours tortueux ;

jamais rectiligne) smaC^km~ak'@ min¨tèvC^HCan'Blkmµrbs'eKeT BYkeKTSgGs' (elIkElgvrCn Exµr¨khmsMxan'@ xÂHEdr) ¨tèvdSbEn dSd÷Lèg ErkTwk BuHGus eFÃIGgûredayxÂçnäg tamevn

erog@ xÂçn. e¨kABIkicÍkarsMrab'CévPaBmnæIr smaC^km~ak'@ manParkicÍcMeJHmuxdUcCakargarenA

eragBumõCaedém. Ggðkarham¨Vmmin[e¨bIJk´ ÇGa-mwgÈ rvagK~anigK~a. eKykJk´ Çmit¶È mke¨bIswgEtTUeTA. Jk´bg mIg ma Guß÷ ta yay k*mane¨bIEdr EtCaTUeTAeKe¨bIJk´ mit¶ e¨cIn

Cag. eKÓs§ah_TUnµan[B¨g·g ÇmenaseJÍtnaneyaVyÈ rvagK~anigK~aCag ÇmenaseJÍt

naÈ CabuKðl.

GgðkarFÂab'ENnS[xitxMC÷ruH ÇFatubuKðlÈ lkÅN:buKðlniymEdleKecaTfaCa ÇFatu

¨btikiriyaÈ [VnCaGtibrma [¨bkan'xØab'nUv ÇsµartIsYnrYmÈ nUvC÷hr ÇsmUhPaBÈ [Kit

¨beyaCn_sYnrYmFMCag¨beyaCn_sYntY. ebIsmaC^kNaqab'jak'ejac qab'xwgeqvqav eKecaT

faenAman ÇFatubuKðl¨kas'È. CaFatubuKðlenHeKe¨cInPØab' ÇFatuesrIniymÈ CamYypg. Fatu

TSgGs'enH¨tèvVneKcat'TukCaFatu¨bqSgnwgbd^vt¶n_

CaFaturbs'vNö:C^HCan'

Faturbs'BYk

¨btikiriya. enAk~¬g¨bC÷uCévPaBm¶g@ eKEtgTietonK~aeTAv^jeTAmkBIerOg ÇesrIniymÈ k~¬gkar ÇhUb edk edér niyayÈ Vnesck¶Ifa manmit¶xÂHbriePaKVyhYsBIkarkMNt'rbs'eK ÉTMrn' ¨ke¨kakBId÷eNk ÉniyayhUrEheBk minecHrk§akarN_sm©at' .l. kartamdanK~aeTAv^jeTAmk

CakrNIkicͫnsmaC^km~ak'@

ehIykarC÷ruHFatudUceJl

xagelIenH k*¨beyaCn_Gb'rMsmaC^krbs'eK[Ca ÇCnsgðmniymÈ (Un Socialiste). enHCa C÷han Çp§SgÈ mnus§[eTACa Çma"suInÈ mYy (Un robot, un automate) pæ¬yBId÷eNIrv^vt¶n_Fmµ-

Cati.

lkÅN:Jla Gav"aEs ¨tèvGgðkarENnS[bMVt' manerOg¨sI ¨sa ElºgCaedém.

cMeJH¨sInigElºg eXIjGgðkarExµr¨khmedaH¨sayVnBit¨VkdEmn CamYynwgGMeBIqk'bÂn'

ep§g@ . cMENke¨KOg¨sv·genAmanesssl'xÂH@ EtGgðkarExµr¨khmVnedaH¨saybMVt' lkÅN:¨sv·g Gava"EsVnmYykMrity"agFM.


24 nUvk~¬gsgðmrbs'BYkExµr¨khm eKVnham¨Vmmin[bursman¨bBnìBIrdac'xat.

ksikrenAk~¬gPUmi k*dUcsmaC^kenAk~¬gmnæIrmYy@ Edr ¨tèvmanParkicÍtamdanemIlskmµ

PaBK~aeTAv^jeTAmkenAk~¬gBYkÉenAk~¬g¨kumrbs'xÂçn

edémºIGb'rMK~aeTAv^jeTAmkEdlBYkkumµ¬y-

nis¶niymehAfa ÇksagÈ. k~¬gmYysV¶h_eKman¨bCu÷BYk ɨkumm¶g eKehAfa¨bCu÷CévPaB.

k~¬geBl¨bCu÷BYkeKeFÃIkarTieton nigsÃ&yTietonK~aeTAv^jeTAmk KWeKelIkBIkarxÃHxat karqðSqðg

BIKuNsmºti¶ nigKuNv^bti¶rbs'xÂçnnigmit¶rYmBYkmklat¨tdag. KWkareFÃIsÃ&yTietonnigTieton

enHehIy EdlbgÅ÷[BYkExµr¨khmÉG~k¨suktamdanK~aeTAv^jeTAmk. kareFÃIsÃ&yTieton nig TietonenHehIy

CaÓbkrN_elxmYyrbs'lTiìma"k§is¶-eLnInis¶.

m~ak'@ ¨tèv¨tçtBinit´eTAelIxÂçnägnigeTAelImit¶xÂçnman : -

eKalC÷hrEdlsmaC^k

eKalC÷hrBlkmµ

eKalC÷hrneyaVy

eKalC÷hrsamKðIPaB

eKalC÷hrstiGarmµN_

eKalC÷hrcat'tSg

k~¬g{kas¨bCu÷¨kum eK¨tçtBinit´eKalC÷hrrYmrbs'¨kumTSgmUl minsMedAeTAelIbuKðl

Nam~ak'eT. e¨kay.

e¨kaykarBinit´C÷hrep§g@rbs'¨kum

eKcab'erobcMeFÃIEpnkarrYmsMrab'GaTit´

k~¬gkarTietonsÃ&yTietonenH GgðkarExµr¨khmVnENnSTUnµanmin[ykkarTietonsÃ&y

TietonenHeFÃICaGavuFsMrab'sgswkK~a vay¨bharK~aeT. eKTUnµan[ykkarTietonsÃ&yTieton

enH eFÃICameF´aVyGb'rMEkK~aeTAv^jeTAmk eFÃICa Çf~SkMcat'eraKÈ ep§g@ maneraK ÇbuKðl

niym esrIniym namuWnniym GaCÆaniym kariyal&yniymÈ Caedém. G~keFÃIkarTietoneK nig

G~kEdl¨tèveKTieton

¨tèv[man

ÇxYrkºal¨tCak'CanicÍÈ

kuMjak'ejacxwgeqvqav.

sÃ&yTietonnigTieton¨tèvQrelIGgðkarnigmaKaámhaCnCanicÍ.

kareFÃI

v^n&ymYyeTotrbs'Exµr¨khm (BYk¨kbx&Në) KWkarlak'karN_sMgat'. smaC^kmnæIr

¨tèvlak'GafákMVMgrbs'xÂçn rbs'mnæIr nigrbs'Ggðkar. ehtudUec~HehIyVnCam~ak'@ ¨tèvman eQµaHfµémYy

¨tèvlak'eQµaHedémrbs'xÂçnkMu[nrNad·g

sYrBtámanBIxÂçnägCapÂèvkar.

¨bsinebImanG~kd«TNa

elIkElgEtGgðkarf~ak'elIeK¨tèvkar eTaHCaG~kenAk~¬gCYrdUcK~a

Ébgbíèn

ksikrNacg'd·gBITItSgrbs'mnæIr BIeQµaHedém ÇvNöPaBÈ edém ¨sukkMeNItrbs'xÂçn eKmin

¨tèv¨Vb'[nrNad·geT

eTotEdr.

v^n&yenH¨tèvVneKrMlwkral'sV¶h_nigtamdandUcskmµPaBep§g@

k~¬gerOgzananu¨km eKk*VnGnuvt¶edayhµt'ct' KWGgðkarf~ak'e¨kameKarBGgðkarf~ak'elI

KN:PUmis¶ab'bJØaKN:XuM KN:XuMs¶ab'bgðab'KN:¨suk KN:¨sukeKarBKN:tMbn' KN: tMbn'eKarBKN:PaK

kmõ¬Ca).

KN:PaK¨tèvs¶ab'KN:mCÎwm

(KN:kmµkarkN¶al«nbk§kumµ¬ynis¶


25 smaC^km~ak'@ ¨tèv¨bKl'xÂçn[Ggðkar ÇksagÈ edayKµan ÇtM«lÈ ¨tèvTukcit¶TSg

¨sugeTAelI ÇGgðkarÈ e¨JHGgðkarmanEP~kdUc Çm~as'È minecHxusqðg. enHCalkÅx&Nëp¶ac'

karrbs'bk§eTAelIbuKðl

bJØak'nUvGMNacKµan¨BMEdnrbs'bk§eTAelIGÃI@TSgGs'.

cit¶TSg¨sugeTAelIGgðkar

¨tèvkarJrkiti¶ysGgðkar

KWCa

C÷haneqõaHeTArklTiì Çp¶ac'karrbs'vNö:GFnÈ (Dictature prolétarienne) smaC^km~ak'@ mankarTuk min¨tèvvay¨bharGgðkarBIe¨kayx~g

eLIy. ¨bsinebIGnuvt¶tammaKaárbs'GgðkarehIy EtEbrCaVnlTìplGa¨kk'pæ¬yeTAv^j eK

min¨tèvecaT¨bkan'Ggðkarfa Çdak'TisÈ xuseT eK¨tèvdak'kMhuseTAelIbuKðleTAv^j KWbuKðl

eTEdlmankarqðSqðg mankarxÃHxat. plv^VkmYyecosvagminput KWEtgEtelc¨kbxNëExµr

¨khmNam~ak'Vn¨b¨Bwt¶rMelaPelIv^n&y Éek¶abGMNacelIxÂçnäg ehIyykeQµaHGgðkarmk eFÃICaLb'EL. EdlehAfaGgðkar KWbk§kumµ¬ynis¶kmõ¬Ca nigsaxatUcFMrbs'bk§enH mantSgBI

KN:kmµakarPUmi XuM ¨suk tMbn' PaK rhUtdl'f~ak'mCÎwm

rvagmnæIrmYynigmnæIrmYy eKham¨Vmmin[ecjcUlrehtrhUteT BuMenaHeT smaC^k

enaHnwg¨tèveKelIkykmkTieton ÇksagÈ BIbT ÇesrIniymÈ BIbTbMJnelIlkÅx&NëkarN_ sMgat'.

ehtudUec~HehIy VnCasmaC^k«nmnæIrnimYy@ BuMsUvmankarTak'TgK~a b¶èreyabl'K~aeTA

v^jeTAmk. eKerobcMy"agenH KWedémºIxÍb'kMLSgGafákMVMgbMrugkºt'Ggðkarrbs'eKEdr. k~¬gkar

rs'enAtammnæIrnimYy@ eKÓs§ah_rMlwk[¨bkan' ÇC÷hräkraCmÍas'kar xÂçnTIBwgxÂçn KWmnæIr

nimYy@ ¨tèvrkmeF´aVyedémºIrs'edayxÂçnägÈ. Ggðkar¨Kan'Etp¶l'¨Vk'CévPaB[k~¬g 1 Ex

135 erol sMrab'smaC^km~ak'@ . mnæIrnimYy@ ¨tèv«llkmúèbcMNI (e¨cInEtk¶amx´g) bEnÂxÂçn

äg ¨tèv

ÇsMrukbgûbegûénplÈ tamkMLSgpæal'xÂçn ¨tèvciJÍwmman'-Ta ¨Cèk enAtammnæIrerog@

xÂçntamlTìPaBEdlGaceFÃIeTAVn.

kicÍkarBlkmµ

kicÍkarBlkmµenH ¨tèvVnGgðkarcat'TukCakrNIkicÍTI1 rbs'smaC^km~ak'@. Cnkumµ¬y

nis¶¨tèvEt

Çlt'd÷È

xÂçnenAk~¬gkargarBlkmµCacSVc'.

bJïvn¶ manlMnSdUcK~anwgkargarrbs'G~k¨suk KW: -

kargarBlkmµsMrab'BYk¨kbx&Në

enAk~¬gmnæIr smaC^km~ak'@ eTaH¨busk¶I ¨sIk¶I CabJïvn¶k¶I CakUnksikrsuTìsaFk¶I

¨tèvErkTwk rkGus dSs eVssMGatTIFÂamnæIr Cékk¶amtamvalE¨s ErkTwke¨sac

bEn kin¨sèv Can'Ggûr [Vyman'-Ta ¨Cèk dUcK~aTSgGs'. kicÍkarTSgGs'enH eK

EckevnK~aeFÃIedayeTogTat' KµanGarmµN_cegí¿tcgíl'GÃIeT. karemIlbMNSK~a É

¨bEkkC÷Tas'min¨BmeFÃI minsUvmaneT. m~ak'@¨tèvsMEdgTwkcit¶GMNt'erog@xÂçn k~¬g

eBlbMeBjkicÍkarBlkmµGÃImYy. smaC^km~ak'EdlxØil¨cGUs TMrn'k~¬gkicÍkargar

TSgGs'enH nwg¨tèvsmaC^kd«TeToteFÃIkarTietonenAk~¬geBl¨bCu÷BYk ɨbCu÷¨kum.


26 -

kargarbgûbegûénpl

mnæIrnimYy@

¨tèvVnGgðkarf~ak'elIENnS[ecHedaH¨say

bJúaCévPaBedayxÂçnäg kuMsUvBwgEpíkelI¨bCaksikreBk e¨JH¨bCaCnmankarxÃH xate¨cIn. mnæIrnimYy@ Kas'raneFÃIcMkarcºard÷NSedayxÂçnäg mandS«sõ eb"geV"H

Cé ¨tkYn eXÂak ¨tLac ¨tb' emæs d÷Lèg eJt sEN¶kCaedém. man¨kumExµr¨khm

xÂHeTot dUcCamnæIrsilº:PUmiPaKBiessCaedém yuvCnekµg@nSK~aeLIgcget~atyk TwkrMgas'eFÃIsûr sMrab'e¨bI¨Vs'enAk~¬gmnæIrrbs'xÂçn.

k~¬gerOgciJÍwmman'-Ta ¨Cèkv^j k*mnæIrTSgGs'¨bwgE¨bgB¨gékNas'Edr. fÃIebI

man'-Ta ¨CèkmanenAtammnæIrk*eday múèbGahark*enAEtGt¶:xat' x§t'ex§aydEdl e¨JH m´a"g GgðkarENnS[ ÇecHsn§MsM«cÈ ecHGt'¨TSnwgkarGt'XÂan [bMVt'ÇGarmµN_È

cg'q©aj'. m´"ageTot PUmiPaKEdleyIgrs'enA CaPUmiPaK¨kx§t'xag¨tIsac'xÂSgNas' sUmºIEtkEgûbk*BiVkrkeTotpg. BgTa 2-3 ¨tèvykeTAes©arCamYybEn«sõ sMrab'

smaC^k 12 nak'. maneBlxÂHeKes©arbEnÂTeT Kµan¨tIsac'GÃIeT. k~¬gmYyq~S@ manExµr ¨khmxÂHVnbriePaK¨tI¨ss'Et 3-4 dgbu"eNöaHeT ehIyBuMVn¨Kb'¨Kan'eTot. -

kargarbMerI¨bCaCn Exµr¨khmm~ak'@¨tèv¨Cçt¨Cabnwg ÇTs§n:mhaCnÈ ¨tèvCab'nwg

mhaCn Cab'nwg¨bCaCn. karCYyFur:¨bCaCn CaBiess¨bCaCnmUld½an Cakar

ykcit¶Tukdak'TI1 rbs'Ggðkarf~ak'elI. eBlNa¨bCaCnelIkTMnb' Cék¨sH eFÃI

f~l' Ésg'pæH BYkExµr¨khmEdlenAC^txagPUmienaH Etgcat'evnK~aeTACYyeFÃI ehIy

eFÃIedayykcit¶Tukdak'eTotpg. eBldksæèg ¨cUtkat' eVkEbn eKk*pÂas'evnK~a

eTACYyedayeTogTat'. cMeJHksikrNaEdl¨kx§t'CageK Ggðkark*VnCYyFur: e¨cInCageKpgEdr.

enHCaTid½PaBmYyEdleyIgKYrcab'GarmµN_.

BlkmµCaC÷hrTImYy k*k~¬geKalbMNg: 1-

GgðkarExµr¨khmcat'Tukkargar

[¨kbx&NësmaC^krbs'eK¨Kb'Can'f~ak'

e¨tomxÂçncMeJHkarBiVk

ep§g@eTA«f©e¨kay [manTMlab'¨sLaj'kargarBlkmµenH EdlCa

eKalkarN_sMxan'sMrab'QaneTAksag¨bCaCatisgðmniym ( Une

2-

34-

nation socialiste ) .

[smaC^knig¨kbx&Nërbs'eKC^tsi~Tìnwg¨bCaCn

nigTukÅFur:¨bCaCn

sðal'sMNUmBr

¨BmTSgeq¿teronsU¨tBI¨bCaCn.

enAelIEp~k

becÍkeTs«nkargar ǨbCaCnCa¨bPB«ncMeNHv^CØaminecHrIgs©çtÈ.

bN¶¬Hp~t'sµartIeKarBGgðkarv^n&yrbs'BYk rbs'¨kum tamlMnSv^n&y

sm¸ar:niym ( Discipline matérialiste ) rbs'BYkkmµkreragc¨k.

[smaC^k ɨkbx&Nëm~ak'@ xM Çlt'd÷È xÂçnedémºIC÷ruH ÇFatuÈ min

bd^vt¶n_ minkmµaCéB dUcCa ÇFatuÈ rbs'bJïavn¶PaKe¨cInCaedém. ebI


27 minVnCab'xÂçnnwgBlkmµeT buKðlenaHBuMecH¨sLaj'¨bCaCneT enA

EtmanstiGarmµN_C^HCan'Blkmµrbs'G~kd«T

EdlCastiGarmµN_

rbs'BYk¨btikiriya rbs'sk¶iPUmi rbs'BYkmUlFn.

tam¨Tws¶Ism¸ar:niym manEtBYkkmµkr-kmµaCéBeT EdlCaG~k

ksagBiPBelak ksagsgðmniymnimYy@. vNö:kmµkrnigkmµaCéB

enH mankarcMNaye¨cInCageKTSgGs' enAk~¬gsgðmniymnimYy@ .

dUec~H tamlkÅN:¨bCaFibety´ minKYreLIyrd½GMNacminVnFÂak' eTAelIkN¶ab'«drbs'vNö:enH. 5-

eLnInis¶.

enHCaTs§n:rbs'BYkma"k§is¶-

bN¶¬HsµartIsm¸ar:niym ¨Vkdniym v^T´asa¨s¶niym tamKnÂg

ma"k§is¶-eLnInis¶ bMVt'Ts§n:KMnitniym ( Idéalisme ) EdlbMerI

vNö:¨btikiriya vNö:C^HCan' (enHCaTs§n:rbs'BYkExµr¨khm). m´a"g

eTot kargarBlkmµenHCa{sfmYy CYybMVt'stiGarmµN_ ÉTs§n:

cegí¿tcgíl'pgEdr (Etroitesse de vue ).

Exµr¨khmmankarcab'GarmµN_xÂSgNas' eTAelIkarGb'rMneyaVy. kMLSgneyaVy

CakMLSgTImYyrbs'eK

¨khm¨Kb'¨kbx&Në

kMLSgeyaFa¨Kan'EtCaÓbkrN_«nkMLSgneyaVy.

¨tèvTTYlkarGb'rMneyaVyCacSVc'.

smaC^kExµr

eKeronsU¨tenAtamsalaeron

neyaVy enAtammnæIr eBleFÃImITIg eFÃIsn~iVt eBl¨bCu÷CévPaBCaedém.

karGb'rMenAtamsalaeronneyaVy GgðkarExµr¨khmsBëf©enAxÃHkmµaPiVl Ǩkb

x&NëÈ ¨bkbedayKuNsmºti¶ nigvbºFámneyaVye¨cInNas'. elak hßU-yn' xÂçnägk*Vn

sarPaBerOgenHenAk~¬gmhasn~iVtbJïvn¶enAcugExÓsPa 1972 pgEdr. kmµaPiVlm~ak'@ munnwgeTAkan'naTITTYlxus¨tèvNamYy ¨tèvTTYlkarhÃwkhÃWnGb'rMGs'eBld*yUr BImYyq~SeTAbI

q~Sy"agtic ehIyFÂab'bMerIclnarbs'eKyUrmkehIypg enA ÇyuvkkÈ (yuvCnkumµ¬ynis¶ kmõ¬Ca) ÉenAk~¬g ÇsnkbÈ (smaKmnarIkmõ¬Ca¨bCaFiety´).

kmµaPiVlm~ak'@ ¨tèvmansIlFámrs'enA nigsIlFámneyaVysíatsíM KW :


28 1-

2-

¨sLaj' eKarB nigbMerI¨bCaCn-kmµkr-ksikr[Gs'BIcit¶BIefÂém mine¨bI

GMNacp¶ac'kareTAelI¨bCaCn minKMramkMEhg¨bCaCn ¨tèvsuPaBrabsar Tn'PÂn'eTArk¨bCaCnCanicÍ.

esµaH¨tg'nigkarJrpl¨beyaCn_¨bCaCnCadac'xat

mineFÃIGÃI[b"HJl'

dl'¨TB´smºti¶¨bCaCn sUmºIEtemæs 1 Ep ÉGgûr 1 kMbu"gk*eday min

KMramkMEhgyk¨TB´smºti¶¨bCaCn eTaHCatammeF´aVyek¶A ɨtCak'k* 3-

eday. min¨tèvsIusMNUksUkV"n'BI¨bCaCn.

ebIeFÃIGÃIxuscMeJH¨bCaCn ¨tèvsuMeTas¨bCaCn.

4-

niyays¶I edk edér Qr Ggð¬y sIucuk elgesIcedaysuPaBrabsar

5-

kuM¨b¨Bwt¶GMeBIelµIscMeJHnarIePT.

tam¨b«BNI¨bCaCn.

6-

kuMsIup·kGÃIEdlmanlkÅN: JlaGava"Es minbd^vt¶n_.

8-

kuMb"HJl'luykak' ¨TB´smºti¶rYm rbs'¨bCaCn rbs'Ggðkar.

79-

101112-

13-

kuMelgElºgsuIsg[esaH.

¨tèvmankMhwgqabeqHcMeJHxµSg.

¨tèveFÃIBlkmµdUc¨bCaCn.

¨tèveKarBmtirbs'smUhPaB GgðkarCanicÍ. min¨tèveFÃIkartamrebobp¶ac'

karrbs'buKðlm~ak'eLIy.

¨tèveFÃIkarTietonnigsÃ&yTieton[VnlíCanicÍ

15-

eday

sµartIesµaH¨tg' cg'ksagsamKðIPaB äkPaB«pæk~¬g[VnrwgbuwgCalMdab'

min¨tèvvay¨bharK~ae¨kAGgðkar Écak'cucdeN¶Im²TìiBlK~aeLIy.

¨tèvmansµartIPÆak'rlwk eFÃIbd^vt¶n_edayxÂçnäg min¨tèvBwgEpíkelIG~kd«T

ÉbreTs

[eKeFÃIC÷nYsxÂçneLIy.

bd^vt¶n_rbs'¨bCaCnkmõ¬Ca 14-

k~¬gGgðkarrNsir§

¨tèvyl'[cºas'fa

bd^vt¶n_enHCa

¨tèvEt¨bCaCnkmõ¬CaeFÃIedayxÂçnäg

nigkan'

kab'vasna¨beTsCatiedayxÂçnäg minedkBwgJk'breTseFÃIC÷nYseT.

¨tèvmansµartImÍas'kar ecHedaH¨say¨Kb'bJúaEdlTak'Tgdl'CévPaBxag

sµartI xagsMPar:rbs'¨bCaCn.

¨tèveC¯Cak'fa kartsUßrbs'eyIgmankarlMVkEmn Etdac'xatnwgmanC&y

C÷nH.

enAk~¬gsalaGb'rMneyaVyenH

GgðkarExµr¨khmVne¨bIlºicedaybiun¨bsb'

ecH

elIkykäksarneyaVynana mkENnSGb'rM sMrbeTAtamkMritKMnitneyaVyrbs'smaC^k

m~ak'@ (eKniymniyayfakarPÆak'rlwkneyaVy) Vnesck¶Ifa cMeJHsmaC^kNaEdlenA

C÷Jk'cit¶nwges¶csIhnu (¨kbx&NërNsir§) enAeLIy ehIyenAxÂacrbbsgðmniym eKe¨cIn

elIkykEtäksar¨twmkMritrNsir§mkGb'rM ÉmYyk*eKTuk[smaC^k¨bePTenH TTYlkarEN


29 nShÃwkhÃWneTAtammnæIrEtbu"eNaH. bn¶icm¶g@ eKbMpusmaKaáeqõaHeTArk¨Tws¶I¨khm tamry:äk

sarep§g@ manCaGaTi_ äksars¶IBI :

-karEbgEckvNö:enAk~¬gsgðmkmõ¬Ca -kartsUßvNö:

-Ts§n:mhaCn

-karksagC÷hrkmµaCéB -Tieton nigsÃ&yTieton

-emaTnPaBxus nig¨tèv

-KuNsmºti¶rbs'kmµaPiVl .l.

cMeJH¨kbx&NëeBjlkÅN: (kmµaPiVls~èl EdlCaÇbkÅCn«nbk§kumµ¬ynis¶kmõ¬CaÈ

Membre du parti communiste khmer) kMritGb'rMeronsU¨tk*kan'EtmanC÷hreTAeTot KWeTArkp~t'sgðm

niym (Pli socialiste) eTArkrbbkumµ¬ynis¶ ehIykarGb'rMeronsU¨trbs'BYk¨bePTenH ¨tèvTukCa

karlak'kMVMgmin[smaC^k¨bePTrNsir§ ¨bePTsamJïd·g¾eLIy. KWkmµaPiVlCaebkÅCn

enHehIyEdlGgðkarExµr¨khmcat'[eTAeFÃICas~èlenAtamtMbn'nana Ca¨bFanmnæIr Cas~gkar

neyaVyenAk~¬gkgT&BeK.

enAPUmiPaKBiessrbs'GgðkarExµr¨khm G~kEdlmanPar:be¨g¿nGb'rM¨kbx&Nëneya-

Vy manelak esog-eV"Es, elak rs'-CaeTìa, elak suk-FYk, elak Cé-KImGan (eTIbnwg

sÂab'edémExemsa 1972), nigmit¶ hg' (eQµaHbd^vt¶n_).

enAPUmiPaKnirtITis manelak CU-eCt, elak ePaK-qay, elak Fuc-rin CaG~k

be¨g¿n.

karGb'rMnigkareronsU¨tenAtammnæIr, mnæIrnimYy@, ¨bFannigGnu¨bFanCaG~kd·knSeron

sU¨t BiPak§aBIeKalkarN_ep§g@ EdlmanEcgenAk~¬gäksar. äksarTSgGs'EdleKyk

mkeronsU¨t suTìEttak'EtgecjBIKN:kmµkarkN¶al«nbk§kumµ¬ynis¶ (mCÎwm) rbs'eK.

kareronsU¨tenAtammnæIrBuMVneFÃIedayeTogTat'eT CYneKerobcMeFÃImYyExm¶g CYnBIrExm¶g tam eBlTMenr.

e¨kABIkareronsU¨tenAk~¬gäksar eKcat'Tukkar¨bCu÷CévPaB (¨bCu÷eFÃITieton nig sÃ&y

Tieton) EdlmaneFÃIerogral'«f©GaTit´ karGb'rMneyaVy nigkar¨tçtBinit´nUvkarGnuvt¶n_¨Tws¶I maKáaneyaVymYyy"agv^essv^sal. enAk~¬gkar¨bCu÷Tieton nigsÃ&yTieton e¨cInriHKn'K~aeTA

v^jeTAmkBIFatu ÇbuKðlniymÈ Fatu ÇesrIniymÈ e¨cInCageK. eKxitxMbMVt' ÇFatuÈ TSg enH k*enAk~¬geKaledA Çp§SgÈ mnus§[eTACaÓbkrN_mYysMrab'eKarBnigGnuvt¶v^n&yrbs'

GgðkaredayKµanrGßUrTS dUcma"sIun sMrab'rbbsgðmniymenHäg. eKbN¶¬Hp~t'KMniteKarBcgÃak' v^n&y cgÃak'kargar cgÃak'CévPaB ¨sbtamv^n&yrbs'kmµkrEdleKEtgEtelIkykmkeFÃICaKMrU.


30 KWeKGnuvt¶¨Tws¶IkmµaCévUbnIykmµ edayykTMgn'GMNacbk§mk¨Kbsgût'bn¶icm¶g@. enHKWCavKð

dMbUg«n ÇGMNacp¶ac'karvNö:kmµaCéBÈ (Phase primaire de la dictature prolétarienne). karGb'rMneyaVytamry:mITIg

mYyy"agsMxan'«nBYksgðmniym.

eyIgVnd·gehIyfa

mITIgCasalaGb'rMneyaVy

emd·knSExµr¨khmVnebIkmux

saFarN:.

enAelIbda¨khme¨Jg¨Jt

eKEcgJk´esÂakep§g@

Çbk§È manCaGaTi−:

ÇyIehaÈ

rbs'eKCa

bJØak'nUvtYnaTId·knSrbs'

ÇmanEtbk§kumµ¬ynis¶kmõ¬CaeT EdlGacd·knSbd^vt¶n_eTArkC&yC÷nHCasÄaBrVnÈ.

Çbk§kumµ¬ynis¶kmõ¬Ca¨bkan'naTId·knSbd^vt¶n_kmõ¬CaÈ.

«f© 30 kJïa 1972 enAevlaem"ag 7 l©ac enAxageCégPUmitSgexµA e¨kamd÷Nk'eP¿g

¨sic@ ÓeKôasns&BæVnbMBgbJØaxÂSg@ [mit¶TSgGs'TMlak'«dGav biTeLvk edaHmYk ¨bug

e¨bobeKarB ÇTg'bk§È Ts§nikCneKarBtambJØaedayes©¿ms©at'ùùù. bTePÂg ÇeKarBTg'

bk§È k*VnbnÂWeLIg vSgnnBáNexovrebIkeLIg elcpæSgkMNat'¨khmTMhM¨bmaN 4 m2 man

sJïakeN¶¿vnigjjçr¨bTak'K~aenAcMkN¶alpæSg¨khm. xƬMgakeqÃgs¶S eXIjmit¶C^txagk¶ab'

«dKMnab'y"ages©¿ms©at'. xƬMk*k¶ab'«dKMnab'tameKEdr ehIygakeTAx§wbdak'mit¶xƬMm~ak'Edlman

Ts§n:neyaVydUcK~aCaPasaVrSgfaÐ ÇdUceKcak'cMebHdUgxƬM¨tèvmYykSbitùùù xƬMmanGarmµN_

hak'dUcrs'enAk~¬gshPaBsUev¿tÈ. mit¶xƬMeFÃIsJïa[xƬMniyaytic@ kMu[eK¾. bn¶ice¨kaymk eq¿teBlEdlG~käeTotkMBugcab'GarmµN_nwgsunærkfarbs'Gnu¨bFanPUmiPaKBiess TSgBIrnak'ekHK~arMkilxÂçnbn¶icm¶g@

ecjBITIenaHTSgeFgeFag¨salxÂçn

eyIg

¨BmTSgGs'sgôwm

EfmmYy¨tçteTot. minEdlmaneBlNaEdlxƬMGs'sgôwmnwgerOgCatidUceBlenHeTùùù. karGb'rMneyaVytamry:sn~iVt

eBleFÃIsn~iVtm¶g@

mansn~iVtbJïvn¶Caedém

vrCnExµr¨khm ÉkmµaPiVlrbs'eKEtgnSK~aBiPak§aBIkarlMVk ÉkarxÃHxatep§g@ EdleK VnCYb¨bTHk~¬gkarGnuvt¶n_maKáabk§.

sn~iVtrbs'eKmanlkÅN:cMhrxÂH sm©at'xÂH. enAk~¬gsn~iVtCMhr eKelIkbJúanana

k~¬g¨kbx&NërNsir§mkBiPak§a. eKlak'bMVMgminniyayBI Çbk§kumµ¬ynis¶È BIkmµv^FIneya-

Vyrbs'bk§.

enAk~¬grgÃg'

ÇbkÅCnÈ

kumµ¬ynis¶

karBiPak§aep§g@

enAk~¬gsn~iVtmanlkÅN:Ca

sm©at' e¨JHeKBiPak§akmµv^FIneyaVyrbs'bk§Bit¨Vkd BIyuTìv^FI nigv^FIsa¨s¶bk§. e¨kA BIbkÅCn És~èlsMxan'@ KµansmaC^kd«TNamansiTiìcUlrYmk~¬gmhasn~iVtenHeT.


31 rebobcat'Ecgrd½aPiVl PUmi XuM ¨suk tMbn' PaK sBëf©enH BYkExµr¨khmVnEck PUmi XuM ¨suk ext¶ PaK Ca PUmi XuM ¨suk ext¶ PaK

dUcK~a. karbegûét tMbn' PaK Edl¨sbeTAnwg ext¶ PaK rbs'eyIg enABuMTan'cºas'las'enA

eLIyeT

tamBittMbn'nimYy@

rbs'Exµr¨khm manTMhMb"unnwgrbs'eyIg ehIyPaKnimYy@

¨sbK~anwgPUmiPaKrd½rbs'eyIg (Régions administratives).

PUmi XuM tMbn' PaKnimYy@ d·knSedayKN:kmµkarPUmi XuM ¨suk tMbn' PaK. eKe¨cIn

niyayedayxÂIfa KN:PUmi XuM tMbn'.

KN:kmµkarnimYy@ mansmasPaBdUcteTA :

-¨bFan

-Gnu¨bFan

-smaC^k (e¨cInÉtic) TTYlbnæ¬kxagesd½kicÍ sgðmkicÍ vbºFmá eyaFa .l. cMeJHXuM ¨suk nigtMbn' eKmanEtgtSgs~gkarneyaVyrbs'bk§m~ak' EdleKniym

ehAfa Çelxabk§È(elxarbs'bk§). Çelxabk§È enHmanGMNacFMCageK e¨JHmantMNag

rbs'bk§sMrab'tamdanemIlskmµPaBrbs'KN:kmµkarTSgmUl. enAtamXuMEdl¨bCaCnenA BuMTan'yl'BIerOgbd^vt¶n_rbs'eK

eKEtgtSg[mans~gkarneyaVyrbs'bk§m~ak'

enAGm

KN:kmµkar. s~gkarneyaVy É ÇelxaÈ suTìEtCabkÅCn CasmaC^keBjcºab'enAk~¬g

bk§. cMENksmaC^käeTot«nKN:kmµkar (elIkElgKN:tMbn'nigPaK) manxÂHminTan'Vn

cUlCasmaC^k«nbk§eT KW¨Kan'EtCa ÇCnbegðalÈ ÉCaG~kFÂab'KS¨Tbd^vt¶n_rbs'eKCayUrmk ehIy

nigFÂab'VnTTYlkarGb'rMneyaVye¨CA¨CHBIBYkeK.

enAman¨bFan

ÉsmaC^kKN:

kmµkarrNsir§PUmiXuMxÂH enA¨twm¨kbx&NërNsir§enAeLIy KWenAyl'faeKeFÃIbd^vt¶n_enHedém��I ¨bKl'GMNaceTA[sIhnuv^jEtbu"eNöaH.

¨khmXÂSemIlCanicÍ

cMeJHsmaC^kKN:kmµkar¨bePTenH

ehIyeKÓs§ah_Gb'rMneyaVybn¶icm¶g@

mkdl'lMdab'bd^vt¶n_sgðmniym.

GgðkarExµr

edémºITak'Taj[elatepÂaH

enAcugq~S 1970 rhUtmkdl'Jk'kN¶alq~S 1971 smasPaB«nKN:kmµkarrN-

sir§enAtamPUmiXuM¨suk enA¨cbUk¨cbl'xÂSgNas'. BYksIhnuniymVnTTYltMENgsMxan'@

Cae¨cIn enAk~¬gGgðkare¨kam KWenAk~¬gKN:PUmi XuM ¨suk nigtMbn'xÂH@. smaC^kGs'enaHe¨Cés

erIseLIgTSgbgÅ÷edayBYkeyokkug-eyokNamxageCég emÂa"HehIye¨cInEtxÃHkarGb'rMxagEp~k neyaVyep§g@ . cMENkenAGgðkarxagelI manKN:tMbn'xÂH Exµr¨khmeK¨bkan'naTIdac'

mux KWsmaC^kenAk~¬gKN:kmµkard·knSTSgGs' suTìEtCasmaC^keBjcºab'rbs'bk§. edémºI


32 [VncUlCasmaC^keBjcºab'rbs'bk§ m~ak'@ ¨tèvcUlbMerIclnarbs'eKy"agtic[Vn 23 q~S ehIy¨tèvbMeBjlkÅx&Nërbs'eK[Vn¨Kb'sBÃpg. BYkExµr¨khmVne¨bIyuTìv^FIneyaVymYy

k~¬gkarelbkmÂSgrNsir§rbs'sIhnu.

d÷bUg KWenAq~S 1970 nig 1971 enAeBlEdlkmÂSgkumµ¬ynis¶eyokkug-eyokNamxageCég kMBugrattºatvatTIxÂSg

T&Bkumµ¬ynis¶breTsk*VnykTun¨bCa¨biyes¶csIhnumkeFÃICaLb'

EL edémºIrkkmÂSgbEgík kmÂSgKS¨TenAk~¬g¨sTab'¨bCaCnEdlBYkva¨tçt¨ta. eBlenaH kmÂSg Exµr¨khm TSgkmÂSgeyaFa TSgkmÂSgneyaVyenATn'ex§ayxÂSgNas'. TSgeyokkugeyok NamxageCég

TSgBYkkumµ¬ynis¶ExµrnSK~ab¶èrv^FIneyaVyeKogKrkmÂSgsIhnuniym

e¨JHenA

tamtMbn'CnbTPaKe¨cIn Tun¨bCa¨biyPaBrbs'sIhnuenAxÂSgenAeLIy. ¨bCaksikr JNiCØ

krmYycMnYnFMenAKS¨Tes¶csIhnu

sir§rYbrYmCatikmõ¬CaÈ.

KN:kmµkarkN¶al«nbk§kumµ¬ynis¶Exµr

Gnæak'rbs'xÂçntamry:eb"kSg.

xÂçn.

CaehtunS[G~kd·knSExµr¨khmeTABYne¨kamLb'EL

Vn«dehIy

ÇrN

Vn¨bTajsIhnu[cUl

BYkExµr¨khmk*¨bwgcMehovxÂaj'sIhnu[Gs'BI

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sranos proleng khmer