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Preventing Infectious Diseases February 2013

Chapter 13

What Are Infectious Diseases? An infectious disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens (or agents) that have invaded the body.

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Staying Well Some of the ways that you can stay well are by: PHOTO HERE, PLACE • Eat healthy/Balance diet OTHERWISE DELETE BOX • Reduce stress • Exercise regularly • Avoid close contact with sick people. • Get enough sleep By getting regular checkups and staying up to date with your vaccines you can also stay well. Vaccines are substances that introduces killed or weakened pathogens to the body to build immunity. This makes it possible when future pathogens enter the body the cells will remember it and be able to quickly destroy it before it can cause diseases. You can tell if you are sick when you start to notice symptoms (which are changes that you notice in your body that are caused by disease) like fever, rash, aches, etc. When you are sick: • Stay at home and rest • Drink plenty of fluids • Wash hands frequently

Five pathogens that can cause diseases are: • Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms. • Viruses are even smaller than bacteria that are made of genetic material in protein coats. • Fungi are organisms that absorb and use nutrients from the living or dead ones. • Protists • Parasites These diseases spread in four main ways: • From person to person • Food and Water • In the Environment • Through Animals Infectious diseases are treated with antibiotics (medicine used to kill or stunt the growth of bacteria) that are either taken internally or externally. Antibiotic resistance is a condition where bacteria no longer are killed by a certain antibiotic. You can prevent this by not taking antibiotics if you have a viral disease and follow/finish all of your prescribed medication.

Protecting Your Body Some of the ways that your body fights diseases are through: • Physical barriers o Skin o Mucous membranes which is the soft-covering tissue in spaces like the nose o Chemicals like tears, sweat, and stomach acid • Inflammation is the swelling, redness, and pain that are your body’s response to infection. • Immune System made of blood cells and proteins. • Lymphatic system sweeps fluid through the body to caught bacteria or viruses and drags them back to pockets of white blood cells whose job is to destroy pathogens.

NATIONAL INSTITUTION OF HEALTH (NIH)

HTTP://ARSTECHNICA.COM/SCIENCE/2008/12/NEW-PAPERSUGGESTS-POLITICS-INFLUENCE-NIH-GRANTDISTRIBUTION/


Preventing Infectious Diseases Continued Chapter 13

February, 2013

To Prevent the Spread of Diseases: •

• •

Keep clean (bathe daily with soap, wash your hands before you eat, etc.) Don’t share personal items (like toothbrushes) Cover your mouth when you sneeze and cough

Other Common infections are: •

Fungal- symptoms of being itchy, reddening, and development of lesions o Ex: athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm, etc Protistan o Ex: African sleeping sickness, malaria, amebic dysentery (inflammation of the intestine by amoeba) Parasitic o Ex: hookworm, flukes, tapeworms, etc

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

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Common Infectious PLACE Diseases PHOTO HERE, OTHERWISE BOXto avoid pathogens; Diseases affect everyone because it DELETE is impossible they are everywhere and we can all contract them. Two examples of a bacterial disease are: • Meningitis- causing one to have severe headaches, fever, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and nausea o it is transmitted by eating food from a contaminated animal or been contaminated by another person • Tetanus- causes severe muscle spasms o Transmitted by bacteria that is commonly found in soils; commonly entered the body through cuts

Two examples of viral diseases are: • Hepatitis- causes the inflammation of the liver, jaundice, and fever, and darker urine o Transmitted by coming into contact with infected bodily fluids or ingesting contaminated food/water • Mumps- causes pain and swelling in the glands in the throat, fever, and headaches. o Transmitted by coming into contact with infected airborne particles and personal contact


Lifestyle Diseases Chapter 14

February, 2013

Lifestyles Affect Your Health Lifestyle diseases are caused by the unhealthy behavior, habits, and practices that one chooses and in a small part by other factors. Three of those controllable factors are: • Your diet • Daily levels of physical activity • Levels of sun exposure Three uncontrollable factors are: • Age • Gender • Heredity By creating healthy habits now in areas like saying no to drugs or balancing your diet you can lower your risk of developing diseases.

Cardiovascular Diseases http://www.saltyrunning.com/2012/07/13/5-things-that-make-mesay-what-the-about-running/couch-potato/

PLACE PHOTO HERE, OTHERWISE DELETE BOX

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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are diseases and disorders that come from progressive damage to the heart and blood vessels. While some develop cardiovascular diseases through heredity factors, others with poor lifestyle choices like smoking, being overweight, or having high cholesterol can also develop it. Some types of CVDs are: • Strokes- sudden attacks that occur when a blood vessel in the brain is blocked or burst • Blood Pressure- the force of your blood against the walls of blood vessels (high blood pressure or hypertension puts too much pressure on the heart and causes injury) • Heart Attack- the sudden loss of blood flow to the heart caused by the blocking of coronary arteries • Atherosclerosis- the buildup of plaque (fatty material) inside of arteries •

How to Know if You Have Cardiovascular Disease:

Check your blood pressure (normal pressure is between 80/50130/35 mm Hg) • Get an ultrasound (doctors use this to see the heart’s action) Treatments include: • Diet and Exercise • Medicines •

Know if You Have Cancer By: •

Self examinations

Blood and DNA tests

X-rays

• Cancer treatments include surgery to remove the tumors, chemotherapy (the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells), and radiation therapy.

Cancer

Cancer is a disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth. This is caused by viruses (like HPV), tobacco chemicals, radiation and ultraviolet light from the sun. These extra cells form into clumps called tumors (some are benign=harmless or malignant=harmful) Some types of cancer are: • Breast (found in women and men) • Skin • Ovarian • Prostrate


Lifestyle Diseases February, 2013

Continued Chapter 14

How Can You Lower Your Risks? For cardiovascular diseases, some things are: • Limit your consumption of saturated fats, cholesterol, and salt • Exercise regularly • Check your blood pressure regularly • Take a deep breath and relax For cancer, some things are: • Don’t smoke • Protect your skin • Eat your vegetables • Stay active (with healthy weight) • Get regular checkups

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Living With Diabetes Diabetes is a disorder where cells cannot get enough glucose from blood cells so that produces high bloodglucose levels. This disorder happens either because the cells don’t produce enough or reject insulin. Insulin is the hormone in your body that gets the cells to remove the glucose.

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There are two types of diabetes: • Type 1- “insulin-dependent diabetes”; the body cannot produce insulin • Type 2- the body does not respond to insulin Detect diabetes by going to your doctor to get tests like urinalysis or glucose-tolerance test. Treatments for Type 1 diabetes are insulin injections and for Type 2 the focus is more on a control healthy diet, watching the amount of glucose intake.

How Can I Prevent Diabetes? http://www.clker.com/cliparts/4/3/3/6/1194984910238730787no_s moking_sign_domas_jo_01.svg rd

Elisa Green 3 period

Well for Type 1 diabetes, you can’t prevent it but for Type 2 diabetes some prevention steps are: • Maintaining a healthy weight • Avoid tobacco

Preventing Infectious Diseases  

A Lifetime Wellness project about different types and causes of diseases.

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