Biodiversity/ classification Some terms:
Biodiversity Taxonomy, taxon, taxa, taxonomic rank Linnaeaus Binomial nomenclature Scientific name/ species Common name What about humans
FIVE KINGDOM SYSTEM
Monera- all prokaryotes Protista- alga, protozoa, slime molds Fungus Plant Animal
Domains and Kingdoms
Based on DNA comparisons
Domain Bacteri- prok.
Domain Archaea- prok.
Kingdom Eubacteria, also include cyanobacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria: snottites and extremophiles: very hot, salty,acidic habitats
Domain Eukarya – all made of eukaryotic cells
Kingdom Kingdom Kingdom Kingdom
Protista Fungus Plantae Animalia
Plant-like - algae: exs- diatoms, dinoflagellates, form base of marine food chain, produce a majority (70-80%) of oxygen we breath; seaweeds, etc.
Animal-like – protozoan: ciliates: exparamecium; flagellates: ex. - euglena; ameboid/form pseudopods: ex – ameba
Slime molds- are weirdos; moldy,slimy-like creepy, crawling masses, move along forest floor consuming dead matter.
Heterotrophic: saprophytic or parasitic Molds - exs: penecillin mold, bread mold, orange peel, strawberries, etc. Mushrooms and toadstools Yeasts Mildews- shower stalls Parasitic: toe nail fungus, athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm, yeast infections Thought for today: “The meek shall inherit the earth”.
Terrestrial, autotrophic, green Include: Bryophyytes - mosses/liverworts- not vascular; reproduce by spores
Tracheophytes-- are vascular Ferns - produce spores instead of seeds Gymnosperms- seed plants; conebearing; needle-like leaves; produce pollen Angiosperms- seed plants; flowering/fruit bearing; also produce pollen
monocots and dicots- two categories of angiosperms
Two types of Angiosperms
Parallel vein pattern pinnate or palmate
# flower parts: 3’s
Stem veins: scattered ring
4 or 5 single
Transition to land- problems encountered by plants
Support weight Protection from dessication Obtain nutrients from soil Transport nutrients to leaves Reproduction when no water available to transport sperm Withstand extreme fluctuations in temp., light, wind, humidity
4 adaptations for land existence, absent in most advance alga, present in earliest tracheophytes
Protective layers around reproductive organs; sterile jacket cells Multicellular embryo retained in the female gametophyte Waxy cuticle Transport tubes/ “plumbing”
ANIMAL DIVERSITY LAB PROJECT
All animal diversity lab sheets are due by Thurs, 6/1/06!!!!!!!!! You can give them to me anytime before that if they are ready.
You must turn them in to me personally, your hand to mine.
I must check all sheets to make sure everything on them is legal. Anything not allowed will be pulled out. You will get them back on the day of the final exam AND USE THEM for any animal kingdom related questions/essays.
This packet will also receive a recorded lab grade.
Only animal kingdom notes allowed for final; no plant notes, etc.
TERMS - described and defined ď Ż
endoderm, ectoderm, central cavity, mesoglea, spicules, polyp, medusa, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, metamerism, closed circulation, visceral mass, mantle, book lungs, spiracles, tracheal tubes, cephalothorax, exoskeleton, endoskeleton, water vascular system, notocord, complete vs. incomplete metamorphosis
Bacteria – cellular, prokaryotic
Binary fission Conjugate and exchange plasmids Form spores when conditions are adverse Most are heterotrophic and beneficial: e.g. Most notorious are parasitic: TB, tetanus, syphylis, gonorrhea (clap), diptheria, staph infections, salmonella, strep throat
Intracellular parasites Outer coat of protein; inner core of nucleic acid Enter host cell, take over host cell’s metabolism, directing the cell to make new virus particles. Cell explodes or buds off new virus particles, killing the cell Exs: flu, colds, chicken pox, small pox, measles, hepatitis, ebola, HIV/aids, some cancers (cervical), meningitis, herpes,
Domain- eukarya Kingdom- animalia Phylum - chordata Class - mammalia Order - primate Family - Hominidae G. S.
9 MAJOR PHYLA SEE HANDOUTs- list with general characteristics and exs. Cartoon page Refer to Text - chapters:
Evolutionary Trends in land Plants
Gametophyte dominance>>> sporophyte dominance No vascular tissue >>> xylem , phloem, vascular bundle Spores ->>>> seeds Archegonium/antheridium >>>cones>>flowers/fruit Flagellated sperm>>> sperm with no tail, package in pollen grains
EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS AND ADVANCES IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
ANIMALS- evolutionary trends
Radial symmetry----- bilateral Nerve net------Cephalization, sense organs in front end----- well organize brain No limbs----- tetrapod----knuckle walker -------- bipedal, upright Segmentation: external vs. internal Cloaca------2 or 3 separate openings; -------urinary bladder
Evolutionary Trends -Transition to land
Cutaneous respiration,etc. --- gills-lungs External fertilization ---- internal fertilization Eggs laid in water---Amniote (land) egg, in reptiles, birds, some mammals (monotremes) -----marsupial (pouch)--placental HEART: two-chambered (fish); 3chambered (amphibians); 3 + (reptiles); 4-chambered (birds and mammals) No coelum ---- pseudocoelum-- true coelum (body cavity)
Evolutionary trends (animals)
No skeleton ----- hydrostatic----exo vs. endoskeleton (flexible vertebral column)
Face, brain and brain case
Poikilothermy (ectotherm) ---homeothermy (endotherm)
Evolutionary Trends (animals)
Integumentatry system: smooth ----scales----- feathers------ hair/fur
Uric acid excretion vs. Urea excretion
Unicellular (protista) ---- colonial ----tissue----- organs------ organ systems