devulcanized scrap tire & industrial rubber recycling
www. revultec .com
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“We have Tire and Industrial Rubber Recycling solutions in our hands.”
Table of contents Revultec Inc. Corporate Overview
Process Flow Diagram
Scrap Tire & Industrial Rubber Recycing Solutions
Corporate overview REVULTEC, Inc., is owned 51% by Advanced Recycling Sciences, Inc., (www.arsciences.com) and 49% owned by Rashid S. Al Rashid & Sons Co., Limited Riyadh, Saudi Arabia . The Al Rashid Group is a prominent Saudi industrial group which has interests spanning architectural design & engineering, construction, real estate, farming, local manufacturing with operations located in Riyadh, Dammam, Al-Hassa and Al-Khobar.
Revultec has selected Applied Power Concepts (APC) as the primary technical associate to assist with the completion of the technology development. ARS/Revultec and APC have worked together over the last ten years and have entered into an exclusive contract to co-develop this technology. However, all patent rights belong to Revultec. APC has well-qualified staff with specific expertise led by Dr. Farone, a renowned scientist.
Along with Dr. Farone’s expertise in the field, the availability of APC’s local laboratory offers the added advantages of minimizing the required investment in necessary hardware and eliminating the permit requirements to operate the system. Also, Revultec/APC has collaborated with Burns and McDonnell Engineering in San Diego to oversee the engineering development of the next generation 500-gallon SCF reactor pending the design for a full scale, 5,000 gallon commercial plant. Plans are underway to explore the possibility of securing the finance needed to build this second generation test facility in Germany to meet current market demands there, which may lead to future investments depending upon the outcome of the next round of current market developments. Revultec Management: The Board of Directors and Executive Management Rashid S. Al-Rashid Chairman – Saudi Arabia Yousef R. Al-Rashid, Director – Saudi Arabia Keith J. Fryer, President, Director, Co. Secretary - CA Ehrenfried Liebich, Director - CA Advisors: Christoph Bruening (Germany) Cees Nater (Holland/Spain) Dr. William A. Farone (Revultec)
In 2008 there were 300+ million used tires discarded in the United States with a similar amount disposed of in Europe. While over half of these tires were recycled or otherwise utilized for other applications, approximately 110 million were either illegally added to the 800+ million tires that are already stockpiled in the U.S. A similar amount of tires are entering the EU waste stream on an annual basis causing a huge environmental hazard which needs to be cleaned up.
The LR process uses a hydrocarbon-based solvent to break sulfur bonds (de-vulcanize) the surface of the crumb rubber utilizing a super-critical fluid technology. This process has been demonstrated in the laboratory. Revultecâ€™s next steps in the pre-commercialization phase are: 1) optimize the process ensuring all the desired rubber properties are present in the produced material, 2) open the operating window, and 3) demonstrate continuous operation supporting commercial production. This is all clearly feasible based on the innovative technologies used, and the recent compound test results obtained by the company.
Industry Waste Tire Industrial Scrab Rubber
Liquid Rubber Crumb Rubber
The Revultec technology is designed to process these waste tires into a new commodity suitable for reincorporation into new tire manufacture, anticipated at much higher content levels than previously achieved.
business development REVULTEC, Inc., is a development stage company with plans to commercialize a process called “liquid rubber” (LR) that reclaims (de-vulcanizes) scrap tire and industrial rubber in its original form to re-use with higher content levels, for making new tires and other industrial rubber products including automotive components.
son per year). In addition, about 2 billion scrap tires have accumulated in stockpiles. A tire is a thermoset material that contains cross-link molecules of sulfur and other chemicals, as well as a gallon of oil equivalent per tire. This makes scrap tires very stable and nearly impossible to degrade under ambient conditions. Utilization of scrap tires should minimize environmental impact and maximize conservation of natural resources. As a result, both government agencies and environmental groups have strongly supported scrap tire management programs. Each US state has its own scrap tire laws and regulations regarding scrap tire storage, collection, processing and use. The regulatory practices include landfill bans and scrap tire disposal fees. Scrap tires can be recycled into crumb rubber for use in hundreds of products.
Revultec is dedicated to developing innovative technology to make a major contribution to the recycling industry and contribute to “Landfill Free” recycling programs in order to divert waste tires and various plastic products from landfills by creating a new and innovative truly devulcanized material suitable for many product applications including new tire manufacture, industrial rubber products and construction markets for waterproofing, sealants, water/vapor barriers. Based on the Rubber Manufacturer’s Association (RMA) Report of November 2006, there are 300+ million scrap tires generated annually in the United States (one per per-
It is clear that the tire industry is one of the biggest potential users of Revultec devulcanized crumb rubber, with potential consumption in the millions of pounds per year. All tire companies are under constant pressure from increasing raw material costs, and there is a growing concern that governments may mandate the use of scrap tire-derived materials in new tire production. Given these factors, tire companies should look favorably on a material such as Revultec LR, which may offer lower cost and better performance than other recycle materials now available. However, in order for tire companies to accept our material they must conduct extensive laboratory, track, and field testing in order to qualify new materials for use in tires. Therefore we anticipate that a minimum of 6 months to a year may be required before commercial sales could be expected.
NON-TIRE APPLICATIONS: Manufacturers of industrial rubber goods (hoses, belts, automotive seals, molded products, etc) tend to be much smaller than tire companies, and are geographically widely dispersed. However, because their products are generally not as highly engineered as tires, their development cycles tend to be shorter and they are more likely to be â€œearly adoptersâ€? of new technologies such as Revultec LR. Another consideration is that molding processes tend to generate relatively high levels of in-process cured scrap.
OTHER MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES: The plastic industry presents a huge opportunity for the Revultec process and resources will be deployed in this field during 2010 to develop further process enhancements so that these materials can be successfully recycled as well.
The Revultec process could be presented as a means of devulcanizing this in-process scrap for reuse, thus avoiding disposal costs.
technology overview Technology / SCF-Revultec™ Revultec´s Liquid Rubber process de-vulcanizes scrap tire rubber so that it can be re-used. A scrap tire is composed of rubber, steel and nylon fabric. The tires are shredded and ground. Magnets remove the steel and the nylon is separated by a vacuum system leaving behind crumb rubber. Rubber is a polymer made out of oil, carbon black, sulphur and small amounts of silica and zinc. These materials are processed under pressure and temperature to thermo set the materials by cross-bonding with sulphur, resulting in vulcanization.
Revultec has developed a process that can produce a variety of butyl rubber mixtures from tire crumb. The process devulcanizes and solubilizes the tire crumb into a viscous fluid (40,000 to 100,000 cP viscosity) using supercritical fluid technology. The materials can be used in rubber formulations using organic solvents or mixed with latex (or other polymers) in water based applications. Since the material is made from recycled tires it does contain carbon, zinc oxide and some silica. The Revultec process can adapt this material to a wide variety of uses. That is, by varying the residence time of the reaction, the supercritical fluid to tire crumb ratio or the pressure and temperature a repeatable profile can be obtained for a specific application. Samples can be prepared for specific applications in 5-20 pound quantity. Characteristics The de-vulcanized rubber can be used to make new rubber products, including new tires. The quality of the devulcanized rubber for use in new tires has been validated by laboratory tests results and Goodyear tests. The Revultec Liquid Rubber compound offers lower cost and better performance than other recycle materials now available
If the sulphur bond in the polymer is broken, then the rubber is separated into the original materials. Liquid Rubber process treats crumb rubber (mesh size 15-30) utilizing “super critical technology with a hydrocarbon based solvent” to break the sulphur bond on the surface of the crumb rubber. This process is called “de-vulcanizing” and has been demonstrated in the laboratories.
Applied Power Concepts, Inc. (APC) has worked with Revultec and ARS over several years to develop the current process for recovery of polymerized materials in their depolymerized form to be used in making new polymers. This process has been optimized using the pilot facility at APC that was installed for the purpose.
The facility consists of a 5 gallon high pressure, high temperature reactor in a safety enclosure. The reactor is electrically internally heated with computerized controls. The amount of material that can be processed depends on the density of the input material. During processing density may increase but the volume limitation is set by the density of the dry feed polymer. Initially, Revultec had an interest in converting tire crumb to fuel products. APC reviewed the technology available to Revultec and suggested that conversion to devulcanized rubber would be more economically viable. Fuels are the lowest values use for any chemical product. Conversion to oil and gas leaves carbon, silica and zinc oxide as coproducts each of which requires disposal or significantly more expenditures to make into viable products. Devulcanizing tire crumb produces a product that contains all of the materials used in making tires. One does not need to separate out the various components that cause a problem in the conversion of tires to oil. The value of the treated material is therefore a significant fraction of the same fresh material used in make tire. Further, it was originally suggested that the same process could be used for a wide array of polymers. This suggested turned out to be valid for a wide variety of rubber like polymeric materials. The prototype for the process was the work performed by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. They had developed a process that used supercritical butanol at 6 times the amount of tire crumb. The process was uneconomical even though the product could be used back in tires.
Recovery of the solvent to a very high level was required and the large excess ratio of required solvent made the equipment costly. APC developed a process based on far less expensive fluids such as hexane where the amount used are typically only 1/8 of the rubber. The process also recovers over 96% of the solvent to be reused in the next reaction with the remainder being used as a portion of the fuel for the process. The use of a fluid like hexane allows the reaction temperatures to be much lower in temperature and pressure due to the lower supercritical requirements for hexane.
The process has been run to make many batches of rubber. It has also been extended to other types of polymeric materials. We have continued to make samples of various devulcanized rubber and depolymerized plastic materials. We have also used this opportunity to continue to improve the process.
process description Typically the materials of interest are materials produced as a function of the polymerization of monomer units. Tire crumb is the polymeric material obtained after removal of steel and nylon and in which the added sulfur, ZnO, carbon, silica is still present and the product is ground to a granule. Some of the other polymers that have been used include: EPDM TPE SBR Neoprene
When the solvent is n-hexane the temperature is between about 250 degrees C and about 300 degrees C.
ethylene propylene diene M-class thermoplastic elastomer polymers synthetic butyl rubber polychloroprene
REVULTEC PROCESS DESCRIPTION The Revultec system is a process for depolymerization where a supercritical solvent is utilized to convert polymer solids or recycled tires in tire crumb form to new devulcanized tire feedstock. The process uses an inexpensive solvent like hexane that is substantially completed recovered (98% recovery) for reuse. The only waste produced is normal boiler flue gas. The process is described and illustrated in Figure 1. It is thus a relatively inexpensive method to produce a high value product from waste materials. The material to be devulcanized or depolymerized is conveyed to a reactor (R-1) from a storage bin (S-1). The solvent is conveyed from a tank (T-1) into the reactor. The temperature of the solvent and polymer solids in the reactor is increased until the temperature and/or pressure in the reactor exceeds the condition wherein the solvent becomes supercritical.
The pressure is between 440 psia and about 525 psia. The temperature and pressure vary slightly with the composition of the liquid phase because there is only a single supercritical temperature and pressure for a fluid mixture and the exact composition of the fluid phase is not simply n-hexane. The solvent is flashed off the reaction mixture at about 300 psia into a storage vessel (T-2). For the tire crumb the granules have a size between 30-80 mesh ASTM down to 150 mesh ASTM. The reactor is held at supercritical conditions for about 30 minutes after the vessel and material have reached temperature. No agitation is required but a slight agitation is useful to reduce the reaction time and to assist in the removal of the finished product.
process flow diagram Process Flow Diagram / Patents Pending The preliminary Process Flow Diagram (see chart) and the Mass and Energy Balance is ready for the design of a scaled-up facility. We have jointly established that a 5,000 gallon reactor would be an optimum commercial size applicable to many sites where polymers, particularly tire crumb, are produced. This is 1,000 times larger than the current pilot reactor. A typical sequence of scale up could increase the size of the facility by factors of 10-20. Thus, a typical next step would be to design and build a 50-100 gallon reactor and then build a final commercial unit.
Patent Pending â€“ Depolymerization of Polymers Devulcanization Technologies Devulcanization is a method for recycling waste tire rubber. Depolymerization of plastics is an analogous method for recovering polymer materials for recycling material in making plastics. The depolymerized polymers and devulcanized rubbers are considered a valuable form of waste since these materials can be reprocessed into useful products. Generally devulcanization is done by direct chemical means, ultrasonic waves, microwaves, biological, or mechanical means such as steaming and grinding to small particle size. Typically these processes, except for ultrasonic and microwaves, only treat the surface of the particles. Direct chemical means require new reagents and frequently change the chemical structure to lower value products. All of these processes incur high costs of production.
Figure 1. C-2 S-1 Crumb Storage C-1 Crumb Conveyor R-1 Reactor T-1 Solvent Tank P-1 Solvent Pump
T-2 Gas Vent Storage B-1 Boiler B-2 Oil Reboiler P-2 Oil Pump P-3 Product Pump
D-1 Product Dryer C-2 Screw Conveyor S-2 Product Storage
However, there appears to be sufficiently low risk to the scale up such that the next level could be one that makes enough product to be self sufficient in terms of paying for the facility. It is not quite certain yet as to definitive costs for the facility as the next level of engineering remains to be performed. However, it may be projected that a facility on the order of 250-500 gallons may be self-supporting. This facility could then be increased to the 5,000-gallon level.
There are millions of used and worn out formulated rubber products and polymer solids discarded and filling the landfills annually. Some limited uses have been found for items such as tires which are used in building retaining walls, guards for protecting boats, gardening containers, and similar applications. Devulcanization offers the advantage of rendering the rubber suitable for being reformulated and recurred into new rubber articles. This can be classified as an indirect chemical means that temporarily uses a recoverable reagent to take the polymer partially apart.
Patent Pending â€“ Depolymerization of Polymers The recycled rubber could again be used for its original intended purpose in new tires or new rubber products rather than simply as a filler in applications such as incorporation into asphalt for surfacing roads or parking lots. However, to the present time, no devulcanization technique has proven to be commercially viable on a large scale.
The present invention involves a novel solution to the problem of devulcanizing rubber and depolymerizing polymer solids wherein the solvent used in the process is recovered mainly for reuse or in minor amounts as a fuel for the process. After an initial process to remove steel and nylon and commutation to produce tire crumb, supercritical hexane is used to convert recycled tires to a butyl rubber type product with the usual additives for that type of product (e.g. carbon black and silica in tires) that is useful for incorporation into new tires or other rubber products. Further this new process utilizes a solvent at a lower ratio of solvent to material than previously found possible and with a solvent that is recovered for additional use. The process has been extended to a wide variety of other polymers.
Testing of material at various laboratories has shown the products to be quite acceptable. The material can be included in producing the next batches of new product. The amount one can include depends on the specific product and the range of material to be recycled. Since not all tires are the same there is slightly less latitude in producing tires than in pure polymeric materials such as some of the formed rubbers. However, in all case studied including tires significant substitution and savings occur. We have found that we can remove 95-98% of the solvent directly out of the reactor when we release the pressure under controlled conditions at high temperature. We do collect slightly more other liquids when we do this but since all the liquids are recycled there is very little loss of product materials. If we couple this with the use of inclusion bags for use of the product in new polymer mixes we can design the process without any â€œdryingâ€?. The product is better as it can replace more new materials in making new polymers and the process can be made less expensive. The Revultec process produces some of the original monomer or short chain polymer material in addition to recasting the surface of much of the material to have essentially a surface similar to the functional groups of monomers for ease in future bonding. The ability to recover the bulk of the solvent for reuse and the fact that the gases created in the recovery process can be used in the boiler greatly simplifies a production plant. It also reduces the emissions points for the purposes of air quality permitting and makes the process much more environmentally friendly.
Scrap Tire & Industrial Rubber Recycing Solutions Scrap Tire Recycling
Industrial Rubber Recycling
Revultec has developed a process that can produce a variety of butyl rubber mixtures from tire crumb. The process devulcanizes and solubilizes the tire crumb into a viscous fluid using supercritical fluid technology.
Development programs have already been initiated with automotive component manufacturing companies in Europe in which in-process cured scrap will be treated with the Revultec process and returned to the customer for evaluation.Â
The materials can be used in rubber formulations both using organic solvents or mixed with latex (or other polymers) in water based applications. Since the material is made from recycled tires it does contain carbon, zinc oxide and some silica.
Two prominent automobile rubber component manufacturers in Germany are presently evaluating the Revultec process for the recycling of EPDM and TPE compounds and initial test results suggest that this will provide excellent results and further tests are underway.
The Revultec process can adapt this material to a wide variety of uses. That is, by varying the residence time of the reaction, the supercritical fluid to tire crumb ratio or the pressure and temperature a repeatable profile can be obtained for a specific application.
Revultec in collaboration with Applied Power Concepts is developing construction industry applications for a potential gas vapor membrane used in brown field remediation, as well as advanced roofing compounds and paints.
CONTACT USA: Revultec Inc. 411 E. Julianna Street, Anaheim, CA 92801 Contact: Keith J. Fryer / President Telephone: (714) 502-1150 Ext. 148 Fax: (714) 502-2450 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.revultec.com Germany: Revultec Deutschland Gartenstraße 46, 60596 Frankfurt/Main T: 069 95 92 46-21 F: 069 95 92 46-20 Email: email@example.com Web: www.revultec.de
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