Page 1

В. М. ПЛАХОТНИК, І». К). МАРТИНОВА, Л. Г. АЛЕКСАНДРОВА

ПІДРУЧНИК ДЛЯ 10 КЛАСУ ЗАГАЛЬНООСВІТНІХ Н АВ ЧАЛЬН И Х ЗАКЛАДІВ Реком ендовано М ініст ерст вом освіт и і науки України

КИЇВ «ОСВІТА» 2006


ББК 81.2АНГ-922 П37

Рекомендовано Міністерством освіти і науки України (Лист Міністерства освіти і науки України №1/11-1314 від 24.04.2002)

ВИДАНО ЗА РАХУНОК ДЕРЖАВНИХ КОШТІВ. ПРОДАЖ ЗАБОРОНЕНО Художник О. П . Никифоров

За автентичність текстів відповідають автори

Плахотник В. М., Мартинова Р. Юм Александрова Л. Г. П37 Англійська мова: Підруч. для 10 кл. загальноосвіт. навч. закл. — 4-те вид.— К.: Освіта, 2006. 224 с. І8ВИ 966-04-0672-Х.

І8ВМ 966-04-0672-Х

ББК 81.2АНГ-922

© В. М. Плахотник, Р* Ю. Мартинова, Л . Г. Александрова, 1997 © В. М. Плахотник, Р. Ю. Мартинова, Л . Г. Александрова, зі змінами, 2001, 2006 © Художнє оформлення, видавництво «Освіта», 2001, 2006


THE FIRST TERM

RECAPITULATION COURSE Lesson 1 1. Read the text and retell it. I AM A TENTH FORM PUPIL The summer is over, and now I am a pupil of the tenth form. There are many new pupils in our form. Some of them came from other forms of our school, but some boys and girls came from other schools. One boy, I know him, came from Lviv. I have to make acquaintance with new pupils. I think I’ ll do it at our English lessons. W e’ll do special exercises. I know it almost exactly because my English teacher Marfa Romanivna likes to make up dialogues where we introduce each other and speak about our families and friends. In such a way we recollect words and expressions which we have forgotten. I’ m sure we’ ll be given necessary words and expressions in our textbook. 2. a) Read the words, word-combinations and sentences with their translation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate the word combinations and sentences into English. 1) teens 2) a teen-ager 3) She is still in her teens. 4) She is just out of her teens. 5) I am a teen-ager. 6) What is your name? 7) What is your friend’s name? 8) How old are you? 9) Is your friend a teen-ager? 10) When were you born? 11) Where were you born? 12) I was born in Chernihiv on the 8th of September 1980.

Bin BiA 13 AO 19 pOKiB K)HaK a6o fliBHHHa Bi/j 13 ao 1*9 poKiB, TiHeiiA^cep Iii me aeMae 20 poniB. mm Ih He#aBHO BHHOBHHJIOCb 20 poniB. H niAJiiTOK (TineiiAHcep). Hk T e 6 e 3ByTb? Hk 3ByTb TBoro Apyra? CnijibKH To6i p o n iB ? TBih Apyr (tboh noApyra)

TiHeiiAttcep? KOJIH TH HapOAHBCK? R e TH HapOAHBCH? H

H apoA H B C H B H e p H i r o B i

8

BepecHH

1980

pony.

3


13) Do you have a sister (brother)? 14) How old is your brother (sister)? 15) What is your brother? 16) What is your friend? 1.7) What school are you from? 18) What school have you come from? 19) I have come from school number 10.

y Te6e e cecTpa (6paT)? CnijibKH poKiB TBoeMy 6paTOBi ( t b o ih c e c T p i)? X to TBiH 6paT?

X to TBiH flpyr? y

HKiii mKOJii

3 HKoi

th

ihkojih t h

H n p n 6yB 13

BHHmca? npn6yB ?

hikojih

HOMep

10.

3. Answer the questions. What form are you in? How old are you? Do you have a sister? What is her name? How old is she?

What is your friend? Is your friend a teen-ager? When were you born? Where were you born? Where do you live?

4. Read the dialogues in pairs. Make up your own ones. — Let me introduce myself. My name is Roman Savchenko. And yours? — My name is Oleh Rybchenko. It was a pleasure to meet you. I think Maryna Savchenko is your sister, isn’t she? — I’ m sorry, but I don’t have a sister. Maryna isn’t my sister. She is my cousin. I have a brother Borys. He is a student.

— Hello, Maxym. Glad to see you. — So am I. Where are you going? — I am going shopping. I saw you yesterday with a girl. Is she a teen-ager? — No, she is just out of her teens. It was my sister Natalia. — She is a nice girl, isn’t she? — Certainly, she is. I have two sisters and I think they are the most beautiful girls in the world. — Oh, yes they are your sisters! That’s why they are the most beautiful girls for you. * * * — — — — 4

How old is your sister? Sorry, I don’t have any sister. Really? I saw you yesterday at the cinema with a girl. Do you think all the girls are my sisters?


5.

Translate into English. 1 ) M n K O J i a — T B iii

A pyr,

He

Tan?

2 ) X t o T B ift A p y r ?

3 ) C n i j i b K H p o n i B T B o e M y 6 p a T O B i ? 4 ) X t o 6 y B 3 t o 6 o k > b K iH O ? — 9

M oh cecT p a ,

5 ) K o jih

H apoA H B ca

Tapac

U le B M e H K O ?

6 e p e 3 HH 1 8 1 4 p o n y . 6 ) T b o 'i h c e c T p i m e H e M a e 2 0 p o n i B , h h

He T a n ?

7) fle

th

H C H B em ?

(I*. Do exercise 2b in 1 minute. 7*. Write a short composition (7 —8 sentences) about your friend. 8. R e m e m b e r: A friend in need is a friend indeed. B jinxy roAHHy ni3Haein B ip H y JiiOAHHy A

fr ie n d

to

a ll

is

a

fr ie n d

to

none.

X to

b c Im

A pyr,

toh

H iK O M y H e A p y r .

Lesson 2 Do exercise 2b in 1 minute. 10. Read your composition about your friend. 11. Read the text and tell us about your family. 9.

MY FAMILY My family is not large. There are four of us: father, mother, brother and myself. We live in a small town not far from Rivne. Some of my relatives including my grandparents live in my town. My aunt Maryna and uncle Petx:o live in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. My father is a teacher, my mother is a doctor, my eldest brother is a student and I am in the tenth form at our local school. At week ends w e are at home, but my brother likes to go to the library on Saturdays. He is a good student. However we try to spend Sunday together as a family day. We read books and newspapers, go to the cinema or hike ( x o a h m o niniKH no okojihuhx). In the evenings we watch TV. Sometimes we don’ t switch on TV and discuss different problems. 12. 13.

Describe the picture on page 6 . Answer the questions. What is in the picture? Where is the family? What is the time in the picture? Is the family large? What are the members of the family doing? * B u p a B H 3 U,i€K) n 03H axIK 0I0 BHKOHyiOTbCH BAOMa.


The grandfather is reading a newspaper, isn’ t he? The father isn’ t reading a book, is he? 14. a ) Read the words, word-combinations and sentences with their translation. b) Cover the left side o f the page and translate the words, wordcombinations and sentences into English. 1 ) a large fa m ily 2 ) a sm all fa m ily

3) a granddaughter 4) a grandson 5) 6) 7) 8)

grandparents tw ins an aunt a cousin i<

a

BejiHKa cIm ’ h Majia ciM’ n BHy^Ka BHyK /UAyct i 6 a 6ycn 6JIH3HIOKH TiTKa ABOlopiAHHH 6 paT cecTpa)

(ABO IO piflH a


9) a nephew 10) an uncle 11) a baker 12) a dress-maker 13) a tailor 14) an electrician 15) He is my relative. 16) What is your brother? He is a fitter. 17) My family is not large. 18) My grandparents are pensioners.

nJieMlHHHK

AHflbKO nenap KpaBHHHH

KpaBeijb ejieKTpHK BiH Miii POAHH. X t o TBiH 6paT? — BiH cjiiocap. M oh cIm ’ h HesejiHKa. M oi AiAyct i 6a6ycn

neHcioHepH.

15. Answer the questions. Is your family large or small? What members does it consist of? What is your father? Do you have a sister? What is your sister? How old is she? Do you have a cousin? Your aunt does not live with you, does she? Your grandparents live with you, don’ t they? Do you have a teacher in your family? 16*. Do exercise 14b in 45 seconds. 17*. Write a short composition about your family. 18. R e m e m b e r: East or west home is best, y to cth x # o 6 p e , a

flOMa K pan je.

Lesson 3 19. Do exercise 14b in 45 seconds. 20. Read your composition about your family. 21. Read the text and describe your room. MY FRIEND’S ROOM Tamara is my friend. Sometimes I visit her. We do our lessons together or discuss interesting questions. Tamara’s room isn’ t very large, but it’s rather nice. It has a window and a balcony. The balcony and the window face the street. In the middle of the room we can see a desk and two chairs. On one of the walls there is a picture, opposite it there is a small mirror. In the corner of the room there is a bookcase where Tamara keeps her books. She likes books 7


and there are many of them in the bookcase: Ukrainian, Russian and English ones. There is a bed at the wall. The carpet is on the floor. When it is dark Tamara switches on a lamp which is on the desk or the lamp which hangs down from the ceiling. 22. Look at the picture and answer the questions.

rv-V#â&#x153;&#x201C;//77>777T, firr^tt rr What can you see in the picture? Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not a classroom, is it? What can you see in the middle of the room? Is the desk round or square? What is there in the corner of the room? What can you see on the walls? What is there on the desk? What is there on the bookcase?


How many windows are there in the room? Whom can you see in the room? What is she doing? 23. Ask each other questions about the room. 24. Describe the picture (exercise 22). 25. a) Read the words, word-combinations and sentences with their translation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate the words, word-combinations and sentences into English. BejiHKa TeMHa KiMHaTa 1) a large dark room MajieHbKa CBhvia KiMHaTa 2) a small light room ra p fle p o 6 , ma<|)a 3) a wardrobe kh h jkkobh niatjja 4) a bookcase CTijieijb 5) a chair ciflaTH 6) to take a chair Kpicjio 7) an arm-chair BHXOflHTH, 6yTH HOBepHyTHM 8) to face (y neenuu 6m) BHXOAHTH Ha ByJIHIJK) 9) to face the street BHXOflHTH y caA 10) to face the garden SajiKOH 11) a balcony KyT, KyTOK 12) a corner 3araHHTH y rjiyxH H KyT 13) to corner y KyTKy 14) in the corner n o ce p e fl KiMHaTH 15) in the middle of the room cKaTepTHHa 16) a table cloth 3aHaBicKa 17) a curtain paflicnpHHMaH 18) a radio-set TejieBi3op 19) a TV set Tejie4)0H 20) a telephone co(|)a, flHBaH 21) a sofa sim ajiK a (3 KpioHKaMH) 22) a rack KHJIHM 23) a carpet khjihmok ; MaTa 24) a mat 25) What does your window Ky^H BHXOAHTb TBOe BiKHO? face? M o e BiKHO BHXOAHTb y ABip (Ha 26) My window faces the niBH i^, Ha 3 a x ifl). yard (north, west). H h m noKpHTa niA Jiora? 27) What is the floor covered with? J\e t h 3 6 e p ira e m c b o i khhm ckh? 28) Where do you keep your books? 29) Whose bed is that? M h c t o jiu k k o ?

26*. Do exercise 25b in 1 minute. 27*. Write a short composition about your room. 9


28, R em em b er: M 3a Good name is better than riches. flo6pa cjiaBa Kpanje SaraTCTBo.

Lesson 4 29. Do exercise 25b in 1 minute. 30. Read your composition. 31. Read the text and translate it. CLOCKS AND WATCHES Oxford Advanced Learnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; s Dictionary says that a clock is an instrument (not carried or worn like a watch) for measuring and showing the time. So the watches can be carried in the pocket or worn on the wrist. There are two hands on the face of the clock. One hand is long and the other hand is short. The long hand is the minute hand. The short hand is the hour hand. Some watches show not only hours and minutes but also seconds, names of the days and months. These are clocks.


Look at the clock number 1. It is a quarter to three at it. Look at the clock number 2. It is half past two at it. Look at the clock number 3. It is a quarter to seven at it. Look at the clock number 4. It is twenty minutes to five at it. Look at the clock number 5. It is twenty-five past ten at it. These are watches.

32. Look at the watches and tell the time. Example: It is twenty minutes past four at the watch number 1. 33. Read the dialogues in pairs. Make up your own ones. Petro and Mykola are in the school-yard. P.: We are a few minutes late this morning, aren’t we? M.: I don’ t think so. We are not late. It is twenty-five minutes past eight, and our lessons begin at half past eight. P.: But it is half past eight by my watch. AT.: Well, I know my watch is right. I put it right at breakfast when we had the eight o’ clock news. P.: Then my watch is five minutes fast. Af.: Yes. W e’ re not late. We have a lot of time. ★ * *

Bill is sleeping. His mother comes in. It is eight at the clock. M.: Aren’ t you out of bed yet, Bill? It’s getting late. B.: Oh, it’s six to eight. 11


Af.: It is eight o’ clock. You are not right. B.: The clock is six minutes fast. I know it exactly. Af.: Do you? Why do you think so? B .: Because yesterday, when we had the eight o’ clock news it was six minutes past eight by our clock. Af.: Nevertheless, be quick. If you are not quick, you’ll have no time for breakfast. You have to leave the house at twenty past eight. J3.: All right, Mother. I’ ll be to breakfast in ten minutes.

— What is the time, please? I’ m not sure my watch is right. — It’ s five minutes to eight. — Thank you. I was right. My watch is four minutes slow. 34. Read the sentences with the translation. 1) Look at the clock and tell me the time. 2) What’s the time?/What time is it? 3) Tell me the time, please.

IlOflHBHCb

rOflHHHHK

cKancH, KOTpa roflHHa.

KoTpa roARHa? CKaaciTb,

roARHa. 12

Ha

SyAb Jiacna,

KOTpa


4) It *s ten minutes past 3a M OIM rO flH H H H K O M fleC H T b seven by my watch. XBHJIHH Ha B O C bM y. 5) It’ s twelve minutes to 3 a p a 3 3a #b ana#qhtb BocbMa. eight. 6) It’s a quarter to seven. 3apa3 3a ^BepTb cbOMa. 7) It’s a quarter past seven. 3 apa 3 HBepTb Ha BOCbMy. 8) It’s half past nine by my 3 a p a 3 niB Ha aecH Ty 3a m o im watch. TOflHHHHKOM. 9) My watch is right. M iil roAHHHHK i^ e npaBHjibHO. 10) Her watch is five I ’i t o a h h h h k Bi^CTae Ha n ’ HTb minutes slow. XBHJIHH. 11) His watch is three fto ro roAHHHHK nocnimae Ha TpH XBHJIHHH. minutes fast. 35*. Cover the left side of exercise 34 and translate into English. 36*. Do task 1 on page 109,

Lesson 5 37. Do exercise 34. 38. Read the text and answer the questions. DAYS OF THE WEEK AND MONTHS OF THE YEAR There are seven days in a week. They are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday. In Ukraine the first day of a week is Monday, in England it is Sunday. In Ukraihe the last day of a week is Sunday, in England it is Saturday. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday are working days. Saturday and Sunday are rest-days. There are twelve months in a yeax They are January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December. January, March, May, July, August, October and December have 31 days. April, June, September and November have 30 days. February has 28 days in an ordinary year and 29 in a leap-year. What is the first day of a week in England? What is the first day of a week in Ukraine? What is the second day of a week in Ukraine? What is the fifth day of a week in England? What is the last day of a week in Ukraine? The third day of a week in Ukraine is Wednesday, isn’ t it? What are the months of the year? How many months are there in a year? What months have 30 days? How many days has February in a leap-year? 13


39. Look at the calendar of September, 1997 and answer the questions. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 15 16 17 18 24 22 23 25 29 30 What What What What What

day day day day day

of of of of of

the the the the the

week week week week week

was was was was was

on on on on on

the the the the the

Friday 5 12 19 26

Saturday Sunday 6 7 13 14 20 21 27 28

18th of September, 1997? 25th of September, 1997? 29th of September, 1997? 31st of August, 1997? 1st of October, 1997?

40. Answer the questions. What day of the week is today? What day was yesterday? What day will be tomorrow? What day was before yesterday? What day will be after tomorrow? 41. Do task 1 on page 109. 42*. Translate into English in writing. 1) 3aBTpa 6yae neRiJia. 2) CboroAHi cy6oTa. 3) 3apa3 12 roAHHa. 4) 3apa3 ^tBepTb Ha BocbMy. 5) Kojih th npoKHA&emca? 6) Hkhh A^Hb thhchh 6yAe 3aBTpa? 7) CboroAHi He cyfxrra, cboroAHi n’ HTHHQH. 8) Bhcokochh# pin Mae 366 AHiB. 9) USfi p03MimeH0 nocepeA TBoei KiMHara? 10) Hh e y TBoift KiMHaTi KHHjKKOBa ma4>a? 43*. Do task 2 on page 110. 44. R e m e m b e r : Time is money. Hac — rpomi.

Lesson 6 45. Read your translation (exercise 42). 46. Read the text and answer the questions. SEASONS A year has four seasons. They are spring, summer, autumn and winter. March, April and May are spring months. In spring days are long and nights are short. The warmest month in spring is May. Many people like spring best of all because spring is a very beautiful season. 14


Summer comes after spring. June, July and August are summer months. It is the warmest season of the year, and many people want to get their holidays in summer. All children like summer best of all because they have their summer holi­ days. Autumn comes after summer. September, October and No­ vember are autumn months. The weather in autumn is change­ able: usually it is warm in September and cold in November. There is much fruit and vegetables in autumn. Some people like autumn best of all. Winter comes after autumn. December, January and Feb­ ruary are winter months. In winter the weather is frosty. Sometimes it is very cold. In frosty snow weather we can see many people in the parks and gardens: they ski, skate, sledge, play hockey. Many people like winter very much. What season comes after spring? What season comes after summer? It does not snow in summer, does it? What are days and nights in winter? When do children have winter holidays? Is it warm or cool in autumn? It often rains in autumn, doesn’ t it? Do you like winter? Why? What season do you like best of all? 47. Read the dialogues in pairs and make up your own ones. H.: The days are quite short now, aren’ t they? Af.: Yes, they are. It is the 21st of December today, isn’ t it? if.: Yes, that’s right. The days are the. shortest now. We are on the eve of Christmas. I like this holi­ day best of all. Af.: As for me I do not like winter. I like spring best of all. * * * A

It is the first of April today, isn’t it? B .: I’ m not quite sure. Today is Fri­ day, I know it exactly. A .: Yes, I know it’s Friday because it was Thursday yesterday. But what’s the date? £ .: Yesterday was the thirty-first of 15


March. March, I know exactly, has 31 days. That’s why it is the first of April today. A : And besides. A friend of my grandson rang him up in the morning and tried to fool him. Yes, it is the April Fools’ Day today, the first of April.

M.: What are you doing here at this time, Antin? A.: I am waiting for Hanna. We agreed to meet at 9. M.: At 9? But look at your watch! A.: It is a quarter to 9. M.: And now look at the clock over there! It is half past 9. A.: Really? Oh, my watch has stop­ ped. I have forgotten to wind ([waind] — 3aBecTH) it. It’s a pity. It is too late. 48. Do task 2 on page 110. 49*. Translate into English in writing. 1) H ahbjiioch TejieBi3op moAHH. 2) B1h ah bh b ch Tejiefii3op ytiopa. 3) H AHBHTHMyca TeJieBi3op aaBTpa. 4) Bh 6y#eTe /jhbhthcb TejieBi3op 3aBTpa. 5) H 3apa3 ahbjiioch TejieBi3op. 6 ) Kojih neTpo 3aiimoB ao KiMHaTH, Horo Apyr ahbhbch TejieBi3op. 7) Th *iacTO a h b h h ic h Te;ieBi3op? 8 ) Kojih th 3BH*iaHH0 ^ h bh h ich TejieBi3op ? 9) X to ah bh bch TejieBi3iHHy nporpaMy BHopa o BocbMiii roAHni?

Lesson 7 50. Read your translation (exercise 49). 51. Read and remember the names of the most popular kinds of sports. badminton [baedmintan] 6aAMiHTOH basket-ball [ 'ba :skitbo:1] 6acKeT6oji boxing ['boksiij] — 6 okc

jumping

[d3Ampn]]

ctph6kh

kickboxing

[kik'boksrq]

16

axH

K iK 6 o K C H H r

motor-racing

[' mouta' reis rq ]

— aBTOrOHKH

chess [tjes]

motor sports ['moutesports] asTocnopT


( k ic k e t drau gh t

[ k n k it] —

[dra:ft]

K pH K eT

— p /ra a m K K

running [ rAnnj] skating ['skeitii}]

(zpa)

KaTaHHH

H a K 0 B 3a H a x

fig u r e -s k a tin g —

6ir

(Jnrypue

fe n c in g

[fiq o .s k e it n ]] K aTaH H H

skiing

['ski:ii]]

cn opT

soccer [soka]

[ 'f e n s r n ]

JIHXCHH# <|>yT6 o j i

(JjexiyB aH H fl

swim m ing

f o o t b a l l [T u t b o .i] — 4 >yT6 o j i

[ ' swimn] ]

njiasaH H H g o lf [g o lf]

g y m n a s tic s

r o jiw f c

[ d 3 i m 'n a e s t i k s ]

tennis [terns] — TeHic volley-b a ll [v o lib o :!]

B0jieii60ji

r iM H a c T H K a jo g g in g

[ <1309113 ]

6ir

w eigh t-liftin g [w eit,h ftn ]]

BaacKa aT^eT^Ka

n iflT io n n ;e M ju d o

[ 'd j u . d o u ] —

a 3 K>ao

Read the word combinations and sentences with their trans­ lation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English. r p a T H b rnaxH 1) to play chess rpaT H b m a m K H 2) to play draughts rpaT H b x o K e ft 3) to play hockey r p a T H b <J>Yt6 o j i 4) to play soccer/football c n o p T H B H i 3 M araH H H 5) sports competitions 6) competitions in many kinds 3M araH H H 3 6 a r a T b o x BHfllB cnopTy of sports TaKi b h ,hh cn o p T y , hk 7) such kinds of sports as ... 3aHMaTHCH CnopTOM 8) to go in for sports 9) to take part in sports com­ 6paTH ynacTb y chopthbhhx 3MaraHHHX petitions 10) sports schools and sports CnopTHBHi QIKOJIH i cnopTHBHi c e K ijii sections SaraTo xoponrax cnopTCMeHiB 11) many good athletes HaHKpamnii cnopTCMeH 12) the best athlete AocaraTH Kpanjnx pe3yjiLTa13) to show better results

5 2 . a)

TiB

14) a big swimming-pool 15) As for me 16) The pupils of our form go in for many kinds of sports.

BejiHKHH SaceiiH

17) What team do you sup­ port?

3a

IU,o a o MeHe

y^Hi Hamoro KJiacy 3aiiMaiotbch 6 araTbMa BH/jaMH cnop­ Ty. HKy KOMaH^y

bh

BSojiiBa-

eTe?

53. Answer the questions. You are a good swimmer, aren’ t you? Do you have much training? 17


Have you got a good trainer? What is his (her) name? Is swimming your only sports? What other kinds of sports do you go in for? What sports competitions took place in your school last time? Who took part in those competitions? What athletes showed the best results? What is your favourite kind of sports? 54. Read the dialogues in pairs and make up your own ones using the words in brackets. a) — Is your father a good football (volley-ball, basket-ball) player? — Oh, yes, he is. He practises in football (basket-ball, volley-ball) every day, — And what about you? — As for me, I’m a good runner (jumper, boxer). I don’t like to participate in any team. b) — Our team will win the next soccer (volley-ball, basket-ball) match. — Do you think so? As for me, our team isn’t ready to the match yet. And besides, our best player is ill. — I don’t agree with you. Don’t forget that we trained a lot. And our new player is a good sportsman. — Let it be as you say. 55*. Translate the sentences into English in writing. 1) Min yjiK>6jieHHH bha cnopTy — riMHacTHKa. 2) CnopT flonoMarae Mem 6yTH 3flopoBHM. 3) BiH HaftKpanjHH 6aci<eT6oj i i c T Hamoi micojra. 4) Mi£ apyr — HaihcpanjH# maxicT Hamoro KJiacy. 5) YHHi Hamoro KJiacy 3aftMaioTbCK 6araTbMa BH^aMH cnopTy. 6) CnopTCMeHH Hamoi h ik o jih noKa3a;m Kpami pe3yjibTara i 3 CTpn6KiB. 7) M h b3hjih y^iacTb y c h o p t h b h h x 3MaraHHHX i 3 aHHHJiH nepme M ic n ,e . 8) X to BHrpaB? — IleTpo. 9) H He 6pas ynacTi y ijh x 3MaraHHHx. 10) X t o 6paB y^acTt y 3MaraHh h x ? — CnopTCMeHH Hamoi h ik o jih .

56*. Do task 3 on page 111. 57. R em em ber: Early to bed and early to rise makes you healthy, wealthy and wise. X to paHO Jinrae i paHO BCTae, 3fl0p 0B’ a, 6 araTCTBo i yM HaaKHBe.

Lesson 8 58. Do exercise 52b in 1 minute. 59. Read your translation ( exercise 55). 18


00. Read the text and translate it OLYMPIC GAMES It is reasonable1 to think that athletic contests were first organized some 3,500 years ago in Greece. However ancient in origin at least four of the Greek sporting festivals had uchieved major importance. They were the Olympic Games, held in Olympia. There are records2 of the champions of Olympia from 766 B.C.3 to A.D.4 217. The first Olympic champion listed in the records was one Coroebus of Flis, a cook, who won the sprint race in 776 B.C« The Games were abolished in A.D. 393 by the Roman emperor5 Theodosius Baron Pierre de Cubertin conceived6 the idea of reviving the Olympic Games, and in 1896 the first modem Olympic Games took place in Athens., 13 nations sent nearly 300 representatives to take part in 42 events and 10 different sports. Since then the Olympic Games took place every four years, except7 the years of world wars. In 1996 the 26th Olympic Games took place in Atlanta [at'laento], the USA. 197 nations sent more than 11,000 athletes to those Games. For the first time in the history of Olympic Games, the Ukrainian team took part in those Games and won 22 medals there. Nine of them were golden ones, 1 It is reasonable ['ri:zn3bl] — € Bci niflCTaBH 2 record [rekord] — 3armc, npoToicoji 3 B.C. (before Christ) — flo Hamol epu 4 A.D. (Anno Domini) [aenou'dominai] — Hamoi epu 5 emperor ['empire] — iM nepaT op 6 to conceive [kan'siiv] — 3a/*yMyBaTH 7 except [ik'sept] — KpiM, 3a b h h h t k o m 61. a) Read the word combinations and sentences with their trans­ lation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English. 1) It is reasonable to think that... 2) some years ago 3) to achieve major importance 4) the first Olympic champion 5) The Olympic Games were abolished by the Roman em­ peror. 6) In 1896 the first modern

C Bci niflCTaBH BBaxcaTH, m o... poniB TOMy Ha6yTH BejiHKoro 3HaneHHH K uibK a

nepniHH ojiiMnmcbKHH HeMni-

OH OjiiMnincbKi irpn 6yjra cicaco-

Bam pHMCbKHM iMneparopoM. Tlepmi cy^acHi OjiiMniftcbKi

19


Olympic Games took place in Athens. 7) Nearly 300 representatives took part in the first modern Olympic Games. 8) The Olympic Games take place every leap-year. 9) In 1996 the 26th Olympic Games took place. 10) Ukraine as an independent state took part in the Olympic Games for the first time in 1996.

ir p n

B ifl6 y jiH C i>

b

A < J )iH a x

y

1896 p. B j ih 3 b k o b 3h j ih

300

yn acT b

n acH H X

n p e flC T a B H H K iB y

n e p in n x

O ji i M n i i i c f e K H x

cy-

ir p a x .

O j i i M n i i i c b K i i r p n B iflS y B a iO T b -

CH

KOHCHOrO BHCOKOCHOrO

pO-

Ky. y 1996 poiji BiflSyjmcn XXVI OjiiMniftcbKi irp n . ynpaiH a hk He3ajie*cHa aep>KaBa B n ep m e B3HJia y^ a cT b O jiiM n ific b K H x

ir p a x

y

b

1996

p o iji.

82. Read the text ( exercise 60) once more and answer the questions. Who was listed in the records as the first Olympic champion? Who abolished the Olympic Games? When did the first modern Olympic Games take place? How many representatives took part in the first modern Olympic Games? When did Ukraine send its representatives to the Olympic Games as an independent team? 63*. Translate into English in writing using the text (exercise 60). OJIIMmftCBKI irPH 6 Bci niACTaBH Bsa>KaTH, m o nepm i aTJieTirari 3MaraHHH 6yjiH 0praHi30BaHi 6jiH3bKO 3500 poxiB TOMy. â&#x201A;Ź o<|>iiuihri 3anncH npo 'leM nioH iB O jiiM n ii 3 766 p. ao Hamoi epH. O jiiM n iiicb K i irpn 6yjiH cKacoBaHi y 393 p. Hamoi epn. n e p m i cy^acm OjiiMniiicbKi irp n BiA6yjiHCb y 1896 p. y 1996 p. yKpa'iHCbKa ojiiMniiicbKa KOMaH^a Bnepme BHCTynHJia hk He3ajiencHa i 3aBoioBajia 22 Meaajii.

64*. Do exercise 61b in 1 minute.

Lesson 9 65. Do exercise 61b in 1 minute. 66. Read your translation (exercise 63). 67. Make a short report about the Olympic Games. 68. Read the text and translate it.

20


SMALL CAN BE JUST BEAUTIFUL

The smallest European country participating in Atlanta has never won a summer Olympic medal and can fit1 its entire2 team in one room in the athletes’ village. The tiny principality3 Liechtenstein [lihtenjtain] whose 31,000 inhabitants are squeezed4 between Austria ['o:stna] and Switzerland | switsalond] had just two athletes taking part. 1 can fit — MOHce noMicTHTH 2 entire [in'taia] — Beet principality [pnnsa'paeliti] — k h h 31b c t b o 1 to squeeze [skwi:z] — 3aTiicKaTH 09. Answer the questions. Where did you spend your summer holidays? When did your summer holidays begin and end? What was the weather like in summer? When did your labour training practice take place? What did you do during your practice? What books did you read during the summer holidays? What films did you see? Did you meet any interesting people this summer? Whom did you make friends with? Did you enjoy your holidays? 70. Change the number of the words in bold type, make all the necessary changes. (Read § 1 on page 139). Model: 1) The book is on the table. The books are on the table. 2) This (that) is an apple. These (those) are apples. 1) The apple is red* 2) The man is playing the piano. 3) This woman is a teacher. 4) The child is playing in the yard. 5) This is a man. 6) That is a woman. 7) This window is open. 8) That tree is tall. 9) This is my exercise-book, and that is my pen. 10) That is a foot. 11) That is a shelf. 71. Guess the meaning of the words. document, system, idea, congress, principle, medal, modern, nation, sprint, corner, penalty, forward, half-back, goalkeeper, out, outsider 72. Translate the international words paying attention to the meaning of the suffix -ic. 21


ic — iHHHH/HraHH democratic — AeMOKpaTiroHHH h istoric, econ om ic, p a trio tic, electric, d ip lom a tic, autom atic, p olem ic, n a tion a listic, ch a u v in istic, cla ssic, socia listic, ca p ita ­ listic

73. Do task 3 on page 111. 74*. Translate into English in writing. I ) H HHTBK) KHHJKKH iqOAHH. 2) 3aBTpa H He 6y^y HHTaTH. 3) 111,0 th 3apa 3 hhtbgui? 4) Kojih a yBmuiOB a o kImhbth, B O H a He HHTajia. 5) fl To6i roBopns, m o ^ h tsb uk> KHHHCKy. 6 ) H B»ce npoHHT3B mo KHHHCKy. 7) fl HpOHHTaB Iji KHHJKKH MHHyjIOrO JliTa. 8) BoHa He jhoGhtb MHTaTH, BOHa jik>6h tb MajiioBaTH. 9) Th jih> 6 HHI HHTaTH, HH He TaK? 10) I KHH3KKa ubcaBa, HH He TaK? I I ) XXVI OjiiMnincbKi irpn Bjj*6yjracH y 1996 poiji, hh He TaK? 12) Kojih Bi^6yjiHCH XXVII OjiiMnincbKi irpn? — y 2000 poiji.

Lesson 10 75. Read your translation (exercise 74). 76. Tell us what you know about Olympic Games. 77. Read and translate.

Citius

/ A ltius !

Fortius !

"Citius, altius, fortius” — these Latin words have become the motto1 of modern Olympic Games. They mean "Faster, higher, stronger". No Olympics have taken to heart this motto more completely than the 26th Olympic Games. It has been the greatest recordbreaking ever seen. It has

22


been the flood2 of records. And nevertheless, while many were Keeking3 gold, others were just happy to be taking part in. And it ih quite natural: the other motto of modern Olympic Games is: it is above all to take part in, not to win. 1 motto ['motou] — Bi3 2 flood [fLvd] — noTin 1to seek [si:k] — nparHyra 78. Let's practise the Present Continuous. Change the sentences in the Present Indefinite to the ones in the Present Continuous. Change time expressions to now. (Consult § 21, 22 on page 156.) Model: He watches TV every day. He is watching TV now. 1) He works in the garden every afternoon. 2) We listen to the radio in the evening. 3) Ann does her homework after school. 4) I read newspapers in the morning. 5) She cleans her room every day. 6) John writes letters every week. 7) My friend listens to music every afternoon. 79. Study the table. CygriiccH -ion (-tion, -ation), -ment, -or, -er CyipiKC

Hny nacmuuy Moeu ymeopioe

io n (a tion tio n ) iM e H H H K

m ent

t

-er -or

flpuKJiad

creation formation revolution development movement enjoyment

IlepeKjiad CTBOpeHHa (J)O pM yB aH H H

peBOJiKmifl P03B H T0K

pyx 3aflO B O jiennn , B T ix a

reader operator

H H Tan onepaT op

80. Read the words and guess their meaning. Pay attention to the suffixes. a) prevent (BiflBepTaTH, 3ano6iraTH) — prevention (si ABepHeHhh,

3ano 6 iraHHH)

cooperate — cooperation act — action exhibit — exhibition realize — realization recollect — recollection

compete — competition found — foundation illustrate — illustration add — addition restore — restoration 23


b) disarm (po336poK>BaTHCH) disarmament (po336poeHHa) agree — agreement govern — government move — movement achieve — achievement enjoy — enjoyment develop development c) teach (y^HTH) — teacher (yTOTejib) sing — singer fight — fighter found — founder foreign — foreigner lead — leader illustrate — illustrator defend — defender work — worker 81*. Do task 4 on page 113. 82*. Do exercise 61b in 1 minute. 83*. Translate into English using the word enjoy and write down your translation. 1) MeHi Ayace cnoAo6anach hh n’eca. 2) Hh To6i cnoAo6ajiacn UH n’eca? 3) To6i cnoAoSajiaca mi n’eca, t o He Tan? 4) H AyMaio, m o Tofii cnoAo6aeTtcH ijh n ’eca. 5) IJh khhhcke He KOpHCTyCTbCH HpoKoio nonyjinpHicTio . 6) Mh ^icTajin BejiHKe 3a£OBOJieHHH BIA H O B opiM H oro B e^ iop a . 7) Th AicTaB BejiHKe Sa^OBOJieHHH BiA n,boro Benop a, t o He TaK? 8) X to AicTaB BejiHKe 3aAOBOjieHHH BiA Hboro Be^opa? 9) f l He AicTaB 3aAOBOJieHHH BiA ijboro Benopa. 10) H AyMaio, mo To6i cnoAo6aJiacH n;a n’eca, t o He Tan?

Lesson 11 84. 85. 86. 87.

24

Do exercise 61b in 1 minute. Read your translation (exercise 83). Read the text (exercise 77). a) Read the questions in English and answer them. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate the questions into English. 1) What countries does Ukraine 3 HKHMH K p a iH a M H Meacye yKpaiHa? border on? 2) What is the territory and Sica TepHTopin i nice HaceJieHHH yicpaiHH? population of Ukraine? 3) Is Ukraine a member of the Hh e yKpaiHa HJieHOM OpramUnited Nations Organization? 3aijii 06’eAHaHHX Hamm? 4) What mineral resources is H kh x k o ph c h h x koubjihh 6araUkraine rich in? to b y n p a iH i? 5) What does Ukraine produ­ m o BHpo6jIHG yKpaiHa? ce? 6) What rare metals and va­ Hm piAKicHi MeTajiH l HKy luable raw materials have been aiHHy cnpoBHHy 3Ha EAeHO B found in Ukraine? yKpami?


HH. Do exercise 87b in 1 minute. H1>. Complete the sentences to make up a story. Ukraine is one of the largest . . . . It has the territory of about ... . It has the population of more than ... . Ukraine borders o n ... . Ukraine is the member of ... . The main river of Ukraine is ... . It is rich in ... . Manganese ore, gas, ... have been found in Ukraine. Ukraine produces ... . HO. Answer the questions. (Consult § 47 on page 173.) Ukraine borders on Poland, doesn’t it? Ukraine does not border on Afghanistan, does it? Moldova does not border on Russia, does it? The northern neighbour of Ukraine is Bilorus, isn’t it? Poland does not border on Russia, does it? The geographic centre of Europe is situated in Ukraine, isn't it? Rakhiv is situated near the centre of Europe, isn’t it? IM.a) Read the questions in English and answer them. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate the questions into English in 30 seconds. R e po3TamoBaHHH K h ib ? 1) Where is Kyiv situated? C k u ib k h HacejieHHH Meuncae b 2) What population has Kyiv? Knesi? 3) What does the city look 3 khh BHrjiHA Mae Micro? like? H h m o6caflHceHi B y jim u Khc4) What are the streets of Ba? Kyiv lined up with? 5) What is held in Kyiv every ID,o CBHTKyioTb y KneBi kohcHoi ocTaHHboi Heflini TpaBHH? last Sunday in May? 6) Kyiv is the scientific, in­ K h ib — HayKOBHii, iH /jy cT p iajibH Hii i KyjibTypHHft ije ir r p dustrial and cultural centre of y icp a iH H , hh He TaK? Ukraine, isn’ t it? 7) What scientific institutions H K i HayKOBi ycTaHOBH i BHmi and higher educational estab­ HaBHajibHi 3aKJiaflH K n eB a bh 3H aeTe? lishments do you know in Kyiv? W2*. Complete the sentences to make up a story about Kyiv. Write down the story. Be ready to tell your classmates a story about Kyiv. Kyiv is situated on ... . Kyiv has a population of ... . The city is green and ... . The streets are lined up with ... . It is the scientific ... . Kyiv has many educational establishmerits among which are ... . There are museums ... .

25


Lesson 12 93. Tell your classmates about Kyiv. 94. Read the text and translate it. UKRAINE AND THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE Ukraine joined the Council of Europe on the 9th of Novem­ ber 1995, taking the organization membership to 38. Three conditions for joining the Council of Europe were fulfilled:1 (1) legislation2 to safeguard3 national minorities4; (2) free elections; (3) new post Soviet constitution. Ukraine’s policies towards national minorities were re­ garded5 as some of the most progressive. Parliamentary and presidential elections were held in 1994 and were considered6 to be fair7 and free by the Council of Europe. As for Consti­ tution at that time, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Hennadii Udovenko said, "The Constitution we now use contains 140 amendments8. There is nothing left from the former consti­ tution” . Besides, the adoption of the constitutional agreement between Parliament and the President has further removed9 the obstacles10 from Ukraine’ s admittance to the Council of Europe. The new Constitution of Ukraine was adopted at the Fifth Ses­ sion of the Supreme Rada on June 28,1996. 1 tO fu lfill [flll'fll] ---BHKOHyBaTH 2 legislation [,led3 is'leifn] — 3aK0H0,naBCTB0 3 safeguard ['seifgatd] — ox op oE a ; o x o p o h h t h 4 m inority [mai'nonti] — MemiiHHa 5 to be regarded [ri'ga:did] — BBajKaTHca 6 to be considered [kan'si.dod] — po3rjiaflaTHCH ^ fair [fea] — necHHH, cnpaBe&JiHBHH, 38kohhhh 8 amendment [3,mendm9nt] — nonpaBiea to rem ove [n'mu:v] — y cy B a ra 10 obstacle ['obstekl] — nepeinicoAa 95. a) Read the word-combinations and sentences with their trans­ lation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English. 1) to join the Council of Europe 2) the conditions for joining 3) national minority 4) free elections 5) presidential elections 6) the new Constitution 26

npHeflHaTHCb ao Pa^n GBponn yM O B H n p n e flH a H H H

Han,ioHajibHa MemnHHa BijibHi bh6oph npe3H£eHTCbKi bh6 oph HOBa KoHCTHTyuia


7) to adopt a Constitution 8) the new Constitution of Ukraine 9) a session of the Supreme Rada 10) Foreign Minister 11) to contain amendments 12) to remove obstacles 13) Ukraine joined the Council of Europe in 1995. 14) The new Constitution of Ukraine was adopted on June 28,1996. 15) Ukraine’s policies towards na­ tional minorities are regarded as some of the most progres­ sive.

npHMHHTH KOHCTHTyQlID

HOBa KoHCTHiyuiH yKpaira cecin BepxoBHoi* Paon MiHicrp 3BK0paouhhx cnpaB MiCTHTH nonpaBKH

ycyHyTH nepennco/m yftpama npHGtfHajiacb flo Pa^H GaponH y 1995 p. HoBa KoHCTHTyuia y KpaiHH 6yjia npHHHHTa 28 nepBHH 1996 p. nojriTHKa ynpaiHH mo#o HaiyoHBJlbHHX M6HUIHH BBBXCaCTbCH

oflnieio 3 HaHnporpecHBHimHx.

IMS. Answer the questions. When was the new Constitution of Ukraine adopted? Who adopted the new Constitution? What three conditions for joining the Council of Europe were fulfilled by Ukraine? When did Ukraine join the Council of Europe? 97. Let's practise the Present Indefinite. Change the following sentences from the first into the third person singular. (Read § 15 on page 150.) Model: I study English. __________ He (she) studies English. 1) I go to school every day. 2) I always help my mother about the house. 3) I know English. 4) I read much. 5) I have breakfast at 8 o’clock. 6) I can swim across the river. 7) I can make a good translation of this text. 8) I usually finish my work at about five o’clock. 98. Translate the following words: principle, system, nation, idea, socialism, documents, emblem, position, culture, literature, to formulate, to reflect 99. Read the following words and give their Ukrainian equivalents. -al — -ajtBHHH central — i^eHTpajibHHft

|

social, international, national, actual, local, central, political, con­ stitutional, cultural 100. Do task 4 on page 113. 101. Do exercise 87b in 1 minute. 27


Lesson 13 102. Do exercise 95b in 1 minute, 103. Translate into English. 1) ynpaiHa npneAHajiacH jxo Pa^H SBpoira y 1995 p. 2) yKpama BHKOHajia Tpa yMOBH npHGAHaHHH ao Pa^H Gbpohh . 3) ITojiiTHKa yKpaiHH UXOJXO HaijioHajibHHx M e n u iH H 6yjia BH3HaHa OAHieK) 3 HannporpecHBHiuiHX. 4) Ba6opH napjiaMeHxy i npe 3HAeHTa yKpaiHH 6yjin BH3Haui BijibHHMH i cnpaBejyiHBHMH. 5) HoBa KoHCTHTyi^iH yKpaiHH 6yna npHHHHTa 28 nepBHa 1996 p. 6) 28 nepBHH nporojiomeHO AepacaBHHM cbstom — J\neM KOHCTHTyniii yKpaiHH.

104* Let's practise the Past Indefinite. Change the sentences given be* low into the Past Indefinite. Pay attention to regular and irregular verbs. (Read § 17 on page 152J Model: John sees the blackboard.— John saw the blackboard. 1) Ann studies English. 2) My father w orks at a factory. 3) M y m other finishes w ork at 5 o ’clock. 4) The Klymenkos live in Donetsk. 5) W e buy tickets beforehand. 6) Jim has a new coat. 7) The children go to school. 8) W e have dinner at 1 o ’clock.

105. Study the table. C y(|iiK C H

Cy$)iKC

-ity -iy

Hny H o cm u n y M oeu ym eopw e iMeHHHK npHCJliBHHK

-ity,

-ly

IlpuKJiad

possibility happily

IlepeKJiad MOJKJIHBiCTb

njaCJIHBO

106. Translate the words. a) easy (jie r K H ii) — easily ( jie r K o ) r ig h t — r ig h t ly c a r e fu l — c a r e fu lly w eek — w e e k ly

fr ie n d — fr ie n d ly e s p e c ia l — e s p e c ia lly h e r o ic — h e r o ic a lly

b ) p rod u ctiv e (npoflyKTHBHHH) — p rod u ctiv ity (npoayKTH BHiCTb) a c tiv e — a c t iv it y rea l — r e a lity

p o p u la r — p o p u la r ity s p e c ia l — s p e c ia lit y

107*. Do task 5 on page 114. 108*. Do exercise 95b. 109*. Translate into English in writing. 28


1) TpoMaflHHH YKpaiHH nnmaioTbCH c b o e io cmnHijeio. 2) Khib po 3TaraoBaHHH Ha o6ox 6eperax JIHinpa. 3) Khib 3aBH<flH npeKpacHHii. 4) Khib KopncTyeTbca mnpoKoio nonyjiapmcTio y 6araTbox Kpamax. IJe HayKOBHH, iHflycTpiajibHHH i KyjibTypHHii

ueHTp YKpaiHH. 5) IIJopoKy b KhgbI npOBOflHTbcn 4>ecTHBajii i KOH<J>epeHij;ii. 6) y KhcbI SaraTo y n iB e p c H T e T iB T a iHCTHTyTiB. 7) y KneBi 6 araTO nocojibCTB (embassy) i KOHcyjibCTB (consulate).

H ayK O B i

Lesson 14 110. Do exercise 87b. 111. Ask your classmates some questions about Kyiv. 112. Read the text and translate it. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH Geographically English is the most widespread1 language on Earth, second only to Mandarin ['maendarin] Chinese2 in the number of people who speak it. It is the language of business, science and sport. The role of English will no doubt3 continue, although4 the proposition5 that all other languages will die out is absurd. 1 widespread ['waidspred] — ayHee nomnpeHHH 2 Mandarin Chinese ['maendann'tjai'nirz] — MaH^apHHCbKe Hapi^MH KHTa&CbKOl MOBH

3 no doubt [daut] — 6e3 cyMHiBy 4 although [oil'Sou] — xo^a 5 proposition [,props'zijn] — TBepaHceHHH 113. a) Read the wordcombinations and sentences with their translation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English. 1) a widespread language 2) a highly developed language 3) the English language/ English 4) the Ukrainian language/ Ukrainian 5) the most widespread language on Earth 6) English is the language of business. 7) Ukrainian is a highly developed language. 8) He is, no doubt, the best athlete in our school.

Ayxce noiim peH a MOBa

BHC0K0p03BHHeHa MOBa aHrjiincbKa MOBa ynpaiHCbKa

M OBa

H aH nou iH pem u ia

MOBa

Ha

3eMJii AHrjiincbKa MOBa Hecy. yKpaiHCbKa MOBa po3BHHeHa.

MOBa 6i3BHCOKO-

Bih, 6e3cyMHiBHO, HaincpamHH

cnopTCMeH Hamoi mkojih. 29


114. Let's practise the Past Indefinite. Fill in the missing verbal forms.- (Consult § 17, 18 on page 152.) 1) Last summer I ... (spend) my holidays by the sea. 2) I ... (go) swimming several times a day. 3) And what... (do) your parents ... (do)? 4) They ... (watch) the swimmers and ... (sit) in the sun. 5) We ... (live) in a small hotel and ... (have) our meals in a cafe. 6) We also ... (visit) an old town and ... (see) the sights. 7) This trip ... (be) very interesting. 8) After two weeks we ... (go) home. 115. Let's practise asking general questions expressing surprise. Mind the intonation. (Consult § 44 on page 171.) Model: He is reading a book now. Is he reading a book now? 1) Nick will go to school tomorrow. 2) They will go to the seaside next month. 3) Mister Abby comes to his office at nine o’clock. 4) My friends like to go to the cinema. 5) My father goes to his office five days a week. 6) The Petrovs live in Minsk. 7) The girls are running to the river. 8) The children are eating their breakfast. 9) Peter visited his sister yesterday. 10) She spent her holidays in the country last summer. 116*. Translate into English in writing. 1) PoMaH BiABiaye cb ok ) ce cT p y Ayace nacTO. 2)

n e T p o BiflBiflae cbok) MaMy 3aBTpa. 3 ) X t o BiABiAae C B o r o 6paTa H acTynH oro t h jk h h ? 4) H BHce BiABiAaB c s o r o 6aTbKa. 5) H He BiABiAyBaB CBoro A p y ra B»ce m Ichijb. 6 ) H h 36H paem ca t h BiABiAara CBoro A p y ra ? 7) Th BiABiAyem CBoro 6paTa nacTO, h h He TaK?

8) HoMy th He BiABiAycm cbok> MaTip? 9) K ojih h npHftmoB AO Hboro, Horo He 6yjio BAOMa: BiH BiABiAyBaB cboio cecTpy.

117*. Do exercise 113b in 30 seconds.

Lesson 15 118. Read your translation (exercise 116). 119. Do exercise 113b in 30 seconds. 120. Read the text and translate it. ENGLISH Outside the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland English is an important language in many countries and the major language of four — the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the great distances separating these five English-speaking communities1 from each other and from 30


the British Isles, and the great social and cultural differences between them, the forms of English which they use remain2 mutually3 intelligible4 to a remarkable degree. Partly this is because all English-speaking communities have held to a stand­ ard spelling system. There are a number of points of difference in spelling between English of the United States and that of Britain (the other communities follow the British mode, except that many US spellings are usual or acceptable5 in Canada): but they are relatively6 minor7. The major differences are in pronunciation, vocabulary, and, to a lesser degree, grammar. community [ks'mjurmti] — cniji&HOTa 7 remain [ri'mein] — 3 ajmmaTHCH 3 mutually ['mjutjush] — B3 aeMHO 4 intelligible [in'telidjabi] — 3po 3yMijiHH acceptable [sk'septebl] — hphhhhthhh 0 relatively ['rebtivh] — bIahocho 7 minor ['mains] — He3Ha^HHH 1

121. Translate into English using the text. i ) AnrjiiHCbKoio moboio KopnciyioTbCH y 6 araTbox Kpamax. 2) Aht;iiHCbKa MOBa — 0CH0BHa y n’flTH KpaiHax. 3) AHTJimcbKa MOBa hhx n’flTH KpaiH 3po3yMijia yciM aHrji0M0BHHM KpaiHhm, xona

uniyioTb aeflKi BiAMiHHOCTi. 4) OchobhI BinMiHHOcri Miac u h x n’flTH K p a iH — y b h m o b I i jie K C H a i.

mobbmh

122. Express surprise about the following statements as in the example. — He is the best pupil in our form. — Is he the best pupil in our form? 1)

English is spoken only in the USA. 2) Our mother tongue is German. 3) All English-speaking communities have different spelling systems. 4) We are pupils of the 8 th form. 5) We speak French at our English lessons. 6 ) It is cold in sum­ mer and warm in winter. 7) Liechtenstein is a big country. 8 ) Russia is situated in Africa. 9) The USA is situated in Europe.

12*). Do exercise 122 and say what is in reality as in the example. - Our mother tongue is French. - Is our mother tongue French? — Our mother tongue ia Ukrainian.

12 i. Translate into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the meaning of the prefix dis-. 31


dislike, disagree, disappear, disapprove, disarm, disbelieve, disclose, disconnect, discover, discredit, disjoin, displace, dis­ unite, disprove 125. Read and act. A master o f a ship called out: — W ho is below? — W illy, sir. — What are you doing? — Nothing, sir. — Is Tom there? — Yes. — What are you doing, Tom? — Helping W illy, sir. 126*, Translate into English in writing.

H yneHb 10 KJiacy. 3apaa a roxyio (po6jik>) ypoKH. yn op a a xoflHB y kIh o. M oh cecTpHHKa AonoMarajia MaMi. K ojih BOHa npH6npajia KiMHaTy, saftmoB m!h Apyr. BiH xoTiB norpaTH 3i mhok) y maxH. M oa cecTpHHKa CKa3ajia, m o a nimoB y KiHO. YBenepi a 3aTejie<J)OHyBaB fioMy.

127. a) Be ready to write a short control paper. Do exercises: 14b, 25b, 61b, 87b, 95b, 113b. b) Translate into English orally. 1) fl n03HaH0MHBca 3 hhmh MHHyjioro poKy. 2) Horo He tslk jierKO 3arnaTH y rayxHH KyT. 3) Hhm HOKpirra niAJiora y tboih KiMnaTi? 4) BiKHO Barnoi* KiMHara bhxoahtb y caA, hh He raK? 5) IJh Hosa

CKaTepTHHa ffyme rapHa, npaBAa? 6 ) J\e Bi/j^yBajraca XXVII O/iLmnincbKi irpn? — y CiAHei. 7) Teorpa^iHHHH ueHTp GBponn po3Ta

UI0B3HHH ByKpaiHl, HH H6 TaK? 8) 28 HepBHH MH BiA3HaHa€MO Renh KOHCTHTyqii y KpaiHH. 9) y KneBi 6araro bhiixhx HaBnajibHHx aamiaAiB. 10) K hhhh iraraaiOTbCH cbolm MicroM. 11) AnrjiiiicbKa Mosa — HaHnomHpemuia Ha SeMJii. Heio KopneiyiOTbCH y Bcix KpaiHax. 12) G BMepHKBHCbKHH, KBHaj^CbKHH Ta aBCTpdJliHCbKHH BapiaHTH anrjiiHCbKOi mobh. 13) RniMaT BejiHKoi BpHTami Binpi3HhGTbch niji Hainoro.

Lesson 16

128. Read your translation (exercise 126). 129. Read the questions in English and answer them. # e po3TamoBaHi EpHTaHCbKi 1) Where do the Britisl OCTpOBH? lie? H K i o c r p o B H B xoA H T b a o r p y n n 2) What islands form a BpHTaHCbKHX? of the British Isles? 3 HKHX HaCTHH CKJiaAHGTbCH 3) What parts does Gr< B e jiH K a B p H T a H iH ? Britain consist of? 32


-1) Where are tiiey situated? 5) What ocean and what seas is Great Britain washed by? (>) Where is Northern Ireland situated? 7) What countries make the United Kingdom? K) What is the highest mountain in Great Britain? <)) What is the longest river of Great Britain? 10) What is the capital of Great Britain? 1 1) What river does London stand on? 1 2 ) What kind of climate has Great Britain? 1 H) Where do the USA lie? 14) What is the capital of the USA? 15) How many ethnic Ukrain­ ians live in the USA?

fle

po3TamoBaHi? Hkhh oneaH i HKi Mopn bohh

om h -

BaioTb BejiHKy BpHTaniio?

Re po3TainoBaHa niBHinHa IpjiaH^ia? Hid KpaiHH bxoahtb ao 06’eAHaHoro KopojiiBcraa?

fliea ropa naHBHina y BejiHKm BpHTaHii? flna pinna HaHAOBiua y BejiHxia BpHTaHii? flna ctojihuh BejiHKo’i BpHTaHii? Ha HKid praji po3TamoBaHHH JIOHAOH? Hkh& KJiiMaT BejiHKoi BpHTa­ H ii?

#e po 3TamoB€uai CIIIA? Hica ctojihu;h CIIIA? CnijibKH eTHinHHX ynpaiHiUB

HCHBe y CIIIA?

IHO. Write a short control paper♦ a) Write down the translation of 10 words and word-combinations given by the teacher in Ukrainian. b) Translate into English 5 sentences given by the teacher in Ukrainian. I.'t I. Do task 5 on page 114.

Lessons 17 and 18 (reserved)


Lesson 19 1. T ell y o u r c la s s m a te s a b o u t th e g e o g r a p h ic a l p o s itio n o f U k ra in e (u se

th e

m a p ).

2 . T ell y o u r c la s s m a te s B rita in 3* R e a d

and

(u se

th e

about

th e g eo g ra p h ica l p o s itio n

o f G reat

m a p ).

m em o rize.

PetpepyeaHHR Pe4>epyBaHHH — ije MaKCHMajibHe CKopo^eHHa TeKcT y

a ^ K e p e jia iH <J>opM aiu‘i n p n

hk

iio r o

icT O T H O M y 3 6 e p e a c e H H i

o c H O B H o r o 3 M ic T y .

n P H pe<J>epyBaHHi 3 TeKCTy B H JiynaiO Tb y c e A p y r o p H A H e i 3 a jiH m a iO T b

t u i i >k h

P e 3 ioM e

cyrreB e.

(S u m m a r y )

ije

c t h c jih h

y cH H H ^ h

n n cb-

BHKJiaA 3M icTy npoHHTaHoro.

m obhh

IncmpyKi+i* do nanucauHH pe3H>M,e 1 . yBaM CHO n p O ^ H T B H T e T eK C T . 2.

C K J ia ^ iT b

n jia H

T eK C T y,

B H K 0 p H C T 0 B y K )^ H

H a3H B H i

peneHHH. n ic jiH KO^KHoro nyHKTy 3ajm m iT b BijibHe Micn;e

a -kh

AeTajii3aDcii njiaHy. 3. ije

B n 3 H a * r r e , n p o n ^ o HAeTbca y

oahhm

pe^eHHHM,

r e ic c T i,

i n e p e ^ a iiT e

6yAe no^aTKOM pe3ioM e.

hkc h

4 . fle T a jiis y H T e n jia n . 5 . C 4 > o p M y jiK )H T e * 6.

IIp oH H T a H T e

C K JiaA eH H M

ochobhy

T eK C T

p e 3 K )M e .

A y M K y T eK C T y.

me

pa3

I le p e B ip T e ,

i

n o p iB H H H T e

* ih

n oro

n p o n y c r a jiH

He

i3 Bh

icTOTHoro M aT epia^y. 7. n e p e n n m iT b pe3K>Me H aracTO. JJo o ah o :to h T oro ac TeKCTy pe3ioM e MoacyTb 6yTH pi3Hi 3a o6 cn roM . IIpHKJiaAH njiaH y i a b o x BapiaHTiB pe3iOMe noAaHO nicjiH TeKCTy (3aBAaHHH 4 ) .

4.

R ead

th e

tex t THE

P e o p le

and

fin d

th e

m a in p o in ts

E N V IR O N M E N T A L

a ll o v e r

th e

w o r ld

are

in

it.

P R O T E C T IO N w o r r ie d

about

w h a t is

hap­

p e n i n g t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t 1. N e w s p a p e r s a n d m a g a z i n e s w r i t e

34

a b o u t a i r p o l l u t i o n 2, l a n d p o l l u t i o n

a n d w a te r p o llu tio n . T h e y

w r ite

and

th a t

th e

E a rth

is

our

hom e

a ll

p e o p le

m u st

ta k e


of it. We must do everything possible to save the nature, to make our rivers and air clean. The importance of this task \h pointed out3 by scientists. The branch4 of science that deals with the relation of living things to their environment is called ecology. From the point of view of ecology the mankind whould first of all lessen5 pollution. Forest areas and nature parks are of great importance for people’s health. It’ s necessary to create nature parks. There lire a lot of such parks in Ukraine. We have not only to protect them but to see that they multiply. Considerable progress was made during the second half of the century: forest areas have been planted or replanted, millions of hectares of new forests are planted each year. Groups like “ Greenpiece” have already helped to stop whale hunting. Now they want to stop fur-hunting, too. Like many other organizations they believe in “ animal rights”. The closed cycle use6 of water by industry was put into practice. Each factory purifies7 and re-uses the save water, instead of taking more from rivers or lakes. Most of the factories in the gas, iron, and steel industries now operate closed cycle water systems. Nature has it s rights, and it is the duty of man to respect and defend these rights.

care

1environm ent [m'vaiaranment] — flOBKUiJiH 7pollution [ps'lujn] — 3a6pyAHeHHH ' to point out ['p^int'aut] — BKa3yBara 4branch [braintj] — rany3b (nayxu) s to lessen ['lesn] — 3MemuyBaTH nclosed cycle use — 3aM K H yTH H ij h k j i b h k o p h c t b h h h 7to purify ['pjuorifai] — oHHmaTH(cs)

Plan 1. Mankind is worried about pollution of the nature. 2. Ecology as a science. 3. Different ways of saving environment. 4. The duty of mankind is to save the nature. Summary (variant 1) This text deals with environmental protection: the pollution of air, land and water threatens the nature. The branch of science that deals with the relation of living things to their environment is called ecology. There are different ways to save the nature: 1) to lessen pollution of air, land water; 2) to protect and plant forests and parks; 3) to build close cycle water systems. 35


Summary (variant 2) This text deals with environmental protection. Ecologists declare two main ways of saving the nature: to lessen pollution and to help the nature by planting forests and parks. 5. Translate into Ukrainian. 1) He saved her life. 2) We tried to save books from a fire 3) Zaporizhian Cossacks fought bravely to save their country. 4) Who saved you from making this mistake? 5) My parents always save apples for us. 6) If you plan something, don’t forget: “Save *time and money” . 6*. Write a summary of this article. UKRAINIANS IN SPACE ENGINEERING Speaking about the development of rocket and space engineer­ ing in the former USSR, the world usually connects this with the name of Academician Serhii Koroliov, an outstanding creator of the practical space engineering. Many people regard him as a rep­ resentative of the Russian people. However, Serhii Koroliov is a Ukrainian. He himself attested his belonging to the Ukrainian people when he filled in a form while entering the Kyiv Polytech­ nic. Serhii Koroliov, who was born in the city of Zhytomyr, is one of the most outstanding Ukrainians whose name will go down in his­ tory of the world civilization. But his titanic deeds were possible owing to accurate and well coordinated work of numerous organizations. And some of them were headed by our compatriots. Mykhailo Yangel, Volodymyr Chelomei, Valentyn Hlushko should be mentioned here. Mykhailo Yangel created a new direction and his own school in developing rocket and space equipment. He worked in Dnipropetrovsk at “Pivdenmash” . To honour the name of Mykhailo Yangel a medal was created which is the award for achievements in space engineering. His name was given to a street in Kyiv too. Valentyn Hlushko was a general designer of rockets. Volodymyr Chelomei headed the creation of the carrier rockets. Speaking about Ukrainians’ contribution into creation of rocket and space technology we should remember about scien­ tific basis they used. This basis was created, in part, as early as in the 19th century by our compatriots. They were Olexander Zasiadko (1779-1834), Kostiantyn Kostiantynov (born in 1817 or 1818), Mykola Kybalchych, who died at the age of 36


2Ht Kostiantyn Tsiolkovskyi, who came from the glorious Cosnnv.k family of Nalyvaiko, Yurii Kondratiuk, who made calcu­ lations for the manned flight to the Moon. Americans used Ihotte calculations in 1969 when they sent their astronauts to (1 h h s a t e l l i t e .

It should be mentioned that Mykhailo Yarymovych and Ihor liohuchevskyi considerably helped Americans to solve the prob­ lems connected with space flight to the Moon and back. Ihor Bohachevskyi always stresses: “In order to be a success in lift\ you should demonstrate that you can do something. And you Nhould prove this with what you have already done”.

Lesson 20 1 Head your summary (exercise 6). H Head the sentences with their translation. Pay attention to the words in bold type. John is reading a book now. When I came in, John was reading a book. The boy joined the playing children. (When) translating the text I came across many new words.

3apa3 JJjkob. HHTae khhhcky. Kojih h yBiihnoB, R xloh hhtslb KHHHCKy. XjioneijB npneflHaBca ao fliTen, HKi rpajiHCH.

Not knowing German, I could n o t answer his questions.

He 3Hai0HH HiMei^bKoi

Ilia nac nepeicJia#y TeKCTy MeH i T p a n H J io c H CJliB.

6araTO

hobhx

mobh ,

a He Mir Bi^noBicTH Ha iioro

3anHTaHHH. M. Head § 34 on page 165. 10. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Pay attention to Present Participle.

I) Do you know the man standing there? 2) While going home I met an'old friend of mine. 3) Leaving London she sent me a telegram. 4) The boy playing in the garden is my brother. 5) The man speaking to the student is a teacher. 6 ) The pupils learning English will see an English film after classes. 7) He wat in an arm-chair watching TV. 8 ) He left the room without looking at me. 9) Not knowing what to do, they went for a walk. 10) My father likes to rest in the evening walking slowly In the park.

11. Translate into English. 1) ^iBHHHa, mo ctoitb 6 iji» BiKHa,— moh cecTpa. 2) TH f l i B H H H y , a iic

3ycrpiB

mo

C T O lT b 6 ijIH f i i K H a ?

C B oro A a B H b o ro

/jHBJiHHHCb

Ha

M eH e.

A pyra. 5)

Hh

3H aem

3 ) n O B e p T a iO H H C b flO A O M y,

4 ) B oH a

BHHuiJia 3 KiMHaTH,

B i A * i 3KA>KaK>HH

3

J ly ra H C b K a ,

a

37


nocjiaB ih TejierpaMy. 6) X jioiihhk, mo KaTaeTbca Ha KOB3aHax,— Min 6 paT. 7) T obophmh npo Harny niKOJiy, h xony 3a3HaHHTH, m o y Hex 6araT0 TpaAHruH.

12*. Read the text and write a summary. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE The English language is one of the richest in the world; it has one of the finest literatures. Its basis is Anglo-Saxon which gives words such as house, dog, cow. A few Celtic and Danish words came very early. An important development was made when the Norman Conquest provided it with a new set of words such as homely and domestic. With the Renaissance arrived a great influx of words of Latin and Greek derivation. Other acquisitions are associated with the later history. The process continues: almost every day new words are coined, many of them are scientific terms based on Latin or Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes. 13*. Do task 6 on page 116.

Lesson 21 14. Read your summary (exercise 12). 15. Read the jokes and retell them. “ Did you go to the doctor the other day1, John?” “Yes, I did.” “And did he find out what you had?” “Very nearly.” “What did you mean ‘very nearly’ ?” “Well, I had $3.40 — and he charged2 me $3.00.”

1 t h e o t h e r d a y — H eaaB H O , ij h m h a h b m h 2 t o c h a r g e [ tja :d 3 ] — B H M a ra ra n j i a i y *

*

Teacher: What do we get from sheep? Boy: Wool. Teacher: And what do we make from wool? Boy: I don’ t know. Teacher: Well, what is your coat made of? Boy: My coat was made from my father’ s old coat. 16. Let’ s practise Present Participle. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. 1) The woman standing at the window is my aunt. 2) The wan writing something at the table is my brother. 3) Yesterday 38


I met a group of tourists speaking a foreign language. Not knowing the language, I could not understand their talk. 4) Travelling in Africa, he saw a lot of places of interest. 5) When crossing the street in our country, first look to the left, then to the right. 6) When crossing the street in England*, first look to the right, then to the left. 7) He stood at the window, thinking of his friend. 8) When speaking at the meeting yesterday I felt very nervous. 9) He likes to sit on the sofa, watching TV. 17. Ask different kinds o f questions to the sentences given below. (Consult § 44-48 of the Reference Grammar.)

Example: They went to the cinema. Did they go to the cinema? Did they go to the cinema or to the theatre? They went to the cinema, didn’ t they? They did not go to the cinema, did they? What did they do? Who went to the cinema? Where did they go? 1) They spent the whole day at the river. 2) Mykola helped his parents to gather in the harvest. 3) They worked in the fields in the morning. 1H. Do task 6 on page 116. 10*. Write as many questions as you can to get more information about England from your friend who has just returned from London (not less than 10 questions).

Lesson 22 20. Read your questions (exercise 19) and let your neighbour answer them. HI. Read the joke and retell it. Teacher: Johnny, can you tell me what a hypocrite1 is? Johnny: Yes. It’ s a boy who comes to school these days with a smile on his face. 1

hypocrite ['hipsknt] — jimjeMip

Professor: Can you tell me anything about the great chemists1 of the 17th century? Student: They are all dead2, sir. ‘ chemist ['kemist] — x i M i i c 2 d e a d [ded] — M e p T B H H 39


22. Read the text and translate it. WRITING A COMPOSITION All forms of literary composition are difficult, because every aspect of the language is involved1: sentence construction, paragraphing, punctuation, vocabulary and spelling. In order to write a composition you should: a) have something to say that is worth saying2; b) gather the material; c) make a plan; d) think over the beginning, the main body3 and the ending. While writing a composition you should avoid4 irrelevances5, wild6 statements, a wrong tone, lack of balance7, a mere list8 of facts, and above all, dullness9. Your composition should be interesting. You should be carefull in spelling and punctuation. 1 to be involved [in'volvd] — 6yTH BKJuoneHHM 2 to be worth saying — BapTe Toro, m;o6 6yra cKa3aHHM 3 the main body — 0CH0BHa nacTHHa 4 to avoid [9'void] — yHHKaTH 5 irrelevance [l'relivans] — HeAopeHHicTb 6 w ild [waild] — Heo6^yMaHHH lack [lack] of balance ['baelans] — HeypiBHOBaaKemcTb 8 a mere [mia] list — npocTHH nepejiiK 9 dullness ['dAlms] — MOHOTOHHicTb 23. a) Read the words, word-combinations and sentences with the translation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English. 1) a literary composition 2) to be involved 3) every aspect of the language 4) sentence construction 5) lack of balance 6) lack of land 7) for lack of time 8) for lack of knowledge 9) He lacks knowledge. 10) You should have something to say. 11) You should have something to write. 12) You should gather the material. 40

JIlTepaTypHHH TBip 6yTH BKJIIOHeHHM 6yflB-HKHH acneKT mobh CKJia^aHHH peneHHfl HeypiBHOBajKeHicTb 6e33eMejuiH

3a 6paKOM nacy sa 6paKOM 3HaHb JloMy 6 paicye 3HaHb. y Bac Mae 6yTH mo CKa3aTH. y Bac Mae 6yra mo HanncaTH. B h noBHHHi piaji.

fli6paTH

MaTe-


\ \\)

You should make a plan.

M) You should write a letter.

BaM

BaM ( t o 6D n 0T p i 6H0 H a m ic a T i JIHCTa.

If>) You should avoid dullness. H>) Your composition should be interesting.

BaM cjxia; ynHKaTH m o h o t o h h o c t l TbIh TBip Mae 6 y ra ijiKaBHM.

U4. Translate into English. H

mob

HanHcaTH TBip. H 3HaB npaBHJia HanncaHHH TBopy: Tpe6a mo cKa3ara, cmiacTH njiaH, o6MipKyBara nonaron, ochobhy

muth MUCTHHy i 3aKiHHeHHH. 3a 6paK0M 3HaHb H KOpHCiyBaBCH CJIOBHHkom, 3a 6paK0M nacy — nncaB kopotkhh TBip. 3i6pas MaTepiaji i l>o;»iOHaB nncaTH. Byjio jsyiKe Baacico: cjiin 6yjio flOTpHMyBaracH upaBHJi y cix acneKTiB mobh — jieKCHKH, n paB on acy, CHHTaKcncy. Miw TBip 6yB kopotkhm , ajie uiicaBHM. i!5*. Do exercise 23b in 1 minute. ilO*. Do exercise 24 in writing.

Lesson 23 1/S7. Do exercise 23b in 1 minute. Head your translation (exercise 24). 2\). Head the jokes and retell them. Mother: Who ever taught you to use that dreadful1 word? Tommy: Santa Claus, mamma2. Mother: Santa Claus? Tommy: Yes, mamma, when he fell over a chair in my bedroom on Christmas eve. 1 dreadful ['dredful] — xcaxjiHBHH 2 mamma [ma'ma:] — MaMa, HeHbica * ie ic Teacher: Now, Robert, what are you doing, learning something? Hobert: No, sir. I am listening to you. 110. Head the text and translate it. WRITING A LETTER Some people like to write letters, but there are people who don’ t like to do it. They prefer speaking on the telephone or sending telegrams. As for me I like writing letters. 41


After writing a letter I put it into the envelope and write the address. There is a strict order for saying or writing an address. The name should come first, followed by the house number, the name of the street, the city, the country. It will look like this: Mr. Petrenko 22, Rivna Street Sicheslav Ukraine Then I stick the required stamp on the envelope and put the letter into the mail-box. Then what is necessary for me it’s to wait for the answer. S' 31 i a) Read the words, word-combinations and sentences with the translation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

an envelope a mail-box strict to stick (stuck, stuck) to send a letter to send a telegram to put a letter into an envelope 8) a strict order 9) a required stamp 10) I prefer playing chess. 11) I don’ t like writing letters, I prefer speaking over the telephone. 12) I put the letter into the mail-box and went home. 13) There is a strict order of writing an address. 14) This order of writing an address is being introduced in our country too.

KOHBepT noniTOBa cKpHHBKa TOHHHH, neBHHH npHKJieiOBaTH nocHJiaTH jiHCTa nocHJiaxH TejierpaMy IIO K JiaC T H JIHCT y KOHBepT HITKa IIOCJIlflOBHiCTb noxpiSHa Mapna H Biftflaio nepeBary m a x a M . H He jho6jho nncaxH jihcth, a Biflflaio nepeBary p03M0Bi no Tejie<i>OHy. H onycTHB jiHCTa y noniTOBy CKpHHbKy i nimoB flOflOMy. IcHye niTKa nocjiiflOBHicTb Ha-

nncaHHH atfpecn. II^h nocjiiAOBHicTb HanHcaHHH a A p ecH 3 a n p oB a A »cyeT b C H i b Hamiil Kparni.

32*. Do exercise 314) in 45 seconds. 33*. Translate into English in writing.

1) Kojih bh xoneTe HaflicjiaTH jiHCTa, onycTiTB noro y nomTOBy CKpHHBKy. 2) He 3a6yBaHTe, m o icHye neBHa nocjiiflOBHicTb HanHcaHHH a^pecn. 3) H He jik>6jik> iracaTH jihcth. 4) Th jik>6h : HHCaTH JIHCTH? 5) XTO JIK)6HTb HHCaTH JIHCTH? 6) H BiAflaiO nepeBary Tejie4>OHy. 7) X to He jho6htb nncaTH jihcth? — Miii chh . 8 ) 3aBTpa h nomjiio TejierpaMy CBoeMy apyroBi. 9) Xto BMce HanncaB JiHCTa? 10) IH,o th sapa3 po6nm? — nnmy JiHCTa.

42


II) He 3a6yAi> nocjiaTH TejierpaMy. 12) LJeii KOHBepT Ayace rnpH H ft.

Lesson 24 N4. Do exercise 31b in 45 seconds. Head your translation (exercise 33). )♦<>. Head and translate the text .

AT THE POST-OFFICE For a registered letter, an air-mail letter or an ordinary letter to another country you must stick more stamps on the envelope. So you must go to the post-office. There you can Mpnd a telegram or a parcel1 and buy stamps. The post-office clerk weighs2 the letter or parcel, or counts Iho number of words in the telegram and tells you how much you must pay. When the letter arrives at its destination3 another postman delivers it to the addressee: he drops it into the mail-box. A telegraph boy delivers4 telegrams to our house. ‘ parcel ['pa:si] — nocmiKa ' to weigh [wei] — 3BaacyBaTH ' destination [,desti'nei|n] — Micije npH3HaneHHs 4to deliver [di'liva] — po3hochth, flocraBJiHTH 117. Head the dialogues and act them. Can I send a parcel from here? No, sir. You can do it over there. Thank you. * * * Can I send a parcel from here? Yes, sir. And how to wrap [raep] it? We can do it for you, sir. You have to tell us the address. Thanks. * * * What’s the charge for an air-mail letter? - It will cost 2 pence. - Thanks. 43


* * * Hey, Roman, the postman has brought a foreign letter for you. I am looking forward to it. Where is it? Here you are. Thank you very much. Not at all.

38. a) Read the words and word-combinations with the translation. b) Write them down into your vocabularies. accept [sk'sept] — npuHMaTH accept parcels — n p H H M a T H noCHJIKH ( jihcth ) a d d re ss [a'dres] — a/jpeca return address — 3B O pO T H a a f l p e c a addressee [,aedre si:] — a^pecaT clerk [kla:k] — cjiyac6oBeijb, no tobh H cjiyMc6oBen;b delivery [d riiv a n ] — flocTaBKa ( Jiucmie, za3em ) K O H B ep T envelope [enviloup] K O H B ep T 3 M ap K O K ) stam ped en velope JIHCT letter ['lets] aBianomTa air-m ail [e a m e il] r e g is t e r e d ['red 3 isted] le t t e r — peKOMeHAOBaHHfi jihct p o s t [poust] — n on iT a p o s t - c a r d ['p ou st'k a .d ] nomTOBa jiHCTiBKa p ic t u r e p o s t - c a r d — xyaojK H h JiHCTiBKa p la in p o s t - c a r d — 3BHHaHHa JiHCTiBKa p o s t e r e s t a n t e ['poust'resta:nt] —

jihct ao

3anHTaHHH

s t a m p [stsemp] — MapKa t e le g r a m [tehgraem] — TejierpaMa w r a p [raep] — 3aropTaTH, ynaKOByBara

39. a) Read the word-combinations and sentences with the trans­ lation. b)* Cover the left side of the page and translate into English in 1 minute. peKOMeHAOBaHHft jihct 1) a registered letter jihct b iHmy Kpamy 2) a letter to another country nocjiara nocHjiKy 3) to send a parcel nomTOBHii cjiyacSoBeijb 4) a post-office clerk 5) to weigh a letter / a parcel 3BaMcysaTH jiHCTa/nocnjiKy AOCTaBJIHTH JIHCT 6) to deliver a letter 7) to drop the letter into the onycTHTH jihct y nomTOBy CKpHHbKy mail-box JIhct n p n 6 y B 3a M ic ije M npn8) The letter arrived at 3HaneHHH. its destination. Moacea nocjiaTH 3BiacH hochji9) Can I send a parcel from Ky? here? 10) What’ s the charge for an CKijibKH KoniTye n ep ecn jiK a 44


«lr mail letter? ) Wrap my parcel, please.

jiHCTa a B ia n o m T o io ? y n a ic y ir r e , Gyp,* Jiacica,

moio

nocHjiKy.

\\\) A stamped envelope, please. Hi) There is a strict order of writing an address.

B y A t Jiacna, KOHBepT 3 M ap-

KOK>. IcHye niTKa nocjiiAOBHicTb HaHHcaHHH aApecH.

Lesson 25 10. Do exercise 39b in 1 minute. 11, Read and retell the jokes. — So, you’re not going to Paris this year? — No. It’ s London we’ re not going to this year; it was Paris we didn’ t go to last year. * * ★

A notice was put on the door of an office. “ If You Haven’ t Anything to Do, Don’t Do It Here” . ★★*

Voice on phone: John Smith is sick and can’t attend classes1 today. He requested2 me to notify3 you. Professor: All right. Who is speaking? Voice: This is my brother. 1 to a tte n d

c la s s e s

v t o r e q u e s t [ n 'k w e s t ] * to n o tify

B iA B iA y B a T H y p o K H —

[ 'n o u t i f a i ] —

n pocn T H noBiAO M JiH TH

li, Read the dialogues in pairs and reproduce them. Make up your own dialogues. Visitor: I want two stamped picture post-cards. Clerk: Two stamped picture post-cards. Here you are. Is that all? Visitor: Yes, that’s all. ( 'lerk: That will be one hryvnia sixty copecks. Visitor: Here are two hryvnias. ( "lerk: And here’s forty copecks change. * * ie

Visitor: Please, how much is an air-mail letter to London? ('lerk: It’s 3 hryvnias 80 copecks. Visitor: Give me one stamp, please. 45


Clerk: Here is the stamp. And I can offer you an air-mail envelope. Visitor: No, thank you, I need only the stamp. * * *

Mother: Don’ t forget to mail the letter when you go to school, Olenka. Olenka: Sorry, Mamma. You asked me to mail the registered letter, and I don’ t have any time to go to the post-office. I’ ll mail the letter after classes. Mother: All right. 43. Read the text and answer the questions. A LACONIC [b'komk] ANSWER The city of Sparta was in Laconia [ta'kounjs], so people sometimes gave the Spartans the name of Lacons. The Lacons never spoke much, and they taught their children not to use more words than they needed. “If you listen more and speak less,” they said, “ you will learn many things. People that talk too much are usually not very clever!” So, it became a tradition in Laconia to try to use less words. And even now we say that an answer in not many words is a laconic answer. Phillip, the king of Macedonia, hoped to become the king of all Greece. He took city after city, until he came to Laconia. When he was already near Sparta, he sent a letter to Spartans. “My army is the biggest and my soldiers are the strongest -in the world,” he wrote. “And the highest city walls could not stop them. You must open your doors for me. If you refuse1, there will be a war, and if I win, all of you will die. Send your answer to me before I come to Sparta!” After some days brave Spartans sent Phillip an answer. When Phillip opened the letter, he found only one word in it. That word was “ If” . 1to refuse

[ri'Qurz] —

b u j m o b j ih t h c h

Where was Sparta situated? What did the Lacons teach their children? What did Phillip send to Spartans? What was the answer? Is the expression “ a laconic answer” correct? 44. Tell the story “A Laconic Answer” using the following plan: 1) Sparta was in Laconia. 2) The Lacons never spoke much. 3) Phillip, the king of Macedonia, near Sparta.

46


4) A

long letter with two “ if” . 5>A short answer.

45.

Do task 7 on page 118.

Lesson 26 46* Tell the story “A Laconic Answer” using the plan (exercise 44). 47 th exercise 38a . 48. Head and retell the jokes .

Ilittle Willy, aged six, was walking in the Zoo with his father. Suddenly he noticed a zebra. *Daddy,” he cried,” are zebras yellow animals with black «tripes1 or black animals with yellow stripes?” * s t r ip e

[straip] — CM yra if

it ie

At a college examination a professor asked: *'l)oes the question embarrass1 you?” “ Not at all, sir,” replied the student, “not at all. It is quite dear. It is the answer that bores2 me!” 1 to em barrass [mTbaerss] — 6eHTeH«iTH a to b ore [bo:] — HaflOKyqara, Typ6yBara, SeHTetfCHTH it

> * .

if

ie

Student: But I don’ t think I deserve1 an absolute zero2. Professor: Neither do I, but it is the lowest mark that I am allowed to give3. 1 to deserve [d i'zsrv] — 3acjiyroByBaTH a zero ['ziorou ] — HyjiB, Himo ‘ I am a llow ed [s'lau d ] to g iv e — MeHi flc>3B0JieH0 cTaBHTH

4\). Read the text silently. A fter the text you will find 10 statements some of which do not correspond to its contents. Write down the numbers of those statements. THE DISCOVERY OF AUSTRALIA Europeans settled in Australia in 1788. Though long before the seventeenth century people thought there was a land in the southern ocean, nobody had seen it. So it was called Terra Australia Incognita — the Unknown South Land. Dutch navigators first found the South Land. Janszoon entered the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1606. Hartog visited the 47


west coast at Shark Bay in 1616. Further voyages followed in the north and west, and the famous Dutch navigator, Tasman, sailed round to the south discovering Tasmania in 1642. Thinking this to be a part of the mainland of New Holland, as the continent was now called, he named it Van Diemen’ s Land in honour of the Dutch governor of the East Indies. By the mid-seventeenth century most of the north, west and south coasts had been charted. But the Dutch were dis­ appointed with their new discoveries. Cartenz reported in 1623: “This is the most arid and barren region that could be found anywhere on earth” . In a similar way thought the first British captain to see the new continent. This was William Dampier, who visited the north-west in 1688 and 1699 and considered the natives to be “ the miserablest people in the world” . No explorers had set eyes on the east coast until Captain Cook, leading a British scientific expedition in the Pacific, reached Cape Everard in the Endeavour on April 20th 1770. 1) 2) 3) 4)

Europeans discovered Australia in 1788. Dutch navigators first found the South Land. Hartog visited the west coast in 1642. Dutch navigators thought that Tasmania was a part of the mainland. 5) The Dutch were not disappointed with their new discoveries. 6) The first British captain who saw the new continent was William Dampier. 7) William Dampier considered the natives to be “the miserablest people in the world” . 8) Dutch navigators had set eyes on the east coast. 9) No explorers had set eyes on the east coast except Captain Cook. 10) Captain Cook reached Cape Everard in 1770.

50. Do task 8 on page 120. 51*. Copy the text using the correct tense form of the verbs in brackets. Retell the story .

A MAN AND A PARROT A poor man (to have) a parrot (nanyra). The parrot (to be taught) to say the words, “ There is no doubt about it1.” The bird (to repeat) them all day long. One day the master (to decide) that he (to sell) his parrot. So he (to go) to the market ( p h h o k ) and (to begin) to shout, “Who (to buy) my parrot?” A man (to like) the bird and (to buy) it although it (to cost) very much. When he (to carry) the parrot home, he (to 48


bnv) to it: “ See, how much money I (to pay) for you, will you think it clever of me?” “There is no doubt about it,” the pur rot (to answer). Home time (to pass) and the man (to be) sorry that he (to buy) the parrot. “What a fool I was that I (to throw) so much money away!” the man (to cry) out. “There is no doubt about it,” the parrot (to say), and this time it (to be) right. 1 There is no doubt [daut] about it. — Y ijbOMy HeMae cyMHiBy.

Lesson 27 All. Retell the story "A Man and a Parrot Hit. Do exercise 39b. JM. u) Read the text using the correct tense forms of the verbs in brackets. (Consult § 15-27 on pages 150-160.) h) Answer the questions. AN ETHIOPIAN

[ ri:0i'oupjan]

FOLK-TALE

Once two Italian [l'taeljsn] scientists (to decide) to visit Ethiopia. They (to make) a map of the country’ s mountains mid of all the rivers, lakes and roads (aoporii). It (to be) not long before the news of their work (to come) to the ears of the king of Ethiopia. He said that he (to want) to thank the scientists for all their efforts and that it (to be) Iuh duty to help them in every way he could. So the king (to send) a guide to the travellers because they (to want) to continue their study of Ethiopia for some time y<»t. When they (to finish) their work some years later, the Kuide (to come) back to the capital. He told the king that the Mr.ientists (to study) the river Nile and Lake Tana. “All the time they (to draw) maps, big maps, small maps, maps in ink, mnps in pencil,” said the guide as he (to go) on with his story. When the guide (to finish) talking, the king said that he (to want) to see the scientists before they (to leave) the country. So he (to send) for them. When the two scientists (to come) before the king, he (to be) very glad to see them and they (to shake) hands warmly. He (to give) them many presents and (to wish) them happiness In their life and success in their work. They said that they (to take) away with them pleasant memories of their visit to this beautiful country. Now they (to be) on their way home. But at the very last moment when they almost (to walk) onto their boat, they (to he asked) to stop and to take off their boots. The men (to bccome) angry , “What do you mean? These boots are our ow n boots. We (to complain) to your king if...” . 49


“Gentlemen, be calm, please,” the man said. “ I am only going to take the dust and sand off your boots. I am doing nothing wrong. So (not to be) angry, please” . The travellers (to take) their boots off, and the man quickly (to clean) each pair. “ Now you may put them on again,” he said as he (to give) back the shoes. The Italians (to be) greatly surprised and they asked, “What are you doing this for?” “ Our king (to wish) you a pleasant journey and he (to ask) me to tell you this: “You (to come) from another country far away. Here you (to see) with your own eyes that Ethiopia is the most beautiful country in the world. We (to love) it with all our hearts. We (to thank) you for the work you (to do) and we (to give) you presents. But the Ethiopian land is so dear to us that we cannot give away even a single piece of sand or a single small stone.” Who decided to visit Ethiopia? What did they do in Ethiopia? What did the king ofi Ethiopia say? What did the guide tell the king about the scientists? What did the king give the scientists? Why did the men become angry? What did the guide say? Do Ethiopians love their land? And what about you? Do you love your native land? 55* Ask your neighbour to answer the following questions. Where do you live? Is there a garden near your house/building? Do you live in a big house/building? Is your house/building in the centre of the town/city or not? (Give the name of the street.) What floor do you live on? * How many rooms are there in your flat? What things do you have in your room? Where do you do your lessons? How large is your family? Do you have brothers and sisters, aunts and uncles? How old is your brother/sister? 56*. Write your answers to the questions o f exercise 54.

Lesson 28 57. Answer the questions of exercise 54. 58* Do exercise 39b. 59. Ask as many questions as you can to get more information in connection statements given below. 50


1) Mary decided to write a letter, y) John went to the post-office. U) Willie likes to write letters. Lrarn the dialogue. Have you done your lessons, Roman? Homan: Yes, I have. Why are you interested in it? Vptro: A new film is on, and I suggest going to the film-theatre. Homan: Very well! Let’s invite Natalia too, if you have nothing against it. Vetro: Oh, it’ll be fine. I like discussing films with her. Iloman: Let’ s ring her up first. I’ m sure she’ll like the idea. By the way, what film is on? Petro: It is... it . Head the text silently. A fter the text you will find 10 state­ ments, some of which do not Correspond to its contents. Write down the numbers of those statements. INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT LANGUAGES All the developed languages of the world are important altd can be used in all spheres of activity. But it is interesting to know some facts about languages. English has the largest vocabulary with approximately 500,000 words and 300,000 technical terms. One person out o f seven in the world speaks perfect English. The oldest written language is Egyptian, which is 5,000 yrnrs old. India has 845 languages. Cambodian [kaem'boudjsn] has 72 letters. The largest encyclopedia [en,saiklou'pi:dj3] is printed in Hjmnish. Esperanto j^espa'raentou], an artificial [,a:ti'fij3l] (mTy^HHH) language, does not have irregular verbs. Italian and Ukrainian are the finest (mym HaHMejioAiiraimi) languages in the world. 1) Some of the developed languages cannot be used in all ipheres of activity. 2) French has the largest vocabulary. JI) English has approximately 500,000 words. 4) One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 5) The oldest written language is Chinese, ft) Egyptian is 5,000 years old. 7) The largest encyclopedia is printed in English. H) There are no artificial languages. W) Esperanto is one of the artificial languages. 10) Ukrainian is one of th e f in e s t languages in the world. 51


62. Listen to the statements after the text (exercise 61) and agree or disagree with them. Make up short dialogues in pairs. Example: — Some of the developed languages cannot be used in all spheres of activity. — You are not right. All the developed languages can be used in all spheres of activitiy. 63*. Write down the sentences which correspond to the contents o f the text (exercise 61). 64. Do task 8 on page 120.

Lesson 29 65. Do exercise 39a. 66. Do exercise 39b. 67. Translate into English in writing. 1) fl o^epncaB peKOMeHflosaHoro jincTa. 2) X to oaepHcas jiHCTa? 3) f l H anncaB peKOMeHAOBaHoro JiHCTa CBoeMy 6paTOBi. 4) XyAOHCHH JiHCTiBKa 6yjia Aynce rapHa. 5) C kuibkh KoinTye peKOMeHAOBaHHH jih c t? 6) Th Btfce nocJiaB TejierpaMy? — H i. 7) JIhct npn6yB 3a MicijeM npH3HaneHHH. 8) f l KynHB KOHBepT 3 MapKoio. 9) C kljibkh KomTye KOHBepT 3 MapKoio? 10) IcHye neBHa nocjiiAOBHicTb HanncaHHa aApecw.

peKOMeHflOBaHoro

68*. Prepare for a short control paper. Do exercises 23b, 3lb, 39b.

Lesson 30 69. 70. 71. 72.

Do exercise 23b. Do exercise 31b. Do exercise 39b. Write a short control paper: a) Write down the translation of 10 words and word-com­ binations given by the teacher in Ukrainian. b ) Write down the translation of 5 sentences given by th$ teacher. Haven’ t you forgotten to greet your friends and relative# on the New Year? Do it immediately!

Lessons 31—32 (reserved)

52


THE SECOND TERM

Lesson 33 I: tt) Head the words and word-combinations with the translation. I>) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English. 1) New Year’s Day 2) t o decorate ;i) one of the main holidays 4) to give presents 5) to send greetings 0) the New Year’s tree 7) the New Year’s party H) t o dance around the New Year’ s tree 1)) for a long time 10) to decorate the flat 11) They sing songs. 12) I sent the New Year’s greet­ ings to all my friends. 13) He always celebrated the New Year at home with the other members of the family. 14) Haven’t you forgotten to greet your friends on the New Year? 16) — Who greeted you on the New Year? — My friends did. 10) My sister never forgets to greet me on the New Year, on Christmas, on Easter and t>n my birthday.

17) Christmas IK) Christmas holidays 19) Santa Claus 20) Merry ChristmasI 2\) Happy New Year to you! 22) Many people in Ukraine celebrate the New Year twice.

HOBOpiHHe CBHTO npHKpam aTH

3 OCHOBHHX CBHT AaBaTH noflapyHKH O flH e

HOCHJiaTH BiTaHHH HOBOpiHHa ttJIHHKa HOBoproHH# Benip TaHIJIOBaTH HaBKOJIO HOBOpiHHOl HJIHHKH TpHBajraft nac n p H K p a m a T H KBapTHpy B ohh cnisaiOTB. fl nocjiaB H0B0pi*mi BiTaHHH yciM APy3HM.

BiH 3aBXCAH CBHTKyBaB Hobhh piK y^oMa i3 CBoeio poahhoio.

Th He 3a6yB npHBiTaTH cboix APy3iB 3 HoBHM POKOM? — X t o npHBiTaB Te6e 3 Hobhm

pOKOM?

— Moi APY3i. Moh cecTpa hIkojih He 3a6yBae npHBiTaTH MeHe 3 Hobhm PO­ KOM, Pi3ABOM XpHCTOBHM, BejiHKOAHeM i 3 AneM HapoAxceHHH. Pi3ABO XpHCTOBe pi3ABHHi KaniKyjiH CaHTa Knayc, ftiA Mopo3 IIl,acjiHBoro Pi3ABa! 3 H obhm pokom !

BaraTO JiK>Aefi b YKpaiHi

cbht-

KyiOTb H obh# piK ABini.

53


23) We celebrate Christmas on the 7th of January. 24) Christmas is a national holi­ day in Ukraine. 25) We celebrate the Old New Year on the 14th of Janu-

M h CBHTKyeMO Pi3ffBO 7 chHH, P is flB o

aepH caB H e

cbhto

i

yKpaiHi. M h CBHTKyeMO cTapHH H obh # piK 14 CWHH.

2. Answer the questions. When do we celebrate Christmas? When do we celebrate the Old New Year? Does Christmas in England and Ukraine coincide? Is Christmas a national holiday in Ukraine? How did you celebrate the New Year this year? How did you celebrate Christmas? Are you going to celebrate the Old New Year? 3. Read the joke and dramatize it. JIM AT SEA Jim worked as a cabin-boy on a small ship. One morning he brought in breakfast for the captain and said, “ May I ask you something, sir?” “ Of course, you may,” said the captain who saw that the boy looked rather frightened. “What is it?" “Is a thing lost if you know where it is?” said Jim. “ Of course, it* isn’ t,” said the captain. “ Then, your coffee-pot isn’ t lost, sir, because I know whert it is,” said Jim with a smile. “ Where is it?” asked the captain. “At the bottom of the sea,” answered Jim. 4*. Do task 9 on page 122. 5*. Translate into English in writing. 1) M h CBHTKyeMO Pi3/jBO 7

cvh h h .

2) Kojih cBHTKyiOTb PiaABO i

AHraii? 3) B AHrjiix He CBHTKyiOTb crrapHH H obhh piK. 4) «3 Hobhm POKOm!» rOBOpHMO MH 1 ciHHH. 5) fl 3a6yB n p H B iT a T H cbow cecrpy 3 Pi3flBOM. 6) X to npnsiTaB Te6e 3 Pi3/jBOM? 7) M h npH* K p acH JiH c b o k ) KJiacny K iM H a ry j\o HoBoro poicy. 8) H zbbikjw CBHTKyio H obhh piK yflOMa.

6*. Do exercise lb in 1 minute.

Lesson 34 — — —

^

^

7. Read your translation (exercise 5). 8. Do exercise lb in 1 minute.

54

^

m

\m**W


nrad the words and word-combinations with the translation. »hop [jop] — Mara3HH, KpaM-

butter ['bAts]

Macjio

HHUH

shop-assistant ['jopa.sistont] iipoflaBeijb buy (b ou g h t, b o u g h t) | bai,bo:t] — K y n y B a r a buyer [ b a i s ] — nonynei^b d h 'n t [k la isn t] — nocTiiiHHft noKynen,B tin k er’ s ( s h o p ) [ 'b e ik s z 'J o p ] Mara3HH xjii6 o6 yjiO H -

IIHX BHp06iB grocer’s (shop) ['groussz'Jop] 6aKaJiiHHa KpaMHHn,H b u tc h e r ’s (s h o p ) ['butfcz'fop] m ’ hchhh Mara3HH

Utoon grocer’s (sh op ) | griingrousoz'Jsp] M6BHH Mara3HH

OBO-

ready-m ade clo th e s [kloudz]

- rOTOBHH OflJir haberdashery ['haebsdaefan] rajiaHTepen, rajiaHTepefiHHii Mara3HH footwear ['fu tw es] — B 3 yT T H

[qudz] pe^i, TOBap rt goods efoo sport — cn opT H B H i

goods

TOBapn

tinned fruit ['tmd'fru:t] — KOHCepBOBaHi <J>pyKTH tinned meat — KOHcepBOBaHe M’ HCO, M’ aCHi KOHCepBH

tinned fish — KOHcepBOBaHa pn6a, pndHi KOHcepBH trolley [ troll] — Bi30K Kacnp

ca sh ier [kae'J19]

ch ea p [tji:p]

AemeBHH

m an ager ['maemd33] rocn oflap; KepiBHHK, MeHe^ncep v a rio u s ['v eon a s] — pi3HHH, p i3 H O M a H iT H H H

h ou seh old [ ' haushould] rocnoflapcTBo h ou seh old item s ['aitom z] — rocno,a;apcbKi

TOBapn delicatessen [,delik3'tesn] — xojioflHi 3aicycKH, AejiiKaTecH se le ct [si'lek t] — Bn6iipaTH ch e ck o u t ['tjekaut] KOHTpOJIb

departm ent [di'pa:tm ant] — Biflfliji departm ent sto re [sto:] — yHiBepMar mii per m ark et [,sju:p9'ma:kit]

ch e ck o u t p o in t —

koh-

TpojibHHH nyHKT, Kaca essen tia l [i'sen j3l] —

ic T O T -

HHH, 3HaHHHH

p rice [prais]

n,iHa

— cynepMapneT, bcjihkhh Mara3HH caMOo6cjiyroByu aH H H , yHiBepcaM augar [ Juga] — ijyicop I®. Head the text and translate it.

SHOPS AND SHOPPING Shops are very important in our life. We buy there our f o o d , clothes and other things. 55


We buy bread at the baker’s shop. We buy tea, sugar, coffee, butter, cheese, sausage, tinned fruit, tinned meat, tinned fish, jam and other food at th« grocer’s shop. W e buy fruit and vegetables at the greengrocer’s. The shop, where we buy meat, is called the butcher’s shop There are also shops which sell different goods. These shop# are: ready-made clothes, footwear, haberdashery, sport goods and others. But there are large shops with many departments, wher# we can buy almost all we want. These shops are called de­ partment stores. 11. a) Read the word-combinations and sentences with the tranu« lation . b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

to buy bread to buy cheese butcher’s shop greengrocer’ s shop tinned fish department store tinned meat We buy tinned fruit at the grocer’s shop.

9) We don’t buy sugar at the butcher’s shop. 10) — Do you buy fruit at the greengrocer’ s shop? — Yes, I do. 11) We can buy almost all we want at the department stores. 12) — What can you buy at the department store? — Almost all I want.

KynyBaTH xjii6 KynyBara cup m’aCHHH Mara3HH OBOHeBHH Mara3HH pnSm KOHcepBH

yHiBepMar M’HCHi K O H cep B H M h KynyeMO KOHcepBOBaHi (fcpyKTH y 6aKajiiHHiii KpaMHHU,i. Mh He KynyeMO ijyicop y m ’hc HOMy M ara3 H H i. — Th Kynyem $PYKth b o b o neBOMy Mara3HHi? — Tan. Mh MOHceMO KymrrH Maftnct Bee, mo xo^ieMO, b yHiBepivtarax. — IIl^o t h MOHceni KyriHTH t

ymBepMa3i? — Manace Bee, mo xo^y,

12*. Copy the words and word-combinations into your vocabularies (exercise 9 ).

13*. D o exercise 11b in 45 seconds .

Lesson 35 14. D o exercise 9 . 15. D o exercise l i b in 45 seconds . 16. A n sw er the questions . 56


In there a baker’s in your street?

Ih there a grocer’s in your street? U there a butcher’s in your street? Ih there a greengrocer’s in your street? What shops are there in your street? Onn you buy fresh meat at your butcher’s? f-nn you buy tinned meat at your butcher’s? An* the prices for vegetables high or low at your greengrocer’ s? IT, Head the dialogues and make up your own ones . i'untomer: One loaf of brown bread and two Shop-assistant: Here you are. ('uHtomer: How much is it? Shop-assistant: 1 hryvnia 80 copecks. ( 'ustomer: Here are 2 hryvnias. Shop-assistant : Here is your change, 20 copecks.

buns, please.

Thank you.

* * * ('ustomer: One loaf of white bread, please. Shop-assistant: Sorry, but it isn’t fresh, r ustomer : What is fresh? Shop assistant: Only buns are. ('ustomer: Two buns, please. Shop-assistant: Here you are. 80 copecks, please.

\H Head the text and answer the questions .

IN THE SUPERMARKET

57


A short time ago people used to go to various shops for different food and household items: the butcher, the baker, the greengrocer and delicatessen. Nowadays another kind of shops has appeared — the supermarket. A supermarket is a very big shop. Usually people can buy food there. There are no shop-assistants, so when a customer goes into a supermarket, she (he) gets a metal trolley for holding the things she (he) wants. When you have put your tins and boxes of food into the trolley, you take them to the checkout point and pay to the cashier. That is why you can buy essential goods as quickly as possible. Usually food in a supermarket is cheaper than in a small shop, because the manager has no assistant to pay. What is a supermarket? What does a customer get when he (she) enters a supermarket? Where does a customer pay for the goods? Are there shop-assistants in the supermarket? Where are the goods cheaper, in supermarkets or in small shops? Why? 19. Study the table . CycJriiccH -ism, -ize, -ive, -ful, -less CycfriKC

-is

H n y Hacrrtuny M oeu ymeopjoe

IIpuKjiadu

IlepeKAad

idealism heroism summarize

meajii3M

TBOpHHH

npHKMeTHHK

creativ e b e a u tifu l

npHKMeTHHK

cloudless

6e3XMapHH

IM eH H H K

-ize

AiecjioBo

iv e ful less

npHKMeTHHK

repoi3M

nincyMOByBa

rapH H H

*

20. Read the words and guess their meanings . Pay attention to the suffixes.

a) material collective b) symbol critic

materialism collectivism to symbolize to criticize

c) progress — progressive effect — effective to instruct — instructive to collect — collective 58

parasite — parasitism individual — individualism hospital — to hospitalize nation — to nationalize to act — active to negate — negative to posit — positive to detect — detective


it) rare — careful meaning — meaningful success — successful nvent — eventful

peace help truth thank

n) (’are

meaning — meaningless colour — colourless end — endless

h e lp hom e

careless helpless homeless

peaceful helpful truthful thankful

HIV Translate into English in writing. I ) H KynuB flsi 6uii xjii6nHH i ab i 6yjiOHKH. 2) M o a MaMa nonpocnjia mniic KynHTH OAHy xjii6HHy. 3) Re a uomy KynHTH 6yjioincy? I ) )l MojKy KynHTH m’hco y m’hchomy Mara3HHi a6o y cynepMapKeri. f>) CyuepMapKeT — me /lyace bcjihkhh Mara3HH. 6) ^ ep ea roAHHy n mjxy KynyBara pn6m KOHcepBH. 7) M o s om ’h Kynye npoAyKTH xjipMyBaHHH y cynepMapKeii. 8) Mh He iQroyeMO xjii6 y M’acHOMy MiirawHi. 9) O^na xjii6nHa KoniTye 1 rpHBHio. 10) RasaAre KynHMO M JICHl KOHCepB

Lesson 36 Read your translation (exercise 2 1 ).

i. n) Read the word-combinations and sentences with their translation. h) Cover the left side of the exercise and translate into English .

I) a short time ago various shops •H to go to various shops 4) household items fi) another kind of shops 0) another kind o f books 7 ) at the market M) a very big shop 1>) to get a metal trolley 10) boxes of food 11) to buy essential goods 12) as quick as possible 13) cheaper books 14) more expensive goods 15) the most expensive goods H>) Goods in this shop are the most expensive. 17) Usually food in a super­ market is cheaper than in small shops.

me HeA&BHO pi3Hi KpaMHHXji XOAHTH no PX3HHX KpaMHHIJHX npeAMera AOMamHBoro bhchtKy iHmHH BHA KpaMHHQB iHHIHH BHA KHHr Ha 6a3api (pHHKy) Ay^ce BejiHKa KpaMHHija OAepncaTH MeTajieBHil Bi30K kopo 6kh 3 npoAyKTaMH

KynyBaTH Heo6xiAHi TOBapn HKOMora mBHAme AemeBmi KHHrn Aopoxroi TOBapn

HaHAopoHC'ii TOBapn ToBapn y ijiH KpaMHHip. Ha&Aopoarci.

3BH^aHHO npoAYKTH

xap^y-

BaHHH y cynepMapneTi AemeBm i, mac y MajieHBKHX KpaMhhi i n x . 59


18) A short time ago food at the market was more expensive than in state shops. 19) You can buy everything at the market.

IU,e HeA&BHo npoAYKTH Ha 6a 3api SyjiH A opoxrci, Hinc y gep

acaBHHx Mara3HHax. Bh MOJKeTe K y n H T H Bee H a 6a 3api.

24. Read the text and retell it. Many people go to the market nowadays. There farmers sell vegetables and fruit which they grew in their fields, gardens and vegetable gardens. They also sell meat, eggs, milk, butter, sour ['saua] cream (cMexaHa) and other things. Last Sunday my mother told me to go to the market to buy half a kilogram of meat, two kilograms of apples, two kilogrami of potatoes and a watermelon ['wo:tomebn] (icaByH). She gavt me 5 hryvnias and said that food at the market is cheaper than in shops and that I can bargain ['ba:gin] (TopryBaracH). I bargained a lot, so I bought everything for 4 hryvnias 10 co­ pecks. I saved 90 copecks and decided to buy two ices 0*Bi nopuil Mopo3HBa): one for me and one for my sister. 25. Read the dialogues and make up your own ones in pairs. Have you any 60 copeck ice-cream? Certainly. Two ices, please. Here you are. Here is 1 hryvnia 20 copecks. Thank you. if if *

— Do you want a hat? — Yes, I do. — What size? What colour? — My size is 50. Grey, please. — I think this hat is especially for you. — Do you think so? Let me try it. — This is a mirror. — Do you have a black hat of the same size? — Here you are. — How much? — Twenty hryvnias 20 copecks. To the cashdesk, please. m

26. D o exercise 23b in 1 minute. 27*. Translate into English in writing. 1) III,e HegaBHO moh MaMa KynyBajia npoAyKTH b Mara3HHax. Ha 6a3api bohh 6yjin Ayxce flo p ori. 3apa3 MaMa Kynye b Mt60


i n,uuii Jimne xjii6, itn f>a3api. ttotiM T y T

2)

H

i Macjio.

n ,y K o p

h I k o j ih

H a iiA o p o a c 'ii.

He 3)

K y n y io

H

h OBO^i BOHa K y n y e TOBapn y xjiii KpaMHJmi, 4 nopun Mopo3HBa: a j i h

M ’ hco

KynH B

riM'TpH'iKH, MaMH, TaTa i ajih ce6e.

Lesson 37 ift, It* tt) II,

!>o exercise 23b in 1 minute. Head your translation (exercise 27). Do exercise 9. Head the text silently. A fte r the text you will find 10 state­ ments, some of which do not correspond to its contents. W rite ttown the numbers of those statements and read them.

DEPARTMENT STORES There are different kinds of stores. But they are all for Iho same purpose — to supply customers with the right at the right time, at the right place, at the right price. Almost every city in the world has traditional big department hlores. Sometimes the biggest department stores take up a whole ril.y block (K s a p T a ji). There are big stores which, as they say, mil everything from a pin to an elephant.

61


The other kind of store are variety chain-stores1. Originally they handle only cheap goods, but some of them offer good quality at reasonable prices. Sometimes there is no dividing walls between the departments. As well as big stores, there are other kinds of shops. Indepen dent shopkeepers can make money there, particularly in s m a lle r communities. The department store offers more elaborate facilitie* for the customer's convenience and comfort than othur shops. 1chain-stores ['tjeinstoiz] — aMepHKaHCbKi oAHOTnnm po3flpi6ni Mara3HHH oflHiei $ipMH

1) Different kinds of stores are for the same purpose — to supply customers with the right goods at the most expensivt price. 2) Department stores supply customers with the right goods, at the right time, at the right place, at the right price. 3) Almost every city has big department stores. 4) Some department stores take up a whole city block. 5) There are big stores which sell only pins and hats. 6) Sometimes there is no dividing walls between the department* of the store. 7) There are no other kinds of shops except department stores. 8) Independent shopkeepers can make money in litt!*» shops. 9) The department store cannot offer more facilities than othe r shops. 10) The department store offers more elaborate facilities than other shops. 32. Read the dialogues in pairs . M a k e up your own dialogue* using the given ones as a model . A T THE GROCER’S Shop-assistant: What can I do for you, madam? Lady-customer: I want some tea, some sugar and some butter

a quarter of a pound1of tea, a pound of sugar and half a pound of butter. Shop-assistant: Yes, madam. Lady-customer: Oh, I want a little cheese too. Shop-assistant: What cheese and how much? Lady-customer : That one, a quarter of a pound. Shop-assistant: Don’ t you want any coffee, madam? Lady-customer: That’s all for today. 62


Very good, madam. Here is your bill. Pay at the cashdesk, please.

Shop assistant:

' it pound [paund] — (JjyiiT (aHrji. = 453,6 r) * * * Shopkeeper: Good morning, Mr. Smith. What can I get for

you today? Mr. Smith: Two pounds of sugar, please. Shopkeeper: And what next, please? Mr. Smith: A tinned meat, please. The kind I usually have. I also want two dozens1 of eggs, please. And that’s all for the moment. Shopkeeper: Thank you, and this is your bill. 1 dozen [ d A z n ] — Aioaciraa ( 12)

Id*. Do tank 9 on page 122. Write down the statements after the text (exercise 3 1 ) which do not correspond to it .

Lesson 38 ift l)o exercise 23b. «M Do exercise 9 on page 55. #7 Head the dialogues and act them . Lucy: Could you show me that suit, please? Shop-assistant: Do you know your size, madam? Lucy: My size in the USA is 36. Shop-assistant: The same in London. Here you are. This is a

very attractive suit. Lucy: I’d like to try it on. Shop-assistant: You can do it there. May I help you? Lucy: It fits me. What is the price? Shop-assistant: It is not high. £ 15. Lucy: I ’ll take it. MU. Imagine that you are buying different things (a suit, a shirt , a blouse, shoes). M a k e up dialogues in pairs consulting the table (exercise 3 9 ) and using the dialogue of exercise 37 as a model .

itt. Look attentively at the tables of sizes. Use their data in your dialogues. 63


Women’s dresses and blouses GB USA Europe/Ukraine 10 38 8 12 10 40 14 12 42 16 44 14 18 46 16 48 20 18 Women’s shoes GB 4 4.5 5.5 6 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11

USA 5.5 6.5 7.5 7.5 8.5 8.5 9.5 9.5 10.5 10.5 11.5 11.5 12.5

Europe/Ukraine 36 36.5 37 38 39 39.5 40 40.5 41 41.5 42 42.5 43

Women’s suits GB/USA 30 32 34 36 38

Europe/Ukraine 40 42 44 46 48

Men’s shirts GB/USA Europe/Ukraine 12 30 31 32 12.5 13 33 13.5 34-35 14 36 14.5 37 15 38 15.5 39 40 16 41 42 16.5 17 43 17.5 44 45

Men’s shoes GB/USA Europe/Ukr ai ne 6.5—7 38 39 7.5 8 39 40 8.5 9 40 41 9.5 10 41 42 42 43 10.5 11 Men’s suits GB/USA Europe/I 46 36 48 38 50 40 52 42 44 54 56 46

40. Read and retell the joke. Editor: Did you write this poem yourself? Young man: Yes, every line of it. Editor: Then I am glad to meet you, Mr. Byron. I thought

you were dead long ago.

64


»I

'Vmutilate into E n glish in writing. I ) M n ra 3 H H H fly a c e B an cjiH B i y H a r n o M y HCHTTi. 2 ) M h MOHceMO my11 h t h MaHHce B ee b c y ^ a c H H x y H iB e p M a r a x . 3 ) I U p t h M o a cern m v i u i t h b y H iB e p M a 3 i? 4 ) T h n y n y e m 4>pyKTH Mi uu,

1ih

He

Tan?

5)

Mh

He

K ynyeM o

b

oB creeB iH K p a M -

u ;y K o p

y

M ’ acH O M y

Miu n i n n i . 6 ) f l e t h K y n y e r n K O H cepB O B aH i (JjpyKTH ? 7 ) 3 B H H a iiH 0 M |m viykth

xap^yB aH H H

aem eB m i

M*’ IIM (H X

K p a M H H Il,H X . 8 )

y

111,0 T H

c y n e p M a p n e T i, MOHCeiH K y i l H T H

mm

y

M a-

Ha pH H Ky?

U) >1 KynHB Asi nopu;ii Mopo3HBa. 10) T h jik>6hhi m o po 3h b o ? I I ) M H H y jio 'i 1 ?) M

4H*

oh

H e flijii

c ec T p a He

a

KynH B

jh o 6 h t b

^ o th p h

K ijio r p a M H

K a B y H iB .

M ’ aca.

Ih) task 10 on page 123.

Lesson 39 4H Head your translation (ex ercise 4 1 ). 44 Head the dialogues in pairs .

AT THE FOOTWEAR DEPARTMENT

i it i isi 11iik . i0 kjl.

65


Shop-assistant : What can I do for you? Customer: Show me that pair of brown leather shoes, please. Shop-assistant : What size? Customer : Thirty-seven. Shop-assistant: Here you are. You can try on this pair in

front of that mirror. Customer: Oh, these shoes don’t fit me. They are large. Can you give me another pair? Shop-assistant: I ’m sorry, but we have only one size on sal# today. Do you want to try on these grey shoes of your size? Customer: With pleasure, thank you. Oh, they fit me well. It is my size. Where can I pay for this pair? Shop-assistant : A t the cashdesk. And bring me the cheque, please. Customer: A ll right. A T THE READY-MADE CLOTHES DEPARTMENT Customer: Fd like to buy a nice dress for my little daughter. Shop-assistant: We have a wide choice of girls’ dresses on sale,

What size does your daughter wear? Customer : She is neither tall nor small. Her size is thirty-two, Shop-assistant: Look at this silk (moBKOBy) red dress. It is the best dress on sale. Customer. Wrap it up, please. This is a good present for the birthday. 45. Read the jokes and retell them. LION THE HUMORIST A lion was wandering through the jungle asking all the animals he met, “Who is the King of a Jungle?” They all answered, “You are, of course.” He felt very pleased with himself when he saw an elephant sleeping under n tree. The lion pushed1 him and asked, “Who is the King of h Jungle?” The elephant opened one eye, took hold of2 the lion with his trunk3 and threw him up in the air. The lion came down on his left ear which made him feel bad. But he came to himself a few minutes later and said, “There’s no need to lose your temper4just because you don’t know the right answer!” 1to push [puj] — niTOBxaTH 2to take hold o f — bxoiihth 3trunk [trAf] k]^— xo6ot 4to lose [lu:z] one’s tem per — BTpanaTH caMOBJiajjaHHH 66


WHOSE OVERCOAT? A modest1 little man in a restaurant gently touched2 the arm of a man putting on a coat. “ Excuse me,” he said, “but do you happen to be3 Mr. Milkhouse?” "No, I ’m not!” said the man angrily. “W ell,” said the first man, “ you see, I am Mr. Milkhouse, mid that’s his overcoat you’re putting on.” 1modest ['madist] — ckpomhhh, copomjihbhh * to touch [tAtJ] — TOpKaTHCH Ho you happen to be...? — B h BHna^ieoBo He...? 1

4® Translate into Ukrainian, paying attention to neither... n o r . I) I know neither French nor Spanish. 2) She is neither tall nor small. 3) My friend knows neither German nor French. il Neither I nor my friend were there. 5) My brother is neither HiiHsian nor Spaniard. He is a Ukrainian. 6) Neither he nor hit* sister went home. 7) I bought neither suit nor shoes. H) I saw neither him nor his sister. 9) My father was neither nt school nor at the factory. 10) The table was neither black nor green. 11)1 don’t know where he is. I know exactly that In* is neither at home nor at his office. 12) This girl is neither tall nor short. 13) He bought neither fruit nor vegetables. 47 Do task 10 on page 123. M Do exercises: l i b (i n 45 m in u tes) and 23b (i n 1 m inute).

Lesson 4® 4# Write a short control paper. W rite: a ) the translation of 10 words and word-combinations; b ) the translation of 5 sen­ tences. (T h e teacher will dictate them to you .)

1(1 Answer the questions. Do you like to go shopping? I >iios your sister like to go chopping? What kinds of shops do you know? What do we usually buy at the bilker’s? What does your mother buy at tIn* supermarket? Doos your mother go shopping h> the market? Who sells food in shops? Who tells you the price?

Where do you buy meat? Where do you buy bread? Can you buy suits at the su­ permarket? Can you buy shoes at the su­ permarket? Do your new shoes fit you? Who goes shopping in your family? Does your mother ask you to buy food sometimes? Where do you buy coffee? Where do you buy tinned meat? 67


Where do you buy vegetables? Where do you buy cheese? What size coats do you wear?

What size shoes do you wear How much is a loaf of brow bread? How much is a bun?

51. Read the jokes and retell them . CLEVER ANSWER A fat man met a thin one. “From the looks1 of you,” he sai«is “there must have been a famine2.” “And from the looks of you,” answered the thin one, “you’ll the man who caused3it. ” 1 looks — BHrjIHA famine ['fasmin] — rojio# 3to cause [k o :z ] — c iip h h h h h t ] 2

BECAUSE OF THE NOISE1 Old man: Why didn’t you use your scooter in the street? Boy: I like it much better in the room. Old man: But doesn’t it make much noise, dear? Boy: Yes, sir. Old man: Don’t the neighbours knock? Boy: Yes, but I don’t hear them, because I make too much

noise. 1 noise [noiz] — niyM, rajiac 2 scooter [sku:te] — cicyTep

52. a) Read the word-combinations and sentences with their translation . b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English 1) a big baker’s and a good B e jiH K a S yjiO H H a i rapH M t butcher’s m ’ h c h h i i M a ra 3 H H 2) on the left of the grocer’s jiiBopy^i b ir 6aKajiiHHOx KpaM HHU,i

3) on the right of the greengrocer’ s 4) to pay for cakes 5) to have a bun for breakfast 6) low prices for food 7) high prices for clothes 8) What have you bought at the baker’ s? 9) Is the price for tinned vegetables high or low? 10) Where can you buy fruit and vegetables? 68

n p a B o p y * ! B itf O B o n e B o ro M a r i

3HHy

njiaTHTH 3a TicTe^nca S y jiO H K y H a CHiAaHOK

ic t h

H H 3 b K i IjiH H H a H p O flyK T H

BHCOKi U,iHH H a OAHr 111,0

th

U ,iH a

K ynH B y

Ha

6 y jio H H iit ?

K O H cepB O B aH i

obo*i1

BHCOKa *IH H H 3 b K a ? f l e b h M oaceTe K yn H TH

H OBO^i?

4>pyKTH


We can buy them at the food store and at the green­ grocer's. II) — Let’ s go to the butcher’ s and buy meat there. I think it is better to go to the market. Meat is better Dttd cheaper there. \2) The dress fits me. III) I tried on the suit in the dressing room. M) When we buy shoes, we always try them on. If they fit well, we buy them.

Mh MOJKeMO C T p oH O M i

h

ix

KynHTH y ra-

OBOHeBOMy

M ara-

3H H i.

JI&bslPl ni^eMo y ra3HH

m

’ h c h h S M a-

i K y n H M O T aM M ’ n c a .

f l A Y M a io , m o K p a r q e n iT H H a pH H O K

M ’aco TaM Kpame

i

fleineB e. CyKHH MeHi niflxoflHTb. fl npHMipaB koctiom y rapflepoSHiii. K o jih m h KynyeMO B 3 y T T «, m h 33B3KAH npHMipHGMO

HOrO.

H k h j o b o h o nizpco^H Tb, m h K y-

nyeMO Horo. m

Do exercise 52b in 1 minute. Be ready to write the word combinations and sentences in English. Do task 11 on page 125.

Lesson 41 IfK Do exercise 52b in 1 minute. Utl Auk each other questions given in exercise 50. ft/ Head the text silently . A f t e r the text you will find 10 state­ ments, some of which do not correspond to its contents. W rite down the numbers of those statements.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF CALENDARS There are some interesting facts about calendars. First of nil we should know that till 1700 in Russia and Ukraine the first day of the year was the first of September. In 1699, the .'lint of December was pronounced the last day of the year, « h in Europe. The first day of January, 1700 was the beginning of the new Russian calendar. This calendar was changed in 11)18: the day after the 31st January became not the 1st of hVbruary but the 14th of February. Since then we celebrate I !u‘ New Year twice. In different countries, at different times, we can see dif­ ferent kinds of calendars. About fifty centuries ago, in Egypt1 the first night of the year was the night in July when the brightest star Sirius2 was seen in the sky again after a two months’ interval. In old China, the calendar had both years m id cycles3 of years. Sixty years made one cycle, and every 69


year had its name. So the first year of a cycle was called the Year of the Tree and the Mouse; the seventh was the Year of the Metal and the Horse: and the tenth, the twenty-second and some others were the Years of the Hen. Now imagine that a man was born in the Year of the Hen. There were five Years of the Hen in a cycle: how could people know in what year the man was born? So the people of China don’t use their old calendar today. In the days of the French Revolution of 1789— 1794, a new calendar was introduced in France in the first Year of Freedom and the 22nd of September was called the first day of the year. But sifter a few years the whole country returned to the old calendar. Today in almost all the countries the 1st of January is the be ginning of the year. This day is a holiday. 1 Egypt ['i:d 3 ipt] — CraneT 2 Sirius ['siriss] — Cipiyc 3 cycle [saikl] — u,hkji 1) Till 1700 the first day of the year in Ukraine was the 1st of January. 2) The calendar in Russia was changed in 1700. 3) In 1919 the people celebrated the New Year twice. 4) Some countries have their own calendars. 5 ) In Egypt about fifty centuries ago the calendar was connected with the brightest star Sirius. 6) In old China the calendar had both years and cycles of years. 7) The years did not have their names in old China. 8) There were five Years of the Hen in a cycle in old China. 9) The first Year of Freedom was introduced in France in 1789. 10) Today in almost all the countries the 1st of Januaiy is the be­ ginning of the year. 58. Read the text and retell it. W H A T IS MORE DANGEROUS? When the party was over, the host1 offered2 to drive one of his guests home. It was a cold night, and the guest accepted the offer. Twice there was nearly an accident3, for frost covered the wind-screen4. The nervous guest tactfully suggested that it might help if the.frost was cleared from the wind-screen. “That wouldn’t help much,” replied the driver. “I ’ve left my glasses at home!” 1 host [houst] — rocnoflap 70


J i o o ffe r [ ofa] — nponoayBaTH

" accident [ aeksidant] — HemacHHH BHna^oK ’ w in d -screen [ ’windskrnn] — BiTpoBe ckjio

#• Wrtle down the statements which correspond to the contents of the text (exercise 57).

Itt Write down the answers to the first 7 questions (exercise 50).

Lesson 42 I I Head your answers (exercise 60). §« Head the words and word-combinations with the translation. to h© thirsty

XOT1-

['0 3 :s t i]

TH IIHTH

lo be hungry [ hAT]qri] — 6yt h TOJIOAHHM, XOTiTH 1CTH

to d ear [kliD] — npnSnpaTH

(.« cmojiy) to rook [kuk] — K y x o B a p H T H , roTyBaTH ( cmpaey ) io f r y [ f r a i ] —

CMajKHTH

In l a y [lei] ( l a i d [leid], l a i d )

KJiaCTH, (o

HanpH-

lay the table

Ha CTiJI io » t © w [stju:] — B a p H T H (c a ), IIHTH

Ty uiKyBaTH(cH) io have breakfast

— cmfla-

TH lo h a v e l u n c h [LvntJ]

MaTH

ApyrHH CHi^aHOK food [ f u : d ] — iaca, x a p n «oiip [s u :p ] —

cyn

h w t r o o t so u p (b o r s c h ) | 'b i : t r u : t 's u : p ] 6 opm •our cream [ ' s a u 3 ' k r i : m ]

cMeTaHa KOTJieTa Iwefsteak [ 'b i : f steik]

outlet [ ' kAtlit] ftlty m T e K C l»lo I p a i] —

n n p ir

p o t a t o e s [ p d 't e i t o u z ] ( f r i e d , b o i l e d , m a s h e d ) — K a p T o n jiH (c M a a c e H a , B a p e H a , n i o p e )

OBOH1

sandwich ['saenwid3] — 6yTep6poA sausage ['sosid3] — K osfiaca, COCHCKa porridge ['porid 3] (BiBCHHa) K am a

curds ['ka:dz] — cnp cheese [tji:z] — cnp ( meepduu ) mustard ['mAStsd] — rip'mn.a table-cloth ['teiblkloG] — cKaTepTHHa knife [naif] — H13K fork [fb:k] — BH^ejiKa table-spoon [spu:n] — c t o j i o Ba jioacKa tea-spoon — nairaa jioacKa glass [gla:s] — cKJinmca; napKa salt-cellar ['so:lt,seta] — cijibHHO.H napkin ['naepkin] — cepBeTKa paper-napkin — n an ep o B a cepBeTKa coffee ['kofi] - KaBa black coffee - HopHa KaBa white coffee - KaBa 3 mojioKOM

juice [d3u:s] — c iK dining-room ['damn]rum] i;jajifcHH cafe ['kaefei] — KaB’ npHH

restaurant

['restrent]

pec-

T op aH

v p o t a b l e s [ 'v e d jitd b lz ]

71


c a n te e n [kaen'ti:n] — lAajitH H , 6y $ eT (na nidnpueMcmei ) w a it e r [ w e i t s ]

— o<|>iii;iaHT

to s e rv e [ss:v] — noflaBaTH p la t e [plert] — T apijin a, MHCKa

63. Read and retell the jokes. I HAVE PAID FOR IT Johnson ordered a piece of cake at a lunchstand, but sent it back, and ordered1 a piece of apple-pie instead. He ate it, got up and was about to leave when the waiter stopped him* “ Sir, you haven’t paid for that pie yet.” “What?” answered Johnson indignantly2. “Didn’t I give you a piece of cake for it?” 1to order ['o:ds] — 3 aM0 BjiHTii 2 indignantly [in'dignantli] — 06ypeH 0 HOSPITALITY A good woman apologized1 to her unexpected guest for serwing the apple-pie without cheese. The little boy of th* family left the room and returned2 with a piece of cheese. H# laid it on the guest’s plate. The visitor, who was hungry fin a hunter, smiled, put the cheese into his mouth, and then remarked, “You must have better eyes than your* mother* sonny. Where did you find it?” The boy replied, “ In th# rat-trap3.” 1to apologize [3'pobd3aiz] — BH6aqaTHCH 2 to retu rn [ri'to:n] — noBepTaTHca 3rat-trap — KanicaH ajih naijioKiB 64*. D o exercise 62. 65*. W rite down the words of exercise 62 into your vocabularie*,

Lesson 43 66. D o exercise 62. 67. a) Read the word-combinations and sentences with their translation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 72

to have a good meal dinner of four courses to take a slice of bread to put sugar into the tea to have dinner

Ao6pe noicTH o S ifl 3 ^ O T H p b O X CTpaB

xjii6a noicjiacTH ijyicop y nail

B3HTH m M a T O ^ O K

o6iflaTH


ft) to serve 7) n waiter H) to pay the bill U) to be hungry 10) tomato juice 11) to have some water K0 to have some milk lit) to have some coffee 14) self-service IF>) Many pupils of our school hnve dinner in our canteen. IN) Meal in our canteen is cheaper than in cafe. 17) I prefer to have dinner at home. IH) As a rule I have bread, and tea for breakfast. I!)) As hungry as a hunter. *#!<I) I am dying of hunger. V!I ) A hungry belly ['beli] hf oars.

o6cjiyroByBaTH o<i>iiuaHT onjiaTHTH paxyHOK 6yTH TOJIOffHHM TOMaTHHH ciK BHHHTH BOflH BHHHTH MOJIOKa BHIIHTH KaBH caMooScjiyroBysaHHH BaraTO yqHiB Harnol ihkojih o6iflaK>Tb b i,n;ajii»Hi. Iaca b Harniii l^ajibHi flemeBina, HiHC y KaB’ apm.

fl Biflflaio nepeBary o6i«aM yAOMa. A k npaBHJio, h im Ha cHinanoK xjii6, hhijh i n ’lo Man.

rOJIOflHHH HK BOBK. fl noMHpaio Bi^ rojio^y. TojioAHm KyMi xjii6 Ha yMi.

## I(rad the text and translate it. I PREPARE MY DINNER As my mother was out I decided to prepare my dinner myself. I went into the kitchen and saw lots of tins there. There were \ iiih of soup, tins of fish, tins of vegetables and tins of fruit. It was difficult for me to choose. At last I took down from the nhrlvcs a tin of tomato soup and a tin of sardines [sa:'di:nz]. For a long time I could not find the tin opener. A t last I found it: it was in a drawer1. A t last I opened the tin of Boup. I thought I was very clever because I have done it without cutting my fingers. Then I poured2 the soup into a pnn and put it on the gas-stove. Then I decided to open the other tin. It was very difficult to do because it had a different kind of opener: it was like m key and I had to turn it round and round. The sardines wnre in olive ['ohv] oil. Once again I thought I was very clever because I opened the tin without cutting myself. So I emptied3 tlifl sardines out to a dish. When I emptied sardines out to the dish, I heard a noise rtiul looked out quickly: the top and the sides of the stove wnre a beautiful pink4 colour. The pan was almost empty. When I turned away from the stove, I saw my black cat Murka — she was licking the dish clean5. I threw a pan at the cat but missed6 her. 73


So I decided not to prepare my dinner, put on my coat a n d went out. There w as a good restaurant not fa r from my hous«, 1 d r a w e r [d r o :a ] —

m y x jia fla , BHcyBHHH

hhjhk

2 pour [pOl] — BHJIHBaTH 3 em pty ['em p ti] — nopoacHm; chopojkhhth 4 p in k [p i i jk ] — poaceBHii 5 lic k c le a n — HaHHCTO bhjih3yBaTH

6 miss [m is] — He Bjiy^HTH

69*. D o exercise 67b in 1 minute. 70*. Translate into English in writing.

1) fl

roTyBaTH iaey. 2) Moa cectpa He jik>6htb Kyxoat* P h t h . 3) 3aTejieci)OHyH Mem ^epe3 15 xbh jih h , a 3apa3 roTyio incy. 4) Th jik>6h h i roTyBaTH iacy, ^ h He Tan? 5) X to jiio6htii roTyBaTH iacy? — Moa Mara. 6) fl He jik>6jiio kotjict . 7) Boki jik>6h tb 6i$mTeKc i3 cMaxceHoio KapTonjieio. 8) Bi3BMH niMaioK xjii6a. 9) fl 3 BH^aHHo o6iAaio y mKijiBHin lflajiBHi. 10) MIA Apyr HiKOJiH He oSi^ae y nncijiBHiH i^ajiBHi.

i—

jiio6jik)

Lesson 41 m

m

m

m

^

^

m

m

m

r

n

m

r

n

i

m

m

m i

m

m ..... m*»

71. D o exercise 62. 72. Read your translation (exercise 70). 73. D o exercise 67b in 1 minute. 74. Read the joke and retell it.

A young man his girl-friend were in a restaurant. The young man studied the menu ['menju:] for a long time. It was written in French which the young man did not know. Not wishing to show his ignorance1 before his girl-friend he said pointing with hi* finger*,, “ I think we’ll have some of that, waiter.” The waiter glanced to where the man was pointing and said, “I ’m sorry, but that’s the orchestra [oikistrs] is playing.” 1 ignorance [ign sran s] — Heyn/rBO, He3HaHHH

2 finger ['frrjga] — najieijt 75. Form as many questions as you can using the substitution tables.

you your sister usually Where do your friend does your father your, mother you and your sister 74

your breakfast? his lunch? have her dinner? their afternoon tea? your supper?


Whitt

you your sister usually have for do your friend does your father your mother you and your brother

breakfast? lunch? dinner? afternoon tea? supper?

fH Form as many sentences as you can using the substitution tables. breakfast have I lunch

i My HiHter My friend

My father My brother and me

usually

dinner

home. at

has I afternoon teal supper

a cafe, a restaurant the school canteen.

\

I My My My

My

breakfast. tea, black coffee, have white coffee, lunch. H is te r bread, sandI for dinner. fr ie n d usually wiches, afternoon m o th e r cheese, curds, tea. porridge, supper. brother and me sausages, cutlets, soup,

borsch, sour cream, ice cream 77, Make up short dialogues in pairs using the tables of exercises 75 and 76. Example:

Where do you usually have dinner? I usually have dinner at home. What do you usually have for dinner? I usually have borsch, cutlets and coffee for dinner. TH. !>o task 11 on page 125. 7M. Translate into English in writing. I) H 3apa3 o6iflaio. 2) Bin 3BiraaHHO CHiflae o 7.30. 3) Kojih th 3BH*iaHHO BenepHem? 4) Kojih th 6yAem o6i^aTH 3aBTpa? 5) Kojih h ysiinnoB H a KyxHio, moh cecTpa Be*iepHJia. 6) HJo th 3 apa3 po6mn? — H cHiflaio. 7) Moh c e c T p a 3BH*iaHHO H e m U ae o cbOMiii roflHHi. 8) Miii 6paT 3apa3 He Be^epae. BiH Ahbhtbch TejieBi3op. 9) H BenepHB, kojih yBinmoB Miii apyr. 10) Th 3BH*iaiiHO cHiflaem o BocbMiii, hh He TaK? 11) fle th ;niHtiaiiHO o6iflaem? — Y p e c T o p a n i . 75


Lesson 45 80. Read your translation (exercise 79) 81. D o exercise 62 . 82. Read the text and retell it. IN A RESTAURANT It was Sunday yesterday. I rang up my friends and w* decided to go to the cinema. There were four of us: George, his girl-friend Betty, Aline and me. After the cinema we wer**

very hungry and went to the restaurant. The waiter brought us the menu. George and Betty decided to have rice soup, roast beef and potatoes, some salad and orange juice. As for me and Aline we had tomato juice, fish and chips and some salad and mineral water. We paid the bill and went to the park. 83. Read the sentences using one of the words given in brackets. 1) We went to a restaurant because we were (ill, hungry). 2) We were (very, much) hungry. 3) The (shop-assistant, waiter) gave us the (map, menu). 4) The waiter (brought, took) two cups of coffee. 5) Betty (brought, took) the menu to see 76


wl)nt they could (drink, write). 6) How about (some, something) fl»h ond chips? 7) W ill you have (some, something) to drink? — Ytti, r il have a (fish, tomato) juice. H4 Head the dialogues in pairs. M a k e up your own dialogues . I'd like to drink some water, it’s so sultry1 today. I can order some lemonade or juice. Oh, thank you. So, come on. 1 aultry ['sAltri] — ayniHo

What do you usually have for breakfast? Just a cup of tea and a sandwich. And what about you? I don’t eat much either. Just an egg, a slice of bread and coffee. But some people have a full breakfast with bacon1 or ham2, eggs or fish, bread and butter, tea or coffee. My father has full breakfast every day. * Imcon ['beikn] — SeKOH, * ham [haem] — niHHKa

K on*ieH a CBHHsrea rp y A H H K a

*** I am too fat. So I am going to eat less. A r e you really? Yes, I ’m going to give up bread, potatoes and sweets. You should change your way of life. First of all you should take long walks and go in for sports. You are right. Everybody knows about it, but as you know, 1 am lazy1! * lazy [le iz i] — JieaaHirii Do exercise 67b in 1 m inute.

M*. Do task 12 on page 127.

Lesson 46 Do exercise 67b in 1 minute.

t# Do exercise 62. »u? Head the dialogues in pairs and make up your own ones. Andrew: I think this cake is wonderful. Albert: So do I. Would you like another piece? 77


Andrew : No, thanks. This is my fourth piece already. Albert: Is there any coffee? Andrew : Yes, there is. Would you like a cup? Albert: Yes, please.

Della: A cup of coffee, please. Dave: Tea for me, please. Waitress: One tea and one coffee. Dave: Why do you always drink coffee? Della: Not always. Sometimes I drink tea. Do you always drink

tea? Dave: Sometimes I drink coffee. But I prefer tea. 90. Translate into Ukrainian. (Consult § 27 on page 160.) 1) This film is much spoken about. 2) What book was mu< h spoken about? 3) This cake is praised. 4) The book was rend by all our pupils. 5) I was shown the way to the library. 6) Whom were you shown the way by? 7) The letter wni written by my old friend. 91. Change the following sentences using the Passive Voice.* (Consult § 27.)

1) John wrote the letter. 2) They spoke about it. 3) The doct<>i ordered him to take rest. 4) The teacher corrected our exerciar* at home. 5) Schoolchildren took out many books from tli* library. 6) The teacher will tell us an interesting story 7) Fire destroyed the house. 92. Read this anecdote and retell it. M ARK T W A IN AND THE FISHING INSPECTOR One of Mark Twain’s hobbies was fishing, and he used t$ go fishing even in the closed season when fishing was not allowed. Like many fishermen, he sometimes invented storiM about the number of fish he caught. One day during the closed season, Mark Twain sat fishinf under a little bridge. A man crossing the bridge saw him fishing there. The man stood watching Mark Twain fishinf there, and then he asked, “ Have you caught many fish?” “Not yet,” Mark Twain answered. “ I ’ve only just begun 1 But yesterday I caught thirty big fish here.” “That’s very interesting,” the man said. “ Do you know wfio I am?” “No,” Mark Twain said. “ I don’t think I ever saw you before " “Pm the fishing inspector for this district,” the man said. “And do you know who I am?” Mark Twain asked quickly. 78


“ No, of course not,” said the inspector. “ I am the biggest liar on the Mississippi,” Mark Twain told him. HH ih task 12 on page 127. M*. Write a short report (about 10 sentences) “M y M eals Yes­ terday”.

Lesson 47 Head your report (exercise 94).

INI. Head the extract from the novel by Jerome K. Jerome “Three M e n in a Boat".

I remember going to the British Museum one day to read up the treatment for some slight ailment of which I had a touch of hay fever, I fancy it was. I got down the book, and mid all I came to read; and then in an unthinking moment, I idly turned the leaves, and began too indolently study <Imeases, generally. I forgot which was the first distemper I plunged into — some fearful, devastating scourge, I know — itiul, before I had glanced half down the list of “premonitory nymptoms,” it was borne in upon me that I had fairly got it. 1 sat for a while frozen with horror; and then in the IlHtlessness of despair, I again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever — read the symptoms — discovered that I 11ad typhoid fever, must have had it for months without knowing it — wondered what else I had got; turned up St. Vitus’s Dance — found, as I expected, that I had that too — began to get interested in my case, and determined to sift it to the bottom, and so started alphabetically — read up ague, iind learnt that I was sickening for it, and that the acute Mtage would commence in about another fortnight. Bright’s IImease, I was relieved to find, I had only in a modified form, mid, so far as that was concerned, I might live for years. Tholera I had, with severe complications; and diphtheria I ttiwmed to have been born with. I ploded conscientiously through the twenty-six letters, and the only malady I could conclude I had not got was housemaid’s knee. I sat and pondered. I thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view, what an acquisition I whould be to a class! Students would have no need to “ walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital in myself. All they need do would be to walk round me, and, after that, tnke their diploma. treatment [triitmont] — jiiKyHaHHH

ailment ['eilmsnt] — xBopofia 79


hay

fe v e r

[ 'h e i , f i : v o ] —

ciH H a

ague [e ig ju :] — M a jin p ia . n p o n a c H H i^ a

rapHHKa t o f a n c y [Taensi] — yaBJiHTH co6i in d o le n tly

['in d a tenth]

jii-

acute [o'kjuit] — rocTpnft ( npo 6 U b )

fortnight ['fo:tnait] — jBa

HHBO d i s e a s e [ d i 'z i : z ] — XB0p 06a d i s t e m p e r [d is 'te m p a ] —

THttCHi

n ora -

HHH HaCTpiH t o p lu n g e TH

[p lA n d 3 ] —

nopH H a-

Bright’s disease ['braitsdiz i : z ] — 3 an ajieH H H h h p o k c h o l e r a [ k o la r o ] — x o jie p a s e v e r e [s i'v ia ] —

t o d e v a s t a t e ['d e v o s te it] — c n y -

d i p h t h e r i a [ d i f 'G i a r a ] —

t o p l o d [p lod ] — /yiyforrHCH (6

[p r i'm o m to ri ]

-wycb); yn ep T O n p a ijio B a T ii

s y m p t o m - npoB icm nc Cxeopo6u ) f a i r l y [ 'f e o l i ] — h b h o

m a la d y

lis tle s s n e s s

housemaid’s knee

a n a T ia bijx p o 3 n a n y t y p h o i d f e v e r ['t a if o id , f i: v o ] —

[ 'h a u s m e i d z 'n i : ] —

o f

d e s p a ir

HepeBHHII TH(}) t o w o n d e r ['w A n d s ] —

6 a »c a r a

3HaTH St. V itu s’s D an ce — BirroBa xB opo6a to

s ift / jara

[s ift]

a h 4>*

T e p ia

CTom yBaTH s c o u r g e ['s k o :d 3 ] — 6yi,a p r e m o n ito r y

th jkkh e

['m aetedi]

XBopo6ut

po3Jiaji; B oaa b

K O J iin ax ( Oocji . xBopo6a x a r * H b o i po6iTiran;i, noB’a3aHa a nOCTiilHHM CTOHHHHM.Ha KO* jim a x ) a c q u i s i t i o n [ , a e k w i 'z i f n ] npH ASaH H H

CTapaHHO p o 3 rjia -

97. Read the words and word-combinations with their translation , doctor [dokta] Jiinap patient ['peijsnt] naiueHT hospital ['hospital] — jihcap-

rocniTajiB ambulance ['sembjubns] — Maum hh

,

H a IUBH AKO i M e^H H H O l AOnOM OrH

pain [pern] — 6ijib (ocodjiueo eocmpuu) ache [eik] — 6ijib ( o c o 6 j i u s o mpueajiuxiy mynuii) toothache ['tu:0eik] — 3y6HHH SijiB headache ['hedeik] t o j io b HHH 6iilb stomach-ache ['stAmakeik] 6i;iB y mjiyHKy cough [k o f j — Kamejib; KaiUJIHTH 80

c o l d [k ou ld ] — n p o c r y a a a c o l d i n t h e h e a d — HeacHTb

surgeon [ 's a f a r i ] xipypr dentist [ dentist] 3y6HHft JIlKap, AaHTHCT therapeutist [ y0ero'pju:tist] — TepaneBT drops [drops] — Kpanjii pin [Pii] — nijiiojiH, Ta6jieTKa medicine ['medsin] — jiIk h ; Me#Hn;HHa temperature [ tempritjp] — TeMnepaTypa to bring down the tempera­ ture — 36hth TeMnepaTy-

py

to examine a patient — orjiHHyTH naijieirra


lo keep to on e’s b e d — ^otpwMyBaTHCH nocTUihHoro pe­

epidem y

['epidami]

eni^e-

M lH H e 3BXB0pi0BaHHH

chem ist’s shop ['kemists'Jop] —

rn ItMy

Injection [in'd3 ekjn] — m ’eKi^ia flm* |flu:J — rpnn

anTena to re c o v e r [ri'kAvs] BH^yacyBa-

gurgle [ ga:gl] — nojiocicaHHH (<hvi zopjia)\ nojiocKam (zopjio)

th ro a t [Grout] — ropjio

H ead the text and translate it.

THE DOCTOR VISITED ME Kour days ago I suddenly fell ill. I had a splitting headache mikI a terrible cough. The temperature was 38,1 (thirty-eight point one). Besides my nose was closed up. My mother telephoned to our district doctor and she came in an h o u r . She examined me, took the temperature, measured my blood prrssure and said, “Nothing serious, just a flue. Keep to your bed l o r a few days. Don’t go out or else you’ll get complications. Mus­ lim! plasters will be useful for you.” The doctor prescribed me a gargle, a cough mixture and pills. She wished me good luck and went away. She was very htiHy because it was the epidemy of flue. Kour days passed. I followed all the instructions of the doctor and was almost well. Do exercise 97.

♦oo*. Write down the words and word-combinations (exercise 9 7 ) into your vocabularies.

Lesson 48 MM, Head the words and word-combinations from y ou r vocabulari.es.

Io

Head the text and retell it

THE DOCTOR’S ADVICE1 Once an old gentleman went to see a doctor. The doctor I'xamined him and said, “Medicine won’t help you. You must huve a complete rest. Go to a quiet country place for a month, go to bed early, drink milk, walk a lot, and smoke only one cigar a day2.” “Thank you very much,” said the old gentleman. “ I shall do everything you say.” A month later the gentleman came to the doctor again. #,How do you do?” said the doctor. “I am very glad to see you. You look much younger.” 81


“ Oh, doctor,” said the gentleman. “ I feel quite well now. I had a good rest, I went to bed early, I drank a lot of milk* I walked a lot. Your advice helped me. But you told me to smoke one cigar a day, and that cigar a day almost killed m« at first. I t ’s not a joke to start smoking at my age.” Advice [sd'vais] — nopa^a 2one cigar a day — oflHa curapa Ha flem> 103. Read the dialogues in pairs and make up your own ones I have an awful ['o:ful] toothache Would you open your mouth, please? The tooth gives me a sharp pain. Well, no treatment will help your bad tooth. It haft to be pulled out. Patient: Where have I to go? Dentist: Go to the dental surgery. The surgeon well pull your bad tooth out.

Patient: Dentist: Patient: Dentist:

Doctor: W hat’ s the matter? Patient: I ’m quite ill. Doctor: What are your symptoms? Patient: I feel very weak and have a high temperature sine®

yesterday. Doctor: What is your temperature? Patient: Two hours ago it was 37.8 (thirty-seven point eight). Doctor: I must examine you. Your throat is inflamed. Yei, you’ve caught cold. You have to lie down and use a gargl® and some medicine. Patient: How long have I to stay in bed? Doctor: I think you will recover in a few days. Don’ t forget to gargle your throat as often as you can and take th< medicine three times a day. 104. a) Read the word-combinations and sentences with the translation . b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English 1) a sharp pain rOCTpHH 6ijlb 2) to gargle the throat nojiocnaTH ropjio 3) two days ago ABa AHi TOMy o r jififla T H n a ijie H T a 4) to examine a patient HeXCHTb 5) a cold in the head AO TpH M yBaTH CH HOCTUIbHOn > 6) to keep to one’s bed pexcHMy

7) to bring down the temperature 82

36 h t h

TeM nepaTypy


8) a high temperature 9) to pull out the tooth 10) a bad tooth 11) to catch cold 12) at the doctor’s 13) a pain in the knee 14) a hot-water bottle 15) to have a complete rest 16) to have a good rest 17) I have a splitting headache. 18) I have a cold in the head. 19) I bought the medicine at the chemist’s. 20) W h a t is troublin g you? 21)1 consulted the doctor and went home.

BHcoKa TeMnepaTypa B H pB aTH 3 y 6 XBO pH H 3 y 6 3 aC T y^ H T H C H

y J iiK a p a 6 ijib y

KO JiiH i

r p ijiK a

nOBHiCTK) BiAnOHHTH Ao6pe BiAno*iHTH y MeHe ^yace (HecrepnHo) 6oj i h t b rojiosa

y MeHe HeacHTb. fl

KynHB jiiK H b a iiT e n i.

II],o Bac

Typ6ye?

f l npoKOHcyjibTyBaBca y JiiKa­ pa i nimoB flOflOMy.

105. Do exercise 97. MMJ*. Do exercise 104b in 1 minute. 107*. Translate into English in writing. I ) H BHce nonojiocicaB ropjio. 2 ) IH o t h 3apa3 po6nm? — f l nojionty iop;io. 3) # e t h KynHB TafJjieTKH? — B anTeiji. 4 ) K ojih a yBm m oB,

Hill IipHHMBB JliKH. 5) fl CSMe nOJIOCKSB ropjio, KOJIH BiH MeHi ;uiTejie<J)OHyBaB. 6) R n a jsja.i TOMy a 6ys y JiiKapa. 7) IH,o Tpanmiocb? y MeHe rpHn. 8) J\e anTeKa? — 3 a poroM ByjraijL

Lesson 49 HIM. Do exercise 104b in 1 minute. IOM. Read your translation (exercise 107). 110. Read the jokes and retell them. HE KEPT HIS PROMISE1 “Well, Doctor, you kept your promise when you said you would have me walking2again in a month!” said John. “Good! I ’m glad to hear that.” “Did my recommendations help you?” asked the doctor. “Oh, no! had to sell my car when I got your bill3,” said John. 1 promise

['promis] — o6in,HHKa

1 you would have me w alking — b h nocTaBHTe MeHe Ha Horn 1 bill [bil] — paxyHOK (3a jiiKyeannsi) 83


A N EXCELLENT MARK A schoolboy’s father was reading the school report which had just been handed to him by his son. He became angry ai he read his marks: English — poor1; French — weak2; ma­ thematics — fair3. ’’What a disgrace4!” exclaimed he. ’’W ell,” said the son, “ it is not so good as it might be5, but have you seen that?” And he pointed to the next line with his finger. And the father read: “Health — excellent” . 1 poor [pus] — noraHO 2 weak [wi:k] — cjiaSo 3 fair [ f e a ] — n o c e p e f l H b o 4 disgrace [dis'greis] — raHt6a 5 as it might be — h k Morjio 6 y T H 111. Read the dialogues in pairs and make up your own ones. Receptionist: Doctor Brown’s office! M r s . Smith: This is Mrs. Smith. I ’d like to make an appoint­

ment. Very well. Is it for yourself? No, it’s for my boy. He is 16. W hat’s the matter with him? He has been coughing for a week. Let him come to the therapeutist. I can give him an appointment for today at 16.30 or tomorrow at any time. M r s . Smith: Thank you so much. He will come today.

Receptionist: M rs . Smith: Receptionist : M r s . Smith: Receptionist:

— — — —

Outch1! What’s the matter with you? I ’ve cut my finger and it is bleeding2. Nothing serious. I ’ll bandage3 your finger.

1Outch! [autj] — Oh! (euzyn) 2to bleed [bli:d] — k p o b o t o h h t h 3to bandage ['baendid3 ] — nepeB’H3yBaTH 112. Put the adjective in brackets into the proper degree. (Consult § 6 on page 143.)

1) I think the weather today is much (good) than it wai yesterday. 2) Jack is (young) than his brother. He is (young) child in the family. 3) It is (good) film I have ever seen. 4) The illness is (serious) than you think. 5) The marks wer« (good) than we expected. 6) You should gargle your throat (often) 84


limn you did before. 7) It was (interesting) book I have ever read, rt) it was (difficult) exercise than I did yesterday. 9) It was (bi'ttutiful) picture I have ever seen. lift Translate into English orally. I >Hiii iiaiueHT m>oro jiiKapa. 2) M am m a uiBHAKoi MeairaHoi Aonommi ii HiABe3Jia ii ao JiiKapHi. 3) BaM cjiifl 3BepHyTHCH ao xipypra. i ) JI neap cKa3aB, mo n,i JiiKH jxemeBi. 5) BiH nopaAHB nojiocKara rnp;m Ta npHHMarn Kpanjii. 6) rpnn — He6e3neHHa xsopo6a, TOMy wiU AOTpHMyBaracH nocrrijibHoro pejKHMy. 7) OcraHHiM n a c o M y MitiuoMy paHOHi 3’hbhjioch 6araTO hobhx airreK. 8) HaATO BHCOKa

ruMnepaiypa He6e3neHHa. Ii noTpiGHo

36 h t h .

9) y

mogi

cecrpn He*

r ti' piiHHH t o j io b h h h 6 ijib . K p iM T o ro , BOHa KauiJiHc Bace K ijibica AniB.

10) He 3aery/pKyHTecH, 11) TepaneBT ornHHys xBoporo i CKaaas, mo

i o ii o/^yncae nepe3 KijibKa ahIb.

114*. Prepare for a short control paper at the next lesson: do exercises 97, 104b. lift*, Do task 13 on page 129.

Lesson 50 I Do exercises 97, 104b. 117, Write in English: «) 10 words and word-combinations dictated by the teacher in Ukrainian; b) f> sentences dictated by the teacher in Ukrainian . MH Do task 13 on page 129.

||H*. Do task M o n page 130.

Lessons 51 and 52 (reserved)

85


Lesson 5!t 1. D o exercise 97. 2. D o exercise 104b. 3. Read the text and retell it. INSOMNIA1 “ What is the matter with you, Bill? You look very tired .* f “ You are right, I am. J’ve caught insomnia.” “ Don’t be silly. You can’t catch insomnia. It is not c o n t a ­ gious2.” “ You are not right. Sometimes it is contagious. It is when your baby is ill.” Hnsomnia [in'somma] — 6e3coHHH 2contagious [ k d n ' t e i d 3 3 S] — 3 a p a 3 H HH,

m c J je K r u H im ii

4. Express surprise about the following statements using the word really. Example:

This boy is ill. Is he really ill? 1) He likes tea with salt. 2) He always has breakfast at the restau« rant. 3) He always keeps his promises. 4) I have cut my finger. 5) He bought the medicine at the baker’s. 6) He kept to his bed for a week. 7) The doctor examined a patient. 8) He has a high tem­ perature. 9) He gargles his throat in the dining-room. 10) The doo* tor hasn’t given me any recommendations. 11) The therapeutist prescribed me five kinds of pills. 12) Insomnia is contagious, 13) Smoking is not dangerous if you smoke one or two cigarettes a day. 14) We shouldn’t always follow the doctor’s instructions.

5. Express your agreement with the statements given below usin

certainly. Example:

Natalia is the best pupil in our form. Oh, certainly, she is. 1) John is a good sportsman. 2) George keeps to his bed. 3) Th« dentist pulled his tooth out. 4) She has a cold in her head. 4) was consulted by the doctor. 6) Borys had a splitting headache* 7) He needs a good rest. 8) His sister has forgotten to gargle h< i throat.

86


A. Express your regret . Use the phrase as for me. A d d your expression . Example:

I know German. As for me I don’t know German. I know English. 1) My mother knows many foreign languages. 2) John plays tennis very well. 3) I have bought a new dress. 4) Two days ngo he won the tournament. 5) My sister likes ice-cream, tt) I have read a very interesting book. 7 ) He bought a nice pair of boots. 8) My friend has got an excellent mark in Knglish. /, Do task 14 on page 130. Disagree with the statements given below using I ’m afraid you are wrong. W rite down your statements . Example:

This medicine is useful for me. I'm afraid you are wrong. This medicine isn’t useful for you. 1) I think this exercise is easy. 2) I think this boy is a good friend. 3) This restaurant is good. 4) I think I have bought ii nice present for her. 5) I think she likes coffee. 6) There lire many books on the shelf. 7) She is at school.

Lesson 54 9, Head your statements (exercise 8 ).

10. Head the text and retell it . TWO EMPTY SEATS Mr. Martin went into his usual coffee shop one morning, nnd sat on one of the seats at the counter1. After some time a young man and a young woman came In. There were only two empty seats at the counter, one on Mr. Martin’s left, and the other on his right. The woman sat at one, and the young man at the other, but Mr. Martin immediately offered to change places with the man so that he and the young woman could be together. “Oh, that isn’t necessary,” the young man said, but Mr. Martin insisted. When the young man and the woman were side by side, the young man said to her, ‘‘W ell, this kind gentleman wanted uk to sit together, so may I introduce myself? My name’s 'Pom. What’ s yours?” ‘counter ['kaunta] —

n p n jia B O K

87


11. Read and act the dialogue . Then make up similar ones. A T THE POST-OFFICE (IN K YIV ) M r . Reed: Do you speak English, sir? Clerk : Yes, I do. What can I do for you? M r . Reed: I ’d like to post this air-mail letter. Clerk: A registered one? M r . Reed: Yes. Clerk: 5 hryvnias and 50 copecks, please. Anything else? M r. Reed: Nothing more. Clerk: Here you are. M r . Reed: Thank you.

12. Read the sentences and translate them. Pay attention to the meaning of prefixes . 1) I have found a misprint in the text. 2) He felt uncomfortable there. 3) I ’ m afraid you misunderstood what I said. 4) He can displease everyone. 5) People often mis-spell her name. 6) He was happy to find an unused copy of the book in a second-hand book-shop. 7) The pupil had to recopy the exercise because he had made too many mistakes. 8) He was uninterested in the work he had to do. 9) It is incorrect to say that he had no talent. 10) It is absolutely unnecessary to come here again, you may phone. 13. Read the sentences and translate them. Pay attention to the meaning of suffixes. i ) The way seemed to me endless. 2) The food was eatable.

3) We don’t forget about heroic deeds of our people. 4) I know the signature of my father. 5) It happened because of his carelessness. 6) She wore a fashionable long evening dress with an open neck. 7) We found it very difficult to walk on the stony road and preferred to stay on the grass as much as possible. 8) The machine was modernized and worked very well. 9) The production of our industry can be seen in many countries. 10) The achievements of our scientists and engineers are well-known everywhere. 14. Put in the verbs in the right tense and translate the sentences. 1) The doctor (to examine) the patient and (to say), “This medi­ cine (to do) you a lot of good.” 2) The mother asked her sick son,“ ... you (to take) your temperature?” 3) While the doctor (to prescribe) the medicine, the patient (to put on) his shirt. 4) The doctor (to promise) that in two days the patient (to leave) the hospital. 5) The child (to have) a high temperature and (to cough) very much. 6) He (to put on) the coat and (to go) to the chemist’s. 88


15*. Translate into English in writing. 1) IHo 3apa3 poShtb flttcoH? — Mipae TeMnepaTypy. 2) 111,0 3apa3 po 6 htb tb I h 6paT? — IIoMipaB TeMnepaTypy i Biflno^HBae. 3) He 3a6yAb noMipara TeMnepaTypy. 4) 111,0 3apa3 po6HTb tboh cecTpH^nca? — npHHMae JiiKH. 5) Kojih a yBiihnoB, Rtkim. npHHMaB JiiKH. 6) 3aBTpa Min SpaT ni^e ao Jiinapa. BiH jsyme Kanuiae. 7) Jlinap Bnnncye JiiKH. 16. D o task 15* on page 132.

Lesson 55 17. Read your translation (exercise 15). 18. Read §•35, 36 on pages 166-167. 19. Read the sentences, and state the function of the Infinitive in each sentence.

1) Ill’ s time to go home. 2) I want to show you the hospital where my mother works. 3) He bought me an English newspaper to read. 4) He was too old to travel any more. 5) I have come here to talk to you. 6) I am glad to see you. 7) To know English means first of all to be able to speak English. 8) I ’ m always ready to help you. 9) Our plan is to start at once. 10) We stopped to have a rest. 11) I ’m too busy to go to the cinema today. 12) I ’m glad to meet you. 13) She’s happy to be back home. 14) It’s difficult not to make mistakes. 15) Please teach me to play the guitar. 17) She’ s lucky to have so many friends. 18) She’s lucky not to be busy on Sundays. 19) It ’s too hot today to play tennis. 20) She is too busy to help you this month. 20. Read and translate the text paying attention to the non-finite forms ( 6e30co6oei <popMu) o f the verbs.

C H AR ITY1 A big fat man called at the rectory2, and when the door was opened, asked to see the rector’s wife, a woman well-known for her charity, “ Madam,” he said in a sad voice. “ I wish to draw your attention to a poor family in our street. The father is dead, the mother is too ill to work and the nine children are starving3. They will be turned out4 into the street unless5 somebody pays their rent6 for them. It’s about ten or twelve pounds.” “ How terrible7!” exclaimed the woman. ’’May I ask who are you?” “I ’m the landlord8,” he sobbed. 1 charity ['tjaeriti] — AoSpoAiHHicTb 2 rectory ['rektori] — SyAHHOK napa<|>iajibHoro cBanjeHHica 89


3 t o s t a r v e [s t a :v ] — n on rap aT H Bi a r o j i o ^ y 4 t o t u r n o u t ['to :n 'a u t] —

bhtbh h th

6 unless [sn'les] — hkxqo He 6 rent [rent] — K B a p r a p H a n jia T a 7 terrible ['terabl] — HcaxjiHBHH 8 landlord ['laendlo:d] — AOMOBJiacHHK, akhh 3^ae (BHaftMu) K BapTH pH

21. D o n ’t agree with the statements given below using I’m afraid. D o the exercise in pairs. Example:

I think this suit is cheap. — I ’m afraid you are wrong. It is very expensive. 1) I think his answer is correct. 2) I think you have meala two times a day. 3) I think the weather will be fine tomorrow. 4) I think this film is new. 5) I think your sister is hungry. 6) I think we can buy here a nice dress. 7) I think Andrew is at home. 8) I think Bill likes to play chess. 9) I think h« has a sister. %

22. D o task 15 on page 132. 23. Fill in the blanks with modal verbs or their equivalents. Copy the sentences. (Consult § 29-33 on pages 162-165.)

1) You... water the flowers. 2) You... to water the flower* tomorrow, as I shall go to the country. 3) I... not read this book because I don’t know French. 4) I... not to come to set you tomorrow, as I shall be very busy. 5)... you translate this document into English? 6) In a year you... to read English newspapers. 7) Yesterday you ... to translate five sentences from Ukrainian into English. 8)... I take your pencil? Mins is broken. 9) As the weather was fine, the children... to walk in the park. 10) You... learn this rule by heart. 24.* D o task 16 on page 133.

Lesson 58 25. Read the sentences you have written (exercise 23). 26. Translate into Ukrainian. (Consult § 37, 38 on pages 167, 168.)

1) If anyone asks for me, let him wait a minute. I shall be back very soon. 2) There is a man in the office who wants to see you, 3) You ought to know how to spell this word. 4) She helped m# to carry this heavy box. 5) We invited her to sit down with us. 6) I told him to join our party. 7) It is better to go and ask. 8) Let’s go and see the new film. 9) Who is to go with us? 90


if,

thnagree with the statements given below using nor. Work in pairs . K.%ample:

neither...

I think your sister is seventeen or eighteen.— You are not right. She is neither seventeen nor eighteen. She ii out of her teens. I ) I think you like to play hockey or football. 2) I think your brother wants to be an engineer or doctor. 3) I think you like «>offee and tea. 4) I think your friend is a doctor or a teacher. 5) 1 think you want to buy sugar or tea. 6) I think this boy U the pupil of the 6th or the 7th form. 7) I think you are going to the cinema or to the theatre. ## ttrad the dialogues and act them . Did the doctor diagnose1 your case2? Yes. How long did it take? About a minute. I had on an old suit. 1io diagnose ['daiagnouz] — craBHTH Aiarao3 * oiinc [keis] — BHna^oK; craa 'kie'k (* nest (to the waiter): I ’ve only half a dollar. What would you

ml vine1me to do? Waiter: Have a walk to the next restaurant. 1lo advise [ad'vaiz] — pa#HTH kie'k

Waiter : You come into our restaurant, you order a glass

of water, you drink it, and you calmly walk out! Guest: What were you expecting me to do, man? Stagger •M l t * ?

* io stagger out ['staecp'aut] — bhxoahth xhtbiohhcb I'm in the blanks with the prepositions or adverbs: to, off,

with, on, at, for, of, up. ... six or seven o’clock we turn ... our TV-set. "What is ... to<!tiy?” my little brother Bill likes to ask me. Mother doesn’t allow Bill to see all the programmes, and Im is sometimes angry ... us. ... course he likes to see the <children’s programme, but that is not enough ... him. As you know, Bill is a little boy and he goes ... bed ... nine o’clock. When the programme is over and we turn ... the TV-set, little 91


Bill is already asleep. He gets ... eight o’clock. A s fo r me, go ... bed ... ten and get ........ seven.

30. D o task 16 on page 133. 31*. Translate into English in writing. Consult § 29-33. i 3MymeHHH 6yB nncara ojiiBijeM 2) 3aBTpa Heflijia, ajie h 3MymeHHH ira ao ihkojih. 3) fl mum noBepHyTH n;io KHHHCKy B^opa. 4) M in 6paT MOHce nepeKjiaciu ne& TeKCT 3aBTpa. 5) Th M ir n;e 3Po6hth B^opa, hh He mu'/ 6 ) Tboh cecTpa MOHce rpaTH b xoKeii, hh He Tan? 7) X to 3aBTi>* 1) fl

3ary6nB

MOJKe

npH H TH

py^Ky

Ha

KO B 3aH K y?

ojiiBeijb? — Tan. 9) K ojih

h

fl.

8)

MOMCHa

B3HTH

TBlA

3MOMcy Te6e no6aHHTH?

Lesson 57 3 2 . Read you r translation

( exercise 3 1 ).

3 3 . Read the words and word-combinations with their translatic

commandment [ka'maindmant] — HaKa3, 3anoBiAi> the ten commandments — Aec h t i> 3 a n o B i A e n

(6i6ji.)

dependent [di'pendant] - yTpHMaHeijb, HaxjiiSHHK interruption [inte'rApJn] nepepBa, 3aTpHMKa purpose [po:p3s] MeTa, u,ijib favour [Teivo] — nocjiyra,

jik>-

6 ’ H3HiCTb

Do me a favour. MeHi nocjiyry. outsider ['aut'saids]

3 p o 6 iT b

cropoH-

um; ayTcaH^ep

to deserve [di'za:v] -

BysaTH courteous ['ks:tps] -

A^ceHHH, CTaBJieHHH; JiiKyBaHHH

fellow [felou ] — xjioneub, jiiO A H H a , T O B a p n m

salary ['saeteri] — 3a p o 6 iT H * njiaTa, oKJiaA lifeblood ['laifbLvd] — k p o b ( n o e m .); A^epejio hchtt€Hgi

chjih placard ['plaeka:d] — njiaKaT, a$inia the Bible [ barbl] — to call [ko:l] — 3axoAHTH; KJIHKaTH to call up — A3BOHHTH (Bh KjiHKaTH) no Tejie$OHy statistician [,staeti'stij3n] —

3 a cJ iyro -

BB1HJIH-

BHH, HeM HHH

treatm ent ['tri:tmsnt]

n0B0-

CTaTHCTHK feeling [ ' f i : l n j ] —

nonyTTH

eMOI^lH to fill [fll] ---3amOBOJIbHHTH little fellow — MajiioK

3 4 . Read the text and translate it .

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF GOOD BUSINESS My elder brother is a businessman and has his own office in the centre of our city. Once I visited his office and stopped 92


nl the door of it: there I saw a big placard written in English rtiul Ukrainian. The title o f it was “Thie Ten Commandments o f ( i o o d Business” . I have heard about th<e Ten Commandments, hut they are connected with the Bible. So I became interested In it and read it from the very beginning. Here it is. 1. A customer is the most important person in any business. 2. A customer is not dependent on iu s . We are dependent on

h im .

A. A customer is not an interruption of our work. He is

lln» purpose of it. 4. A customer does us a favour when he calls. We are not doing him a favour by serving him. Tk A customer is a part of our business, not an outsider. (). A customer is not a cold statistician, but a human being with feelings like our own. 7. A customer is a person who brings us his wants. Our j o l ) is to f i l l those wants. 8. A customer deserves the most courteous and attentive treat­ ment. 9. A customer is the fellow who makes it possible to pay mir salary. 10. A customer is the lifeblood of every business. #5, Head and retell the jokes . FOR THE SAKE OF1 BUSINESS ('ustomer: What are you crying for, my little fellow? Shopkeeper's son: My father is selling some new soap, and

rvery time a customer comes in I have to wash my head to show how good the soap is. 1 fo r

the sake of

3apa;jn

FATHER’S MOTTO1 The teacher was giving her class a lecture on mottoes and wished the class to memorise the motto, “ It is better to give tlmn to receive2.” A small boy cried out, “ Yes, Miss, my father says he has nlways used that as his motto in business.” “ What is his business?” the teacher asked. “ He is a boxer, Miss,” the boy answered. ' m otto ['m o to u ] — ReBi3 ’ to r e c e iv e [ r i 's i : v ] — O A e p ^ y B a r a

93


36. Complete the questions .

1) Where... your father...? 2) When...? 3) Where... your mother...? 4) When... she...? 5) When... the shop...? 6) Why... your sister... to the coffee bar every afternoon? 7) Why... your brother... all those newspapers?

— He works at... — His work starts at seven. — She works in a shop. — She goes to work at seven. — It opens at eight o’clock. — She goes there because she works in the coffee bar. He buys them because he needs them for his work.

37. D o exercise 33. 38*. D o task 17 on page 134. 39*. Translate into English in writing . 1) Mo a KiMHaTa He 6ijn>ma i He Memna, mm. tboh. 2) JIimeHk He KOpoTHiHH i He flOBmHH, HbK cepneHb. 3) Rtkoh ne cTapniH# i He m ojio ah ih h , mnc H oro TOBapnm. 4 ) U,en to a h h h h k ho Kpamnft i He ripnmii, huk toh. 5) H He 6a*!HB Hi IleTpa, Hi fioro cecTpH. 6) H He ^ H T a » Hi ru ei, Hi Tie! khhhckh. 7) f l h * KynHB Hi M’ Hca, Hi Macjia. 8 ) B oH a He K yn n jia Hi cyKHi, Hi COpOHKH.

40*. W rite the words and word-combinations into your vocabula­ ries.

Lesson 58 41. Read your translation (exercise 39). 42. D o exercise 33. 43. a) Read the word-combinations and sentences with the trans • lation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English .

1) my elder brother 2) his elder sister 3) his own office

Miii CTapmHH 6paT iioro CTapma cecTpa

Horo BJiacHa KOHTopa ( bjihcHHH 0'4>ic)

4) the ten commandments

flecHTb 3anosip,en (6i6ji.) 3 caMoro no^aTKy

5) from the very beginning BejiHKHH njianaT 6) a big placard KjiieHT — HaiiBaMCJiHBima oco7) A customer is the most 6a y 6yAb-HKOMy 6i3Heci. important person in any business. KjiieHT — ^acTHHa 6yAb-HKoro 8) A customer is a part of 6i3Hecy. any business. 9) The customer deserves the I KjiieHT 3acjiyroBye HanyBa>Kmost attentive treatment Hiinoro cTaBjieHHH. 94


10) He visited neither his office nor his home. 11) You are a customer of this office, aren’t you? IK) Who is your customer? It is my friend. Ul) This office has a lot of

B iH He Bi#Bi£aB Hi CBoro o<J)icy, Hi CBoro flOMy.

B h KJiicHT niei k o h to p h , hh

He TaK?

Bam KJiieHT? — Miii Apyr.

X to y

kohtoph

6araTO KJiieHTiB.

niHtomers.

14) Our job is to fill his wants.

Hame 3aBAaHHH — saAOBOJibHHTH ifo ro 6a>KaHHH.

44 Head and retell. A DRAGON-FLY1 AND A BEE2 A Bee and a Dragon-fly went to school in the forest. Although they sat at the same desk, they were not friends. ICvon during the break they played separately. One day the Bee caught a cold and didn’t come to school. Mlt’s nothing much,” they said in class. “ It doesn’t matter if ■ho misses a day or two. The Bee always gets good marks and ■hn will catch up3.” So the pupils said they were sorry their friend was ill, and that was all. Only the Dragon-ffy couldn’t stop worrying4. She ant there looking very miserable6, and then she began to cry. “Oh, oh,” she wept. “ If only little Bee could get well again quickly. How shall I get on without her?” “Just look!” the Mosquito exclaimed. “Who would have thought that Dragon-fly could be such a good friend with nnybody?” And nobody knew what a good reason the Dragon-fly had f o r crying. She always copied her homework from the Bee. 1 ilr agon -fly ['draegsnflai] — 6a0Ka i

hoe [b i:]

6A*K O Jia

1to catch up ['kaetJ'Ap] — Ha3AorHara ■to w orry ['wah] — XBHjnoBaTHCsi n miserable ['mizarobl] HemacHHH

4<V Do task 17 on page 134. Do exercise 43b in 1 minute .

Lesson 59 4/. Head the words with their translation . to adopt [a'dopt] — npHHMaTH

fundamental [,fAnda'mentl] —

la w [ b : ] — 38K0H

ochobhhh

95


to secure [s i'k ju a ] — rapairryBara, 3a6e3nenyBaTH duty ['dju:ti] — o 6o b jh 3o k voter ['vouta] — BH6opeu,b body ['bodi] — opraH legislative ['led 3 islativ] — 3 aKOHOAaBMHH responsible [ri'sponssbl] BiflnoBiflajibHHH

accountable [a'kauntabl] niA3BiTHHH justice ['d 3AStis] — iocthiuh, npaBOcyAAH juridical [d3U9'ndikl] — k>ph3aKOHHHft exercise ['eksasaiz] — BnpaBa;

H H H ; CAHHHH

frontier [frAntjs] — kopaom inviolable [in'vaiotabl] — »• AOTopKaHHHH; HenopyntiHwo dignity [digmti] — ri^HicTh

value [vaelju:] — uiHHicTb to

prescribe

[pri'skraib]

n p H iiH cyB a T H ; b h 3Han a T H

source [so:s] — A^epejio BHnplui > amend [ 3 'm end JIHTH; 3MiHK)BaTH

> usurp

y3ypnyi Ui

[ju 'z9 :p]

TH

authority [o:'0oriti] — Bjiajni comprehensive [, kompri' hen S V] 1

B C e i^ H H H 6

unfettered ['An'fetad] —

3 fliftC H K > B aT H

entirely [in'taish]

unitary ['ju:nit3ri] — yHiiTep

nOBHlC-

TIO; H iijIKO M

on behalf [on bi'ha:fj — Bifl iMeHi establishment [is'taeblijmsnt] — BCTaHOBJieHHH

self-determination ['selfdi.te:m i'neijn] — caMOBH3HaneHHH

to strive (strove, striven) crapaTHca, HaMararacH responsibility [rispDnsa'biliti] BiAHOBiAaJIbHiCTb

yTH C H eH H H ;

h#

B ijIb H H H

to facilitate [fesihteit]

cnpti

HTH

diversity [dai'vs.sitil — pia HOMaHiTHiCTb

compulsory [kam'pAlssri] — 060B’ jI3K0BHH censorship [ sens3/ip] U©N 3ypa

to

prohibit

[p re'h ib it]

3a60p0HHTH

48. Read the text Compare the English and Ukrainian variants. THE CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE On June 28, 1996 the Supreme Rada of Ukraine has adopt*! the Constitution of Ukraine, its Fundamental Law. The 28tl* of June has been proclaimed a state holiday. The Constitution establishes the country’s political system secures rights, freedoms and duties of citizens, and is the ba*k for all its laws. According to the Constitution the head of the state is tin President, who is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years with no more than two full terms. The Supreme Rada is the only body of the legislative pow< • of Ukraine. There are 450 people’s deputies who are electr.i for a term of four years. 96


The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Supreme Rada. Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by courts. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction. The Constitution of Ukraine consists of 15 chapters, 161 articles. Some parts of the Constitution in English and Ukrainian are represented below. Constitution of Ukraine1 The Supreme Rada of Uk­ raine on behalf of the Uk­ rainian nation — Ukrainian citizens of all nationalities, expressing the sovereign will of the nation,

K oH C T H T yiU H y K p a ’l H H “

BepxoBHa

Pafla

yicpaiHH

b \jx

iMeai YKpa’iHCbKoro Hapo^y rpoMaflHH ynpa'iHH Bcix Hauio-

HajibHOCTeii, B H p a jK a io H H c y B e p e H H y

b o j iio

Hapoay,

1 (Unofficial translation) 2 K h i b , lO piH KO M , 1996 Council of Advisors to the Parlia­ ment of Ukraine. Commissioned by the Secretariat of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine. 4 n.inXOTHHK, 10 k.l

97


on the basis of the centuries-old history of the estab­ lishment of a Ukrainian State and on the basis of the right to selfdetermination realized by the Ukrainian nation, all the people of Ukraine, with a consideration to­ ward securing human rights and freedoms and dignified conditions for human life, providing for the streng* thening of civil harmony on Ukrainian land, striving to develop and strengthen a democratic, so­ cial, lawbased state, recognizing our respon­ sibility before God, our own conscience, past, present, and future generations, governed by the Act of Declaration of Ukrainian In­ dependence of 24 August 1991, as approved by a na­ tional vote on 1 December 1991, adopts this Constitu­ tion — the Fundamental Law of Ukraine.

BOTBOpeHHH i Ha OCHOBi 3fll"

cHeHoro yKpaiHCbKoio Hanjtio, yCiM y KpaiHCbKHM HapoAo*

npaBa Ha caMOBH3Ha*ieHHfl, flSaioHH npo 3 a6 e 3 ne*ieHH£ npun i cbo6 oa jiioahhh Ta rijutu« yMOB 11 HCHTTH,

niKJiyiOHHCb npo 3Mii*Hu hnA rpoMaflHHCbKoi 3JiaroAH w« 3eMJii yKpaiHH, nparHynn po3BHBaTH i 3Miuit# Bara AeMOKpaTHHHy, couiaA* Hy, npaBOBy AepacaBy,

ycBiAOMJiioioHH BiAnoBiAajibiri<m, nepeA BoroM, BjiacHoio cobictio, nonepeAHiMH, HHHimHiMH t « npHHAemHiMH nOKOJliHHHMM , KepyiOHHCb A ktom nporo*o ineHHH He3aneHCHOCTi yKpatwn BiA 24 cepnHH 1991 poKy, cx»* jieHHM 1 rpyAHH 1991 pon> BceHapoAHHM rojiocyBaHHHM, npHHMae ijio KoHCTHTyijiio OCHOBHHH 3aKOH yKpaiHH.

Chapter I

Po3AiJi I

General Principles

3 a r a jib H i 3acaAH

Article 1

CTaTTH 1

Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, lawbased state. Article 2 The sovereignty of Ukraine extends across its entire ter­ ritory. Ukraine is a unitary state. The territory of Ukraine within its current frontiers is indivisible, and inviol­ able. 98

cnnpaiOHHCb Ha 6araT0BiK0«y icTopiio yKpaiHCbKoro a e p **

y K p a iH a e cyB ep eH H a i H e3a ji« * Ha,

AeM O K paTH H H a,

c o u ia jib *

n p aB O B a A e p n c a B a .

CTaTTH 2 C y B e p e n iT e T y K p a i H H n o u iH p # GTbCH H a BCK) l i T e p H T o p i i o .

YKpaiHa e yHiTapHoio Aep5Kai< TepH Topia y KpaiHH

b mo>km-

icHyK)Horo KOpAOHy e ijijiicHoi" i HeAOTOpKaHHOK).


Article 4 lit Ukraine there is a single citizenship. The bases for I hr acquisition and termi­ nation of Ukrainian citizen­ ship are prescribed by law. Article 5 Ukraine is a republic. The people are the only nource of power in Ukraine. The people exercise power directly and through the bo­ il inn of state power and local ■elf-government. The right to determine iwici amend the constitu­ tional order in Ukraine be­ longs solely to the people and n m y not be usurped by the Mtate, its organs or officials. No one may usurp the auth­ ority of the State. Article 6 Mtute authority in Ukraine is realized on the basis of its division into legislative, ex­ ecutive, and judicial power. Organs of the legislative, executive, and judicial power exercise their authority wi­ thin the limits prescribed hy this Constitution and in accordance with the laws of Ukraine. Article 10 The state language in Uk­ raine is the Ukrainian lanThe State guarantees the comprehensive development ftiul use of the Ukrainian hi nkuage in all spheres of a o c i e t y across the entire ter­ r i t o r y of Ukraine.

4

O arra

B

rpoMa-

y K p a m i icnye e a r a e

AHHCTBO. niflCTaBH AJIfl HafiyTTH

i npnnHHeHHs rpoMaAHHCTBa YkpaiHH BH3HaHaK>n>CH 3aK0H0M.

5

CTaTTH

y KpaiHa c pecny6jiiKOK).

Gahhhm

^scepejioM

yK pam i c

bjibah

HapoA

HapoA.

b

3Ainc-

hk>€ BjiaAy 6e3nocepeAHbo i n epe3 opraH H AepacaBHoi b j is a h Ta

opraHH

MicueBoro

caMOBpHAy-

B8HHH.

ripaBO BH3HaqaTH i 3MiHK)BaTH KOHCTHTyuiHHHH jia A

b

y K p a in i

HaJieHCHTb BHKJIIOHHO napoAOBi i He MO»ce 6yTH y3ypnoBaHe AepHcaBOK>, i'i opraHaMH a6o nocaAoBHMH 0C06aMH.

HixTo

Moxce y3ypnyBaTH

He

A ep-

acaBHy BJiaAy.

CTaTTH 6 ^ e p »c a B H a

BJiaAa

Y K p a iH i

b

3AiHCHioeTbCH Ha 3acaAax ii no-

AiJiy Ha 3aKOHOAaBHy, BHKOHaB^ y T a cyAOBy. O p ra H H

3aKOHOAaBTO'i,

bhko-

HaBHO'i T a cyAOBoi BJiaAH 3 A in CHIOIOTb

CBOl

HOBHOBaHCeHHH y

BCTaHOBJieHHX H,ieiO KOHCTHTyijie io

MeHKax

i

BiAHOBiAHO

ao

3 aK 0 H iB y K p a iH H .

CTaTTH ^ e p a c a B H o io

10

m o b o io

b

y K p a iH i

e y K p a iH C b K a MOBa. TJepacaBa 3a6e3ne*iye Bce6iHHHH i 4 )y H K m o H y B aHH^ y K p a iH C tK o i m obh b y c ix c<|>eP03BHT0K

p a x c y c n ijiL H o ro

hchtth

H a Bciii

T epH T opii y K p a iH H .

99


The unfettered develop­ ment, use, and protection of Russian, other languages of national minorities in Ukraine is guaranteed. The State facilitates the learning of languages of in­ ternational communication. The use of languages in Ukraine is guaranteed by the Constitution of Ukraine and is prescribed by law. Article 15 Social life in Ukraine is based upon the principles of political, economic, and ideological diversity. No ideology may be recog­ nized by the State as com­ pulsory. Censorship is prohibited. The State guarantees free­ dom of political activity not prohibited by the Constitu­ tion or by the laws of Uk­ raine. 49.

B

yK pam i

ra p a H T y eT b C H

B ijib -

HHH P03B H T0K , BHKOpHCTaHHH i 3aXHCT pO ciH C bKO l, iH in H X MOB

H auiioHajibHHx M esn iH H y K p a iHH.

JHep^caBa cnpHne b h b h c h h io m ob MincHapoAHoro cnijiKyBaHHH. 3 acT ocyB aH H H m o b b y K p a i H i ra p a H T yeT b C H K o H C T H T y ijie io p a iH H

Ta

BH 3H anaeTbCH

Yk-

3aKO-

HOM. CTaTTH 15 CycnijrbHe hchtth b y K p a m i r*pyHTyeTbCH Ha 3acaAax nojiit h h h o i , eKOHOMi^Hoi T a iAeojio-

riHHoi 6araTOMaHiTHOCTi. }KoAHa iAeojiorin He M oace b h -

3HaBaTHCH

Aepw caB oio

hk

060-

B*H3K0Ba.

U,eH3ypa 3a5opoHeHa. ^ e p jK a B a

rap aH T ye

nojiiTHHHoi

CBo 6 o A y

AinJibHOCTi,

3a6opoHeHo’i KoHCTitTyii;ieio 3aKOHaMH yKpaiHH.

He i

Do exercise 47.

50. Find in the text (exercise 4 8 ) and read in English sentences which correspond to the following Ukrainian ones. 1) 28

2) B iA n 0 B iA H 0 a o 3) 450 HapoAHHX p o k h . 4) ,IJepttcaBH0i0

n epB H fl o r o jio m e H e Aep>KaBHHM c b h t o m . K o H C T H T y ijii r;ia B 0 i0 Aep^caBH e IIp e3 H A eH T . A e n y T a T iB

oG npaiO TbC H c t p o k o m

Ha m o th p h

y K p a i m e y n p a iH C b K a MOBa. 5) ^ e p n c a B a 3 a 6 e3 n en ye BHBHeHHH m ob M itfCH apoAH oro cn ijiK yB aH H H . 6 ) }K o A H a iA e o jio r in He MOHCe BH3HaBaTHCH h k 060B*H 3K 0Ba. 7) HiXTO He MOHCe y 3 y p m o b o io

b

nyBaTH Aep>KaBHy BJiaAy. 8 ) C y B e p e H ire T y K paiH H n om n p ioeT b C H Ha

bck)

ii

T e p H T o p iio .

rpO M aAH H CTBa y K p a i H H

9)

IliA C T a B H

a Jin H aS yT T H

i

n p n n H H eH H H

BH3HaHaiOTbCH 3aK 0H 0M .

51*. Do task 18 on page 136. 52*. Write down the words (exercise 4 7 ) into your vocabularies.

Lesson 60 53.

100

Do exercise 47 .


54. Translate into Ukrainian. 1) Every citizen of Ukraine who is 18 years old has the right to elect the deputies to the Supreme Rada. 2) The citizens of Ukraine cannot be the citizens of other countries. 3) Citizens of Ukraine have not only constitutional rights but also duties. 4) Censorship is prohibited in Ukraine. 5) The sovereignty of Ukraine extends across its entire territory. 6) The state is accountable before the individual for its activity. 7) The ter­ ritory of Ukraine is inviolable. 8) In Ukraine there is a single citizenship. 9) No one may usurp the authority of the State. 55. a) Read the word-combinations with the translation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English. 1) to adopt the Constitution 2) to proclaim a state holiday 3 ) to establish the country’s political system 4) to secure political rights 5) to secure freedoms 6 ) to elect the president 7) to elect a deputy 8 ) to consist of 9) to develop a democratic state 1 0 ) to approve by a national vote 1 1 ) to be indivisible 1 2 ) to be inviolable 13) to prescribe by law 14) to exercise power 15) to usurp the state authority 16) to guarantee the compre­ hensive development 17) to prohibit censorship

UpHHMBTH KoHCTHTyiUK) OrOJIOCHTH AepacaBHHM CBHTOM ycTaHOBHTH nojiiTiraiy CHCTeMy KpaiHH 3a6e3ne^HTH nojiiTHMHi npaBa 3a6e3neH H TH c b o 6 o a h

o6npaTM npe3HAeHTa odnpaTH aenyTaTa CKJiaflaTHCH 3 p03B H B aT H

A6M OKpaTH^H y

KpaiHy CXBaJIHTH BCeHapOAHHM TOJIO-

CyBaHHHM 6yTH HenoflijibHHM ( ijLjiIchhm) 6yTH HeflOTOpKaHHHM

BH3HanaTH 3aK0H0M «u 3flmcHi0BaTH Bjiaay y3ypnyBaTH AepacaBHy BjiaAy ra p a H T yB a ra

B ceSiH H H H

po3-

BHTOK 3a6opoHHTH

n;eH3ypy

56. Translate into English. 1) IlepiiiHM npe3HfleHTOM ynpaiHH 6yB Mnxaajio TpymeBCbKHH. 2) IlepiiiHM BceHapo^HO o6paHHM npe3HAeHTOM yicpaiHH 6yB JleomA KpaBHyn. 3) K ohcthtyiuh y KpaiHH 3a6e3nenye n o j i i r a i n p a B a rpoM a/jH H . 4) A k t n p o r o jio m e H H H He3ajie>KHOCTi y K paiHH Bia 24 cepnHH 1991 pony 6yB cxBajieHHH BceHapoAHHM ro jio c y B a H H H M . 5) K o H C T H T y iu a y K p a iH H mIcthtb 15 p o3 A iJ iiB , 161 c T a T T io . 6) Moi npaBa HeaoTopKaHHi. 7) II,eH3ypa b yKpami

3a6opoHeHa. 8) KoHCTHTyijia BCTaHOBHJia nojiiTH*ray cncTeMy yKpaiHH. 9) M h noBHHHi po3BHBaTH AeMOKpaTHHHy KpaiHy. 10) yKpaiHa — HJieH PaAH CBponn. 101


57*. Do exercise 55b in 1 minute. 58*. Translate into English in writing. 1)

Y K p a iH a

y H iT a p H a

aepacaB a.

2)

^epM caB H O K )

m o b o io

b

Y K p a iH i e yKpa'iHCbKa MOBa. 3) M o b h H aijioH ajibH H x m c h q ih h 3axH m eH i K oH C TH Tyi;ieK ) Y K p a m H . 4) T e p H T o p ia y KpaiHH Hen oflijib H a . 5) Y K p a iH a — npaBOBa AepacaBa. 6) B Y K p a iH i icHye

eAHHe rpoMaAHHCTBO.

59. 60. 61. 62.

Lesson 61

Do exercise 47. Do exercise 55b. Read your translation (exercise 58).

a) Read the word-combinations with the translation. b) Cover the left side of the page and translate into English 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

the fundamental law a state holiday political rights duties of citizens the basis for all laws two full terms the only body of the executive power 8) accountable to the Supreme Rada 9) on behalf of the Ukrainian nation 10) a social state 11) the Act of Declaration of Ukrainian Independence 12) a single citizenship 13) in accordance with the laws 14) the state language 15) the use of the Ukrainian language 16) the use of other languages 17) the principle of political diversity

OCHOBHHH 33K0H AepacaBHe c b h to nojiiTHHHi n p a s a o 6 o b ’ h 3Kh

rpoM aAHH

OCHOBa BCix 3 aK 0 HiB A B a HOBHi CTpOKH 6AHHHH

O p raH

BHKOHaBHOl

BJiaAH n iA 3 BiTHHH B e p x o B H iii P a A i BiA iM e a i Y K p a iH C b K o ro H apoay

coqiajibHa AepJKaBa A k t n p o ro jio m e H H H He 3 a j i e 5KH ocT i y K p a iH H

eAHHe rp0MaAHHCTB0 BiAnoBiAHO ao 3aKOHiB Aep^caBHa MOBa 3a c T o c y B a H H a y K p a in c b K o i m o bh

3acTO cyB aH H a in n iH x m o b npH H UH H

n o jiiT H H H o i

6 a ra T O

MaHiTHOCTi

63. Read the text about Great Britain and the USA attentively. After the text you will find 10 statements, some of which do not correspond to its contents. Write down the numbers of these statements.

a) The United Kingdom is a unitary state, not federal. It is a constitutional monarchy [ monaki]. The powers of the Queen are limited by Parliament. 102


The Constitution of Great Britain is unwritten. Its rules depend on precedent modified by a constant process of inter­ pretation. The parliament consists of two parts: the House of Com­ mons and the House of Lords. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. The party which obtains the majority of seats in the House of Commons is called the Government and the others — the Opposition. Every citizen of Great Britain who is 18 years old and has the right to vote can vote for a Member of Parliament. Voting is by secret ballot. At intervals of not more than five years the British people in a general election elect Members of the House of Commons. b) The USA is a presidential republic, which consists of 50 states. The American presidential election is fixed by law every four years on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. On this day the citizens of the USA elect the President and Vice-President, 35 USA Senate seats (approximately one-third) and all 435 seats in the House of Representatives (Congressmen). The Constitution of the USA, the oldest constitution in the world, was adopted in 1787. The first President of the USA was George Washington. 1. 2. 3. 4.

The United Kingdom is a unitary state. The powers of the Queen are not limited. Great Britain is a presidential republic. The Prime Minister of Great Britain is elected by the people. 5. Citizens of Great Britain vote for the Queen. 6. The British people elect Members of the House of Commons. 7. The USA is a presidential republic. 8. The American presidential elections take place in November. 9. The Vice-President is elected on Sunday in November. 10. The Constitution of the USA was adopted in 1787.

64. Do task 18 on page 136. 65*. Do exercise 62b in 1 minute .

Lesson 62 66. Do exercise 47. 67. Do exercise 62b in 1 minute. 103


68. Translate into English in 10 minutes in writing . 1) KoHCTHTyuia — ochobhhh 3aKOH AepacaBH. 2) Ka6iHeT MiHicrpiB y KpaiHH nia,3BiTHHH BepxoBHin Pa#i. 3) rpoMa^HHH y KpaiHH Mak)tb He jiHiue npaBa, a ii o6ob ’h3Kh . 4) BepxoBHa Pa^a npHHHHJia KoHCTHTyuiio Bin; iMeHi yKpaiHCbKoro Hapofly. 5) Ka6meT MimcTpiB yKpaiHH — GflHHHH opraH BHKOHaBHOl BJia^H. 6) 28 HepBHfl — AepHcaBHe cbhto b yKpaim.

Air Ukraine seaatar kelis get tender opened,lsa,Br ^

Ukraine's first gold coin Kiclar reactorstowed Computers Teaching Foreign Tongues

INSIDE VIEW

Much ado about corruption

Tourism experts bemoan expensive visas, high costs and crumbling infrastructure 69. Read the headlines of " The Kyiv Post ” Try to understand them. 70*- Do task 19 on page 137. 71*. Prepare for a short control paper (the translation of 10 sentences into English). Do exercises 47, 55b, 62b.

Lesson 63

72. Do exercises 47, 55b, 62b. 73. Write a short control paper: translate into English in writing 10 word-combinations and 5 sentences concerning the theme “The Constitution of Ukraine”.

74. Read the text and answer the questions. 104


THE MONUMENT TO DUCHESS OLHA In May, 1996 inhabitants of Kyiv and the guests of the capital of Ukraine saw the reconstructed monument dedicated to the ancient Duchess Olha who reigned Kyiv Rus in the 10th century. This monument had a dramatic history.

The historical society collected money, and the sculptor Ivan Kavaleridze with his colleagues created the monument to Du足 chess Olha which was erected on Mykhailivska Square in 1911. In 1919 bolsheviks threw the monument out of its base and ruined it. In 1995 archeologists found 17 pieces of the original statue, and it was decided to rebuild the monument. Duchess Olha stands in the centre of a pink marble base. On her left apostle Andrii is pointing to the holy Kyiv hills, and on her right are seated Kyrylo and Mephodii, the enlighteners of Slavic people. 105


A lot of people visit the monument every day. Who created the monument to Duchess Olha in 1911? Who collected money for the monument? Who destroyed the monument in 1919? When was the monument rebuilt? Who stands in the centre of the monument? Who is on the left of Duchess Olha? Who is on the right of Duchess Olha? Who visits the monument every day? 75. Cover the right side of the page (exercise 4 8 ), read the articles of the Constitution of Ukraine and translate them into Uk­ rainian.

76*. Answer the questions (exercise 7 4 ) in writing .

Lesson 64 77. Read your answers (exercise 76). 78. Make acquaintance with the table o f stars fanaKU 3odiaKy). Read the part of the table which concerns your star at a certain pe­ riod o f time.

ARIES (March 21 — April 4) Now is no time for you to hold back either your feelings or your best efforts. You’ll have the ability to achieve remarkable re­ sults. (April 5 — April 19) You’ll have what it lcceed and you’ll attract attention as well. TAURUS (April 20 — May 5) You may try hard to get out of a difficult situation, but certain decisions may create new problems. (May 6 — May 20) Listen to people who’ve been in your shoes before. Ig ­ norance won’t be an acceptable excuse. Try to get some good advice. GEMINI (May 21 — June 6) You’ll be in the mood for a big change, but you should try to proceed in a slow and methodical manner, even if the change is dramatic. (June 7 — June 20) You won’t want to leave the old neighborhood, literally or figuratively, without saying good-bye! i

CANCER (June 21 — July 7) You may share a strong interest with 106


someone who you usually don’ t get along with on a social level. Try to communicate. (July 8 — July 22) You may behave in an unusually com­ pulsive manner, and this behavior may lead to a temporary rift in a friendship. LEO (Jul. 23 — Aug. 7) You may realize that you left behind something that you really can’t do without. Go back and reclaim what is yours. (Aug. 8 — Aug. 22) A new co-worker might become a new friend in a short amount of time if you cooperate. VIRGO (Aug. 23 — Sept. 7) You can get ahead start quickly but if you allow yourself to fall behind, it will take you a long time to catch up. (Sept. 8 — Sept. 22) Mysteries and enigmas will exist wherever you are, and you may have to solve many of these puzzles.

LIB R A (Sept. 23 — Oct. 7) Take care not to become involved in a tug-of-war with someone who’ll be better-prepared and more equipped than you. (Oct. 8 — Oct. 22) Make the rules early, and s them no matter what. Consistency will provide the key to success. SCORPIO (Oct. 23 — Nov. 7) You may want to approach things in a more casual manner in order to foster greater friendship and teamwork on the job. Do not rush! (Nov. 8 — Nov. 21) You may be hearing the same old warnings and admonitions. You can learn from these words of advice. SAGITTARIUS (Nov. 22 — Dec. 7) It may take a little more energy than usual to keep things going all week long, but the reward will be worth it, when all is said and done. (Dec. 8 — Dec. 21) Don’t let your insecurities affect you in a way that may offend a friend who has tried to help. CAPRICORN (Dec. 22 — Jan. 6) Now it is the time for you to settle into a routine which can bring consistent and measurable gains every day. You must make 107


a choice. (Jan. 7 — Jan. 20) The task that seems impossible may be easier than you think. Don’t back down from a chal­ lenge.

AQUARIUS (Jan. 21 — Feb. 3) Someone might be more res­ ponsive to you and your unusual ideas than you had expected. I t ’ll be time to work together. (Feb. 4 — Feb. 18) Follow the leader and try t from him or her as often as possible. Don’t become stubborn or feel insecure.

PISCES (Feb. 19 — March 5) You may encounter some resistance, but with a slow and steady approach, you can win valuable support. (March 6 — March 20) You’ll be in the mood to give back to what they have given to you in the past. Take advantage of this opportunity. »

79. D o task 19 on page 137.

Lessons 65—66 (reserved)


READER

Task 1 1. IJepeejisiHbme m encm 3a 1 x e . i 6U3Hamne, npo u$o udembcsi e HbOMy.

Dictionaries are very good books. We need them for various purposes1. Even in our own language we often find it necessary to look up a word, sometimes for spelling, sometimes for the pronunciation, sometimes for the meaning or origin2 of the word. In the 12th century with the development of sciences and engineering3 special dictionaries have been compiled (6yjin yKJiaaeHi): commercial, technical, medical, etc. There are some large dictionaries which contain4 almost all the words of the language, but they are not convenient to use. They are too heavy and take up too much room5. It is better to have a dictionary which is not too big in size6. Students of foreign languages need dictionaries, which con­ tain all the words in common use7 in their own language and their equivalents in the language they are mastering8. Words may have numerous meanings for many different situations. Such dictionaries sometimes, but not always, give translations of phrases and expressions. Dictionaries of this kind are useful to students and translators, but to students who master lan­ guages thoroughly9 it is useful to have dictionaries which give meanings, explanations10 and examples in a foreign language. 1 purpose ['ps:p3s] 2 origin ['Drid3n]

HCeHHH

MeTa n o x o fl-

engineering [,end3i'ni3rii]] —

T e x H iic a

to contain [ksn'tein] MicTHTE mym Micije room p 0 3 M ip size

7in common use UIHpOKOBHCHBaHi 8to master 0naH0ByBaTH,

BHBHaT:

9

thoroughly ['0Aroh]

CTa-

paHHO, H K CJIlfl

10 explanation [,ekspb'neifn]

— nOHCHeHHH

2. a) IIpoH um aum e yeaotcno m eKcm , tu,o6 noemcmio 3po3yMimu uozo 3 M i c m . 6) 3naudimb y HbOMy i eunuiuimb maKUX cjioeocnojiynenb:

amjiiucbKi

eKeieanenmu

109


IIOXCWKeHHH CJIOBa, 3 P 03BHTK0M HayKH, He3pyqH i RJin KOpHCTyBaHHH, eKBiBajieHTH y BH y^yBam H MOBi, 3aHMaioTi» 6araTO MicijH, Tani c jio b h h k h KopHCHi rjix nepeKJiaaaniB b ) flaum e eidnoeidi na 3anumaunsi.

What do we need dictionaries for? What special dictionaries do you know? What kind of dictionaries do students of foreign languages need? 3.

Ciuiadimb i nanuiuim b auzjiiucbKoio IlepeKcuHcimb meKcm 3 a rutauoM.

moboio

ruian

meKcmy.

Task 2 1. IIpoHum aum e meKcm 3a 2 — 3 x e . i CKdMimb , HKi peKOMendai^ii

dae aemop Ojui npau^ozo 3anaM* stmoeyeauHsi nozo-nedydb.

LEARNING BY HEART Some people have good memories and can easily learn quite long poems by heart1. But they often forget them almost as quickly as they learn them. There are other people who can only remember things after they repeated them many times, but when they learned them they wouldn’t forget them. A good memory is a great help in learning a language. Everybody learns his own language by remembering what he hears when he is a small child, and some children — like boys and girls who live with their parents abroad — learn two languages almost as easily as one. In school it is not so easy to learn a second language because pupils have so little time for it, and they are busy with other subjects as well. Charles Dickens, a famous English writer, said that he could walk down any long street in London and then tell you the name of every shop in it. Many of the great men of the world had wonderful memories. The best way for most of us to remember things \s to associate them in our mind2 with something which we know already, or can easily recollect, because we have a picture of it in our mind. The human mind is rather like a camera3, but it takes photographs not only of what we see but of what we feel, hear, smell or taste4 as well. When we take a real photograph with a camera, there is much to do before it is ready. In the same way, there is much work to be done before a picture remains5 for ever in the mind. Memory is the diary6 that we all carry about with us. 110


1 by heart [ha:t] — HanaM’HTb 2 mind — po3yM, cbIaom Ictb 3 camera — (J)0T0an apaT

4 to taste [teist] — KymTyBaTH 5 to remain — 3ajinmaTHCH 6 diary — moaeHHHK

2. IIpoKumaume meKcm w,e pa3.

а) 3aKiHKimb penenuK. 1) There are people who can only remember things after ... . 2) In school it is not easy to learn a foreign language because ... . 3) Charles Dickens could walk down any long street in London and then tell you ... . б) IlepeK/iadimb

nucbMoeo

yKpaincbKoio

moboto

dpyzuu

a63aif

meKcmy.

Task 3 1. IIpoHumaiiTt^ ypueoK 3 poMany **M e p i Eapmofi” anzJiiucbKOi nucbMeHHuiti Ejii3a6em ta c n e ji i nepeKaxcimb uozo 3Micm .

HE SAVED THEIR LIVES ... Suddenly Mary and her friend Margaret heard steps in a small yard. Mary went out and, stopping the first man she saw, asked what had happened. “ Eh, girl, don’ t you see the fire over there? Carson’s factory has been set on fire1” . And the man ran off. “Come, Margaret, let us go2 and see the fire. I never saw one” . In two minutes they were ready. A t the door they met John Barton and told him the news. “Yes, Carson’ s factory is on fire,” he said. “ It will be difficult for them to put it out, because there is no water around there. Well, I don’t think the Carsons will feel unhappy about it — their old factory is insured3.” He let the girls pass. They soon joined the crowd4 that had gathered not far from the burning building. Women were crying. The western end of the Jactory was now on fire. And there, at one of the windows on the fourth floor, two men could be seen. For some reason or other5 they had remained in the factory after the rest of the workers had left. The thing was that they had not seen the fire approach6. Now the two men stood there unable to get down as the staircase7 had been destroyed by the fire. Suddenly the crowd became silent. Mary and Margaret looked in the direction where everybody was looking. They saw some men in the window of the house opposite the burning building. The window frame8 had been taken out and long ladder9 had been pushed out of the window, towards the burning building, across a narrow street. Ill


It was a sort of10 air bridge high above the ground. The crowd gave a loud shout as one of the men stepped out of the window onto the ladder and quickly went towards the burning factory. He got over and jumped into the other window. “There is he again!” shouted the people when they saw him out on the ladder with an unconscious man on his shoulders. “It ’s Jem Wilson!” Margaret cried out. Jem moved slowly* the ladder shook under him. The people watched him holding their breath11. A t last he reached the opposite window. In a few moments the hero appeared on the ladder again. He was going over for the other worker. But on his way back he moved very slowly. Suddenly he stopped, holding the other man on his shoulders. The crowd stood silent with horror. Many shut their eyes not to see Jem fall. There were only four or five steps left between the brave man and the window. Gathering all his strength he took another step forward... another... still another. A t last he reached the window. The lives of two men had been saved. 1to set on fire — nianajnoBaTH 2 Come... let us go — flafiaii... nifleMO 3 insured [in'Juad] — 3acTpaXOBaHHH 4 crowd [ kraud] — HaroBii 5 for some reason or other — 3 Tiei hh iH n io i n p m m m

7 staircase ['steakeis] — cxom

8 frame — paMa 9 ladder — #pa6HHa 10 a sort of — mocb Ha 3pa30K 11 holding their breath [bre0] — 3aTaMyBaBmH noAHX

6 to approach jYproutJ] — Ha6jIHHCaTHCH 2. npoHumaume meKcm me pa3. а) 3naudimb y HbOMy i eunuuiimh amjiiucbfti eKeieajienmu maKux cjioeocnojiyneub :

3a abi xbhjihhh; 4>a6pHKa ropHTb; racHTH no>KeHcy; najiaio'ia 6yaiBJiH; pi*i y TiM, mo; hojiobIk ; HenpHTOMHHH; penrra po6iTHHKiB; CnyCTHTHCH BHH3; IIOBiTpHHHH MiCT; xopo6pHii MOJIOBiK б ) J\aume eidnoeidi ua 3anumaHHX.

What does the story describe? Who remained in the factory? What did some men in the house opposite the burning building do? Why did many people in the crowd shut their eyes? 3. 3 a K iH H im b peneuHJi.

1) It was difficult to put the fire out because ... . 2) Tht 112


owners of the factory didn’ t feel unhappy about the fire because ... . 3) Two men had remained in the factory because ... . 4) The two men could not get down as . . . . 5) The hero’ s name was ... . He saved ... . 4. Po3KaoKimb amniucbKOK) M060K>, uiozo HonoeiKa.

hk

Jf&ceM Yuicon pnmyeae in-

Task 4 1. IIpoHumaume nepmy Hacmuny onoeidauHH “Jlezenda npo cnnstHy 6ajiKy ” aMepuKaHCbKOZo nucbMennuKa B. Ip e im a . Cnpo6yume jpo3yMimu ocnoenuu 3Micm .

THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW Part I On the Eastern shore of the Hudson River there was a little valley, among high hills, which was one of the quietest places in the whole world. This valley had long been known by the name of Sleepy Hollow. Many strange stories about ghosts1 were told and retold in a village situated there. The most frightful, however, was the one about a headless horse­ man. It is said that it was the ghost of a soldier who had been killed in battle. Once there lived in this village a schoolmaster, Crane by name. He was a tall and very thin man. In the same village lived the daughter and the only child of a rich farmer. She was a pretty girl and attracted the attention of every young man in the village. Crane too, was in love with her2. But if the schoolmaster meant3 to win her heart4, he would have to get rid of5 all his rivals6. The one he feared most was a certain Brunt. He was a tall and strong young man and most people liked him for his bravery and great skill of a horseman. It is clear that Crane would have lived quietly in his little village to the end of his life if a very strange thing had not happened one night. In the afternoon of that day Crane was in his school when a servant7 brought him an invitation to a party, which was to be held that evening at Van Tassel’ s. The pupils were sent home an hour before the usual time, and Crane spent no less than half an hour dressing up for the party. He wished to look his best8 that night, therefore, he borrowed9 a horse from the farmer with whom he was then living. The horse’ s name was Gunpowder. It was towards evening that Crane arrived at home of Van Tassel. The house was full of guests and Brunt was among them. There were many good things to eat and a lot of dancing. Everybody enjoyed himself that night. 113


When the party was nearly over, Crane suddenly left the hall where the guests were dancing. He went to Katrina’ s room where he stayed alone with the girl for a short while. They must have had an unpleasant conversation for the school­ master looked sad when he re-entered the hall. 1 ghost [goust] — npHBHfl, npHMapa 2 to be in love with — 6yTn 3aKOxaH H M y

3 to m ean (m eant, m eant) [mi:n, ment] — M ara HaMip

4 to w in on e’ s h ea rt — nizjKOpHTH HHGCb Cepije

5 to get rid of ch

no36aBJiiiTH-

^ o ro cb

6 rival ['raivl] KOHKypeHT

cynepH H K

7 servant ['ssrvant] 8 to look his best

CJiyra 6 y ra

H aiiK p an jH M

9to borrow

['to ro u ]

n03HHaTH

2. IIpoHumaume meKcm me pa3. а) flaum e eidnoeidi na zanumannsi. Where was Sleepy Hollow situated? About whom was the most frightful story told in the village? W ith whom was Crane in love? Whom did Crane fear most? Where did the schoolmaster ride one night? Why do you think the schoolmaster looked sad after his conversation with Katrina? б) Snaudimb y mencmi i npouumaUme npo: nidzomoeicy Kpeuna do eenipKu; eenipKy e doMi Ban-Tecceji .

3. Bunuuiimb 3 meiccmy peneuHJi, y h k u x euzjuid Kpeuna, Kampin i Bpanma .

onucano 3oeHimniu

Task 5 1. IJpoHumaume dpyzy Hacmuny onoeidauHsi i cnpo6yume 3po3yM im u Ti ocnoenuu 3M icm .

THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW Part II It was past midnight1. As the schoolmaster rode on and on, the night grew darker and darker. He came to a place where the road ran over a small bridge across a stream. As Crane approached it, his heart began to beat fast. He suddenly remembered all the stories about ghosts that he had heard. He got frightened and gave his horse a kick2: at first the animal rushed forward but then suddenly stopped. On the 114


bank of the stream stood a horseman riding a black horse. The poor schoolmaster got still more frightened. He gave his horse another kick and rode on as fast as he could. The horseman followed. Having reached the top of a hill, Crane looked behind and was struck with horror3 as he saw that the horseman was headless. His horrow became still greater when he saw that the ghost held his own head in his hands. Crane tried to get away from the ghost, but the faster he rode, the faster the headless horseman rode after him. Soon, however, Crane saw a bridge behind the trees. “ I f I could reach that bridge/’ thought Crane, “ I would be safe4” . Again he looked behind him. He saw the ghost picking up his own head and throwing it at him. Crane was struck on the head and fell o ff his horse. The headless horseman and his black horse quickly passed by and disappeared5. The next morning Crane’ s old horse was found standing near his master’s gate. But there was no Crane to be seen. On the bank of the stream they found the schoolmaster’ s hat and near it a pumpkin6 broken to small pieces. On the following Sunday many people gathered at the place where the hat and the pumpkin had been found. The stories of ghosts were told again. The villagers decided that the schoolmaster must have been carried o ff by the headless horseman. A few years later an old farmer who had been to New York brought the news that Crane lived in another village and had been made a judge7. Shortly after his rival had disappeared, Brunt married Katrina. It was noticed that each time the story of Crane was told, he laughed or smiled. This made some people think that he knew about the matter more than cared to tell8. 1 m idnight

['m idnait]

LBHIH

{npo h o c )

to give one’s horse a kick pHTH KOHfl

3 was struck w ith h orror HOFO OXOHKB »cax

4to be safe — 6ym b 6e3neoi 5to disappear — 3hhk&th

6 p u m p k in ['p A m p k in ] — 6y3

rap -

7 j u d g e [ d 3A d 3] — c y a f la 8 he k n ew abou t th e m a tte r m o re th a n c a re d to t e ll — BiH 3H as n p o vjo i c r o p i i o 6 u i& n ie» h u k BBaxcaB 3a n o -

Tpi6He po3noBiflaTH

2. IIpoHumaume mencm me pa3 . a) ffa u m e eidnoeidi ua 3anum annji . Why did the schoolmaster’ s heart begin to beat fast as he approached the bridge? Why did Crane fall o ff his horse? Why do you think Brunt laughed each time the story of Crane was told? 115


6) 3aKiHHimb penemui.

1) As Crane approached the bridge he suddenly remembered ... . 2) Crane’ s horror became still greater when he saw ... . 3) On the following day many people gathered on the bank of the stream and saw ... . 4) An old farmer brought the news that ... . 5) Each time the story of Crane was told, Brunt ... . 3. CKaatcimb am/iiucbKoio Moeofo, u+o mpanvuiocK,

ko au :

Kpeun na6jiU3uecK do MicrriKa; Kpeun no6aHue eepiunuKa 6e3 zo/ioeu.

Task 6 1. IIpoHumaume nepiuy nacmuny onoeidannn aMepuKancbKozo nucbMetiHUKa O. renpi “ Hapieni xjii6u,i” i cnpo6yume 3po3yMimu 0CH06HUU 3Micm. WITCHES’ LOAVES Part I Miss Martha Meacham kept a little bakery. Miss Martha was forty, and had two thousand dollars in a bank, two false teeth and a kind heart. Many people have married who had less possibilities to do so than Miss Martha. Two or three times a week a man came into her shop to buy bread and very soon she began to show interest in him. He was a man of middle age with spectacles1 and a short brown beard2. His clothes were poor, but he looked clean and had very good manners. He always bought two loaves of stale3 bread. Fresh4 bread was five cents a loaf. Stale loaves were five for two. He never bought anything but stale bread. Once Miss Martha saw red and brown stains5 on his fingers. She was sure then that he was an artist and a very poor one. Of course he lived in a little room, where he painted pictures and ate stale bread, and thought of good things in Miss Martha’ s bakery. Often when Miss Martha sat down to eat her good dinner, she thought about the poor artist and wanted him to share her meal instead6 of eating his stale bread. Miss Martha, as you have been told, had a very kind heart. In order to find out7 his profession, she brought from her room one day a painting that she had once bought and put it against the shelves behind a bread counter8. It was an Italian painting. A beautiful palace stood near a lake. Miss Martha was sure that an artist would notice it. Two days later the man came into the shop. 116


"'Two loaves of stale bread, if you please.” “You have a hni’ picture here, madam,” he said while she was getting the Ilf

said Miss Martha. “ I love art and (she could not lay “artists” ) and paintings,” she added. “You think it is a gtuxl picture, do you?” “The palace,” said the man, “ is not in good drawing. The (MMHpoctive of it is not true. Good morning, madam.” I l i ‘ took his bread and hurried out. Y ch, he must be an artist. Miss Martha took the picture hark to her room. How kind his eyes were behind his spectacles! What a broad forehead9 he had! To be an artist — and to live on stale bread! Hut a genius10 often has to struggle before it is recognized. H o w good would it be for art if a genius was helped by Iwo thousand dollars in the bank, a bakery, and a kind heart Inn but these were only dreams. Often now when he came, he talked for some time with Mi™ Martha. And he continued buying stale bread, never anything else. She thought he was looking thin. She wanted to add somethi ng good to eat to his bread, but she had no courage11 to iln It. She knew about artists’ pride12. Mi ss Martha began to wear her best blue silk blouse almost pvnry day. In the room behind the shop she cooked some mixture13 for her face. "Yes?”

1 ttjMMtacles ['spekteklz] — ojcyjinpH 4 hoard [biad] — 6opo,a;a 4 Mlale

^epcTB H H

* froHh — c b I jkhh

* wtain [stein] — njiflMa * instead [in'sted] — 3aMicTb f t o f i n d o u t — 3’ flcyBaTH

8 counter ['kaunte] -—■• npHJiaBOK

9 forehead [ fond] — no6 10genius ['djirnjas] — renin 11 courage ['kArid3] -— CMUIHBiCTb 12 pride — ropaicTb 13 mixture ['mikstjs] — cyMirn

9 llpoHumaume mencm u^e pa3 а) Jlaume eidnoeidi na 3anumannsi. Why did Miss Martha think that the man was an artist and a vnry poor one? What did she do to find out the man’ s profession? W) tut kind of bread did the man buy? MI»h Martha wanted to look well, didn’t she? б) iinaudimb e onoeidanni penenuH, suci nidmeepdxcyiomb, w,o: Minn Martha had a kind heart. M ) hh Martha wanted to look well. 117


3. 3naudimb i npoHumaume penennH, & &k u x euKopucmano m<i*J cjioeocnojiy Henna:

red and brown stains, an Italian painting, to look clean, Sm look thin, blue silk blouse 4* JJepeK/iadimb amAiucbKow Moeoto.

1) HojiOBiK cepe^Hboro BiKy BHrjiHflaB oxehhhm, i y Hboro 6y*« xopomi MaHepH. 2) BiH hIkojih Hinoro He KynyBas, KpiM m#|i CTBoro xjiifia. 3) y Mic M apra 6yjio ao6pe cepn,e. 4) Bohb fty*l neBHa, mo tojiobIk — xyaoacHHK. 5) Mic MapTa jiio6njia mm cren;TBO. 6) Bona nonajia hochth rojiyfiy moBKOBy Gjiyany.

Task 7

1. IIpoHumaume dpyzy nacmuny onoeidannsi O. renpi. WITCHES’ LOAVES Part II One day the man came as usual, and asked for his nU)« loaves. While Miss Martha was getting them, there wn« • great noise in the street and the man hurried to the door i# look. Suddenly Miss Martha had a bright idea. On the shelf behind the counter there was some butter. With a bread knife Miss Martha made a deep cut in each of the stale loaves, put a big piece of butter there, mill pressed1 the loaves together again. When the man turned to her, she was putting the Iohvm into a paper bag. When he had gone, after a very pleasant little talk, M l* Martha smiled2 to herself, and her heart beat3 very fast. For a long time that day she could not think of anything else. She imagined4 his face when he would discover her 11till secret. He would stop painting and lay down his brufllu*, There his picture would stand in which the perspective w y perfect. He would prepare for his meal of stale bread nn4 water. He would take a loaf — ah! Miss Martha blushed6. Would he think of the hand thtl had put it there as he ate? Would he... The front bell rang loudly. Somebody was coming in, makinf very much noise. Miss Martha hurried into the shop. Two men were th*r«, One was a young man smoking a pipe — a man she had seen before. The other man was her artist. His face was very red, his hat was on the back of his hmd* his hair was falling all over his face. He shook his two A vlr angrily7 at Miss Martha. A t Miss Martha! 118


"Fool!” he shouted very loudly. The young man tried to draw him away. “ I shall not go,” he said angrily, “before I tell her.” He bent his fists on Miss Martha’s counter. “ You have spoilt my work,” he cried, “I will tell you. You are a stupid8 old cat.” Miss Martha stood back against the shelves and laid one hnml on her heart. The young man took his companion by the arm.

"dome on,” he said, “ you have said enough.” lie drew the angry man out into the street, and then came Imik. §'l think I must tell you, ma’ am,” he said, “why he is so A n i f r y . That is Blumberger. He is a draughtsman9. I work in Iho Name office with him. Ho worked very hard for three months drawing a plan for a now City Hall. It was a prize competition. He finished it ypBtorday. You know, a draughtsman always makes his drawing In pencil first. When it is finished, he rubs out10 the pencil IlnoH with stale bread. That is better than india-rubber11. Illuinberger always bought the bread here. Well, today — well, you know, ma’ am, that butter isn’ t — well, Blumberger’ s |ilnn isn’ t good for anything now.” Miss Martha went into the back room. She took o ff her Idtie silk blouse and put on the old brown one she had worn Imfore, then she poured12 the mixture for her face out of the window. CTHCKaTH 1to press * to Hinile ycM ixaTHca * to beat (beat, beaten) — fUiTHCH ( npo cepi$e) * to imagine — yhbjihth * to blush — HepBOHiTH

8 stupid — AypHHH 9 draughtsm an — [

d ra ftsm a n ]

— Kpecjiap

10to rub out — BHTHpaTH 11india-ru bber — iyMKa p a CTHpaHHH 12 to

pou r

[p D : ] --- BHJIHTH

1hut — KyjiaK 1 a n g r i l y — cepflHTO

I IlffoHumaume meKcm me pa3. а) lliiaudimb y meiccmi i eu n u w im b amjiiucbKi eneieajieHmu maKux cjioeocnojiynetib: HpeicpacHa flyM K a , CBince M a cjio ,

HbK

rjis i

x jii6 a ,

rjiH 6oKH H

HAApi3 y K oacH in ^ e p c T B iii 6 y jm i, n an ep o B H H n an yH O K , BiAKJiaptm neH3Jii, M 0Ji0.ua jnoflH H a

б ) Jlaume eidnoeidi na 3anumanHJi.

Why did Miss Martha decide to put some butter into the stale broad? Did the man see Miss Martha putting the butter into the bread? Whnt did Miss Martha think after the man had gone? 119


How did the man look when he came into the shop second time? What did the young man explain to Miss Martha?

f or

th*

3. CKa&cimb a m j i i u c b K o i o moqojo, w.0 mpanunocK nicjm m o z o , uh Mic MapTa noKjiana 6y;iKH

b

nanepoBHH nanyHOK;

6 i j i a B x iA H H x A B e p e w n p o jiy H a B t o ^ o c h m h £ 3 b o h h k ; m o jio a h h h o j i o b I k

yce

iio h c h iib

M ic

MapTi.

4. IlpudyMaume amjiiucbKoio moqoio ceiu eapiaum 3a20Ji06ha, 5. IJepedaume Koporruco 3Micm ycbozo onoeidannsi (1 0 — 15 peurn> >

Tank

h

1. IlpoHumaume onoaidannx aMepuuancbKOZO nucbMennuKa M a p - .» Teena. Cnpo6yume 3posymmu uozo 3Micm.

A MELTING STORY One winter evening a country shopkeeper was about close his shop1 for the night. He went out to shut the windo from outside and through the glass he noticed that a mnn »* the shop quickly took a pound of fresh butter from a and hid2 it in his hat. “ What fun I’ll have3,” the shopk«*«i" • said to himself as he thought of a way to punish th© mh». for stealing4. “I say5, Seth,” said the shopkeeper, as he came in closed the door after him. Seth already had his hand on the door, ready to leave h.* shop as guickly as possible. “I say, Seth, sit down. On such a cold night as this, it ^ very pleasant to sit in a warm room.” Seth did not know what to do. He had the butter in n.t hat and wanted to get out of the shop at once. But n.<shopkeeper took Seth by the shoulder and made him sit to the stove. “We’ll make it a little warmer, Seth,” he said as he the stove door and put some sticks inside. “If you are not wmhh enough you’ll freeze when you go out on a night like tlii«.H Seth already felt the butter melting6, and he jumped •»*« and said he must go. “Not till you are quite warm, Seth. I ’ll tell you a ato» , said the shopkeeper as he made Seth sit. down again. “Oh, it’s so hot here,” said Seth. “Sit down, don’t be in such a hurry.” “But I must go. My cows... they’re hungry... I nuut g and feed them.” 120


hurry, Seth, let the cows take care of themselves.” Poor Seth! He didn’ t know what to do. The butter began In melt a n d came pouring from under his hat7 down into his nyi*h and mouth. The shopkeeper was talking as if nothing was the matter mid continued to put sticks into the stove. "Fine night this,” he said. “ Seth, why don’t you take your hni of f ? You seem to be warm. Let me put your hat over n loir. "No!” cried poor Seth at last. “No! I must go! Let me go • Mil. I’ m not well. Let me go!” The butter was now pouring down the poor man’ s face and neck a n d even down his body into his boots, so that he was )n a perfect bath of oil8. “ W e l l , good night, Seth,” said the shopkeeper smiling, “if you r e a l l y want to go.” Then he added, as Seth made his way In the door, “ I say, Seth, I think the fun I have had out of y n t j i s worth ninepence so I shan’ t charge you9 for that pound nI hiitter in your hat.” " D o n ’t

I

‘ nhop keeper was about to rlose his shop — rocnoaap itfriipaRCfl 33MHHHTH CBm Mara,inn

* to hide (hid, hidden) — x o b s t h

’ Wliat fun I ’ll have — Ajie jk I po;ma}KyCH H

4ii way to punish the man for stealing — cnoci6 noMipnTH juo^HHy 3a Kpa^miey r I way — nocjiyxan wSeth already felt the butter melting — CeT y»ce BynyB, mo Macjio p03Tae

7came pouring from under his hat — BHTinajio 3-ni# Kanejiioxa 8a perfect bath of oil — cnpaBxcHH MacjiHHa Bamia 9the fun I have had out of you is worth ninepence so I shan’ t charge you — 3aflOBOJieHHfl, HKe H AiCTaB 3aBflHKH To6i, BapTe

a c b ’h t h

neH ciB,

OTHce, h He 6 y # y 6paTH 3 Te6e rp o m e ft

Itfutuumaume m e K c m ut,e pa3.

i0 iinaudimb y HbOMy i eunuuiimb amjiiucbKi eKeieajienmu maKux cjioeocnojiyneHb:

*M|>KC MaCJIO, BHHTH 3 JiaBKH HKOMOra IHBHflHie, dCTH HKHaHr >in)K'ie ao rpy6n, KijibKa nojiiH, 3hhth Kanejiioxa, Hi6n m ^ o v o lie rpanHJiocb, nonpaMyBaTH flo flBepeii, noKapara jnoflHHy 3a !<pii/|i>KKy n) H a u m e eidnoeidi ua 3anumaHHx.

Whnt was the man’ s name who stole a pound of butter? W h y did Seth want to get out of the shop at once? W h y did the shopkeeper make Seth sit close to the stove? W h a t did the shopkeeper say to the man? 121


b)

3 a K iH H im b p e n e n n s i o n o e id a u H s i.

m an,

w,o6 e o n u

3Micmy

e id n o e id a jiu

1) The shopkeeper went out to shut the windows and through the glass he saw . . . . 2) “I ’ ll have lots of fun,” the shopkeeper said to himself as he thought of a way to punish ... . 3) Seth wanted to get out of the shop at once, but the shopkeeper ... . 4) Seth didn’ t know what to do. The butter began to ... . 3. y e a M u o npoHumaume peruiiKU cniepo3MoeHUKie . Ilid zom yu m ecji e i d m e o p u m u d i a j i o e 3a

p o j ir m u .

4. IIpudyMaume ceiii eapianm 3az0Ji06Ka do onoeidanuji.

Task 9 1. IIpoHumaume meiccm 3a 1 x e . i cKUMimb , npo w,o udembcx e H bO M y.

Pop music has permeated1 all the mass media2 — radio, television, cinema and the press. Yet, what is it? It obviously1 means more than just popular. Mozart is popular but he ia certainly not pop. The Oxford English Dictionary cannot help those who are trying to find more or less exact definition4 to the word “pop” . Music is the “art of combining sounds with a view to* beauty of form and expression of emotion.” Good music, like any good art, is characterized by its lasting qualities6. From this point of view, pop music may be seen as the antithesis7 of music. Pop music appeared in the mid-50s with the arrival8 of rock’n’roll. In the course of time rock came out of fashion, and moreover, every comedian9 added to his repertoire10jokes about guitarists and singers in hippy-like w igs11. Yet, rock and its hy­ brids still form the mainstream12of pop. A long-standing13 criticism of pop songs is that “You can’t hear the words. About 99 per cent of songs are about “ love” , and most are not worth listening to14. On the other hand, those songs which have a lot to say are all too frequently11 pieces of literature16 accompanied by guitars17. Folk-singer Bob Dylan provided18 many examples of this. He can sing poetically about death, war, class attitude19 and justice20. A fairly simple message with a good melody has been found by the Beatles and occasionally by the other groups. Some of the Beatles’ old songs still enjoy popularity today. 1to permeate [paimieit] — npohhk3th

2mass media 122

['m a e s 'm ird ja ] —

3aco6n M acoB oi mtJjopMaiui 3 obviously [o b v ia s h ] — h b h o , o ^ eB H / jH o


4 exact

d e fin itio n

To*rae

12 mainstream ['memstnrm] — rojiOBHH# HanpHM 13 long-standing — a &bhIh 14 are not worth listening to — He BapTo cjiyxara 15 frequently ['frirkwanth] — ^acTO 16 pieces o f literature — xy-

BH3Ha^eHHH 5 w ith a v ie w to — 3 tohkh

3opy 6 la stin g q u alities — nocrriHHi HKOCTi 7antithesis [aen'tiGisis] — aHTHTe3a, nuiKOBHTa npoTHJieacHiCTb 8 arrival [a'raivl] — npn6yTTH,

BHHHKHeHHH 9 comedian [ks'm iidjan] — ko-

MefliiraHH aKTop 10 repertoire ['rep stw a:] — pe-

nepTyap 11 wig [wig] — nepyica

AOXCHi TBOpH

17 guitar [g i'ta :] — riTapa 18to p ro vid e [pra'vaid] — noAaBaTH 19class attitu d e ['kla:s'aetitju:d] — Kjxacosa iio 3 h iu h 20ju stice ['d 3AStis] — cnpaseAJIHBiCTB

2. IIpoHumaUme meiccm w,e pa3. a) flaum e eidnoeidi na 3anumanujL

What is good music characterized by? When did pop music appear? Why do people criticize pop songs? Are most pop songs worth listening to? What did folk singer Bob Dylan sing about? 6) IlepeKJiadimb yKpaincbKoio m o g o k > dpyzuu afoay, meKcmy. b) 3aKiHHintb p&ieHHJi.

1) Pop music has permeated all the mass media — such as... . 2) Good music, like any good art is characterized by its... . 3) Pop music appeared in the mid-50s with the arrival of... . 4) Bob Dylan sings poetically about... . 5) The Beatles enjoyed popularity because of... .

Task 10 1. IIpoHum aum e ypueoK 3 onoeidannji amjiiucbKOZO nucbMennuKa K onau floujui “Bunadoic y KOJiedxci”. Cnpodyume 3po3yMimu uozo 3Micm .

A N INCIDENT A T THE COLLEGE Part I Early in June Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson left London for one of the great University towns for a few days of rest. Holmes wanted to devote1 his spare2 time to reading magazines at the University library and making chemical experiments in one of the laboratories. 123


Both friends were going to spend a quiet3 evening alone in their rooms when they were visited by a man. “Excuse my coming so late,” he began, “but I hope you won’t object to giving me your help if you know what happened at our college.” “Excuse me,” said Holmes dryly, “ I am very busy just now and can’t spare you much time. Sit down in that chair and try to speak slowly and quietly. Who are you? What do you want of me?” “My name is Soames,” said our visitor, “ I am a lecturer of one of the colleges of the University. I must explain to you, Mr. Holmes, that tomorrow is the first day of the examination for a very valuable scholarship4. I am one of the examiners. My subject is Greek and an examination paper consists of a large text in Greek to be translated without a dictionary. Today about 3 o’clock the papers were brought from the printer5. I was going to read them over carefully, as the text must be absolutely correct. It happened that I had to put them off as I had an appointment6 with the head of the college just at that hour. I left the papers upon my writing-table without reading them, locked the door and went out. On coming back, I saw with surprise a key in the door of my room. It was not mine, for my own was in my pocket. The only duplicate belonged to my servant. It was his indeed. At my tea time he came to my room, but as I was away, he left it immediately and carelessly forgot the key in the door. The moment I looked at my table I saw that the papers were in disorder: only one of them was lying on the writingtable the other was on the floor and the third — on the table near the window. I called for my servant at once and made the most careful examination of my room. I must tell you that my servant keeps my rooms in perfect order by cleaning them carefully every day. But this tiine I noticed something quite unusual. There was a hard piece of black c l a y 7 on my writing-table and the p o i n t o f a p e n c i l 8 on the floor. To my surprise I found a second piece of clay at the door of my bedroom. Look at that” , and he handed Holmes both the piece of clay and the pencil point. 1to devote [di'vout] — npncBHHyBara 2 spare [spea] — BijibHHH

6 appointment [o'pointmsnt] — no6aneHHH; flOMOBJieHa 3ycTpi*i

3 q u i e t [ 'k w a i a t ] — c n o K i i h m i i 4 v a lu a b le s c h o la r s h ip — b h -

7 c^ y 8 P °in ^

coKa cTHneHflih 5 124

printer — flpynap

rjiH H a a p e n c il KiHMHK rpn(J)ejiH o ju b ijh b i j x


2. IJpoHumaume meKcm w,e pa3. a) flaume eidnoeidi ua 3anumauH5i. Why did Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson go to one of the great University towns? What was Mr. Soames? Did Mr. Soames read the examination papers? When were they brought to him? Where did Mr. Soames leave the papers? Where were the papers when Mr. Soames came back? What unusual things did Mr. Soames notice? 6) 3aKiHKimb peneuHsi. 1) Mr. Soames was going to read the examination papers because ... . 2) On coming back, Mr. Soames saw ... . 3) The only duplicate of the key belonged to ... . 4) Mr. Soames’ ser­ vant kept ro o m s...... b) IlepeKJiadimb amjiiucbKoio mosojo. 1) ripo6aHTe, mo a npuninoB ni3Ho. 2) f l He Moacy npnauiHTH BaM 6araTO nacy. 3) Xojimc xotlb hphcbhthth cBin buibhhh nac HHTaHHio HcypHajiiB. 4) nepemiaA Mae 6yra 3po6jieHHH 6e3 BHKOpHCTaHHH

5)

CJIOBHHKa.

6) “ IIoAHBiTbCH Ha ije,”—

uiMaTOHOK t jih h h

h k Ih h h k

H

CTSpBHHO

OrJIHHyB

KiMHaiy.

CKa3aB Mierep Comc i nas XojiMcy

rpH(J)ejia B is ojiiBu;a.

Task 11 1. IJpoHumaUme npodoemeHHSi onoeidanHsi “BunadoK y Kojiedotci” i CKaoKimb, npo u$o udembca e HbOMy. AN INCIDENT AT THE COLLEGE Part II “Will you answer my questions, please?” Holmes asked. “Have you a family or do you live alone?” “Quite alone, Mr. Holmes, I am not married.” “ How many rooms do you occupy?” “I have a sitting-room and a bedroom.” “Are your rooms upstairs1?” “Both of them are on the ground floor” . “ How many people live in the house?” “Only three men except myself. They are students of the Uni­ versity.” “Do they pass your door every time when they go out?” “There is no other entrance to the house.” “Who visited you after the papers came to you?” asked Holmes. 125


“Young Ras, an Indian student who lives on the same floor.” “ Was he followed by someone?” “No, he wasn’ t.” “Why did he come?” “He came in to ask me some questions about the examina­ tion. He used to come to me every time when he wanted some information.” “Where were the papers at that time?” “They were on my writing-table.” “Where did you leave the papers when you went out?” “ I left them on my writing-table.” “How long were you absent?” “About an hour.” “ Did you lock the door when you went to see me?” “I didn’t need to do it. I left my servant in the room.” “Why didn’t he follow you?” “He wanted to examine the room once more.” “Do you trust2 your servant? Is he honest?” “ I do. His honesty is absolutely above suspicion3. I used to trust him with large sums of money.” “ Whom do you suspect?” “ It is a very delicate question, I can’t answer it.” “ Can you tell me the characters of the three students?” “Of course I can,” said Soames. He told Holmes that of the three students, Maclaren, Ras and Gilford, the former4 was the eldest. The two were younger, both were good fellows and industrious5 too, although Ras was much more serious than Gilford. The teacher knew that the latter6 worked as much as the Indian, but was less intel­ ligent7 than Ras. Soames added that Gilford was a fine youth, the tallest of the three, who was fond of sportg and was the best jumper in the college team. Unfortunately he was very poor and in greater need of the scholarship than the other two. He said that he would pass the examination more easily than the Indian whose weakest point was languages. When Holmes asked what he would say about Maclaren, Soames answered that Maclaren was the least industrious and the most unprincipled man among his fellow students, that he spent little time on his studies and felt very nervous on the days followed by the examinations. 1 upstairs [ Ap'stez] — Ha Bepx-

HbOMy noBepci

2 tO trUSt — AOBipflTH 3 above suspicion [sa'spijn]

no3a nifl03poio 4 the former ['forma] — nepmHH (d ua3eanux) 126

industrious [m'dAStrias] npautoBHTHH, cTapaHHHft 6 the latter ['laeta] — ocTaH 5

Hiii (3 na36anux)

7 intelligent [m'teh^ant] — p03yMHHH, KMiTJIHBHft


2. IIpoHumaume meKcm w,e pas. a) 3 n a u d im b y m e n c m i i e u n u u i i m b a m j i i u c b K i e K e ie a jie n m u m a K U X c j io e o c n o jiy n e n b i p e n e n b :

nepinHH noBepx, 3 & m h k r t h Ha k j i i o h , orjiHHyTH KiMHaTy, npaijbOBHTi cTyAeHTH, nepimift ( 3 H a 3 e a H U x )9 ocTaHHin (3 n a 3 e a HUX) ,

HaHMeHIH npaHbOBHTHH.

He 6 y jin B flO M a ? Koro b h ni/joapioeTe? Koro ^ e c n ic T b n o 3 a n i^o3 poK ). BiH jik > 6 h b cnopT . K o M y jiyme ncvrpiSHa CniJibKH ^ a c y

bh

6 y jia cTH neHAin.

6) flaiime

e i d n o e i d i na 3 anumanHSL. \

Who lived in Mr. Soames’ house? Who visited Mr. Soames after the papers came to him? Why did Ras come? Why didn’ t Mr. Soames lock the door? Did Mr. Soames suspect his servant? Who was the best jumper in the college team? What was Ras’ weakest point? What kind of man was Maclaren? b ) 3 n a u d im b y m e K c m i i n p o H u m a U m e p e u e n tu i,

mo x a p a K tn e -

pu3yiomb K0MH020 3 mpbox c m y d e u m ie .

Task 12 1. npoHum aum e 3aKJiioHHy Hacmuny onoeidannH.

A N INCIDENT A T THE COLLEGE P a r t III “Then is it Maclaren whom you suspect?” asked Holmes. “ I can’ t tell that, but of the three he is the most suspicious1.” “And now, Mr. Soames, I wish you good night,” said Holmes, and added that he would come on the following day. “ What are you going to do?” asked Watson. “I am going to examine the incident,” said Holmes quietly, “ there are some points of interest in it. I have formed a plan, but I haven’ t yet come to any conclusion. W ait till to-morrow. Take your breakfast without me. I shall be away from home early in the morning.” Holmes returned when Watson was taking his breakfast. He looked tired2 but very much pleased. “W ell, I must say that I have spent a very pleasant morning. Look at that!” He held out his hand: there were three little pieces of black clay on a sheet of paper. “Why, Holmes, you had only two yesterday! Where have you taken the third from?” 127


‘‘I have just come from the sporting grounds and have carried away a sample3 of the earth there. A ll the three pieces are absolutely alike. Do you remember Soames said that one of the students, Gilford, was a jumper. Besides, he is the tallest of all the three. In short, the incident has become clear to me after my excursion. A long distance jumper is wearing sporting shoes during his exercise. Gilford was carrying them in his hand when he returned from the grounds. As he passed his teacher’ s window he could see from the outside that the examination papers were on the table. As the key was in the door he came in, put his shoes on the writing table and did not notice that a piece of earth from the shoes fell on the table. He began to copy the papers and was copying the second sheet when he suddenly heard the teacher at the door. There was no time to replace the papers. Where could he hide himself? Only in Mr. Soames’ bedroom. He seized4 his shoes from the table and ran into the other room where again some earth fell on the floor. To his luck, Soames did not look behind the curtain where he was hiding, and he was not detected5. “And now, Watson, let us go to Mr. Soames. I am sure he hasn’ t slept a minute since yesterday.” We found Mr. Soames in his room with an open letter in his hand. “ I ’ve just received it,” he said. “ Fortunately this unhappy incident has been put an end to.” He was going to read it to us at once, but Holmes stopped him. “ I know by whom it has been written,” said Holmes. “ I have found out the man and I am glad that he hasn’t made use of his dishonest6 action.” “You are quite right,’’said Soames, “Gilford has told the truth. He is ashamed of himself and is going to leave college. He has been offered employment on board the ship and has accepted the offer. Let us hope that he will work there like an honest man.” 1suspicious [sas'pifss] — niAo3pUIHH 2to look tired ['taiad] — Mara CTOMJieHHH BHrJIH/X 3sample ['sa:mpl] — 3pa30K

4 to seize [s i:z ] — c x o h h t h : to detect [d i't e k t ] — b h h b j i a TH, B H K pH B aTH

Gdishonest

[d is 's m s t ]

H en ec

HHH

2. IJpoH um a um e m eK cm me pa3.

a) 3 n a u d im b y m e n c m i u eunuuitmb a m ji iii c b K i eKeieajienmu m a K u x cjioeocnojiyneHb i penenb: cnopTHBHHH MaiiflaHMHK, cnopTHBHi nepeBHKH, nepeKJiacTH nanepn, Ha Horo macTH, He*iecHHH bmhhok, 3ajinmHTH iHCTHTyT,

Sy^eMo cnofliBaTHCH, MecHa jiioflHHa. 128


BiH HaH6ijibm niA03pi;iHH. m o

bh

36npaeTeci>

p o 6h t h

?

BiH

xoBaBCH 3a 3aHaBicKOK>. ftoro He 3Haifrn.JZH. ftoMy 3anponoHyBajiH po6oTy. 6) CKaotcimb amjiiucbKoio moqoto , Ufo mpanusiocK nicjin mozo, jik : X ojimc epanifi noeepnyecn dodoMy;

rtri(popd auiuo do KiMnamu CoMca; X ojimc i Bamcon 3auuuiu do KiMHamu CoMca. 3

6

3naudimb e onoeidauni nosicuennsi do6pozo nacmpoio XojiMca. r) npoHumaume eci diajiozu 3 onoeidauusi. Bu6epimb odun 3 nux Ojih eidmeopeuHH e KJiaci cycidoM no napmL b)

3

Task 13 1. IIpoHumaume meKcm i cnaoKimb, npo xki mpadui^n auzjiiuu,ie eu di3naJiucH enepuie. SOME ENGLISH TRADITIONS If you arrive in Great Britain, you’ll hear the word “tra­ dition” everywhere. Englishmen have sentimental love for things and traditions because they are old. They never throw away1 old things. For example, in many houses of Great Britain they have fire-places2 and though their bedrooms are awfully3 cold the English people don’t want to have central heating because they don’t want to have changes. Therefore the Yeomen-Warders4 are dressed in traditional medieval5 clothes and the traditional dress of the Horse Guards regiment6 has existed since the twelfth century. This dress costs a lot of money and seems very funny nowadays, but Englishmen stand for it because it ’ s their traditional dress. If you enter the Houses of Parliament, you’ll see the House of Lords and the House of Commons. In the House of Lords there are two rows of benches for lords and a sack of wool for the Lord Chancellor7 to sit on it. This is so because in the old times wool made England rich and powerful. In the House of Commons which is not big and quite simple, you’ ll see two rows of benches for the two parties: the go­ vernment on one side and the opposition — on the other. In front of the benches there is the strip8 of a carpet and when a member speaking in the House puts his foot beyond that strip, there is a shout “Order!” . This dates from the time when the members had swords9 on them and during the dis­ cussion might want to start fighting. The word “order” re­ minded them that no fighting was allowed in the House. Another old custom remains from the time when there was S rijiaxoTHMK, 10 o .

129


a lot of robbers10 in London. In those days the shouting “Who goes home?” was often heard in the Houses of Parliament and the members went in groups along the dark narrow streets of the old city. In modern London with its well-lit streets the shouting “Who goes home?” sounds very strange11, but it is still heard. These are some of the traditions of which Great Britain has so many.

1t o t h r o w a w a y ['G ro u a 'w e i] — BHKHAaTH 2 fire-place ['faia'pleis] — KaM iH

3 awfully [ ro:fli] — Ayace 4 Yeoman-Warder [ jouman 'wD:cte] — rBapoiem> 5 medieval [,medf i:vl] — cepeAHbOBiHHHH 6 regiment ['redjunant] — nojiK

7 Lord Chancellor [brd'tfarnsate] — rojioBa najiaTH jiopAiB 8 strip — cMyacKa

9 sword [so:d] — Me*i, mafijia, ranara 10 robber ['roba] — rpa6iacHHK, p036iHHHK

11 strange [stremdj] —

AHB-

HH#

2. a) IIpoHumaUme yeawno meiccm, m,o6 noenicmio 3po3yMimu uozo* 6) 3naudimb y mencmi i eunuw im b anzjiiuchKi eKeieajienmu maKux cJioeocnojiyKenb:

CTapi peni, flo6pe ocsiTJieHi ByjiHiji, HanpmcjiaA, y Ti a Hi, y3AOBHC TeMHHX By3bKHX ByJXHI^b, A»a PHAH JiaBOK, AOCHTb npocTHft, MimoK bobhh, 3AaeTbcn xyyne CMimHHM, n;eHTpajibHe onajieHHH, po3no*raHaTH 6iHKy

3. flaume eidnoeidt ua 3anumaHust*

Do Englishmen throw out old things? What does the English Parliament consist of? What is there in front of the benches in the House of Commons? What shouting was often heard in the Houses of Parliament?

Task 14 1. IIpoHumaume meKcm . CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS In the 15th century people knew only three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. They knew nothing about such a big continent as America. The man who was thought to be the discoverer of America was born in 1440 in Italy. His name was Christopher Columbus 130


He became a sailor at an early age. Knowing that the earth was round, he decided to reach1 India by sailing to the west. It was very difficult for him to organize his expedition as nobody wanted to help him. Many years after when he was an old man the Spanish government gave him some money for his expedition. He was able to set sail only in 1492, on August 3. The voyage was very dangerous2 and difficult; His men insisted on returning home, but Columbus did everything he could to make them continue their westward voyage. On the 12th of October, his ships reached a land. When they landed, they saw strange trees and flowers. Men and women with olive-coloured skins gathered around them and looked at them with great surprise. It was one of the Bahama’s Islands. But Christopher Columbus thought it was one of the islands which lie o ff the coast of Asia and called it San Salvador. Columbus’ [ka'Lvmbasiz] second voyage to America took place in 1493. This time he discovered some other islands of the West Indies3 and made some settlements4 there. On the third voyage he came to South America. In 1502 he made his last voyage. This time he coasted5 along the shores of Central America. In 1506 he died in Spain being sure that he had reached Asia and knowing nothing of his great discovery of the New World.

1to reach [ri:tfl — flocflraxH 2dangerous ['denuhras] — He6eane^HHH

4 settlement ['setlmsnt] — nocejieHHH 5 COast [koUSt] — MOpCbKHH

3West Indies [

Seper; njiaBara y3#OBHC y36epexcxcH

ocrpoBH Becr-Ia

2. IIpoKum aum e yeaotcno meKcm, mod noenicmio 3po3yMimu iiozo

3Micm. 3naudimb y HbOMy i eunuwimb anzjiiucbKi eKeieajienmu maKux cjioeocnojiyneHb:

He 3HaJiH npo, y paHHbOMy B iu i, o p r a n i3 y B a T H eiccneflHijiio, gonoMorTH hoMy, Hano;mraTH Ha noBepHeHHi aobohh

flO M y ,

m

n

o

v

o

He3HaiioM i g e p e B a

o c T p o B iB ,

3acnyB aB

ft k b It h ,

n o c e jie H H H

A yxce

( k o j io h I io ) ,

3#HBOBaHO, ocTaH H H

o# h h

3

noA opoac,

Syay^H BneBHeHHM 3. ffaume eidnoeidi na 3anumanHsi. What When When When When 5*

continents did people know in the 15th century? was Christopher Columbus born? did the first voyage of Columbus begin? did Columbus come to South America? did Columbus die? 131


Task 15 1. IIpoHumaume mencm .

MONEY Money is used for buying or selling goods, for measuring value1 and for storing wealth2. Almost every society now has a money economy based on coins and paper bills of one kind or another. However, this has not always been true. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the marketplace that they con­ sidered to be of equal value. Barter, however, was a very unsatisfactory system, because people’s precise needs3 seldom coincided. People needed more practical system of exchange, and various money systems developed based on goods which the members of a society recognized as having value. Cattle, grain, teeth, shells, feathers, skulls, salt, elephant tusks4 and tobacco have all been used. Precious5 metals gradually took over because, when made into coins, they were portable, dur­ able, recognizable and divisible6 into larger and smaller units of value. A coin is a piece of metal, usually, disshaped, which bears lettering7, designs or numbers showing its value. Until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, coins were given monetary worth based on the exact amount8 of metal contained in them, but most modern coins are based on face value9 — the value that governments choose to give them, irrespective of the actual metal content. Most governments now issue paper money in the form of bills, which are really “ promises to pay” . Paper money is obviously10 easier to handle and much more convenient in the modern world. Checks and credit cards are being used increasingly, and it is possible to imagine a world where “ money” in the form of coins and paper currency will no longer be used. 1 measuring value ['me33rn3 'vaelju] — BH3HaneHHa BapTOcTi

2 storing wealth [welG] — HaKomraeHHH 6araTCTBa 3 precise needs [pri'sais] —

KO H K peTH i n o T p e 6n

4 elephant tusk — 6 m e n b cjioHa

5 precious ['pre/as] — AoporoIjiHHHH, KOUITOBHHft 132

6 divisible [di'vizabl] — noAijIbHHH 7 lettering [ leternj] — Hannc, THCHeHHH 8 amount [a'maunt] — K ijib KiCTb

9 face value — HOMiHajibHa

BapTlCTb 10 obviously ['obviasli] HO, O^eBHAHO

HC


2. IJpoKumaume yeamno metccm,

1 1 4

0

6

noenicmio

3

po yMirnu iiozo. 3

3 n a u d im b y HbOMy i e u n u u i i m b a m m u c b K i e K e ie a J ie n m u maKUX c jio e o c n o jiy n e n b i p e n e n b :

jXJin BH3HaneHHH BapTocri, rpomoBa eKOHOMiica, mo 6a3yeTbca Ha MOHerax i nanepoBHX 6aHKHOTax, y nepBicHHX cycnijibCTBax, npaicTHMHiiua CHCTeMa

o6Mmy, KouiTOBHi Mera^H, He3ajiexcHO

s in

cj>aK-

THHHoro BM iciy MeTajiy, BHnycKara n an epoB i rporni, o6ujhhkh onjiaTH. BapTep 6ys cHcreMOK) npHMHx o6m1h1b TOBapiB. MoHera — ue uiMaTOK M erajiy. BapTicTb 6uibinocTi cyqacHHX MOHeT o6yMOBjieHa ixHboio HOMiHajibHOK) BapTicno. HeKH i Kpe^HTHi KapTKH bhKOpHCTOByiOTb yce Hacrirae.

3. flaume eidnoeidi ua 3anumaHHSi. What is money used for? What is money economy based on? What system instead of money was used in primitive societies? Why was barter a very unsatisfactory system of exchange? In what form do most governments issue paper money now? What kinds of money are being used increasingly?

Task 16 1. IIpoHumaume meKcm.

THE ENGLISH SETTLERS1 If you go to New Plymouth, a small town in the United States of America, you will see there a rock to which many tourists come to think of the first English settlers who landed near that rock more than three hundred years ago. It was in November 1620. A small ship “The Mayflower” left England. A fter seven long weeks the people on “The Mayflower” saw land at last. It was America. Soon the settlers found the place to build their village there. In January 1621, there were already two streets in this first English settlement in the USA and they called the place New Plymouth. When winter came, the life in New Plymouth became very hard and many of the settlers died. One day some Indians came to New Plymouth. They called the English people “Yankee” 2 as they could not say the word “Englishman” . Since that time “Yankee” has been the name of a white man in America. When spring came, the people of New Plymouth began to plant corn and maize3. In autumn crops4 were very good and the people of New Plymouth decided to make a holiday dinner. The Indians came to their dinner and brought some wild turkeys5 as a present. The people of New Plymouth called this day Thanksgiving Day6. Since that time Thanksgiving Day 133


has been America.

a

great

holiday

1 settler ['setta] — nocejieneijB 2 Yankee [ jaeijki] — hhkI * maize [meiz] — KyKypyfl3a 4 crop [krop] — ypoxcaft 5 turkey ['te:ki] — iH A H K , iH AHHKa

in

the

United

States

of

6 Thanksgiving Day [ 'B a e g k s ^ i v r g ] — Rem* iio a h k h (o<pii^iUH€ ceswio naM*jimi npo nepiuux Kojionicmie)

2. flaume eidnoeidi na 3anumaHHx. What is New Plymouth? What is New Plymouth famous for? Why do we call Americans “Yankee”? What did the Indians bring to the settlers? What is Thanksgiving Day devoted to?

Task l r< 1. IIpoHumaume

meKcm.

PACKING

j

I started packing. It seemed a longer job than I had thought it was going to be; but I got the bag finished at last, I sat on it and strapped1 it, “Aren’ t you going to put the boots in?” said Harris. And I looked round and found I had forgotten them... That’ s just like Harris. He couldn’ t have said a word until I ’ d got the bag and strapped, of course. I opened the bag and packed the boots in; and then, just as I was going to close it, a horrible2 idea came into my mind. Had I packed my tooth-brush? I don’ t know how it .is, but I never do know whether I ’ve packed my tooth-brush. I had to turn everything out3 and, of course, I could not find it. I put the things back one by one, and held everything up and shook it. Then I found it inside a boot. I repacked once more. Harris said that we should start in less than twelve hour’s time and thought that he and George had better do the rest; and I agreed and sat down and they had to go. They began in a light-hearted spirit4 and I looked at the piles5 of plates and cups and kettles and bottles, etc. and felt that the thing would soon become exciting. It did. They started with breaking a cup. That was the first thing they did. They did that just to shoW you what they could do, and to get you interested. 134


Then Harris packed the strawberry 6 jam on top of a tomato and squashed 7 it, and they had to pick out the tomato with a tea-spoon. And then it was George’ s turn, and he trod8 on the butter. Then they stepped on things, and put things behind them; and then couldn’ t find them when they wanted them; and they packed the pies at the bottom and put heavy things on top, and smashed the pies in. They upset salt over everything. They put butter on a chair, and Harris sat on it, and it stuck to him, and they went looking for it all over the room. “ I am sure I put it down on that chair,” said George, staring at the empty place. “ I saw you do it myself, not a minute ago,” said Harris. Then they started round the room again looking for it; and then they met again in the centre, and stared at one another. “I t ’s so strange,” said George. “ So mysterious!” said Harris. Then George got round at the back of Harris and saw it. “Why, here it is all the time,” he exclaimed. “ Where?” cried Harris, spinning round. “ Stand still, can’t you!” roared George, flying after him. And they got it off, and packed it in the tea-pot. 1to strap — cTHrysaTH (peMeHeM) 2h o rrib le ['h o r a b l] — B5*5

nacicoN h c b x jih

to turn everything out — BHBepHyTH Bee

5 pile [pail] — Kyna 6 strawberry ['strorbari] hhiu , nojiymnu

cy-

7to squash [skwoj] — poaAaBun 8to trea d Ttredl (trod . tro< den) a e iy n a r a

in a light-hearted spirit — 3

BecejiHM (n iflH eceH H M ) Ha-

CTpoeM 2. IJpoHumaume yeaofcno mencm, w,o6 noenicmio 3po3yMimu uoeo. 3 H a u d im b y HbOMy i e u n u u i i m b a m j i i u c b K i eKeieajienmu maKux cjioeocnojiyneHb i peneub:

Hapenm, 3BHnairao, nooitiHO ao Xappica,

noKJiacra peni H a 3a oahok), 3p o 6h t h p e o n y , Kyna TapinoK.

Ha3aA, ojx-

B o h r p o 36hjih nanncy. fl yneBHeHHH, mo noKJias aoro Ha CTUieijb. B oh h 3anaKyBa/iH noro b h bh h h k . 3. f l a u m e e i d n o e i d i n a 3 a n u m a u H s i .

What did the three friends begin to do? Was their job interesting? Were they good travellers? What was bad in their work? 135


Task 18 1. n p o H u m a u m e m e n c m .

SPORTS IN ENGLISH SCHOOLS Most schools in England have a sports day once a year in late spring or in summer. The sports day is looked forward to1 by the whole school. On that day schools have no lessons. If a school has no playing-field, the children are taken to the field in buses. When they arrive, all the competitors2 change into their sports clothes. The running track is circular3 and inside it are places for the high jump, the long jump and throwing the discus. A ll these events take place at the same time as the running, so there is plenty to watch. There is a large blackboard on which the results are chalked up4 for all to see. In the middle of the programme there is a break for lunch and if it is a sunny day, the children sit on the grass eating their sandwiches. If the weather is not so warm, they manage5 just the same. It is only if it begins to rain that they give up6 their programme and go back to school. At the end of the day the captain of the winning team is given a present, the winners of different events7 are congratulated and the children leave the place. 1 is looked forward to — oni KyCTbCH 2 competitor [kam'petita] — y^iacHHK 3MaraHb 3 circular [ ss.kjub] — Kpyr JIHH

4to ch alk up [ tjDik'Ap] — hhCaTH KpeHAOKJ 5 to m anage [ maenid3 ] — mym yXHTpHTHCfl po6hth 6to g ive up — npHHHHHTH 7even t [i 'vent] — bha cnopTy

2. JJaum e e id n o e id i n a 3anumaHHH.

When do most schools in England have a sports day? Where are the children taken on that day if their school has no playing-field? How is that day organized? What do all the competitors do when they come to the field? Why do they change into sports clothes? What is the form of the running track? 3. IIp o H u m a u m e yecuncno meKcm, u^o6 n o e n ic m io 3p o 3y M im u uozo. 3 n a u d im b y m e K c m i i e u n u iu im b a m n iu c b K i eK eieaa eH m u m a K u x y K p a in cb K u x csioeocno/iyHeHb i p en en b :

pa3 Ha pin, b aBTo6ycax, nepeoflnrHyTHCb y ciiopthbhhh oanr, MicijH flJia ctphSkIb y bhcoty, b toh caMHH *iac, n ep ep B a ajih jia H ^ y (a p y r o r o cH iflaH K y).

136


B ohh npnnHHHioTb cbok) nporpaMy i noBepTaioTbCH ao hikojih. nepeMOHCn;iB pi3HHx bhaIb 3Mar an t BiTaiOTb.

Task 19* 1. ripoHumaume yeaotcno meKcm i

3 decnmu meepdotcenb, naeedenux

nicjiR Hbozo, eudepimb ma nponumaume ezojioc mi, iq,o eidnoeidaiomb 3Micmy mencmy .

THE BRITISH PRESS The British press consists of several different kinds of newspapers. The national papers are the ones sold all over the country, with a large readership or “ circulation” , giving general news; they are produced in the capital city, London. In recent years the circulation of the national newspapers has gone down. Some papers had to close because they weren’t making enough money — either from the sale of the paper or from the advertising in it. Some newspapers have started up in the last twenty years, for instance, The Sun and The Daily Star . There are two main types of national papers — the “popular” papers and the “quality” papers. The “popular”*papers are smaller in size with lots of pictures, big headlines and short articles. They are easy to read and often contain little real information, some­ times they give more space to opinions than to news. They usually have “human interest” stories, stories about ordinary people and events, which are included because they are amusing or odd. The examples of this type of newspapers are The Daily M a il , The Sun and The Daily M irror . “ Quality” papers appeal to the more serious reader, who wants to read about politics and foreign affairs. These papers, such as The Daily Telegraph , The Times and The Guardian are bigger in size with long articles and a wider coverage of events. They have different pages for home news, foreign affairs, feature articles, fashion, business and so on. People in Britain buy more papers on Sunday than on weekdays. The Sunday papers have a higher circulation than the dailies. In addition to these there are provincial or local papers to serve towns and areas outside London; some of them are quite famous, like The Birmingham P o s t , for example.

* n e p e s ip K H

B3HT0 3 K H H rH «A H I\ 7 im C b K a M O B a ». 3 aB A aH H H flJIH TeCTOBOl 3Ham>,

n iK iji, j i i i j e i B

y M iH b

i

i riMHa3iii. K.:

HaBHMOK B H iry cK H H K iB —

3 a r a jib H o o c B iT H ix

PBIJ «IIpo3a».— 1993.— C. 120— 121. 137


1) A number of newspapers in Great Britain are of high quality. 2) Some of the newspapers exist no more because they were giving little profit. 3) “ Popular” papers pay great attention to some problems of space exploration. 4) A reader of The Times is sure to find a description of a number of events in the newspaper. 5) The task of the “ quality” papers is to entertain the reader. 6) People in Britain buy newspapers mainly on week-ends. 7) “Popular” newspapers usually have “ human interest” stories, stories about ordinary people and events, which are included because they are amusing or odd. 8) The Sun newspaper is easy to read. 9) The Birmingham Post is produced in the capital city, Birmingham. 10) The Daily Telegraph contains a lot o f pictures, big headlines and short articles.


REFERENCE GRAMMAR (r p a M a T H H H H H

flO B iflH H K )

IMEHHHK (THE NOUN) § 1. H h c jio (Number) iM eHHHKH B aHIVliHCbKiH MOBi, HK i B y K p a ’i HCbKiH, MaiOTb flBa

HHCJia: OAHHHy ii MHoxeHHy. MHOMCHHa iMeHHHKiB yTBOpiOGTBCH flOflaBaHHflM AO 4>OpMH Oflh h h h 3aiciiPieHHH - ( e ) s , HKe n icjiH ^3 b 1h k h x n pH rojiocH H X i r o jio CHHX BHMOBJIHGTbCH HK 3ByK [z], a niCJIH TJiyXHX IipHrOJIOCHHX HK [s].

[z] a a a a

room ball club w all

[z] rooms

a a a a

balls clubs walls

day sea tree table

[S]

a a a a

days seas trees tables

book lamp fork street

books lamps forks streets

IM eH H H K H , m o 3aKiH^yiOTbCH Ha

MaiOTb 3aKiHHeHHfl -e s , HKe a box a dress

-S, -SS, -X, -sh, -ch, y MHOHCHHi BHMOBJIHeTbCH [iz].

boxes dresses

a bus a bench

buses benches

flo iMeHHHKiB, o 3aKiHHyioTbCH Ha -y 3 nonepeflHboio npnrojiochoio, Ao^aeTbCH 3aKiHHeHHH -es; npn QbOMy y 3MiHK>€TbCH Ha ♦ 1. a cherry a lorry

- cherries lorries

a berry a factory

berries factories

y AeHKHX iMeHHHKaX, mo B OflHHHi 3aKiH^yK)TbCH Ha -f, -fe, y MHOHCHHi f 3MiHK>eTbCH Ha v 3 AOAaBaHHHM saKiH^eHHH -(e)s. a life a knife

lives - knives

^eHKi iMeHHHKH cjnfl 3anaM HTara.

y T B o p io io T b

men a man a woman women children a child

a shelf a scarf M H O JK H H y

shelves scarves

He 3a npaBHJia M H • Ix

a foot a mouse a tooth

feet mice teeth

139


§ 2. BiftMiHOK (The Case) B aHrjiincbKiH mob I iMeHHHK Mae # b & b Ia m ih k h : 3araJiBHHH (the Common Case) i npncBi&HHH (the Possessive Case). 3 a r a j i b H H i l BiAMiHOK He Mae cneijiajiBHHX BiAMiHKOBHX 3aKiH^eHB. 3 b ’ h30k iMeHHHKa y 3arajiBHOMy BiflMiHKy 3 Ihiiihm h cjioBaMH BHpancaeTBCH npnftmeHHHKemh i Micn,eM y peneHHi. T a n , iMeHHHK, m o ctoitb nepeA npncyflKOM, e ni^MeTOM, a nicjin npn-

cy«Ka

npHMHM AOA&TKOM

The teacher a s k s the p u p il. The p u p il a sk s the teacher.

yHHrejib 3airaTye y^HH. y ^ e H b 3 a n n T y e b ^ h t c j ih .

Pi3Hi 3B’ H3KH iM eH H H K a, HJO BiAHOBiAaiOTB HenpHMHM BiAMiHKaM B yKpaiHCBKiH MOBi, BH3Ha^aiOTBCH 3a AOHOMOrOK) npH H M eH HHKiB.

The boy gave the book to his brother.

Xjionei^B a &b KHHHCKy CBoeMy SpaTOBi (daeajtbnuu eidMih o k ).

The streets o f the city were wide. He wrote with a pencil.

ByjiHU,i MicTa 6yjiH mnpoKi (podoeuU eidMinofc). BiH nncaB ojiisi^eM ( opydnuu eidMinoK).

IIpHCBiHHHH

BiAMiHOK iMeHHHKiB B O A H H H i yTBOpK)€TBCH AOAa»aHHHM 3aKiHneHHH -*s (to 6to anocTpocJja i 6yKBH s), HKe bhmob-

JIH6TBCH 3a THMH CBMHMH npBBHJiaMH, UIO H 3aKiHHeHHfl MHOtfCHHH iMeHHHKiB ( a h b . § 1).

the student’ s book the boy’ s ball the horse’ s leg IIpHCBiHHHH BiAMiHOK ^aBaHHHM anocTpo4>a.

KHHHCKa CTyAeHTa m xjion^HKa Hora KOHH iMeHHHKiB

the students’ books the girls’ balls

y

MHOJKHHi

yTBOpiOCTBCH

KHHHCKH CTyAeHTiB

M’ aqi AiB^taTOK

flKmo iMeHHHK y

m h o jk h h I He 3aKiH*iyc t b c h Ha -s, t o ft o r o npH CBiftH H ft BiAM iHOK yTBOpiOCTBCH T aK caMO, h k b OAHHHi, t o 6 t o

AOAaBaHHHM -’s.

the children’s toys the men’s deeds

*

AHTOTi irpamKH BHHHKH ^OJIOBiKiB

IIpHCBiHHHH BiAMiHOK BHpaxcae HajxeHCHicTB npeAMeTa jhuhcb oco6i. Ihkojih 4>opMy npncBiiiHoro BiAMiHKa Mo^cyTB Ha6yBaTH iMeHHHKH, rqo 03Hanai0TB: a) Ha3BH KpaiH , M ic T , cyAeH.

Kyiv’s theatres the Petro Sahaidachnyi ’s crew 140

TeaTpn KneBa KOMaHAa Kopa6jiH tlleTpo

CaraiiAa^HHHf


6) ^ac i BiflCTaHb, a mile’ s distance three years’ work b)

BiACTaHt b o^hv TpnpiHHa npaijn

mhjiio

36ipHi noHHTTH THny governm ent, party, army, fam ily,

society.

the fam ily’ s traditions the government’s decision

ciMeihii TpaAHH,ii nocTaHOBa ypHAY

3aMicTB npHCBiHHoro BiAMimca ajih BHpanceHHH HajiexcHocri MOHCe BHCHBaTHCB iMeHHHK 3 IipHHMeHHHKOM of. m y friend's sister the sister o f my friend

1 }

cecTpa Moro flpyra

A P T H K J IB (T H E A R T IC L E )

§ 3. O opM H apTHKJiiu i 3arajibH i npasHJia IX yJKHBaHHH

B aHrjiiiicbKiH mob! nepeA iMeHHHKaMH BxcHBaeTbca oco6;iHBe cjiyacSoBe cjiobo — ap t h k ji b : osHa^eHHft the i Heo3Ha*ieHH& a (an ). O opM a Heo3Ha^eHoro

apraKJia a BHCHBaeTbCH nepeA iMeH­

HHKaMH, mo noHHHaiOTbCH 3 npHrojiocHoro 3ByKa, a $opMa an — nepeA iMeHHHKaMH, mo noranaioTbCH 3 rojiocHoro.

3BH^aiiHo apTHKJib CTaBHTbCH nepeA iMeHHHKaMH, ajie hk ^ o iM e H H H K M a e O AH e a 6 o K ijib K a o 3 H £rceH b, to apTHKJib cTaBHTbcn nepeA

h h m h

:

a book, an in terestin g book, an interesting new book Heo3HaneHHH apTHKJib hoxoahtb BiA ^HCJiiBHHKa one, TOMy BiH

yHCHBaeTbCH, hk npaBHJio, i3 3JiinyBaHHMH iMeHHHKaMH b 0 AHH Hi . He03HaneHHH apTHKJib BHCHBaeTbCH, KOJIH Ha3HBaiOTb 6yAb-HKHH npeAMeT 3 ycboro KJiacy OAHOpiAHHX. G ive me a pencil, please.

JJaii(Te) MeHi, 6yAt JiacKa, ojiiBen,b.

(T y m apmuKJib 03Hanae, mo Moeu,* sadoeojibnne Oydb-HKuu ojiieeiib, a ne KOHKpemtiuU.)

Hnmo nepeA iMeHHHKOM b oahhhI BHCHBaeTbCH Heo3HaneHHft a p T H K J ib , TO B MHOXCHHi BiH BiACyTHift (H yjIb O B H H a p T H K J ib ): There is a tab le in the room. There are tables in the room.

03HaHeHH& apTHKJib noxoAHTb BiA BKa3iBHoro 3aiiMeHHHKa that i noKa3ye, mo neBHHft npeAMeT BHAiJineTbcn 3 rpynn oaho-

piAHHX. G ive me the pencil, please. R a f t MeHi-, 6yAb J ia c K a , OJiiBen,b. 141


(H d em bcx npo xfcuucb neenuu ojiieex^b: mou, mo e pyicax y cniepo3MO0HUKa; mou, U40 Jiexcumb na cm oM mow,o.) A p t h k j i b > m>OMy p a 3 i MO^CHa 3aMiHHTii BKasiBHHM 3aHMeHHHKOM this a66 that. U,e 3 a ra jib H i npaBHJxa BHCHBaHHa apTH KjiiB. IcH y e SaraTO cn eQ iajibH H X npaBHJi, onpeMi 3 h k h x HaBeAeno HHHcne.

§ 4. BftCHBaHHH apTHKJIH 3 BJiaCHHMH Ha3BaMH 3 o3HaneHHM apTHKJieM BHCHBaiOTbCH:

а) HB3BH KpaiH, mo cKJiaAaioTbca i3 3arajibHO*i hb3bh Ta o3Hanajib Horo cjioBa, mo croiTb nepeA Heio. the U nited States o f Am erica, the U nited K ingdom o f Great B ritain and N orth ern Ireland

б) Ha3BH MopiB, OKeaHiB, pi^oK, nycTejib Ta ripcbKHx xpe6TiB. the A tla n tic Ocean, the Black Sea, the Dnipro, the Desna, the A lp s, the Sahara ApTHKJib He BHCHBaeTbCH n e p e A : а) npi3BHmaMH Ta iMeHaMH jiioAeii, a Tanoac KJiH^ncaMH TBapHH. Petrenko, M ykola, V ictor, M ukhtar, Pussy, M urka JJpuMimKa . H k ^ o nepeA npi3BHmeM y mhohchhI cTOiTb 03HaMeHHH apTHKJib, to xsje 03Hanae, mo h actlch npo Bcix *uieHiB ciM’i.

the Kovalenkos the Tymchenkos

KoBajieHKH T hmhchkh

б) Ha3B8LMH KOHTHHeHTiB, Kpa'lH, MiCT, ciil. Europe, U kraine, Poland, Lutsk, Dobre BuHxmKu:

the Crimea, the Netherlands, the Philippines, the Caucasus

§ 5. BiAcyTHicTb apTHKJia nepeA aarajiBHHMH H a3 saM H ApTHKJib He BdKHBaeTbcn:

а) HKmO nepeA iMeHHHKOM CTOITB npHCBiHHHH, BKa3iBHHH, HHTajibHHii 3aHMeHHHK a6o Heo3Ha*ieHi 3aftMeHHHKH some, any, no, each, every. my brother, his book, this house, that street, some pupils, no books, each pupil, every day W h at book is on the table? б) nepeA iMeHHHKOM-3BepTaHHHM. What are you reading, girls? 142


Come here, boys, b)

npum

HKmO niCJIH IMeHHHKa CTOlTb KijIbKiCHHH HHCJliBHHK y 3HanopH A K O B oro,

lesson twenty page th irty -fiv e

ABaAUHTHH ypon

tp h to h tb n*HTa cTopiHKa

nPHKMETHHK (THE ADJECTIVE) § 6. C Tyn eH i nopiBHHHHH npHKMeTHHKie B aH rJliilC bK iil MOBi npHKMeTHHKH He 3MiHIOK>TbCH Hi 3a pOAaMH, Hi 3a ^IHCJiaMH, Hi 3a BiAM iH KaM H . B oHH 3MiHK>K)TbCH JIHme 3a CTyneHHMH nopiBHHHHH. H n iC H i npHKMeTHHKH MaiOTb OCHOBHy $ o p M y (the positive degree), b h h ^h h CTyniHb nopiBHHHHH (the com parative degree) i HaHBHm,HH (the superlative degree).

4>opmh BHmoro i HaifBHH^oro cTyneHiB nopiBHHHHH npmcMeTHHKiB MOHCyTb 6yTH,

HK i B yKpaiHCbKiH MOBi, n p O C T H M H

i

CKJI&AeHHMH. IlpO C T i 4>OpMH C T yn eH iB nopiBHHHHH yTBOpiOIOTbCH AOAftBaHHHM

OCHOBHOI 4>oPMH 3aKhraeHHH -er y BHn^oMy CTyneHi Ta -est — y HaiiBnmoMy.

ao

short — shorter — shortest cold — colder — coldest CKJiaAem (Jdopmh yTBOpiOIOTbCH 3a AonoMoroio cjiiB m ore Gifibuu ajih BHmoro i m ost nauSijibiu ajih HaHBHin,oro crryneHH. OcHOBHa 4>opMa npHKMeTHHKa He 3MiHK>eTbCH. d iffic u lt — m ore d iffic u lt — most d ifficu lt active — more active — most active

B aHrjiiilcbKiii MOBi npocTi <j>opMH CTyneHiB nopiBHHHHH MaiOTb: a ) yci oAHocKJiaAOBi npHKMeTHHKH. deep — deeper — deepest 6)

ABOCKJiaAOBi npHKMeTHHKH, mo 3aKiHHyK>TbCH Ha -y, -er, -le,

•ow. easy — easier — easiest clever — cleverer — cleverest simple — sim pler — simplest n arro w — narrow er — narrow est b)

ABOCKJiaAOBi npHKM eTHHKH 3 HarojiocoM H a APyroMy CKjiaAi-

polite — politer — politest CKJiaAeHi <j>opMH CTyneHiB nopiBHHHHH MaiOTb yci 6araTOCKJiaAOBi npHKMeTHHKH i ABOCKJiaAOBi 3 HarojiocoM Ha nepmoMy CKJiaAi, KpiM t h x , mo 3aKhrayioTbCH na -y, -er, -le, -ow. interesting — m ore interesting — most interesting 143


famous — m ore fam ous — most famous TIpuMimKa. CTyneHi nopiBHHHHH a c h k h x npHKM eTHHKiB b aHrjiiHCbKiii MOBi, hk i b y K p aiH C b K iii, yTBopK)K)Ti>CH BiA iHnrax KopeHi©. good — better — best little — less — least bad — worse — w orst much/many — more — mdst. Ilp n yTBopeHHi n p o c T H x CTyneHiB nopiBH H H H H AOTpHajyiotbch TaKHx npaBHji op(|>orpa<|>n: a) hkiijo npHKMeTHHK 3aKiHHyeTbCH Ha -e, to nepeA 3aKiHKeahhm h -er, -est boho BHnaAae.

large — la rg -e r — larg-est brave — b ra v -e r — brav-est 6) b OAHOCKJiaAOBHX npHKMeTHHK ax nepeA 3aKhnieHHHMH -er, -est KiHijeBa npnrojiocHa n AB K>eTbCH, hkujo nepeA neio ctoitb KOpOTKHH TOJIOCHHH 3ByK. 0

0

big — b ig g e r — biggest hot — hotter — hottest b) hkiijo npHKMeTHHK 3aKiHHyeTbCH Ha 6yK B y -y n on epeA H boio npHrojiocHoio, to n ep eA -e r , -e s t y 3MiHioeTbCH Ha i. 3

busy — busier — busiest dirty — dirtier — dirtiest

HHCJIIBHHK (THE NUMERAL) B

aH rjiiH C b K iii MOBi h h c ju b h h k h noAUiHiOTbCH Ha K i j i b K i c H i

(cardinal num erals) i n o p a A K O B i

(ordinal num erals).

§ 7. K ijIb K iC H i MHCJliBHHKH OCHOBOK) BCix ^IHCJliBHHKiB G ^HCJliBHHKH nepmoro ACCHTKa. 3a cnoco6oM TBopeHHH ^HCJiiBHHKH noAUiHioTbCH H a n p o c T i , n o x i A Hi

Ta C K J i a A e H i .

n p o c T i : o n e , t w o , th re e , f o u r , fiv e , s ix , seven , e ig h t, n in e, ten , e le v e n , t w e lv e , a (o n e ) h u n d r e d , a (o n e ) th o u sa n d , a (o n e ) m illio n . I l o x i A H i HHCJiiBHHKH yTBopK>K>TbCH 3a AonoMoroio:

а) cy4>iKca -teen (BiA 13 ao 19): thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen; б)

cy4>iKca

-ty

(B iA

s e v e n t y , n in e t y . TIpuMimKa . 3 B ep H iT b

20

ao

y B ary

9 0 ):

tw en ty ,

t h ir t y ,

fo rty ,

Ha HanHcaHHH a c h k h x

fifty ,

h o x Ia h h x

^[HCJliBHHKiB.

two [tu:] three [0ri:] fo u r [fo :] five [faiv ] eight [eit] 144

twelve [twelv] thirteen ['0 a:'ti:n ] fourteen ['fo:'ti:n ] fifteen ['f if t iin ] eighteen ['ei'ti:n ]

twenty [ twenti] thirty [ 09:ti] forty ['fb:tij fifty ['fifti] eighty ['eitij


C K J i a f l e H i HHCJliBHHKH yTBOpiOIOTbCH CHOJiyHeHHHM npOCTHX tmcjiiBHHKiB: 33 — t h ir t y -t h r e e ; 125 — on e h u n d r e d a n d t w e n ­ t y -fiv e ; 7 ,0 0 0 — s e v e n t h o u s a n d ; 2 ,0 0 0 ,3 6 9 — tw o m illio n t h r e e h u n d r e d a n d s ix t y -n in e . 3B epH iT b y B a r y : 1. H k h jo nepeA HHCJiiBHHKaMH h u n d r e d , t h o u s a n d , m illio n CTOlTb iH in n il HHCJliBHHK, TO BOHH y MHOHCHHi He M a iO T b 3aKiHWeHHH -s: f i v e m illio n , t h r e e t h o u s a n d , s i x h u n d r e d . itf HHCJliBHHKH BHCHBaiOTbCH HK iMeHHHKH, T 06t o KOJIH nepeA h h m h HeM ae iH H in x HHCJiiBHHKiB, b o h h npH H M aioTb y m h o HCHHi 3aKiHMeHHH -S. Y UbOM y p a 3 i niCJIH HHX CTOlTb iMeHHHK 3 H icm o ^

npHHMeHHHKOM o f: h u n d r e d s o f p u p ils comni ynnie; m illio n s o f w o r k e r s MiJibuonu poOirrtHUKie. 2. B aH rjiiH C bK iii MOBi, Ha BiAM iH y BiA yK paincbK oi*, KoxcHi TpH P03PHAH 6araTOUH4>pOBHX HHCeJI BiAOKpeMJIIOIOTbCH KOMOIO, a He KpanKOio. 3 , 3 2 7 , 8 3 4 ; 8 5 3 ,4 2 5 , 1 0 3 .

KpaiiKoio

BiAOKpeMJiioeTbCH

q ijie

hhcjio

b

a ^ c h tk o b h x

Apo6ax

(due. § 9). 3. ,Q,aTH n03Hanai0TbCH KiJIbKiCHHMH HHCJliBHHKaMH: 1 9 8 7 p iK — n in e t e e n h u n d r e d a n d e ig h t y -s e v e n a6o n in e t e e n e ig h t y -s e v e n (e ycnoMy Moejieuni)

§ 8. IIopHAKOBi HHCJliBHHKH IIopH AK O Bi HHCJliBHHKH, 3a BHHHTKOM nepHIHX TpbOX, yTBOpiO­ IOTbCH 3 BiAnoBiAHHX K ijibK icH H X AOAaBaHHHM cy4 )iK ca -th .

11th - ■ eleventh 12th - - twelfth 13th - - thirteenth 20th - - twentieth 21th - - twenty-first 30th - - thirtieth 100th *— hundredth 101th — hundred ai

1st — first 2nd - - second 3rd - - third 4th —- fourth 5th —- fifth 6th - - sixth 7th - - seventh 8th - eighth 9th - - ninth 10th — tenth

H h cjio MicHE^H no3HanaeTbCH nopHAKosHM HHCJiiBHHKOM 3 03HaneHHM apTHKJieM. HHCJliBHHK CTBBHTbCH a6o nepeA Ha3BOK) MiCHIJH 3 npH ­ HMeHHHKOM of, a6o nicjiH Hei 6e3 npHHMeHHHKa.

the 9th of May, 1997 — the ninth of May, nineteen ninetyseven May 9th 1997 — May the ninth, nineteen ninety-seven

§ 9. ^p060Bi y npOCTHX Apodax 3HaMeHHHKOM

HHCJliBHHKH

HHCeJIbHHKOM

nopHAKOBHH.

e

H k IQ O

KUIbKiCHHH HHCJliBHHK, HHCeJIbHHK

6 ijIb m H H

a

BiA

145


oflHHHiji, to 3HaMeHHHK M a e 3aKiH^eHHH -s. Mira n;ijioK) i apo6obok> ^acTHHaMH BHCHBaeTBCH cnojiyMHHK and. 1/2

a (one) h a lf, 2^ —

thirds; 2 ^ — tw o and one th ird;

1/3

a (on e) th ird , ^ o

sixths;

o

— three and two fifth s .

y agchtkobhx Apo6ax ijijia *iacTHHa BiAOKpeMJiioeTbCH BiA Apo6oboi He komok ), a Kpamcoio, jnca ^HTaeTbca point. H yjib KHTaeTBCH nought [no:t] (a6o zero ['zisrou ] y C I I I A ). f lk ^ o hhcjio iujihx AopiBHioe Hyjiio, boho ^acTo He *iHTaeTbCH. KoxcHa ijH<i>pa hk mijioi, TaK i A PO fiO B O ’i MaCTHHH ACCHTKOBOrO A P O S y HHTaCTbCH O K p e M O . 0.1 — nought poin t one a6o point one 2.37 — tw o poin t three seven 25.01 — tw e n ty -fiv e point nought one a6o tw o fiv e point nought one 3 A & M E H H H K (T H E P R O N O U N )

§ 10. Oco6oBi 3aifMeHHHKH (Personal Pronouns) Oco6oBi 3ai*MeHHHKH

i o6’ -

M aiOTb ABa BiAMiHKH: H a 3 H B H H H

0KTHHH.

H a a u e n u u eidMiHOK

06*eKmnuu eidMiHOK

I H you — TH

me — MeHe, MeHi you Te6e, To6i

he — BiH she — BOHa it — BOHO (BiH, BOHa)

him — Horo, ftoMy 1 her — ii, ih it HOTO, HOMy, 11, IH

we MH you BH they — bohh

us Hac, HaM you — sac, BaM them — ix , im

* » + •

| J

t m

# *

3aiiMeHHHKH

A #

OcoGosi

j

ft#

B

Ha3HBHOMy

BiAMiHKy

BHKOHyiOTb

4>yHKixiio niAMeTa. I (he, she, we, you, th ey) saw that film . O c o 60Bi 33HMeHHHKH B 06’eKTH 0My BiAMiHKy BHKOHyiOTb (JjyHKIUK) A o A a T K a. niCJIH npHHMeHHHKiB OCo6osi 3BHMeHHHKH BMCHBaiOTbCH jra iu e y 4>opMi o 6 ’ eK TH oro BiAMiHKa. YKpaiHCbKOK) m o b o io o 6 ’ g k t h h h BiAMiHOK UepeKJiaAaeTbCS pi3HHMH HenpffMHMH BiAMiHKSMH 3 npHHMeHHHK3MH i 6e3 HHX.

He gave me an interesting book. 146

BiH abb MeHi ijinaBy

K H H x a cy .


He showed the picture to her. 3aHMeH

HK

it

BiH

3BM1HK)€ IMeHHHKH

n oK a 3 a B i h K a p T H H y .

---

HS3BH

HeiCTOT,

TBEpHI

a TaKOHc iMeHHHK baby neMoe/m. yKpamcbKoio MOBOK) 0C060BH 3aHMeHHHK i t 3ajiejKHO BiA poA y B iAnosiAH oro iMeHHHKa nepeKJiaAaGTbCH CJIOBSMH BiH , BOHa, BOHO.

The pencil is on the table. It is red. The book is on the shelf. It is interesting. The window is big. It is opened.

OjiiBei;* Ha cTOJii. BiH HepBOHHH.

KHHxcna Ha nojiHiji BoH a ijhcaBa. B iK H O B ejiH K e.

B oho Bi^HHHeHe.

3ailM eH H H K i t BHCHBaeTbCH 3aMiCTb Ha3B TBapHH, HKmO IX CTaTb

AJia mobu,h H eBi^O M a

a6o He

M ae 3HaneHHH.

The cat is under the table. It is eating. §

11. IIp H C B iH H i

KimKa n i p Bona icT b.

3 a iiM e H H H K H

c t o jio m .

(Possessive Pronouns)

Ilp H C B iH H i 3aHMeHHHKH MaiOTb A s i $ o p M H : 3 a j i e > K H y ( c o n j o ­ i n t ) , H Ka BHCHBaeTbCH JiHm e h k o3H an eH H a a o iM eH H H K a , i H e 3 a j i e ^ K H y ( a b s o l u t e ) , H Ka BHCHBaeTtca ca M o cT iiiH O , t o 6 t o 6e3 iM e H ­ HHKa.

JJpuceiuni 3aiLMeHHUKu

Oco6oei 3aUMeHHUKU

3ajieMua (popMa

IlepeKJiad npuceiunux 3aiLMeHHUKie

ne3aji€Mna (popMa

I

my

m in e

M in , MOa, MO€, M o'i

he

h is

ihis

H o ro (HOjioeiHuu pid)

*

sh e

! « • #

!h e r

1

h ers

11

it

its

it s

i i o r o (cepedniu pid), u

we

our

ou rs

Ham, Hama, Hame, Hami

you

your

you rs

Bam, Bama, Bame, sami

1

T B iii, t b o h , t b o c , t b o ! th e y

th e ir

th e ir s

This is m y book. This book is m ine. Whose book is this? It is m y book. It is m ine. It is not m y book, it is hers. Take m y book and give me you rs.

lXH iH , ix h h , lX H e, ix H i

l\e MOH KHH3KK3L U.S KHHKCKa MOH. H h K Ije KHHHCKa? I^e MOH KHHHCKa. Bona m o h . LJe He m o h KHH^cica, a u . Bi3bMH MOIO KHHJKKy i A&H MeHi CBOIO.

147


B aHrjiincbKm MOBi HeMa TaKoro npncBiHHoro 3anM6HHHKa, mo BinnoBinaB 6h yKpaiHCbKOMy 3dHM6HHHKy Cfiin. OcrraHHm nepeKJiag^a GTbCH aHTJIlHCbKOK) MOBOK) pi3HHMH npHCBlHHHMH 3BHMeHHHK8MH 3aJieJKHO BiA OCo6h , HKOl BIB CTOCyGTbCH. fl HHTaiO CBOK) KHHJKKy. Th HHTaem c b o io khhhcky. BoHa nnme c b o im ojiiBijeM. Mh jik>6hmo c b o io nraojiy. BoHH JIK)6jXHTb CBOK) ByjlHQK).

I read my book. You read your book. She writes with her pencil. W e like our school. They like their street.

§ 12. Heo3HaneHi 3aftMeHHHKH (Indefinite Pronouns] flo Heo3Ha*ieHHX 3aftMeHHHKiB HajieraaTb some, any, one, a TaKOHC noxiAHi BiA h h x somebody, something, anybody, anything, someone. 3a#MeHHHK some nepeA 3^i^yBaHHMH iMeHHHKaMH y mhohchhI o3Ha^iae KijibKa, denici, odni, intui. There are some books on the table. He asked some questions. nepeA 3Ji i ^ y Ba HHMH RKuilcb, RKUU-He6ydb .

Ha CTOJii KijibKa

khhhcok .

BiH nocTaBHB KijibKa TaHb.

3ann-

iMeHHHKaMH b o a h h h I some o3Ha^iae

I read it in some book.

fl npoHHTaB KHHJKUii.

ije

b

HKiiicb

nepeA H e 3 J i i n y B a H H M H iMeHHHKaMH some 03HanaG denna Ki/ibKicm b i yKpaiHCbKOK) mobok) He nepeKJiaAaGTbCH. He bought some butter.

BiH KynHB Macjia.

3aHMeHHHK an y o3Hanae HKUU-ne6ydb, gchkuu9 CKijibKu-nedydb. y KpaiHCbKOK) MOBOK) BIH 3BHHaHHO He nepeKJIBAaGTbCH.

A re there any books there? You can see it in any classroom.

TaM e khhhckh ? Bh MoaceTe no6 aHHTH ue KJiacHiii KiMHaTi.

3aiiMeHHHKH somebody, someone xm ocb , x m o ue6ydb; some­ thing u^ocb, lyo nedydb; anybody, anyone xm o-ue6ydb ; anything w,o-He6ydb BMCHBaioTbCH y aarajibHOMy i npncBiiiHOMy BiAMiHKax. Somebody came in. X to c b 3anmoB. Is there anybody here? Hh g iyT XTO-He6 yAi»? Somebody’s book was on the khhxckb jieacajia Ha erojii. table.

3aHMeHHHKH some, somebody, something BXCHBaiOTbCH y CTBep A»cyBaJibHHx peneHHHX, cneruajibHHx Ta 3arajibHHx 3anHTaHHHX. mo BHpa»caK>Tb npono3Hn,iio a6o npoxaHHH. 148


I have brought you something. Why have some pupils gone home? W ill someone help me?

H BaM u^ocb npHHic. H o M y Aeaici y n m

n in u iH

ao-

AOMy? XTO-He6yAi» MeHi AonoMoxce?

3aHMeHHHKH any, anybody, anyone, anything BHCHBaiOTbCfl b

3arajibHHx 3anHTaHHHx i b 3anepeHHHX peneHHsx.

I don’ t see anything. Is there anybody in the room?

H Htaoro He 6 any. H h e xTOCb y KiMHaTi?

AIGCJIOBO (THE VERB)

§ 1 3 . II ohhtth npo CHCTeMy MacoBux 4>opM AiecjiOBa fliecJiQBO b aHrjiiiicbKiH MOBi Mae o c o 6 oB i i H e o c o 6 o s i 4>op-

MH. OcoSoBi (J)opMH AiecjiOBa BHpaxcaiOTb Aiio i3 3a3HaneHHHM oco6h, HHCjia, cnoco6y, nacy i CTaHy. R o ocoSobhx HajiexcaTb $opMH AiecJioBa y Tpbox oco6 ax oahhhh i mhohchhh b ycix nacax aKTHB*V H oro 1 nacHBHoro CTaHy b AiHCHOMy, yMOBHOMy 1 H an a3 0 B 0 M y cnoco6ax. IJi <J>opMH y peneHHi BHKOHyiOTb $yHKiui npacyAKa. Heoco 6 oBi <J>opMH AiecjioBa BHpaxeaioTb Ai k> 6e3 3a 3HaneHHH oco6h , HHCJia, cnoco6y i He MaiOTb 3BH^aHHHx AiecjiiBHHx nacoBHx 4>opM. B ohh He 6yBaiOTb npncyAKOM y peneHHi, a BHKOHyiOTb (JjyHKiui inmnx HJieHiB peneHHH. flo Heoco6oBHX <t)opM AiecJiOBa

HajieacaTb iH<l>iHiTHB (the Infinitive), repyHAin (the Gerund) i AienpHKMeTHHK (the Participle). ♦v ^lecjiOBa b aHrjnHCbKiH mobi Maiorb Horapv OCHOBHi (jxjpMHI I — iH<J)iHiTHB ( t h e I n f i n i t i v e ) ; II — mhhyjihh Heo3HaneHHH nac (the P a s t I n d e f i n i t e ) ; III — AienpHKMeraHK MHHyjioro nacy ( the P a s t P a r t i c i p l e ) ; IV — AienpHKMeTHHK TenepimHboro nacy (the P r e s e n t P a r t i c i p l e ) . 3a cnoco6oM TBopeHHH Past Indefinite i Past Participle Aiecjioaa r •

noAiJiHK>TbCfl HanpaBHJi bHi i H e n p a B H j i b H i . I l p a B H j i b H i AiecjiOBa yTBopioxoTb $opMy MHHyjioro Heo3HaneHoro

nacy (the Past Indefinite) i <J)opMy AienpHKMeTHHKa MHHyjioro nacy (the Past Participle) AOAaBaHHHM y Bcix oco6ax 3aiciHHeHHH -ed ao m4>iHiTHBa I II III to work to stay to dry

worked stayed dried

worked stayed dried

H e n p a B H j i b H i AiecjioBa yTBopioioTb APyry i TpeTio <J>opMH oco6 jih b h m h cnoco6aMH, i ix HeoSxiAHQ 3anaM’flTaTH (due. c. 174 — 177)

to begin to go

began went

begun gone 149


AI&CHH& CllOCIfi (THE INDICATIVE MOOD) A K T H B H H ft C TA H (TH E A C T IV E VOICE) H eo

3

H aneH i h o cu

(Indefinite Tenses)

§ 14. I I ohhtth npo Heo3HaneHi nacn Haca rpynH Indefinite BHpaacaioTb auo b Tenepimm>OMy qaci, m h HyjiOMy a6o MaH6yTHi>oMy 6e3 3a3HaneHHH u xapaierepy, TpHBanocri, cniBBiAHeceHocri 3 mmoio nieio.

§ 15. y TBopeHHH TenepimHboro Heo3HaHeHoro *iacy (Present Indefinite Tense) CTBepAHa 4>o p m a A ie a iO B a b Present Indefinite b ycix oco6ax i mhohchhh, KpiM T p erb oi oco6h o a h h h h , 36iraeTbCH 3 iH(J)iHiTHBOM 6e3 HaciKH to. y T p e r in oco6i o a h h h h a o iHcJjimTHBa AOAaeTbca 3aiciHHeHHH -(e)s. I read You read He (she) reads W e (they) read

books every day.

3aKiH^eHHfl nicjin rjiyxn x npnrojiocHHX bhmobjihctbch hk 3ByK [s], a nicjiH a3b1hkhx npnrojiocHHx i rojiocHHX — hk [z ]. -

9

[8]

M He gives. He reads.

He speaks. He wants.

w

He sees. He stays. jfrcnjo AiecjiOBa 3aKiinxyioTBCH Ha -s, -sh, -ss, -ch, -tch, -x (to6 to Ha AO

cBHOTH^i i m m u im i npnroJiocHi), to b TpeTift oco6i h h x AO A aeTbC H 3 aK i£ raeH H H -es, H K e b h m o b j ih c t b c h h k

to wash to dress to watch

oahhhh [ iz ].

he washes he dresses he watches

y AiecjioBax, mo 3aKiOTyioTi>CH Ha -y 3 nonepeAHboio npnro jiochok), nepeA 3aKiHneHHHM -es 6yKBa y 3MiHK>eTbca Ha i.

to cry to fly Hkiijo nepeA y 3aKiHHeHHH -s.

ctoitb

rojiocHa, to ao AiecjiOBa AOAaeTBCH jinme

to pay to play

150

he cries he flies

he pays he plays


fliecjiOBa to go i to do MaiOTb y TpeTifi oco6i oahhhh 3aKinqeHHH -es.

He goes.

He does.

fliecjioBo to have Mae b TpeTift oco6i oahhhh <g>opMy has fliecJioBo to be b Present Indefinite Mae xani 4>o p m h .

I am You are He (she, it) is

We You They

are

fliecjiOBa can, must, may b ycix oco6ax oahhhh i mhohchhh MaiOTb OAHaKOBy <J>opMy.

I must go home. He must read this book

H noBHHeH ira AOAOMy. BiH noBHHeH npoHHTara

n jo

KH H X CK y.

He may come in.

BiH MOHCe 3aftTH. (ftoMy A03BOJieHO 3a&TH.)

I l H T a j i b H a 4>opMa Present Indefinite yTBopsoeTbcn 3 aohoMixcHoro AiecoioBa to do b Present Indefinite Ta iHgiiHiTHBa ochobhoix) Ai^cJioBa 6e3 nacTKH to. ^onoMincHe aiccjiobo do (does)

CTaBHTBCH nepeA niAMeTOM.

Do I work? Do you work? Does he (she, it) work?

Do we work? Do you work? Do they work?

IlHTajibHa <J)opMa AiecJiiB to be, must, can i may yraopioeTbCH 6e3 AonoMincHoro AiecjiOBa.

Is the book on the table? May I come in?

Khh3kk& Ha CTOJii? MoHCHa ysiftTH?

^iecjiOBO to have hk n0BH03Ha*iHe yTBopioe nnTeuiBHy $opMy hk 3 AonoMiMCHHM a Iccjiobom to do, Tax i 6e3 HBOrO.

Do you have this book? Have you this book?

y Te6e e ijh KHHxcKa?

3anepeHHa $ o p M a Present Indefinite yTBopioeTbcn 3 aoho MincHoro AiecJioBa to do y Present Indefinite, 3anepe*raoi nacTKH not Ta iH<|>iHiTHBa ochobhoto Aiecjiosa 6e3 nacTKH to. I do not work. You do not work. He /she/ it

does not work.

We You

do not work

They

B ycHOMy MOBjieHHi 3aMicTb do not i does not BHCHBaiOTbCH cKoponeHi 4>opMH don’ t i doesn’t. 151


I don’t know. He doesn’t know.

fl He 3H&K). BiH He 3Hae

§ 16. BxcHBaHHH Present Indefinite Tense Present Indefinite BHCHBaeTbCH ajih BHpaaceHHH 3BH^afiHoi, noC T iim o i pXi> ana B iA 6 yB a eT b ca B 3 a ra jii, a He b m o m c h t m o b j ic h h h . He lives in Kyiv. He comes here at six o’ clock.

BiH xcHBe b KneBi. BiH npuxoAHTB ckmjh o mocTiii

roAHHi. She speaks English well.

BoHa Ao6pe p03M0BJiae rJliftCbKOK) MOBOIO.

aH-

3 Aiec^oBaMH to see, to know, to hear, to feel, to want, to like, to understand T a a ^ h k h m h m m H M H Present Indefinite bhch BaeTBCH a ^i h BHparaeHHH A i‘i » m o B iAG yBaeTbca b m o m c h t m o b j ic h h h .

I see a book on the table.

fl 6a*iy KHHHCKy Ha CTOJii.

Present Indefinite BJKHBaeTbca TaKOHC rjui BnpaxceHHH Maft6yTHboi Aii b niAPHAHHx pe^eHHax yMOBH ft *iacy, HKi bboahtbch cnojiy^HHKaMH i f a K iy o ; when k o j i u ; after n ic ju i m o z o s i k \ before nepui nine; till, untill txoku ne Ta iH . B y K p a iH C b K iii MOBi y BiAHOBiAHHX n iA P H A H H x pe^ieH H ax b h c h b a e T t e a M a ii6 yT H ift *iac.

If he comes, I shall give him this book. I shall go home, when I read this book. I shall wait for him until he returns.

flnmo BiH npndAe> fl A&m &om > UK) KHHMCKy. fl niAy AOAOMy, kojih nporaTaio UK) KHHHCKy.

fl 6yAy MenaTH Ha Hboro, hokh BiH He noBepHeTb'ca.

§ 17. y TBopeHHfl Past Indefinite a Past Indefinite npaBHJibHHx AiecjiiB yTBopioGTbca AOAaBaHHHM 3aKiHHeHHa -ed ao iH(|>iHiTHBa 6e3 nacTKH to. C tb ep ah

a

cj)o pm

I You He (she, it) We They

worked yesterday.

^ ie c jio B a , m o 3 a K iH ^ yjO T b ca b m<J)iHiTHBi 6yKBOK)

-e,

BTpa^aiOTb

li nepeA 3aKiH^eHHHM -ed.

to live to like

lived liked

fliecjiOBa, mo aKiH*ryioTbca b iH<|>iHiTHBi 6yKB0K> -y, HKift nepeAye npnrojiocHa, 3MiHK)ioTb y Ha i. 3

152


3aKiirqeHHH -ed bhmobjihgtbch Tan: nicjiH rjiyxHX npHrojiocHHX, KpiM t [t]

to help to look to work

[d]

nicjiH a 3b 1h k h x npnrojiocHHX, KpiM d , i nicjiH t o j i o c h h x

to open to learn to play [id]

helped looked worked opened learned played

nicjiH npHrojiocHHX t i d.

to want to land

wanted landed

4>opMH Past Indefinite HenpaBHJiBHHx AiecJiiB Heo6xiAHO 3ana-

M’HTara (due. madJiuiiK) nenpaeujibnux diecjiie na c. 174). Hk npaBHJiBHi, Tax i HenpaBHJiBHi Aiecjiosa b Past Indefinite MaiOTb OAHaKOBy (JjopMy r jih Bcix oci6 o a h h h h i m h o x c h h h .

I You He (she) We They

went home

B hhhtok CTaHOBHTB AiecjioBo to be.

I He She It

was

We You They

were

IlnTajibHa i 3anepeHHa <J>opMH Past Indefinite yTBopioioTBCH 3a t h m h hc npaBHJiaMH» m;o ft Present Indefinite (due. § 15), ajie AonoMincHe AiecjiOBO to do Mae b Past Indefinite 4>oPMy did b

ycix oco6ax. I did not go to school yester­ day. Did you speak English at the last lesson? What did he do in the mor­ ning?

H BHopa He x o a h b a o i h k o j i h . Bh

roBopmra aHrjiiiicbKOio moboio Ha ocTaHHBOMy ypoitf? m o BiH p o 6hb ypaHiji?

§ 18. B^CHBaHHH Past Indefinite Past Indefinite BxtHBaeTBCH r ji r BHpaxceHHH au> mo BiASyjiacB a6o BiASyBajiacB y MHHyjiOMy i He noB’a3aHa 3 TenepimmM momchtom MOBJieHHH. Past Indefinite — THnoBa cfropMa A^ih onncy MHHyjrax 153


nOJUH. yKpaiHCbKOK) MOBOK) BIH HepeKJiaAa€TbCH MHHyJIHM HaCOM AOKOHaHoro a6o HeAOKonaHoro bh jsy 3ajie»cHo BiA 3Miciy pe^eHHH.

Past Indefinite Hacro BHCHBaeTbCH 3 o6cTaBHHHHMH cjiosaMH a6o

cjioBocnojiyHeHHHMH yesterd ay ynopa\ last w eek Munynozo muoKHsi\ last y e a r mopiK; last sum m er Munynozo Jiima\ th e o th er day neu fod a eH O , i^ u m u S h k m u Ta iH.

I saw him last week.

fl 6a*iHB ftoro MHHyjioro

thhc-

HH.

He lived in K y iv last year. I spoke to him on Sunday. He eame at fiv e o’ clock. Past Indefinite BHCHBaeTbCh

BiH hchb y KneBi MHHynoro pony. f l roBopH B 3 hum y HeAin10 . BiH n p n ftm o B o n’HTift t o a h h i t &kohc ajih

BHpanceHHH p h a y hoc -

JliAOBHHX a6o nOBTOpiOBaHHX A1H y MHHyJIOMy•

He got up, did his morning exercises, made his bed, washed and had breakfast. I saw him every day.

§ 19. yTBopeHHH Ta BSKHBaHHH Future Indefinite Future Indefinite yTBopioeTbca 3 AonoMincHHx AiecjiiB shall ( ajih nepinoi oco6h o a h h h h i mhohchhh ) i will ( a -k* Apyroi i Tperboi oci6 o a h h h h i mhohchhh ) Ta iH<t>iHiTHBa ocHOBHoro AiecjioBa 6ea ^acTKH to. RonoMincHe AiecjiOBo will Monce BHCHBaTHCb i a a h yTBopeHHH nepmoi oco6h o a h h h h i mhohchhh . I l H T a j i b H a it 3 a n e p e ^ H a (J>opMH Future Indefinite yTBOpioioTbCH 3a thmh cemhmh npaBHjiaMH, mo h Present i Past Indefinite, ajie 3aMicTb aohomIhchhx AiecjiiB do, does, did bhchBaiOTb shall a6o will. C T B e p A H a 4>°pMa

I shall/will (I’ll) read. You w ill (you’ll) read. He w ill (he’ll) read. She w ill (shell) read. It w ill (it’ll) read.

We shall/will (we’ll) read. You w ill (you’ll) read.

Shall/will I read? W ill you read? W ill he/she/it read?

Shall/will we read? W ill you read? W ill they read?

They w ill (they’ll) read.

3 a n e p e H H a (j)opMa

I shall not (shan’t) read./ I w ill not (w on’t) read. You w ill not (w on’t) read. 154

We shall not (shan’t) read./ We w ill not (w on’t) read. You w ill not (w on’t) read.


He/she/it w ill n ot (w o n ’t) read.

They w ill n ot (w o n ’t) read,

Future Indefinite BHCHBaeTbCH ajih BHpaxceHHH nocTiftHoI a6o noBTopK)BaHoi xxi, m,o Bi/jSyAeTbcn b Ma&6yTHbOMy. Ilpn ijbOMy qacTo BHCHBaioTbCH raxi o6cTaBHHHi cJiOBa: tomorrow 3aempa; next week nacmynnozo muxeuji; next month nacmynnozo Micxtyi; next year nacmynnozo pony i t. n. I shall go to the theatre to-

H 3aBTpa ni^y

ao

TeaTpy.

morrow.

W e shall w rite letters every week.

M h 6yAeMO jihcth .

hjothhchh

nncaTH

y niAP«AHHx peneHHHX nacy h yMOBH <|>opMH Maifcdyraboro nacy He B3KHBaiOTbCH• fljIH BHpattCeHHH Mail6yTHb01 flil B TaKHX peneHHHX BHCHBaiOTbCH <J>opMH Present Indefinite (due. § 16).

I shall w rite a letter if I have time. W hen he comes, I shall give

H Hannmy JiHCTa, hkiqo MaTHMy nac. K ojih BiH npHitae, a a * m &OMy

him the book.

KHHxeicy.

§ 20. yTBopeHHH i BHCHsaHHH MaicfiyTHfcoro Heo3HaneHoro nacy b MirayjioMy (F uture Indefinite-in-the-Past) Future Indefinite-in-the-Past yrBopioeTbca 3 AonoMiacHHx AiecjiiB should ( ajih nepmoi oco6h oahhhh i mhohchhh) i would ( ajih A p y ro i Ta TpeTboi oci6 mhohchhh) Ta iHcJjmiTHBa ocnoBHoro AiecjiOBa 6e3 nacTKH to. I should w ork. You w ou ld w ork. He/she/it w ou ld w ork.

We should w ork. You w ould w ork. They w ou ld w ork.

IlHTajibHa ii 3anepe*raa (Jx>pm h yTBOpiOIOTbCH 3a 3arajibHHMH npaBHjiaMH.

Should we w rite? She w ou ld n o t w rite. Future Indefinite-in-the-Past BHpaxcae auo , HKa e Maft6yTHboio 3 tohkh 3opy HKorocb MHHyjioro MOMeHTy , b Toft nac hk Future Indefinite BHpa»cae Aiio, mo BiAfiyAeTbca b Maii6yTHbOMy ctocobho MOMeHTy MOBJieHHa. Future

Indefinite

I shall w rite a letter tomorrow. i l nanamy 3aBTpa JiHCTa.

Future Indefinite-inthe-Past The teacher said that we should w rite a dictation to­ morrow. 155


Y ou w ill w rite a le tte r tom orrow.

y^HTejib cKa3aB, mo mh 3aBTpa 6y^eMO nncaTH ah ktoh t. You said that you would w rite a letter tom orrow.

T h 3aBTpa Hannmem JiHCTa.

T h cna3aB, mo 3aBTpa HanHinem JiHCTa.

y KpaiHCBKOK)

mobok)

Future Indefmite-in-the-Past, hk i Future Indefinite, nepe&iaAaGTbCH MaH6yraiM nacoM.

Tpueajii nacu (Continuous Tenses) § 21. I I o h h t t a npo T p H B a jii Macw Hacn rpynn Continuous BxcHBaioTbca rjih BHpanceHHH Rii hk n p o i j e c y , to 6 to ^ ii, mo T p h b a e b momcht MOBJieHHH a6o b T e n e p i m H i f t n e p i o A * i a c y (Present Continuous), Tp h b a ji a b HKHftcb MOMeHT a6o nepioA ^acy b MHHy j i OMy (Past Continu­ ous), T p HB a T HMe b neBHHft MOMeHT a6o nepioA ^acy b Ma i i 6 y T HbOMy (Fu ture Continuous). TpHsaJii Hacn yTBopioioTbCH 3 AonoMiacHoro AiecjiOBa to be y BiAnoBiAHiH nacoBm <|)opMi (Present, Past, Future) Ta AienpHKMeTHHKa TenepiinHboro nacy (Present Participle) ocHosHoro AiecJioBa.

Present P a rticip le yTBopioeTbCH flOAaBaHHHM 3aKhraeHHH -ing AO iH<}>iHiTHBa OCHOBHOrO AlCCJIOBa 6e3 MaCTKH to. ^iecAOBa, mo 3aKiH^yioTbCH b iH<i>iHiTHBi Ha -e, BTpa^aioTb ftoro nepeA 3aniH^ieHHa m -ing. to g iv e — g iv in g to make — making y AiecjioBax, mo 3aKiH^yioTbCH b iH$iHiTHBi Ha npnrojiocHy 3 nonepeAHboio kopotkoio HarojiomeHOK) rojiocHOK), nepeA 3aniH^eHhhm -ing KiHueBa npnrojiocHa noAsoioeTbCH. to run — running to sit — sittin g to begin — beginning Hnmo AiecAOBO 3aKiH*iygtbch 6yKBOcno.ny*ieHHHM -ie, to nepeA 3aKiHHeHHAM -ing ie 3MimoeTbCh Ha y. to lie — ly in g

to tie — tyin g

§ 22. y TBopeHHH i bhchbehhh TenepimHboro TpHBajioro *iacy (Present Continuous) Present Continuous BHCHBaeTbCH a-kh BHpaHceHHH tphbbjioi pXU mo BiA6yBaeTbCH b MOMeHT MOBJieHHH. HaflBHicTb cjiiB, mo no3Ha^aK)Tb momcht mobjigihhh (now 3apa3\ at this moment y u,eu 156


MOMenm) He o6oB’H3icoBa, ockIjibkh caMa BiflSyBaeTBCH B MOMeHT MOBJieHHH.

IIOTpi6HO niTKO p03pi3HHTH BHCHBaHHH

Present Indefinite. I am reading a book. I read books in the evening.

y

H HHTaiO KHHHCKy (3 a p a 3 ). yB enepi h HHTaio k h h j k k h ( 36UHaUH0).

Present Continuous He BHCHBaioTbCH aiecjioBa to see, to

know, to hear, to feel, to want, to like, to understand Ta p&smi

mmi. CTBep^Ha 4>opMa Present Continuous yTBopioeTbCH 3 aonoMiHCHoro fliecjiOBa to be b Present Indefinite (am, is, are) i Present Participle ochobhoto aiecjiosa. H 3apa3 roTyio ypoKH. I am doing my lessons now. BoHa 3apa3 npH6npae KiMHaShe is cleaning her room now. Ty.

He is speaking over the tele­ phone. W e are watching TV now. You are sitting at the desk now. They are dancing now.

BiH

po 3mobjih6

no Tejie<J>OHy.

Mh 3apa3 ahbhmoch TejieBi3op. Th 3apa3 CHflHin 3 a napTOK).

B ohh 3apa3 TaHijK>K)Tb.

fljia yTBopeHHH 3anepeHHoi <J>opMH nicjia ^onoMiHCHoro aiecjiOBa a. is. are) cTaBHTbca nacnca not.

I am not reading now. He (she) is not writing now. You are not watching TV now. W e are not eating now. They are not speaking now.

H 3apa3 He HHTaio. BiH (BOHa) 3apa3 He mime. Bh 3apa3 He flHBHTecb TejieBi3op. Mh He iMO 3apa3. B ohh 3apa3 He po 3mobjihiotb .

^ jih yTBopeHHH nnTajibHoi 4>opMH ^onoMiacHe fliecyioBO (ai

is,

a re ) craBHTbCH nepea ninMeroM.

Am I asking? Are you reading? Is he (she) answering now? A re we dancing? Are they speaking over the telephone now?

H 3anHTyio?

T h HHTaem? BiH (BOHa) 3apa3 BiflnoBiflae? M h TaHnioeMo? B ohh 3apa3 p03M0BJiai0Tb no Tejie(J)OHy?

y KopoTKHx BianoBiflHx nicjiH yes a6o no BXCHBaeTbCH Jinme flonoMi»He aiecjioBo.

Is Taras doing his lessons now? Yes, he is. (No, he isn’t.) A re the children w ritin g a dictation now? Yes, they are. (No, they aren’t.) 157


§ 23. y TBOpeHHH i BHCHBaHHH M HH yjioro TpHBaJioro nacy (P ast Continuous) <t>opMH Past Continuous yTBopioioTbCH aHanori^HO ao (fcopM Present Continuous, ajie AonoMixcHe AiecjiOBo to be CTaBHTbC* y Past Indefinite (was, were).

C t b epAna 4>opMa I He She

was writing. 3anepenHa

We You They

w ere w ritin g

$opMa

I (he, she) was not writing at that moment. W e (you, they)

were not standing when he came in. Past Continuous BxcHBaeTbcx ajih BHpaaeeHHH Aii, mo Tp h b a j i a B neBHHH M O M e H T y MHHyJIOMy. I^eH MOMeHT 3BHMBHHO n03HanaeTbCH o6craBHHHHMH cjioBOcnojtyneHHHMH THny a t th a t m om en t y moH MOMenm, a t th a t tim e y mou hoc , a t 7 o ’ c lo c k y e s te rd a y enopa o 7-u zoduni a6o niApaAHHMH peneHHfiMH 3 AiecjioBQM-npHcyAk o m y Past Indefinite.

He was doing his lessons at that time. They were doing their lessons when I came in.

y Toft nac BiH roTyBaB ypOKH. >hh roTyBajiH ypOKH

yBiSmoB.

IlHTajibHa 4>opMa Was he (she) speaking at that time? No, he (she) wasn’t./Yes, he (she) was. W ere they speaking English at that moment? Yes, they were./No, they w eren’t.

ffoKonani nacu (Perfect Tenses) § 24. IIo h h tth npo AOKOHaHi nacH Hacn rpynn Perfect BHpaxeaKm> AiK>, mo BiASyjiaca ao neB* Horo MOMeHTy a6o n e p i o A y b Ten epim H bO M y (Present Perfect), MHHyjioMy (Past Perfect) hh Maii6yTHbOMy (Future Perfect) qacax. floKOHam nacH 3BHna&Ho BHpancaiOTb HaHBHicTb AKorocb pe3 yj i bTaTy Ai i * 3b ’ h30K ii 3 HacTynHHMH noAiftMH. floKOHani nacn yTBopioioTbCH 3 AonoMixcHoro Aiecjiosa to have B iA n o B iA H ift H a c o B in <J)opMi i A ie n p H K M e r a H K a M H H y jio ro nacy (Past Participle) o c h o b h o t o A ie c jio B a . y

Past Participle npaBHJibHHx AiecjiiB 36iraeTbca 3 <Jx>pmok> Past Indefinite, a Past Participle HenpaBHJibHHx AiecjiiB noTpiSHO aanaM’ HTaTH (due. madjiui^io ua c. 17 4) 158


§ 25. y TBopeHHH i BjKHBaHHH Present Perfect C t b e p a h a 4>°PMa Present Perfect yTBopioeTBCH 3 AonoMiacHoro aiecjioBa to h ave y Present Indefinite (h a ve, h as) i Past Participle ocHosHoro aiecjioBa I have locked the door. He has already opened the win-

fl 3&MKHyB ABepi. BiH yace b Ia ^ h h h b b Ik h o .

dow. They have just arrived.

B ohh moftHO npmxajiH.

Rjia yTBopeHHH 3 a n e p e ^ H o i

<J>opMH Present P erfect nicjin AonoMiHCHoro Aiecjiosa have (h as) ctrbhtbch nacTKa not. Y ou

haven’t shown me th is

picture yet. I have not been to Lutsk. M y frien d has not arrived to ­ day. You haven’ t changed much.

Bh me i He noKa3ajiH MeHi xpo

KapraHy. f l He 6yB y JlyijBKy. Mift flpyr He npnixaB cbotoa Hi. Th He Ay^ce 3m1hhbch.

Rjix yTBopeHHH nHTa j i BHOi <|)op M h Present P erfect AonoMi>KHe Aiecji 0B0 have (has) c t rb h t b c h nepeA niAMeTOM. Y kopotkhx BiAnoBiAHX nicjia 3aiiMeHHHKa BHCHBaexBCH JiHme AonoMixcHe n ieCJIOBO.

H ave you ever lived in a town? No, I haven’ t. H ave you read any English book lately?

Th K0JiH-He6yAB hchb y MicTi?

H i. T h nporaTaB ocTaHHiM qacoM HKy-He6yAB KHHHCKy aHrjiiiiCBKOK) MOBOK)?

Yes, I have.

Tan.

Present P erfect BHCHBaeTBCH rjih BHpaxceHHH Aii> njo Bi ASyjiacB y MHHyjiOMy, ajie noB*H3aHa pe3yj i BTaTOM 3 T e n e p im HiM, TO 6 TO 3 MOMeHTOM MOBJieHHH. I have read the book.

fl npOHHTaB KHHHCKy. (pe3yjibmam — KHUMKa npoHumana)

Present P erfect BHCHBaeTBCh 6e3 3a3HaneHHH nacy BHKOHaHHH A ii, TOMy mo b ijeH Tpi y B a r n pe3yjiBTaT A ii» a He ^ a c 11 n e p e S ir y , a6o 3 npncjiiBH H K aM H Heb3HaHeHoro *iacy i ^acTOTHOcri, t a k h m h , hk ever K0Jiu-He6ydbf never hIkojiu , often nacmo , seldom pidfco, already ew e, just u^ouho, always 3aeMdu, yet yce w,e (y 3anepehhux peneuHsix).

Present Perfect nepeiuiaAaeTBCH yKpaiHCBKOK) mobok), hk npabhjio, MHHyjiHM HacoM AOKOHaHoro bhay , i JiHine 3piAKa — HeAo-

KOHaHoro.

159


§ 26. YTBopeHHH i

btkhbslhhh

Past Perfect

Past P e rfe c t yTBopioeTbca 3 aonoMiacHoro fliecjioBa to h a v e y Past In d efin ite (h a d ) i Past P articip le ocnoBHoro fliecjiOBa. I h a d r e a d t h e b o o k b y s i x o ’ c lo c k .

I had not w ritten the letter by Saturday. H ad you w ritten the letter by six o ’ clock? I had done m y homework when he came in.

H (Bxce) n p o r a T a B KHHHCKy

ao

mocToi roflHHH. JIo cy6oTH h me He HanncaB ijboro JiHCTa. T h (BMce) HanncaB JiHCTa ao m o c T o i to a h h h ? H (BHce) BHKOHaB cBoe AOMaffiHe 3aBAaHHH, k o jih bIh yBi-

HIHOB. Past P e rfe c t BHCHBaeTbCH a ah BHpanceHHH MHHyjioi au» HKa BHce Bi ASyj i acH a o n e B H o r o MOMeHTy a6o i H m o i A i i b M H H y j i o M y . IJeft mom6ht Moace no 3HanaTHca TaKHMH cjiobociiojiyqeHHHMH: by fiv e o’ clock do n ’&moi zoduuu , by Sunday do nediJtiy by th at tim e do mozo nacy , by the firs t o f October do neptuozo TKoemnn Tomo.

IIAC H BH H H CTAH (THE PASSIVE VO ICE)

§ 27. IlOHHTTH npo naCHBHHH CTAH »

H k i i j o n iA M e T 03H a n a e o c o 6 y a 6 o n p e A M e T , Ha H K i cnpaM O BaH O A iK ) i H m o i o c o 6 h a 6 o n p e A M e T a , t o A ie c jio B O -n p n c y A O K b h c h b a e T t c n b nacHBHOMy cTaHi.

Y c i nacoBi (J)opMH nacHBHoro CTaHy yT B op io K )T i> ca 3 AonoMiacHoro AiecjioBa to be y B iA n o B iA n o M y n a c i i Past Participle o c n o B H o r o A iecJ io B a .

The teacher read the book yes­ terday. The book was read by the teacher yesterday.

y ^ H T e jIb HHTaB KHHXCKy BHO-

pa. KnHHCKa 6yjia npo^HTaHa TejieM ynopa.

bh h -

Present In d efin ite Passive She is in vited to school. She is not in vited to school. Is she in vited to school?

Ii 3a n p o m y K )T b a o h ik o jih . I i He 3anpom yK>Tb a o ih k o jih . H h i i 3an pom yK )Tb a o ih k o jih ?

Past In d efin ite Passive The article was translated in ­ to English. The article was not translated into English. W as the article tran slated in ­ to English? 160

CTaTTH 6yjia nepemiaAeHa aarJliHCbKOK) MOBOK).

CTaTTH He 6yjia nepeicjiaAeHa

aHrJliHCbKOH) MOBOK). *Ih 6yjia c t b t t h nepeicjiaAeHa anrjiiHCbKoio moboio?


Ta6jiHijH nacoBMx $opM Aiecjiosa " T ---------------------

------ “ —

— -

------------

-

b

amviiHCbKiH MOBi

-

i 1

IlacueHuu cmau

AKmuenuu cman

1 i ► p

1

• -•%

7

~*

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Indefinite

Perfect

j

1

7 ;

<

1

Present

I w r it e le tte r s e v e ry day. f l r m m y j ih c t h mOAHH.

}

1 *

i 1 \

»

)1 ! 1 il

I am w r itin g a le tte r now . f l 3apas n n m y JiHCTa.

I have w r itte n

th e

le tte r . f l H an n caB JiHCTa.

Past

I w r o te a le tte r y e sterd a y .

i *

«

>

t 1 I ’

f l nncaB (H a n n c a B ) JiHCTa y^opa.

.

Future

I s h a ll w r it e

a

le tte r to m o rro w . f l nncaTH M y ( H a n n m y ) JiHCTa 3aBTpa.

\

1

1 \ *

I w as w r itin g a le tte r at f i v e o ’ c lo c k . f l ira ca B

I h ad w r itte n th e le t t e r b y f i v e o ’ c lo c k . f l (B ^ce) HanH-

JiHCTa 0 n ’ H T i h ro A H H i.

caB JiHCTa a o n ’ « T o i roAH H H .

T h e l e t t e r is w r itte n . JiHCTa n n n iy T b . J Ih c t n n m e T b c a . JiHCTa H an H caH o.

!

T h e le tte r h as

>

b een w r itte n . JiHCTa H a n n c a jiH .

j

j

JiHCTa HaimcaHa.

T h e le tte r w a s w r itte n . JiHCTa HHCajIH. J I h c t nncaBCH. J I h c t 6yB

1 1

HanHcaHHH. T h e le tte r w ill b e w r itte n . JiHCTa 6 y A y T b n

n

c

a

T

H

.

JiHCTa 6 y A e H anncaH o. »

Future\ in-the 1 Past

I s a id t h a t I s h o u ld w r it e a

t

>

i

-

t

l e t t e r t o h im . f l cK a3 aB , m o H a n n m y HOMy

1

1

1

1 o > j ^ I .

.

1

1

H - *

!i

JIHCTB.


HAKA30BHH CIIOCIF, (THE IMPERATIVE MOOD)

§ 28. BacHBaHHfl Ta yTBopeHHH Haica30Boro cnocody fliecjioBa y HaKa30B0My cnoco6i BHpaxcaioTb c n o H y K a H H f l ao A ii, t o 6 to HaKa3, npoxaHHH, nopa^y Tom o. CxsepAHa 4>opMa jxpyroi o c o 6 h HaKa30B0r0 cnoco6y 36iraeTbCH 3 cJ>0pM0H) iH(J>iHiTHBa, ajie 6e3 Macron to. to write — W rite! to go — Go!

II h iiiii ! IlHmiTb! ifon! K a Itb !

3anepe*ma <})opMa

A P y ro i oco6h HaKa30B0r0 cn oco6y yTBopiogtb ch 3 AonoM ijKH oro AiecjiOBa to do, 3anepeMH0*i ^acTKH not Ta iH4)iHiTHBa ocHOBHoro AiecjiOBa 6e3 to. B ycHOMy MOBJiemri 3aMicTb

do not 3BHHaHHo BHCHBaeTbCH cKoponeHa 4>opMa don’t. Don’t (do not) write! He nuniHl/He nm niTb! Don’t (do not) be late! He cni3HK)Hca!/He cni3HioH Tecb! JJjih yTBopeHHH (J)opM HaKa30Boro cnocoSy n ep m o l i TpeTboi oco6h o a h h h h h m h o jk h h h BJKHBaeTbCH AiecJiOBo le t y ciioji y^ie HHi 3 BiAHOBiAHHM OCOGOBHM 3aHMeHHHKOM B 0 6 * e K T H 0 M y BiAMi IKy a6o iMeHHHKOM y 3 a r a j i b H O M y BiAMiHKy Ta iH<i)iHiTHBOM ochob Horo AiecjiOBa 6e3 MacTKH to.

/JaBaH(Te) no^HTaeMO./IIoMH

Let us (let’s) read.

TaHMO.

(He)xan BiH no^HTae. (He)xaii i^eii xjioneijb BiAno BiAae.

Let him read. Let this boy answer

3anepeHHa (|)opMa nepnioi i TpeTboi AonoM oroio don’t let (do not let).

Don’t let him go.

oco6 h

yTBopioeTbCfl

sa

(H e )x a ii BiH He H Ae./He A03BOJIHH(Te) H O M y HTH.

Don’t let me go. Don’t let them speak Ukraini an at an English lesson.

He He

A03B O JiH H (Te) im t o b o p h t h

H O -yK p a iH C b K O M y H a y p o a i aHT

§ 29. MoaajibHi

A03BOJiHH(Te) MeHi h th .

j

i

m

a iecjiosa

c

b

K

o

i

m obh.

(Modal Verbs)

JXo MOAajibHHx A iecjiiB HajieacaTb: can, may, must, need, ou gh t Ta A^HKi iH m i. U^i AiecjiOBa 03Ha^ai0Tb He caM y Aiio, a Jinme CTaBJieHHH AO Hei MOBIJH. BOHH BHCHBaiOTbCH B CHOJiyMeHHi 3 iH4)iHiTHBOM iH m oro AiecjiOBa.

162


MoAajibHi aiecrioBa MaiOTb Aenid oco6jiHBocTi:

1. H e 3MiHIOK)TI>Cfl Hi 3a OCC)6aMH, Hi 3a HHCJiaMH. 2. H e MaiOTb 4>opw mcjmriTHBa, repyH/UH, AienpHKMeTHHKa, a TOMy lie yTBopK)K)Tb cKJiasHHx nacoBH x (J)opM —

M an6yTH boro nacy, TpHBa-

jihx i n ep 4 )eKTHHx naciB. 3. niCJIH HHX iH<i)iHiTHB BHCHBaeTbCH 6e3 HaCTKH to ( 3a BHHHTKOM AiecjiOBa ought). S h e m a y a r r i v e to m o r r o w .

M ohcjihbo , BOHa n p n iA e 3aBTpa.

4. H e MaiOTb 3aKim eHH H - (e )s y TpeTiii oco6i o a h h h h P r e s e n t

I n d e fin ite . 5. y TBOpK)H>Tb nHTajibHy i 3an ep e^ H y (JopMH 6 e 3 AonoM incH oro AiecjioBa to d o . y

nH T anbH iH 4>opMi MOAajibHe A iecjioB o cTaBHTbcn n ep eA n iA -

MeTOM. M a y I c o m e in?

Mo>RHa yBiHTH?

y 3anepenHiH 4>opM i vioAajibHoro Aiec.xoba.

nacxKa not B^HBaexbCH 6e3nocepeAHbo nicjiH

Y o u s h o u l d n o t do it.

BaM He cjiiA ijboro p o 6 h th .

§ 30, ^iecjioBD can /JiecjiOBo can BHCHBaeTbCH r j i x BHpanceHHH <J)i3HHHo' i mohc / i HBOCTi , b m i h h h , 3 a H O C T i B H K O H a T H A i i o b T e n e p im

HbOMy (can) a6o MHHyjioMy (could) naci. I can s p e a k E n g lish . She c a n n o t ( c a n ’ t) s p e a k S p a n is h . T h e y c o u ld n o t last S u n d a y .

( c o u ld n ’ t) c o m e

We c o u l d c o m e yesterday. C a n y o u c o m e to m y place? y

H MO/Ky (BMiio) roBopHTH am JIlHCbKOIO MOBOK). BoHa He Mo>Ke (He BMie) tobo pHTH icnaHCbKOK) MOBOK). B o h h He 3MorjiH npHHTH MHHy

Jio'i nejxijii. M h MOrjIH IipHHTH BHopa. Th MO>Keui npHHTH u e n j x o

M a n S y T H b O M y n a c i 3 a w i c T b A ie c jiO B a c a n B H C H B aeT b C H

e ?

c jio b o -

cnojiyqeH H H t o b e a b le to 3 iH(J)iHiTHBOM. I s h a l l b e a b l e to s p e a k E n g l i s h m a year

51 3M0>Ky roBopHTH

aHrjiinch-

KOK) MOBOK) Hepe3 piK.

§ 31. ^iecjioBQ may ^iecjiOBO ItWHBaGTbCH

may R

J I R

y cnojiyneHHi 3 iH(f)iHiTHBOM ocnoBHoro AiecjiOBa BHpa/K6HHfl A 0 3 B o ji y m ocb po6HTH.

You m a y o p e n th e w in d o w .

T h MOHCem BiA^HHHTH BiKHO. (T o 6 i A03BOJIHIOTb BiAHHHHTH BiKHO.)

163


May I come in?

MoacHa

yBiiiTH?

(,503B0Jii>Te

y B iH T H ?)

I can open the window, but I may not do it.

fl MOjKy b w jh h h th BiKHO, ajie MeHi He A03BOJiHK>Tb ijboro po 6h t h .

He can swim, but he may not do it now because it is cold.

BiH Mo^ce njiaBara, ajie 3apa6 iioMy He A03B0Jiai0Tb, TOMy mo x o jio ah o .

fliecjioBo may BHCHBaeTbCH jiHine y Present Indefinite. /Jo3Biji a6o 3a6opoHy ctocobho Aii y MHHyjioMy a6o MaiiSyTHbOMy naci MOJKHa Biipa3HTH 3a AonoMoroio cjiOBOcno^yneHb to be allowed,

to be permitted. W e were allowed (perm itted) to go home. He w ill be perm itted to go to

floMy

school tomorrow.

jih

OopMa m ight y

HaM

AOAOMy.

a o 3bojihjih h t h

ao sbo jih tb h t h ao

imco-

3aBTpa.

3HaneHHi MHHyjioro n acy AiftcHoro cnoco6y

BHCHBaeTbCH B OCHOBHOMy y niAP«AH H X p e ^ e H H H X BiAHOBiAHO AO

npaBHJia y3roAHceHHH MaciB.

§ 32.

must

,H,iecjioBo

^ ie cji0 B 0 must BHpaatcae H e o 6 x i A H i c T b , a6o K a T e ro p H ^ H e npoxaHHH.

o6o b

’ a 30k , h a k a 3

fl noBHHen (MeHi n0Tpi6H0)

I must do this exercise.

3 P o 6 h th

H.IO B n p a B y .

You must consult a doctor.

To i (BaM) n Tpi H

You must do it.

THCb 3 J liK a p e M . T h noBHHeH ( B h

6

3p o 6 h

y

s a n e p e ^ H H x p e^eH H H x

must

0

th

6

nopaAH

0

h o b h h h I)

ije

.

BH paacae 3 a 6 o p o H y

(ue noeu

Hen, ne momhcl).

You must not go there.

BaM (T o 6 i) He MOHCHa

hth

Ty

AH.

must He Mae <J)opMH MHHyjioro n acy , 3aMicTb Hboro B>KHBaeTbCH a i €:cjiobo to h a v e y BiAnoBiAHHx *iacoBHx <J)opMax 3 H a C T yilH H M iH(f)iHiTHB0M 3 HaCTKOK) to. OcKijibKH

I had to w ait fo r h im .

f l noBHHen 6yB Ha H boro no ^ e K a ra . ( f l MaB Ha H boro no

neKaTH.) 3BepHiTb y B a ry Ha T e , m,o

b

yKpaiHCbKiif MOBi Aiecji0B0 Mamu

TanoHc MOHce BHpa^KaTH HeoSxiAHicTb, o 6 o b ’ h 3 o k .

164


must (have to ) do had to do i t , b u t

H M a io (n o B H H e H ) ixe 3 p o 6 h t h .

I

H MaB i*e 3 P o 6 h t h , a jie n e 3 p o 6 nB.

I I h a v e n ot done.

it .

§ 33. ,Z{iecjioBo ought ,U,iecji0B0 ought y cnojiy^eHHi 3 iHcjrimTHBOM ocnoBHoro AiccjioBa BHpa^Kae Mopa j i bHHH o 6 o b ’ H3 o k , 6aHcaHicTb Aii- yKpaiHCbKoio MOBOK)

nepeKJiaAaexbCH

cjioBaMH

nosunen , aaid, cnid

6y/io.

n ic jis

ought iH^iaiTHB BJKHBaeTbcn 3 nacTKoio to. He You

ought to help ought to

h is f r i e n d .

b e m o re c a r e fu l.

B iH noBH H eH ( i io M y cjua 6 y j i o ) A o n o M o r T H CBoeM y A P y r o B i. B a M c jiiA 6 y j i o 6 y r a H im H M . ✓

o 6 ep ea c-

§ 34. Heocofiosi 4>opMH tfiecjiosa (Non-Finite Forms of the Verb) y § 13 3a3HaHajiocb, mo HeocoSoBi <J>opMH AiecjioBa BHpaacaioTB Aiio 6e3 3a3HaneHHH oco6h, nncjia i cnocoSy, He MaiOTb 3BHnaHHHx AiecjiiBHHx nacoBHX $0PM» a ^ m e BKa3yioTb Ha nac, cniBBiAHe cbhhh 3 MOMeHTOM Aii» BHpaHceHoi a^cjiobom b oco6ob1h $°PM^ Heoco6oBi (})opMH AiecjiOBa HiKOjiH He 6yBaiOTb npncyAKOM y peueHHi (TOMy h H a 3 HBaioTbCH me H e n p e ^ H K a T H B H K M H ) , a bhKOHyiOTb (J>yHKijii irn n H X HJieHiB p en eH H H . U,e T a n i $ o p m h : i H 4> ihithb (th e I n f in it iv e ), r e p y H A i H (th e G e r u n d ) i A i e n p H K m e t h h k ( t h e P a r t i c i p l e ) . lH $ m iT H B B5K H B a eT b ca r j i h yT B op eH H H

MacoBHx (J)opM rpynn Indefinite (due. § 15-20) Ta HaKa30B0r0 cnocofiy [due. § 28). J^icnpHKMeTHHK TenepiuiHboro nacy (the Present Participle) b j k h uaeTbCH ajih yTBopeHHH iiacoBHx 4>opM rpynn Continuous (due. § 21-23). /l,ienpHKMeTHHK MHirvJioro Macy (the Past Participle) B)KHBaeTbCH jinn yTBopeHHH cj)opM AOKOHaHHx HaciB (due. § 24- 26) r a niec;iiB nacHBHoro crany (due. § 27). Ajie Heoco6oBi c})opMH AiecjiiB waiOTb i caMocTiimi cJjyHKmi. V ijbOMy pa3i b o h h no€AHyK)Tb cboi -

AlGCJIlBHi BJiaCTHBOCTl 3 BJiaCTHBOCTHMH iHIIJHX HaCTHH MOBH i BHKOuyioTb y peneHHi ixHi CHHTaKCHHHi c|)yHKijii. Tan, iH^imTHB i repyHAiH, HOGAHyiOHH BJiaCTHBOCTl AlGCJIOBa Ta iMeHHHKa, BHKOHyiOTb 4>yHKuil

iMeHHHKa, to 6to B^HBaiOTbCH b p o jii rii^M eTa, iMeHHo’i nacTHHH npHcvAKa, AOAaTKa, 03HaneHHH i o6cTaBHHH. ^ienpHKMeTHHKH, noeAHyioHH HJiacTHBocTi AiecjiOBa i npHKMeTHHKa a6o npHCJiisHHKa, BECHBaioTbCH n pojii 03HaneHHH i o6cTaBHHH. T o r e a d is u s e f u l ( i H f p i n i m u e y p o jii n id M em a ). I am fo n d o f

reading

(zep y u d iu

H

utslth

kophcho.

H jik>6 jik> HHTaTH.

y p o n i d o d a r r t K a ).

165


The lamp standing on the desk is new (dienpuKMemuuK y pojii 03HaV,eHHSl). She stood there thinking ( dienpuKMemHUK y pojii o6cmaeunu ).

JIaMna, h o b a. BoHa

[O c t o i t b

cTOHJia TaM

Ha CT0JI1,

3aAyMaB-

HCb.

Oco 6jIHBOCTi yTBopeHHH Ta BHCHBaHHH iHCJjnUTHBa MH p03rjIHHeM0 y H acrynH H x n aparpa(J)ax; AOKJiaAHiine 3 repyHAieM i AienpHKMeTHHKOM bh

03HaiioMHTecb b 11-My miaci.

§ 35. yTBopeHHH 4>°PM iH(J)iHiTHBa B sc&TJimcbKm MOBi iH ^im T H B

M ae c|)opMH CTaHy, a TaKoac nacy

(H a BinM m y Bia Heo3HaHeHoi <|)opMH A ieaiO B a b yKpaiHCbKiii MOBi). A jie n acoB a 4>opMa iH<|)iHiTHBa, h k i iH uinx Heoco6oBHx (J>opM, JiHine

ah, BHpaaceHOi aiccjiobom b oco6ob1h 4>opMi. Ilp n ubOMy 4>opMH craHy MaiOTb jiHiue nepexiAHi B K a3 ye

Ha

c n iB B iA H e c e H ic r b

3 m o m c h to m

AiecrcoBa (due. ma6/iui^K>).

AKmueuuu cman

IlacuGHuu cman

Indefinite

to read [ri:d ] to go

to be read [red]

Continuous

to be reading to be going

Perfect

to have read [red] to have gone

Perfect Continuous

to have been reading to have been going

<PopMU

1 i

ijKpinimuea

----

to have been read [red]

Jlnine 4>opmh Indefinite Infinitive aKTHBHoro i nacHBHoro CTaHy MaiOTb B ifln oB iA H i <j)opMn

to read to write

HHTaTH nncaTH

b

yKpaiHCbKiii MOBi.

to be read — 6yra nponnTaHHM to be written — 6yTH HanncaHHM

I^i (JjopMH, t o 6 t o Indefinite Infinitive Active T a Indefinite Infinitive Passive — HaHSiJibm no H peH l B aH rjIlH CBK lH MOB PemTa <J)opM T p a n jin e T b c n piAine i e MOHce nepeKJiaAaTHCH yKpaiHCbKOIO MOBOK) 130JIb0BaH0, H03a pe^eHHHM .

§ 36. BsKHBaHHH iH4>imTHBa lH$iHiTHB y peneHHi Mo^ce Syra:

a) niAMeTOM. To elect and to be elected to

166

06npaTH

i 6yTH oSpaHHM

ao


the parliament is the right of every citizen of Ukraine guaran­ teed by the Constitution.

napjiaMeHTy — n,e npaBO ko HCHoro rpoMaAHHHHa yK pai h h , rapaHTOBaHe KoHCTHTyiji €K>.

6) iMeHHoio nacTHHoio cKJia^eHoro npncyAKa.

Her desire is to be a student.

Ii 6 axcaHHH

CTaTH CTyAeHT-

KOIO. b)

nacTHHoio AiccjiiBHoro cKJia^eHoro npncyAKa 3 MOAajibHHMH

AlCCJIOBaMH T a IX H IM H CH HO H lM aM H .

You must be careful. This text must be translated in 1 minute. You will have to do this exercise tomorrow.

Bh noBHHHi 6yTH yBaacHHMH. IXePi TeKCT Mae 6yTH nepeKJiafleHHH 3a 1 XBHJIHHy.

T h Maem (noBHHeH) 3p o 6 h t h 11,10 B n p a B y 3a B T p a .

r ) n pH M H M AO^aTKOM.

W e asked him not to go there

M h npocHJiH iioro He hth T y -

AH.

r)

03HaMeHHHM.

I have no wish to be an engineer

y MeHe HeMae GaxcaHHH 6yTH iHJKeHepoM.

a ) 06CTaBHH0K).

He came here to speak to me, not to you.

BiH npHHmoB cioah noroBopn th 3i mhoh), a He 3 to 6 ok>.

§ 37. BxCHBaHHH iH(J)iHiTHBHOi HaCTKH to lH<|)iHiTHB y 6 iJIbIH0CTi BHnaAKiB BJKHBaeTtCH 3 HaCTKOK) to, HKa e Horo rpaMaTHHHoio 03HaK0K>. ToMy cJiiA 3anaM*HTaTH Haii6ijibm nomnpeHi BHnaAKH BHCHBaHHH iH$iHiTHBa 6e3 nacTKH to. B e 3 nacTKH to iH(}>iHiTHB BHCHBaeTbCH. а) nicjiH MOAajibHHx AiecjiiB can, may, must, shall, should, w ill, w ould. M ay I come in? Y o u shouldn’t have done it.

MoatHa yBiiiTH? BaM He BapTO 6yjio n;boro po6hth.

IIp u M im K a : nicjiH MOAajibHoro AiecjioBa ought Ta CHHOHiMiB AiecjiiB to have i to be y MOAajibHOMy 3HaneHHi iH<J)imTHB bjkhBaCTbCH 3 HaCTKOlO to. I shall have to go there toH 3MymeHHH 6yAy niTH TyAH m orrow. 3aBTpa. б) nicjiH AeHKHx Aiccjiis, mo BHpancaioTb cnpHHMaHHH 3a ao-

1


noMoroio opraHiB nyTTH: to hear, to see, to feel, to observe, to no­ tice, to perceive. I heard him repeat it several times. I saw her come in.

fl nyB, mo BiH noBTopK)BaB ije SaraTO pa3iB. fl 6a^HB, hk BOHa 3aHnuia.

b) n ic jia cjioBocnojiyneHb had better, would sooner, would rather Kpaw,e 6 .

You had better speak English.

To6i

You should better stay at home.

JIlHCbKOK) MOBOK). To6i Kpame 6 jrauiaTHCH bao -

Kpam e

6 tobophth

anr-

Ma.

flK m o

b pe^eHHi ctohtb nopaA Asa iH<l)iHiTHBH, noeAHam cno-

jiyqHHKOM and a6o or, to nacTKa to nepeA APyrHM 3 hhx 3BHHaiiHO He BHCHBaeTbCH.

I asked him to visit me and speak to my brother.

fl nonpocHB Horo BiflBiflaTH MeHe i noroBopHTH 3 m o im 6paTOM.

§ 3 8 . Ile p e K J ia A m ^ n H iT H B a y K p a m c b K O io m o b o i o

y 6mbinocTi BHnaAKiB Indefinite Infinitive nepeKJia^aeTbCH yKpaiHCbKOK) MOBOK) He03HaneH0K) (J)OpMOIO AieCJIOBa.

I am glad to see you. You must be there in time.

fl paflHH Bac 6a*mTH. BaM cjiifl 6yra TaM B^acno.

CKJia^Hi (J)opMH iH4)iHiTHBa nepeKJia^aioTbCH 3a AonoMoroio oco6obhx $opM fliecjiiB Ta niAPHAHHx pe^eHb: a) nicjin MOAajibHHx AiecjiiB must i may Perfect Infinitive BHpaacae npnnymeHH a, mo flia B»ce BiASyjiacb.

Ma6yTb, nepeKJiaJiH n;io

You must have translated this

Bh,

article.

CTaTTio.

6) nicjia AiecjiOBa can (cannot) Perfect Infinitive BHpaHcae 3AHByBaHHH, cyMHiB, mo a ^ Morjia BiASyTHCb.

She cannot have done this exercise in three minutes.

He Mo^ce 6yTH, mo 6 BOHa 3po6njia ijio BnpaBy 3a tp h xbhjihhh.

nicjia MOAajibHHX AiecjiiB should, would, could, might, ought Perfect Infinitive BHpaacae Aiio, HKa Majia a6o Mor^a BiA6yTHca, ajie He BiA6yjiacb. b)

You could have helped him.

Bh 3moi\7ih 6 iioMy AonoMorTH.

r ) pe^ieHHa THny I want him to..., I expect her to... nepeKJiaAaiOTbca AOA&TKOBHM niApaAHHM pe^eHHHM.

168


I want her to read this text.

H xony, m o 6 BOHa nepeKjiajia

I expect him to come here in a minute.

ueii TeKCT. H oniKyio, mo b I h upniiffe cioa h nepe3 xBHJiHHy*

nPHCJIIBHHK (THE ADVERB)

§ 39. yTBopeHHH

npHCJliBHHKiB

3a $ o pm o io npHCJiiBHHKH noflijiHK)TbCH Ha n p o c T i , n o x i a h i , c k ji a a h i i c KJ i a A e n i . npocTi: h ere m ym ; there m a M > m ydu ; now 3apa3, menep; soon cicopo, ne3a6apoM\ late ni3no; very dyofce Tomo. noxiflH i: b a d ly nozano ; slow ly noeijibno toiijo. CKJia^Hi: som ew here de ne6ydb, rcydu nedydb; now here Hide, niKydu Ton^o. CKJiaAeHi: since then 3 m u x nip\ till now do iibozo nacy , doci Torqo. IIpHCJliBHHKH MOHCyTb yTBOpiOBaTHCfl Bitf IipHKMeTHHKiB i A^hkhx iMeHHHKiB 3a AonoMoroio cy«J)iKca -ly. IIpH ijbOMy KimjeBa rojiocHa y n e p e A cy<J)iKcoM - l y 3MiHK>€TbCH Ha i . happy macjiHBHH — gay BecejiHH — day A©Hb —

happily macjiHBO gaily Becejio daily iijoahh

fleHKi npHCJiiBHHKH (fa st, loud, long, fa r, little, m uch, late, straigh t, early, daily, w eekly, m onthly, frie n d ly ) 36iraioTbCH 3a (J)OpMOIO 3 npHKMeTHHKaMH i BiApi3HHK>TbCH BiA HHX JIHHie 3a c|)yHKijieio, HKy bohh BHKOHyiOTb y peneHHi. H phcjiIbhhkh bIahoCHTbCH AO AieCJIOBa, a npHKMeTHHKH — AO iMeHHHKa. She w en t to school early. They g re w e a rly vegetables.

BoHa paHO ninuia ao ih k o jih . B ohh BHpomyBajiH paHHi obo Hi.

§ 40. C TyneH i nopiBHHHHH npHCJliBHHKiB npHCJiiBHHKH cnoco 6y Aii Ta A^HKi iHini MaiOTb CTyneHi nopiB­ HHHHH, HKi yTBopioioTbCH TaK caMO, hk CTyneHi nopiBHHHHH npnKMeTHHKiB ( due . § 6 ). late — la te r — latest atten tively — m ore attentively — most attentively ^eHKi npHCJiiBHHKH, HK i BiAnOBiAHi npHKMeTHHKH, yTBOpiOIOTb CTyneHi nopiBHHHHH BiA inm oro KopeHh .

169


3euHauHa (o c H o e n a ) (popMa

BuiUfUU cmyninb

Haueuiquu cmyninb

better

Kpan^e

best

naHKpame

badly - - noraHo

w orse

ripm e

HaHripm e

m uchl

more

6ijib

worst most

less

Menme

least

H E H M eH

farthest furthest

HKOMora Aani

- - AoSpe

w ell

m an y}

— 6araTo

little - - Majio fa r

- AaJieKo

fa rth e r

Aajix

fu rth e r

Handijibine

PEHEHHH (THE SENTENCE)

§ 41. IIpocTe

p e *ie H H H

(the Simple Sentence)

3ajiexcHO B i A M e r a B H C JiO B JiiO B aH H H po3pi3HHK>Tb Tpn o c h o b h I th h h

p e T O H t: p o 3 n o s i A H i ,

H H TajibH i

i cn o H yK ajitH i.

KoraHe 3 h h x Moxce 6yTH CTBepArayBajibHHM i 3anepe^HHM. U pn neBHiH em011,1hhiii 3a6apBJieHOCTi, mo nepeAaeTbca iHTOHan,ieio, 6 y A b - H K e p e ^ ie H H H MOHce nepeTBopHTHCH b o k j i h h h c . n ic jia O K JIH H H H X p e ^ e H b CTaBHTbCH 3 H E K OKJIHKy. Po3noBiAHi

He reads books every day. He does not read books every day. IlHTaJIbHi Does he read books every day?

pe

eh h h

BiH *iHTae khhhckh hjoahh . BiH He *iHTae khhhcok moAHa. l e ne HHf l Hh

HHTae BiH khhhckh

mo-

«hh?

Does he not (Doesn’t he) read books every day? CnoHyKajiBH Open the book. Do not (D on ’t) open the book. O kjihmhi W h a t an interesting book have you brought! How well she sings! Oh, isn’t that interesting?! Stand up!

Xi6a BiH He HHTae moAHH?

khhxcok

pe^eHHH PosropHiTb KHHHCKy. He po3ropTaHTe KHHHCKy.

] eqesHfl Hny ijiKaBy KHHHCKy bh npnHecJin! H k rapHo BOHa cniBae! O, x i 6 a n;e He iuKaBO?! BcTaHb(Te)!

§ 42. Po 3noBiAHi peneHHH (Declarative Sentences) JXJia aHrjiiiicbKoi

Po3noBiAHi

170

m obh

pe^ieHHH

xapaKTepHHH CTajiHH nopaAOK cjiiB. xapaKTepH3yiOTbca npHMHM nopaAKOM


cjiiB. flo ro 3MiHa Mo^ce c h p h t o h h t h nepeKpyneHHH 3MicTy peneHh h . IIpH nopymeHHi nopaAKy cjiIb b yKpaiHCBKiH MOBi 3BiraaHHO 3MiHioeTbCH jinme jioriraH H Harojioc.

The boy caught a fish.

Xjioneijb yniHMaB pn6y. (Pn6y yniHMaB xjioneu,b.) Pn6a yniH M ajia x jio m ja .

A f is h c a u g h t th e boy.

aHrjiincbKoi mobh 3BiroaHHHM BBaxcaeTbca TaKHH nopHAOK cjiiB: niAMeT, npncyAOK, AOAaTOK, o6cTaBHHa. R

j

i h

The bov read a book yesterday. She saw a film yesterday^in the ^evening. He wrote a letter last Sunday. -------

----- --

% —

*

— •

*

03HaneHHH He Mae nocTiiraoro Micija i Moxee ctohth nepeA 6yA B -H K H M HJieHOM peMeHHH, BHpa^CeHHM iMeHHHKOM.

The boy read an in terestin g book last Sunday. This in terestin g book was written by a fam ous writer.

§ 43. IlHTajiBHi peneHHH (Interrogative Sentences) B aHrjliHCbKiH M OBi p03pi3HHK)Tb HOTHpH TH IIH HHTaJIbHHX peneHb: 3 a r a j i b H i , c n e n , i a j i b H i , p o 3 ' e A H y B a j i b n i h a j i b T e p HaTHBHi.

§ 44. 3arajii>Hi 3anHTaHHH i siAnoBi^i Ha

hhx

y 3arajibHHX 3anHTaHHax AonoMiHCHe a 6o MOAajibHe aiccjiobo, mo BXOAHTb ao npncyAKa, cTaBHTbca Ha no^iaTKy pe^eHHa nepeA niAMeTOM. H kiijo b CKJiaAi npncyAKa HeMae AonoMbKHoro a6o MOAajibHoro AieflOBa, to nepeA niAMeTOM eTaBHTbea AonoMixcHe AiecjioBO do (d o es) a 6o did, a nicjia Hboro — ocHOBHe AiecjioBO y (JjopMi iH$iHiTHBa 6e 3 *iacTKH to. Pem xa ^JieHiB pe^eHHa cToaTb y TaKOMy m nopaAKy, aK i b p03H0BiAH0My pe*ieHHi. IIpHcyAOK cTaBHTbca Ha no^iaTKy pe^ieHHa, aKn^o BiH Bnpa^Keh h h AiecJiOBaMH to b e a6o to have. IIpoTe b cynacHin aHrjriifccbKin MOBi cnocTepiraeTbca TeHAeHijia BHcnBaTH AonoMittCHe AiecjioBO do, xo*ia npncyAOK BnpaaceHnn AiecjiOBOM to have. H ave you a dictionary? = D g you have a dictionary? H a 3arajibHi 3anHTaHHa 3BHManH0 AaiOTbca KOpoTKi BiAnoBiAi» mo CKJiaAaioTbca i3 cjiiB yes a 6o no, niAMeTa, BnpaxceHoro BiAnoBiAHHM 0C060BHM 3aHMeKHHKOM, i AOHOMijKHOrO a6o MOAaJIbHOrO AiecjioBa, BHCHToro y 3annTaHHi. y 3anepe^HHX BiAnoBiAHX nacTKa not 3BHqaihio 3JiHBaeTbca 3 AOHOMiHCHHM a 6o MOAaJIbHHM AieCJIOBOM.

171


Do you speak English? Is she reading? W ill N ick go to school tomorrow? Have you read this book? Can you speak English? W ill you go to school tomorrow?

Yes, (N o, Yes, (N o , Yes, (N o , Yes, (N o , Yes, (N o , Yes, (N o ,

I do. No, I do not. I don’t.) she is. N o, she is not. she isn’t.) he w ill. No, he w ill not. he w on’t.) I have. N o, I have not. I haven’t.) I can. No, I cannot. I can’t.) I shall. N o, I shall not. I shan’t.)

§ 4 5 . 3 a n e p e * r a a (|}opMa a a r a jib H H x 3 a n n T a H b Cjii# 3BepHyTH yBary Ha 3aneperay <J)opMy 3arajibHHx 3amiTaHb, HKa yTBOpK>€TbCH 3a AonoMoroio ^acTKH not, mo CTaBHTbCH nicjiH niAMeTa nepeA ochobhhm AiecjiOBOM. Tani 3anHTaHHH BHpaacaiOTb 3AHByBaHHH i BiAnoBiAaioTb yKpamcbKHM, mo no^iHHaiOTbCH cjioBaMH x i6 a f neeoKe.

Do you not know him? D on’t you know him?

HeBHce (X i6a) th noro He 3Haern?

y BiAnoBiAhx Ha 3anepe*mi 3anHTaHHH b yKpa'iHCbKiH i aHrjiiiicbKiH MOBax BJKHBaHHH cjiIb yes, no He 36iraeTbCH. H kiijo b aHrjiifrcbKiH MOBi y CTBepAHiii BiAnoBiAi 3aB5KAH BHCHBaeTbCH yes, a b 3anepe*raiH — no, to b yKpamcbKiii ni Moace BjKHBaTHCb b o6ox BHnaAKax.

D id n ’t you read this book? — Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. Xi6a th He *iHTaB 13,10 KHHry? — H i, KHTaB. H i (Tan), He *nrraB.

§ 4 6 . C n e ijia jiB H i 3anHTaHHH i BijinoBO T H a

hhx

IIopHAOK cjiiB y cneuiajibHHX 3anHTaHHhx TaKHH caMHH, hk i b 3arajibHHx, ajie nepeA AonoMbKHHM a6o MOAajibHHM aigcjiobom ctoitb nHTajibHe cjiobo (a6o rpyna cjub): W h en you get up? W hat vou read? W h ere vou live? W h a t story the teacher read to you yesterday? W h y d g you cry?

Kojih th BCTaem? IU,o th MHTaeui? A e TH HCHBem? flKe onoBiA&HHH npo^HTaB BaM ynopa B^HTejib? HoMy th nJiaMein?

CneniajibHi 3anHTaHHH ao niAMeTa no^HHaioTbCH mrrajibHHMH 3 aiiMeHHHKaMH who x m o a6o w hat 111,0 . Bohh BHKOHyK)Tb 4>yHKn,iK) niAMeTa. niCJIH U.HX 3aHMeHHHKiB CTaBHTbCH AieCJIOBO, mo BHKOHye

172


(J)yHKn,iK) npHcyflKa.TaKHM tjhhom, y cneijiajibHHX 3anHTaHHHX, mo CTOcyiOTbCH niAMeTa, 36epiraeTbcn npnMHH nopHAOK cjiiB. W h o is reading a book? W h o teaches you? W h o can speak English? W h a t stands in the corner? IIpHMHH nopHAOK cjiiB 36epiraeTbcn TaKOHc y cneiuajibHHX 3anuTaHHHx, mo cTOcyiOTbCH o3Ha^eHHH niAMeTa. Bohh no^HHaioTbca EHTajibHHMH cjiOBaMH w hat x k u u ; which fcompuu, &k u u \ whose h u u ; how many, how much CKiJibKu.

What pencil is on the table? Whose child goes to school? Which pupil is the best? H a cneu;iajibHi 3anHTaHHH, hk npaBHJio, AaioTbcn noBHi BiAnoBiAi. n p n n.bOMy *uieHH pe^eHHH, BHpa^cem iMeHHHKaMH, 3aMiHIOIOTbCH 3aHMeHHHKaMH. W h at did the teacher read to the pupils yesterday?

He read an interesting book about animals.

MoHCJiHBi TaKOHC BiAnoBiAi, mo cKJiaAaiOTbcn 3 OAHoro cjioBa (a6o rpynn cjiiB), HKoro (h k h x) CTOcyeTbcn 3anHTaHHH. — W h e n did the teacher read you an interesting story about animals? — Yesterday.

— K ojih B^HTejib npo^HTaB BaM ijiKaBe onoBiAaHHH npo TBapHH? — B^opa.

BiAHOBiAi Ha 3anHTaHHH, mo CTOcyeTbcn niAMeTa a6o iforo 03Ha^ieHHh , 3BH^aHHo AaioTbcn b KopoTKiii (j>opMi. B ohh CKJiaAaK>TbCH 3 niAMeTa i npncyAKa, BHpajKeHoro aohomdkhhm hh m o AaJIbHHM AieCJIOBOM. W ho is reading a book? W h o can do it? W h at pencil on the table?

M y sister i§. He can. A red pencil i§.

§ 4 7 . P o 3 ’e£HyBajii>Hi 3anHTaHHH

(Disjunctive Questions) Po3’eAHyBajibHe 3anHTaHHH CKJiaAaeTbCH 3 abox *iacTHH. nepma nacTHHa — u;e po3noBiAHe pe^ieHHH y cTBepAHih a6o 3anepe*raiH

(J)opMi, Apyra — KopoTKe 3arajibHe 38HHTaHHH, mo CKJiaAaeTbCH 3 niAMexa, BHpanceHoro oco6obhm 3aiiMeHHHKOM, hkhh BiAnoBiAae niAMeTy nepmoi *iacTHHH, i AonoMiacHoro a6o MOAajibHoro AiecjioBa. HKmo npncyAOK nepmoi nacTHHH bjkhto y Present a6o Past In ­ definite y CTBepAHin <J)opMi, to6to kojih y iloro CKJiaAi HeMae AonoMiMCHoro AiecjiOBa, to b K0p0TK0My 3anHTaHHi BHCHBaiOTbCH

BiAnoBiAHi $opMH AonoMincHoro AiecjioBa to do.

173


You speak English, d o n ’t you?

B h roBopHTe aHrjimcbKOK) moboio, hh

You d on ’t speak English, do you?

He TaK? B h He roBopHTe aHrjiihcbkoio MOBOIO, HH He TaK?

BiAnoBifli Ha po3’eAHyBajibHi 3anHTaHHH 3BHHaHHo KopoTKi i MOHcyTb BHpattcaTH h k 3roAy, TaK i He3roAy 3 MOBixeM. 3BepHiTb y B a r y , mo, hk i b sanepeHHin c|)opMi 3arajibHHx 3anHTaHb, BHKopHCTaHHH yes i no y po 3’eAHyBajibHHx 3anHTaHHHx b yKpa'iHCbKiH Ta aHrjiiHCbKiii MOBax He 36iraeTbCH. You don't speak French, do you? B h ne roBopHTe <J)paHuy3bKOK) MOBOIO, HH He TaK?

— No, I do not. Yes, I do. — Hi, He roBopio. Hi, r 0B0pi0.

§ 4 8 . A jib T e p n a T H B H i 3 an H T aH H «

(Alternative Questions) AjibTepHaTHBHe 3anHTaHHH CKJiaAaeTbCH 3 abox 3arajrbHHx 3anHTaHb, 3’eAHaHHx cnojiyMHHKOM or. X ona ajtbTepHaTHBHi 3anHTaHHH noHHHaK)TbCH 3 AonoMiMCHoro hh MOAajibHoro AiecJioBa, hk i 3arajibHi, 3a 3m1ctom bohh e cneruajihHHMH, TOMy BHMaraioTb KopoTKoi BiAnoBiAi. I§ he a teacher or a doctor? W h at dg you like: tea or coffee? W ill you go to school or home? Did vou speak to him, or did your brother?

— — — —

H e is a doctor. I like coffee. I shall go home. M y brother did.

Irregular Verbs Past I n d e f i n i t e j Past Participle

In fin itiv e

arise [s'raiz]

174

BHHHKaTH, nocTaBaTH

arose [s'rouz]

arisen [a'rizn]

bore [bo:] beat [bi:t] became [bi'keim ] began [bi'gaen] blew [blu:] broke [brouk] brought [bro:t] built [bilt] burnt [bo:nt] burst [ba:st]

HeCTH, HOCHTH born(e) [bo:n] 6h t h beaten [bi:tn] become [bi'kAm ] C TaB aTH , p o 6 h t h

i

bear [bes] beat [bi:t] become [bi'kAm] begin [bi'qin] blow [blou] break [breik] bring [brn]] build [brid] burn [bam] burst [to:st]

Translation

begun [bi'gAn] blown [bloun] broken [broukn] brought [bro.t] built [bilt] burnt [bs:nt] burst [bo:st]

noHHHaTH(cn) Ayth (3)jiaMaTH npHHOCHTH 6yAyBaTH najiHTH; ropiTH p036HBaTHCH; BHGyxaTH


I I p

Infinitive

Past Indefinite

Past Participle

o

d

o

s

o

i c

e

H

H

H

Translation

KynyBara JIOBHTH, (c)niHMaTH chosen ['tjouzn] BnSnpaTH

buy [bai] catch [kaetj]

bought [bo:t] caught [ko:t]

bought [bo:t] caught [ko:t]

choose [tju:z] come [kAm] cost [kost] cut [kAt] dig [dig] do [du:]

chose [t/ouz] came [keim] cost [kost] cut [kAt] dug [cUg] did [did]

come [kAm] cost [kost] cut [kAt] dug [dAg] done [dAn]

n pH X O A H T H

draw [dro:]

drew [dru:]

drawn [dro:n]

TarTH; MajiioBaTH 6a*iHTH yBi cHi;

dream [dri:m] dreamt [dremt] dreamed [dri:md] drink [drrgk] drank [draeijk] drive [draiv] drove [drouv] eat [i:t] ate [et] fall [fo:l] fell [fel] feed [fi:d] fed [fed] feel [fi:l] felt [felt]

dreamt [dremt] dreamed [dri:md] drunk [drAqk] driven ['drivn] eaten [i:tn] fallen ['fo:ln] fed [fed] felt [felt]

fight [fait]

fought [fo:t]

fought [fb:t]

find [faind] found [faund] fly [flai] flew [flu:] forget [fe'get] forgot [fo'got] forgive [fo'giv] freeze [fri:z]

forgave [fo'geiv] froze [frouz]

found [faund] flown [floun] forgotten [fo'gDtn] forgiven [fa'grvn] frozen [frouzn]

get [get]

got [got]

got [got]

give [giv] gave [geiv] go [gou] went [went] grind [graind] ground [graund] grow [grou] grew [gru:] hang [haei]] hung [hug] hanged [haeqd]

given [givn] gone [gon] ground [graund] grown [groun] hung [h\t]] hanged [haeqd]

KomTyBaTH pi3ara KonaTH P o6h th

M piH TH

nHTH THaTH; ixaTH 1CTH i

n a^ ara roTyBaTH no^yBaTH, BiA^tysaTH 6hthc « , SopoTHca 3HaXOAHTH jiiTaTH 3a6yBaTH Bn6anaTH

,

npomaTH 3aMopo»cy BaTH; 3aMep3aTH AicTaBaTH, OAepHcyBaTH AaBam iTH, iTH reTB m o j io t h ;

TO*IHTH POCTH BHCiTH

nOBiCHTH (CTpaTHTH)

175


IJpodoexceHHA Infinitive

Past Indefinite

Past Participle

have [haev] hide [haid] hear [hia] hit [hit]

had [haed] hid [hid] heard [ha:d] hit [hit]

had [haed] hidden ['hidn] heard [h3:d] hit [hit]

hold [hould] hurt [hs:t]

held [hald] hurt [ho:t]

held [hsld] hurt [ho:t]

ikeep [ki:p]

kept [kept]

kept [kept]

know [nou] lay [lei]

knew [nju:] laid [leid]

known [noun] laid [leid]

lead [li:d] leap [li:p]

led [led] leapt [lept] leaped [li:pt] learnt [b:nt] learned left [left] lent [lent]

led [led] leapt [lept] leaped [li:pt] learnt [b:nt] learned le ft [left] lent [lent]

learn [b :n ] leave [li:v] lend [lend]

Translation

MaTH XOBaTH(CH) nyTH y^apHTH; BJiy^aTH MaTH, aepacaTH 3aBAaBara 6ojijo; 6oJiiTH TpwMaTH; 36epiraTH 3HaTH KJiaCTH, noK.TiacTH BeCTH, BOflHTH ujTHraTH, CTpn6aTH BHHTH 3ajimnaTH n03H^iaTH ( KOMyeb )

let [let]

let [let]

let [let]

nycKaTu; A03BOJIHTH

lie [lai] lose [lu:z]

lay [lei] lost [bst]

lain [lein] lost [bst]

jie^caT H BTpaMaTH,

ry6HTH make [meik] mean [mi:n] £

meet [mi:t] mistake [mis'teik] pay [pei] put [put]

made [meid] meant [ment]

made [meid] meant [ment]

met [met] mistaken [mis'teikn]

met [met] mistook [mis'tuk]

paid [peid] put [put]

paid [peid] put [put] 1

read ride ring rise

[ri:d] [raid] [Ttt]] [raiz]

run [fAfl]

176

read rode rang rose

[red] [roud] [raeq] [rouz]

ran [raen]

read [red] ridden [ ridn] rung [nrg] risen [rizn] run [rAn]

P o6h t h o3H a^taTii;

MaTH HaMip 3ycTpi^aTH nOMHJIHTHCH, HenpaBHJibHO

p03yMiTH njiaTHTH KJiaCTH, CTaBHTH HHTaTH I3AHTH BepXH Tejie<})OHyBaTH

BCTaBaTH, niAHiMaTHca 6irTH


npodoenceHHR Infinitive

Past Indefinite

say [sei]

said [sed]

see [si:] sell [sel] send [send] set [set]

saw [so:] sold [sould] sent [sent] set [set]

shine [Jain]

shone [/on]

shoot [Ju:t]

shot [Jot]

show [Jou] shut [/At] sing [sii]] sink [sii]k]

showed [Joud] shut t|At] sang [sae-Q] sank [s®T]k]

sit [sit] sleep [sli:p] speak [spi:k] spell [spel]

sat [saet] slept [slept] spoke [spouk] spelt [spelt] spelled [speld]

spend [spend] spent [spent] spring [sprrq] sprang [spraei]] stand [staend] stood [stud] strike [straik] struck [strAk] sweep [swi:p] swim [swim]

swept [swept] swam [swaem]

take [teik]

took [tuk] taught [to:t] told [tould]

teach [ti:t/] tell [tel] think [0 it] k] throw [0rou] understand [,Ando'staend] wake [weik] wear [we o] win [win] write [rait]

thought [0o:t] threw [0ru:] understood [, Ando stud] woke [wouk] waked [weikt] wore [wo:] won [WAn] wrote [rout]

Past Participle

Translation

rOBOpHTH, CKE3aTH 6a^IHTH seen [si:n] npo^aBaTH sold [sould] nocHJiaTH sent [sent] ctbbhth ; set [set] yCTEHOBJIIOBaTH CBiTHTH; shone [/on] npojiHBaTH CTpijIHTH; shot [/ot] niAKOByBaTH noKa3yBaTH shown [/oun] 3aKpHBaTH shut [/At] cniBaTH sung [ satj] cnycKaTH(cn); sunk [sAi]k] 3aHypiOBaTHCH CHAiTH sat [saet] cnaTH slept [slept] spoken ['spoukn] TOBOpHTH nHcaTH a6o spelt [spelt]

said [sed]

spelled [speld]

BHMOBJIHTH HO

6yKBax BHTpa^aTH spent [spent] sprung [sprAi]] CTpn6aTH; BHHHKaTH CTOHTH stood [stud] 6h t h ; struck [strAk] BAapHTH(CH); CTpaftKyBara swept [swept] MeCTH; MMaTH njiaBa™, swum [swAm] IIJIHBTH taken [teikn] 6paTH, B3HTH BHHTH, HEBHaTH taught [to:t] po3noBi AaTH; told [tould] TOBOpHTH AyMETH thought [0o:t] thrown [0roun] KHAaTH understood p03yMiTH [,Ando'stud] woken ['woukn] npoKHAaTHCH; 6yAHTH waked [weikt]

worn [wo:n] won [WAn] written [ ' ritn]

HOCHTH (OAH r)

BHrpaBaTH nncaTH

177


ENGLISH-UKRAINIAN VOCABULARY a

['a e d 3i k t i v ]

a d je c tiv e

num

ad verb

[ 'a e d v s i b ]

c o n j u n c t i o n [k a n 'd s A ijk J h ] —

n

proper

noun

BJiacHa

H a3Ba p r e p — p r e p o s i t i o n [.p r e p a 'z ijn ] —

c n o jx y H H H K in t —

['n ju im a r a l]

p i — p l u r a l [ ' p l u a r o l ] — MHOJKHHa pr

npHCJliBH H K cj —

n u m eral

HHCJliBHHK

npH K M eTH H K adv

in te r je c tio n [.in t a ^ e k jn ] —

npHHMeHHHK p ron

B H ryK

p ron ou n

['p r o u n a u n ]

3 aH M eH H H K

n — n o u n [ n a u n ] — iM e H H H K

u — v e r b [v a :b ] — # ie c jio s o

Aa A .D . a

(A n n o

D o m in i)

[ 'a e n o u

a p m u K J ib ,

'd o m in a i] h o b o i a o 6 h

c m a e u m b c a n e p e d c j i o e d M u , w,o

a d d [a e d ] v ^ o ^ a s a ™

n o n u H d io m b C H n p u z o ji o c n u M u i

a d d r e s s [s 'd r e s ] n a ^ p e c a

u o m o e a n u M U 36yKdMU

a d d r e s s e e [.a e d r e 's i:] n a ^ p e c a T

[a ]

ueo3naHeHuu

a b b e y ['a e b i] n aSaTCTBO, M O H a cT H p a b o u t [Y b a u t] p re p

npo;

6 jih 3 i> k o

p a r c e ls

(le tte r s )

[a k 's e p t s b l]

a f r a i d [ a ' f r e i d ] a 3JiHKaHHH to b e a fr a id S o h th ck

n p H H M a T H nOCHJIKH i JIHCTH a

a f t e r ['a :ft a ] p r e p

n ic jin ; c j n ic jiH

T o r o HK

npHHHHTHHH a c c i d e n t [ 'a e k s i d a n t ]

n

H e u ja c H H H

a f t e r n o o n [ ' c u f t a ' n i m ] n n ac n ic jiH n o jiy ^ H H

BHna^oK a c c o u n ta b le

[Y k a u n to b l]

a

B iA n o B iA a jib H H ii; n iA 3 B iT H H H ['a e k ju r it ]

a

to m h h h ,

n

a f t e r w a r d s [ 'a i f t a w a d z ] a d v n o T iM , 3I’O a o m , n i 3 H i m e

6 ijib

( o c o 6 jiu e o

m p u e a jiu u , m y n u u )

3Hosy

a g a i n [a 'g e in ] a d v a g a in s t

n paB H JIbH H H [e ik ]

npHHM aTH,

a e r o p l a n e ['c a r a p le in ] n a e p o iu ia H

a c c e p t [a k 's e p t ] v npH H M aTH

ache

v

a d v ic e [a d 'v a is ] n n o p a ^ a

t o b e a b s e n t 6 y T H B iflc y T H iM

a ccu ra te

[Y d o p t]

a d v e n t u r e [o d 'v e n t jo ] n n p H r o ^ a

a b s e n t ['a e b s a n t ] a B iflc y T H iH

a c c e p ta b le

[a 'g e in s t ]

p rep

npOTH,

HasnpoTH a g e [ e i d 3] n B in

a c h i e v e [Y t J I:v ] v f l o e n r a T H

a g o [a 'g o u ] a d v TOMy ( n p o n a c )

a c h ie v e m e n t [ s 't f irv m a n t] n a o c h j>

a g r e e [ a 'g r i : ] v n o r o flt t c y B a T H c n

HeHHH a c t [ a e k t ] 1. n c n p a B a ; b h h h o k ; 2 . v fliH T H a c t i v e [ 'a e k t i v ] a aK TH B H H H

a g r ic u ltu r a l

[ , a e g r i 'k A l t j 9 r o l ]

a

cijibCbKorocnoflapcbKHH a g r ic u ltu r e

n

c iJ ib e b K e

flapCTBO

a c t i v i t y [ a e k 't i v r t i ] n js ,is u ib m c T h

a i r [c s ] n n o B iT p n

a c t o r [ 'a e k t a ] n a K T o p

a liv e [V la !v ! a :r v :

178

a

3aCBOK)BaTH

a b o v e (Y b A v ] p r e p Haa

accept

[a d 'm in is t r Q t iv ]

aAMiHiCTpaTHBHHH adopt

(n p o n a c)

to

a d m in is tr a tiv e

rocn o-


all [o:l] a Becb, bch, see; pron Bci all over the world y BCbOMy CBiTi allow [a'lau] v ao3bojihth ally faelai] n cok>3hhk almost foilmoust] adv Man^ce along [a'bi}] prep y3AOBHC alphabet faelfsbit] n aji(J)aBiT already [D.l'redi] adv ynce also ['d:1sou] adv tekohc although [oil'dou] cj xoh, kojih 6 naBiTb altitude ['aeltitjuid] n BHcoTa always ['d:1wsz] adv 3aBHCAn ambulance faembjubns] n ManraHa niBHAKoi AonoMorH amend [a'mend] v BnnpaBJiHTn(cH), nojiinmyBaTn(ca)

amendment

[Ymendmant] n nonpaBKa (do pe30Jii0i^ii moiu,o) American [a'merikan] a aMepnKaHCbKHH among [s'mAT)] adv cepe#, uim ample f aempl] a npocTopnn an [aen, on] neo3HaHenuu apmuKJib (neped zojiochumu i hImum h) ancient ['em/ant] a CTapOBHHHim; CTapoAaBHiii and [send] cj i, h,

Ta angry f aeijgri] a cepAHTHH animal ['aenimol] n TBapHHa; 3Bip anniversary [.aeni'vaisari] n pirajma another [a'nAds] a, pron mniHH answer fu:ns3] 1. n BiAnoBiAt; 2. v BiflnoBiAaTH

any ['em] a Syab-hkhh anybody feni.bodi] pron xtoHe6yAi>; bcakhh; 6yAb-HKHH anyone femwAn] pron xTO-He6yAi>; BCHKHH, KOJKHHH anything ['eniBiq] pron moHe6yAb, GyAt-mo

apartment [a'paitmsnt] n aMep. KBaprapa

apologize [o'pDbd^aiz] v Bn6anaTIT'* 1

applause

[s'plcxz]

n onjiecKH,

anjiOAHCMeHTH

apple ['aepl] n a6jiyK0 approximately [a'proksimitli] adv npH6jiH3HO, Maii^e April ['eiprol] n KBiTem> apron feipran] n $apTyx area ['earis] n njionja, TepHTOpia arid faerid] a cyxim, 6e3BOAHHii arm [a:m] n pyna (eid Kucmi do njiena) arm-chair [' aim'tjea] n Kpicjio army ['a:mi] n apMia around [Graund] prep HaBKOJio arrive [s'raiv] v npnGyBaTu; npHXOAHTH, AOXOAHTH art [a:t] n MHCTeu,TBo art-gallery fa:t'gaebri] n KapTHiraa

rajiepea article ['a:tikl] n CTaTTa artificial [,a:ti'fij9l] a HiTyHHHH artist f a:tist] n xyaojkhhk as [sez, oz] cy hk; y toh *iac hk ask [a:sk] v 3anHTyBaTH assert [s'sxt] v tbcpahth; o6ctoioBaTH

to assert sovereignty BiACTOK)BaTH He3ajieHCHicTb assist [assist] v AonoMaraTu;

cnpuHTH associated [s'soufieitid] a noBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;a3aHHH

assure [o'Jua] v 3aneBHaTH; rapanTyBaTii astronautics [.aestra'noitiks] n acTpoHaBTHKa at [set, at]prep y, b , Ha athlete f se01i:t] n cnopTCMeH athletics [aeG'letiks] n aTjieraKa attack [s'taek] 1. n aTana; 2. v HanaAaTH attem pt [a'tem(p)t] n cnpo6a attend [a'tend] v BiABiAyBaTu; niKJiyBaTHca to attend classes BiABiAyBaTH

ypoKH attention [otenfn] n vBara

179


attentive [Ytentiv] a yBaJKHUH attra ctio n [Vtraekjn] n npHBa6jiHBicTb; aTpaKii,ioH

a ttrib u te [ae'tribjuit] n 03 HaKa; aTpnSyT audience fo:dj 3ns] n ay^HTopin; rjiHflani A ugust ['o:gost] n cepneHb aunt [a:nt] n TiTKa A u stra lia n [o:s'treilpn] a aBCTpajiiiicbKHH author ['o:0s] n aBTop

au th o rity

[o:'9 oriti]

n

Bjia^a;

aAMiHicTpan.in

autobiographic(al) ['D:tou,baiou 'graefik(3l)] a aBToSiorpactHH-

b asket-b all fba:skitbo:l] n 6acKeT6oji basket-ball player 6acKeT6oJliCT bathe [beid] v KynaTHCH bathroom fb a: 0 rum] n Bamia KiMHaTa battle fbaetl] n 6iii B.C. (before Christ) ao hoboi ao6h be [bi:, bi] (was/were; been) v 6yTH*, icHyBaTH beat [bi:t] (beat, beaten) v 6hth b ea u tifu l ['bjmtaful] a rapHim; bpoajihbhh

because [bi'koz] cj TOMy mo become [bi'kAin] (became, become) V p o 6HTHCH, CTaTH(CH)

HHH

autobiography [prtoubai'ografi] n aBTo6iorpa<|)iH autum n [^:tom] n ocim> aviation [.eivi'eijn] n aBiau;iH award [Vwo:d] 1. n npHcyA^ceHa Haropo,a;a; 2 . v HaropoA^KyBaTH

Bb back [baek] 1. n cmma; 2. a 3a£,mH; 3bopothhh 6in; 3 . adv Ha3aA background fbaekgraund] n 3aAHiH njiaH; (})oh bad [baed] a noramm b ag [bseg] n cyMKa; nopT<J>ejiB baker ['beika] n neKap b a k er’s shop ['beiksz'Jbp] n Mara3HH xjii6o6ynoHHHX Bupo-

6iB balcony fbaelkam] n 6ajiKOH ball [bo:l] /i m ’ ah ballad fbaelod] n Sajia^a balloon [bo'lu:n] n noBiTpHHa Kyjia bandage fbasndid3] v nepeB’H3yBaTH bank [baerjk] n 6eper (piKu , 03epa) b ar [ba:] n 6ap, 6y$eT; CTiiiKa, npnjiaBOK barren ['baersn] a BHCHajKeHnii (npo tpynm )

basket ['ba:skit] n koihhk

bed [bed] n jiincKO bee [bi:] n SA^cojia beefsteak fbiif'steik] n 6i<})HiTeKc beet [bi:t] n 6ypnK before [hi fo:]prep ao, nepeA begin [bfgin] (began, begun) v noHHHaTu(cH) b eh alf [bi'ha:f] n in b eh a lf of 3apaAn; Ha KOpucTb; on behalf (of) BiA iMeHi (Koeo) behind [bi'hamd] adv 33aAy, no3aAy believe [bi'li:v] v BipnTn; Ay^aTH bell [bel] n asbIh; a 3bohhk belong [b/log] v HajiencaTH, 6yTu BJiaCHiCTIO bench [bentj] n jiaBKa berry fberi] n aroAa besides [brsaidz] adv KpiM Toro best [best] ( naueuiufuu c m . eid good, well) 1. a HaHKpam™; 2. adv HaiiKpame better ['bets] (euu^uu cm . eid good, well) 1. a Kpamnii; 2. adv Kpame between [bi'twi:n]p rep Mine Bible ['baibl] n Ei6jim big [big] a BejIHKHH bill [bd] n paxyHOK (3a nocJiyeu) biography [bai'Dgrafi] n 6iorpa<|)iH


b reak

b i o l o g y [b a i'o l9 d 3 i] n 6 i o j i o r i a ['b 3 : 0 d e i ]

n

%eHb

['b la e k b o :d ]

n

KJiacHa

b r e a k f a s t f b r e k f o s t ] n cH i^aH O K

b r i g h t [ b r a i t ] a c b I t j i h h , HCKpaBHii b r in g [b r ig ] (b r o u g h t, b r o u g h t) v

AoniKa

IipHHOCHTH

b lo u s e [ b l a u z ] n S jiy s K a [b lo u ]

(b le w ,

b lo w n )

1.

n

iHCTpy-

n o flH x ; 3ByK fly x o B o r o M eH Ta; 2 . v a y t h

b l u e [b lu :] a 6jiaK H TH H H , c h h I h b l u e - e y e d fb lu :,a id ] a r o jiy 6 o o K H H

B r itis h

pa^a

[ 'b r i t i j ]

a

SpnTaH CbKH H ,

aHrjiincbKHH b r o a d [b r o :d ] a i i i h p o k h h b r o t h e r f b r A d o ] n 6 p aT b r o w n [ b r a u n ] a KOpH^m eBHii b ru sh

b o a r d [b o :d ] n A o n iK a ; n p a B jiiH H a ;

1.

[b r A j]

n

m iT K a ;

2.

v

HHCTHTH m iTKOIO b u c k e t ['b \ k r t ] n B i^ p o

b o a t [ b o u t ] n TOBeH body

v

b r i d g e [ b r i d 3 ] n M icT

b l a c k [b ls e k ] a h o p h h h

b lo w

b rok en )

t o h a v e b r e a k f a s t cH i^ a T H

HapoA^KeHHH b la c k b o a r d

(b r o k e ,

jia M a T n ; n o p y m y B a T H ( 3U k o h )

b i r d [b o :d ] n n T a x b ir th d a y

[b r e ik ]

[ 'b o d i ]

n

b u ild

Tijio;

r o jio B H a

nacTHHa

[b ild ]

(b u ilt,

b u ilt)

6y^yBaTH b u i l d e r [ 'b i l d o ] n 6y,n;iBejibHHK

b o o k [ b u k ] n K H H ra

b u ild in g

b o o k c a s e ['b u k ,k e is ] n KHH5KKOBa

ma4>a b o o t [b u :t] n *iepeB H K

[ 'b i l d i r ) ]

n

O yahhok,

SyA iB Jia b u s [b A s ] n

asTo6yc

b u s in e s s f b i z m s ] n 6 i3 H ec , c n p a s a ,

b o r d e r o n [T x x d o 'o n ] v M encyBaTH 3

/tfjio

b o r e [b o :] i; H a ^ oK yH a T H

b u t [b A t ] c j eune

b o r n [b o :n ] a HapOAHceHHH

b u tch e r’s

t o b e b o r n H a p o flir r a c H

shop

[ 'b u t j o z 'j b p ]

b u t l e r p j A t l a ] n £Bopeii;bKHH

b o t h [ b o u 9 ] p r o n o6 H #B a

b u t t e r ['b A t o ] n

b o t t le f b o t l ] n n jia in n a

buy

fb a u n d o r i]

n

n

m ’ h c h h h M ara3H H

b o ta n y fb o to m ] n 6oTam K a

b ou n d ary

v

(b o u g h t,

b o u g h t)

v

K ynysaTH

K op flO H ,

Menca

[b a i]

Macjio

b u y e r [ 'b a io ] n n o K y n e ijb

b o x [b o k s ] n K o p o 6 ic a ; ju i^h k

b y [ b a i ] p r e p k o j io , 6 ij ia , n p n b y bus

b o x in g fb o k s ir )] n 6 o k c

aBTo6ycoM

b o x - o f f i c e [ 'b o k s 'o f i s ] n T e a T p a jib -

Cc

Ha K a c a b o y [b o i] n x jio n e u ,b , x j i o i i h h k

c a f e ['k a e f e i] n K a s ’ apH H

b r a c k e t [ ' b r s e k it ] n AytfCKa

c a k e [ k e i k ] n K e n c , t o p t ; T icT e^ K O

b r a id [b r e id ] n K oca ( e o jio c c a )

c a lc u la tio n

b r a n c h [b r a : n t j ] n r i jiK a ,

r a jiy 3 b ;

4 > ijiia

po3-

p a x y H O K , K a jib K y jiH i^ ia c a l e n d a r f k a e lin d o ] n K a jie H ^ a p

b r a v e [ b r e i v ] a c m Ijih b h h , x o p o 6 -

c a ll

p HH b ravery

[ tk a e lk ju 'le ijn ] n

[k o :l]

v

3BaTH,

H a3H B aTH ;

3aXOAHTH [ 'b r e i v o r i ]

n

C M ijiH B icTb,

x o p o S p ic T b

c a m p [k a e m p ] n

b r e a d [b r e d ] n x jii6 b r e a k [b r e ik ] n

c a l m [c a :m ] a c n o K iifriH H

nepepBa

can

[k s e n ,

Ta6ip

ken]

(p a s t

c o u ld )

v

MOrTH, 6 yT H CIIpOMOJKHHM

181


c a n te e n

[ k a e n 't i : n ]

n

if la jib H H ,

6y<J>eT

[kaep] n manna; Kenna c a p i t a l ['kaepitl] n c t o jih u , h c a p t a i n fkaeptin] n K a n iT a H c a r [ka:] n jie rK O B H H a B T 0 M0 6 i j i b c a r e [kco] n T y p S o T a , R o r j i x p , cap

to

ta k e

ca re

of

A o r jiH A a T H

Koroct, A,6aTH npo Korocb c a r p e t fkcupit] n k h jih m c a r r y fkaeri] v H e c T H c a r r y o u t B H K O H ysaTH case cash

[keis] n B u n a flO K [kaefl 1 . n rpomi, roTiBKa;

2.

v

n J ia T H T H TO TiBKO K)

[kae'Jb] [kaet] n K iT ,

c a s h ie r

w ic a c u p

cat

K im ic a

c a tc h

[k a e t j]

(c a u g h t,

c a u g h t)

v

jio b h t h , (c )n iiiM a T H c a ttle - fa r m

['kaetl,fa:m]

n TBapH H -

H H u,i»K a (J)epM a

[ko:z] v cnpHHHHHTH c e l e b r a t e ['selibreit] v cBHTKyBaTH c e le b r a tio n [.seli'breifn] n

cau se

C B H TK yB aH H H

['sensajip] n ii,e H 3 y p a c e n t r a l fsentral] a ijeHTpajibHHH c e n t r e fsenta] n n;eH Tp c e n t u r y fsentjari] n c t o j u t t h c e r t a i n l y fsaitnli] adv 3BHMaHHO, HeOflMiHHO c e n s o r s h ip

c h a i r [ t j e s ] n c T ijie n ,b c h a l k [ t jb : k ] n K p e u n a

['tjaempjan] n *ieMiiioH c h a m p io n s h ip ['tjaempjanfip] n neMnionaT c h a n g e [tjeind3] n 3 M m a ; Api6m c h a m p io n

r p o in i, 3A a n a c h a n n e l [ ' tjaenl] n ch a rge

[tja:d3]

n

KaHaji; n p o T o n a 060b’ h30k

t o b e i n c h a r g e o f B iA n o B iA a ™

3a m o cb f r e e o f c h a r g e 6 e 3 n jia T H O

ftjaeriti] n 6 jia r o fliH H ic T i> c h a r t [tjk t] v HaHOCHTH H a K a p T y c h e a p [tjl:p] a AemeBHH c h e c k o u t ['tfek'aut] n n o H T p o jib

c h a r ity

182

cheek [tjl:k] n njona cheese [tji:z] n cup chemist ['kemist] n xiMin; anTenap chemistry fkemistri] n xiMifl chemist’ s shop ['kemists 'Jbp] n anTena cherry ftjeri] n bhqihh chess [tjes] n maxn chess-player n maxicT chestnut f tJes(t)nAt] n KamTaH chicken ['tfikm] n Kypna chief [tjl:f] n rojiosa, nie<j) child [tjaild] n AHTHHa childhood ['tjaildhud] n ahthhctbo children ftjildran] n aith chime [tfaim] n Ha6ip asboiub ; pi nepe#3BiH choir fkwaia] n xop choose [tju:z] (chose, chosen) v BH6HpaTH Christmas ['krismss] n Pi3ABO

XpucTOBe church [tjb:tj] n ijepKBa cinema ['sinima] n KiHOTeaTp circle ['sa:kl] n r y p T O K circular ['sakjuls] a Kpyrjinii circular ticket kbhtok TyA*i h Ha3a^ circus ['s3:kss] n ijHpK cite [sait] v ijnTyBaTH city [siti] n ( eejiune) mIcto class [kla:s] n KJiac classmate fkla:smeit] n 0AH0KJiacHHK classroom ['kla:srum] n KJiacHa KiMHaTa clean [kli:n] 1. a hhcthh; 2. v npH6npaTH clear [klia] v npH6*ipaTn (3i cmojiy) clerk [kla:k] n KJiepK, kohtop-

CbKHH CJiyJKSOBeil.b client fklaiant] n KjiieHT climate fklaimit] n KJiiMaT cloak-room ['kloukrum] n rapAepo6 clock [klok] n toakhhuk ( cmiHHuu, HacmiJibHuu, daiumoeuu)


close [klouz]

v

3aKpHsaTH, 3ann-

h h t h ; 3 rop T a T H

npHXOAHTH

to come across snnaAKOBO to come back noBepTaraca to come in time npuxoAHTH BHaCHO coming ['kAmiij] a ManSyTHm; m o HacTac commandment [ko'maindmont] n HaKa3, 3anoBiAb

the ten commandments AecaTb

IjijIK O M , nO BH iCTK)

a

concert ['konsxt]

n

KOHijepT

considerable

[ k o n 's i d o r o b l ] a 3H a n -

HHH

considerably

[ k o n 's i d o r o b l i ]

adv

3HanHO, 6araTO, HHMajio

constitution [.konsti tju:Jn]

n koh-

C T H T y u ,in

consulate

[.konsjulit]

n

koh-

a

3a p a 3-

CyJIbCTBO

contagious [kon'teidjos] H H H , iH 4)eKU ,iH H H H

content ['kontent] n 3MicT ( k h u z u ) contest ['kontest] n 3MaraHHa continental [.konti'nentl] a kohTHHeHTaJIbHHH v

npoAOB^cy-

BaTH

contribution

[,kontri bjirjn]

n

BHeCOK

cook [kuk] 1. n Kyxap; KyxapKa; 2. v roTysaTH ( i M y ) cool [ku:l] a iipoxojioahhh; CBiacHH co-operate [kou'oporeit] v cniB-

adv

npaBHJibHO correspond [.koris'pond] BiAaTH

cosmonaut KOCMOHaBT cosmonautics

BipHO,

v

BiAno-

[ 'k o z m o n o : t ]

n

[ , k o z n i 3'n o : t i k s ]

n

KOCMOHaBTHKa a

conceive [kon'siiv] v 3aAyMyBaTH to conceive the idea BHcyHyra iAeio

BBa^caTH

n

compete [kom'pi:t] v 3 M a r a r a c a competition [.kompi'tijn] 3 M a ra H H H completely [kom'pli:tli] adv

BCeSiHHHH; BHHepUHHH [kom'pAlsori] compulsory npHMycoBim; o6ob’h3kobhh

[ k o n 's i d o ] v p o 3rjiH A a T H ;

2. a npaBHJibHHH correctly [ko'rektli]

CniBBiT*m3HHK

comprehensive [(kompri'hensiv]

consider

n

cnijibHicTb

[kom'paetriot]

h h h , n iA K o p e H H a

poSiTHH^aTH; chphhth corner ['ko:na] n KyT; KyTOK correct [ko'rekt] 1. v BHnpaBjiaTH;

3 a n o B iA e ii (6 i6 ji.)

[ko'mju:niti]

connect [ k a 'n e k t ] v 3 ’ e A H y B a T H conquest f k o g k w e s t ] n 3asoH)Ba-

continue [kon'tinju:]

3 y C T p iT H (KOZOCb)

compatriot

v

B IT a T H 3

cloth [kloO] n T K a H H H a ; c y K H O coast [koust] n y36epe5K>KH clothes [kloudz] n oAar coal [koul] n (KaM’jrae) s y r i j i j i H coat [kout] n najibTo coin [koin] v CTBOpK)BaTH ( u o e i C J ioea ) coffee f k o f i ] n K a B a white coffee K a B a 3 m o jio k o m cold [kould] 1. n n p o c T y z j a ; 2. a xoj i o a h h h ; 3. a d v x o j i o a h o a cold in the head hchchtb collect [ko'lekt] v 36npaTH colour fk A b ] n KOJiip combine [kom'bain] n KOMSaira combine-operator n KOM6aiiHep come [kAm] (came, come) v

community

congratulate [kan'graetjuleit] on

Cossack f k o s a e k ] n K03aK cost [kost] (cost, cost) v KomTyBaTH

costume [ 'k o s t ju im ] n OAar; koctiom cough [ k o f ] 1. n Kamejib; 2 . v KaiHJIHTH

183


count [kaunt] v paxyBara counter ['kaunts] n npmiaBOK;

CTiHKa country fkAntri] n Kpama; djibCbKa Micu,eBicTb in the country Ha cejii courage fkArid 3] n MyncmcTb courageous [k^reid^as] a c m I jih BHH, BiflBaJKHHH, X0p06pH H

course [ko:s] n Kypc of course 3BHHaiiHO cover ['kAva] 1. n KOHBepT; 2. v

noKpHBara cow [kau] n KOpOBa cowboy f kauboi] n nacTyx; kob6oh create [kri:'eit] v tbophth; ytbopiOBaTH creator [krifeito] n TBOpeu,i>; aBTop cross [krDs] 1. n xpecT; 2. v nepeTHHaTH; nepexo^HTH cry [krai] v KpH^aTH; njianaTH cultural fkAltJbrol] a KyjibTypHHH culture fkAltJb] n Kyjibrypa cup [kAp] n nauiKa; Ky6oK cupboard ['kAbsd] n 6y4>eT, cepBaHT curly ['k9:li] a KynepHBUH curtain ['ka:tn] n 3aBica; 3aHaBicKa custom f kAstam] n 3BH*iaii cutlet fkAtlit] rt BiÂŁ6HBHa KOTJieTa cycle fsaikl] n ijhkji

Dd damp [daemp] a BorKHH, BOJiorHH dance fdains] 1. n TaHeu;b; 2. v TaHU,K)BaTH danger fdeind33] n He6e3neKa dark [da:k] 1. a tgmhhh; 2. adv TeMHO

dark-eyed fdaik'aid] a TeMHOOKHH date [deit] n rsltr daughter fdcxta] n AOHKa day [dei] n day-book ['deibuk] n mo^eHKHK dead [ded] a MepTBHH dear [dia] a floporHH, jho6hh

184

death [de0] n cMepTb deed [di:d] n bhhhok deep [di:p] a tjih6okhh, 3arjm 6jieHHH decide [dfsaid] v BHpimyBaTH decision [di'si3n] n pimeHHH decorate fdekareit] v npmcpamaTH decoration [.deka'reijn] n npnicpaca defeat [dffi:t] v po36nBaTn, 3aB,o;aBara nopa3Kn defend [dffend] v 3axnmaTn delegate f deligit] n aejieraT delicatessen [.deliks'tesn] rt x o j i o a Hi 3aKycKH, cajiaT deliver [di'liva] v nepe^aBaTH; bhrojioniyBaTH; /jocTaBJiHTH delivery [di'livori] n #ocTaBKa,

po3HeceHHa; nocTaBjiaHHa demand [di'ma:nd] 1 . n BHMora; 2. v BH M arara

demonstration [,dem9n'streijn] n fleMOHCTpaijifl

dentist ['dentist] n 3y6HHH Jiinap, ^aHTHCT

department [di'pcutmont] n BiAfliji department store ymBepivrar deputy ['depjuti] n ^enyTaT derivation [.deri'veijn] n noxoflHCeHHH, VTBOpeHHH describe [dis'kraib] v onHcyBara deserve [di'za:v] v 3acjiyroByBaTH design [di'zain] n npoeKT; njiaH designer [di'zains] n KOHCTpyKTop destination [.desti'neifn] n npn 3Ha-

HeHHH detachment [di'taetjmsnt] n 3ariH BincbK (Kopa6;iiB) develop [di'velap] v p03BHBaTii development [di'velspmant] n P03BHT0K devote [di'vout] v npHCBa^yBaTH diagnose ['daiagnouz] v cTaBPiTH Aiarao3 dialogue ['daiabg] n fliajior die [dai] v yMnpaTH differ ['difs] v BiApi3HHTii different ['difrant] a pi3HHH


d ifficu lt ['d ifik slt] a BajKKira, THHCKHH dig [dig] (dug, dug) v KonaTH dignity ['digmti] n ri^HicTb; sejm^ dinner ['dins] n o6i/j

drink [drirjk] (drank, drunk) v

to have dinner oSi/jara diploma [di plouma] n ahiijiom direction [di'rekjn] n HanpaM dirty ['d3:ti] a 6pyAHHH disappointed [.diss'pointid]

dry [drai] 1. a cyxira; 2. v cyniHTH; BHTHpaTH dullness ['cLvlms] n Hy^bra during ['djuarir)] prep npoTaroM; niA ^ac d u s t [d A s t ] n h h ji, n o p o x d u s t e r ['dAsto] n r a H ^ iip K a f l j i a

a

p 03Hap0 BaHHH discover [dis'kAvs] v BiflKpHBaTH discovery [dis'kAvori] n Bi,o;KpHTTa; BHHBJieHHH discuss [dis'kAs] v 06r0B0pi0BaTH disease [dizi:z] n xBopo6a disgrase [dis'greis] n raHb6a display [dis'plei] 1. n BHCTaBKa; 2. v noKa3yBaTH; BHHBjiaTH distance ['distans] n Bi^cTaHb district ['distrikt] n paaoH, OKpyr; o6jiacTb d iversity [dai'vo:siti] n pi3HoMaHiTHicTb divide [di'vaid] v /ujihth domestic [da'mestik] a AOMaiiraiH, CiMeHHHH door [do:] n ABepi doorman ['doimsn] n HiBeihi,ap doubt [daut] n cyMHiB no doubt 6e3cyMHiBHo down [daun] adv bhh 3 , ,zi;oHH3y draught [d r a f t ] n pi maniKH draw [dro:] (drew, drawn) u TarTH; bojiohhth; MajiioBaTH drawer [dro:] n myxjiafla; BHcyBna AoniKa (6y(pema, cmojia) draw ing ['dro:ir)] n MajiiOHOK; MaJIIOBaHHH technical drawing Kpecjieima dreadful ['dredful] a jKaxjiHBHH dream [dri:m] n Mpia dress [dres] 1 . n cyKHa; Oflar; 2 . v o^araTHca dress-m aker ['dres,meiko] n KpaB^iHHa

nHTH

driver ['draivo] n bo,zuh drop [drop] 1. n Kpanna; 2. v na^aTH

BHTHpaHHa im jiy

d u t y [ 'd j u : t i] n o 6 o b ’ h 3 o k t o b e o n d u t y ^ep ryB aT H

Ee each [i:t j] pron kojkhhh each other oahh oflHoro ear [io] n Byxo early ['a:li] 1. a paH H m ; 2. adv paHo east [i:st] n Cxi# in the east Ha c x i # eastern ['i:s t o n ] a cxiA H H H easy [ i : z i ] a jie rK H H eat [i: t ] (ate, eaten) v icth economy [ii'k o n a m i] n eKOHOMiKa education [ (e d ju :'k e ijh ] n o c B iT a effort [ ' e f o t ] n 3 ycp u u ia either ['aids] a 6y,n;b-HKHii (a deox) either... or cj a 6 o ... a 6 o elder [ 'e l d s ] a cTapiHHii (y ciM’i) elect [x 'le k t ] v o0H paTH electric [ I 'l e k t r i k ] a ejieK T p H ^ H H H electric power station ejieKTpocTaHii;ia electrician [ilek'trijn] n ejieKTpnK else [els] adv m,e embarrass [im'baerss] v 6eHTe$KHTH embassy ['embosi] n n ocojib C T B o embody [im'bodi] n BTijiiOBaTH b HCHTTa; BKJHO^aTH emperor ['e m p o r a ] n iM n ep a T O p emphasize [ 'e m f o s a i z ] v n iA K p e c JIIOBaTH

185


empty fem (p)ti] 1, a nopoHCHiii; 2. V CIIOpOHCHHTH end [end] n KiHen,b enemy ['enimi] n Bopor engine fend in] n motop, ABHryH engineering [,end3i'ni9rii3] n Texm3

Ka; ManiHHo6yAyBaHHH

enjoy [in'd Di] v HacojioA^KyBara3

ca; AicTaBaTH 3aAOBOJieHHH

enough [i'nAf] adv AocHTb enter ['enta] v bxoahth y; BCTynaTH entire [in'tais] a Beet, ijijiHH entirely [in'taisli] adv noBHicTio; U,ijIKOM

envelope fenviloup] n KOHBepT environment [in'vaiaranmsnt] n AObkLjijih, HaBKOJiHniHe cepeAOBHiije epidemy fepidemi] n enifleMi^He 3aXBOpIOBaHHfl

equip [fkwip] v oSjiaAHyBara; cnopHAHCaTH

equipment [I'kwipmsnt] n o6jiaAHaHHfl, ocHameHHa

escape [is'keip] v yTeKra; BpHTyBaTHCH especially [is'pejsli] adv oco6jihbo essential [I'senfdl] a icTOTHHH, 3HaHHHH establish [is'taeblij] u ycTaHOBjnoBaTH establishment [is'taeblijmsnt] n BCTaHOBjieHHa; 3aKJiaA, ycTaHOBa

ethnic ['eGnik] a eTHhiHHH Europe fjuarap] pr n 0Bpona eve [i:v] n nepeAA^Hb on the eve HanepeflOflni even ['irv(a)n] adv HaBiTb event [invent] n noflia ever ['eva] adv KOJiH-He6yAb every fevri] pron kohchhh, bchkhh everybody ['evribodi] pron kohchhh ; BCHKa jiiOAHHa everyone ['evriwAn] pron kojkhhh; Bcana jiioAHHa

186

everything f evriGiq] pron Bee exactly [ig'zaektlr] adv tohho exaggerate [ig'zaed39reit] v nepe6iJihinyBaTH

examination [ig.zaemfneijn] n eK3aMeH examine [ig'zaemm] v po3rjiflflaTH; o6cTe>KyBaTn; eK3aMeHyBaTH

to examine a patient orjiHHyTH nan,ieHTa except [ik'sept] prep KpiM, 3a BHHHTKOM exceptional [ik'sepjbnl] a bhhhtKOBHH excursion [ i k s 'k a i f n ] n e K C K y p c i a exercise [ ' e k s a s a i z ] 1. n BnpaBa; 2. V 3fliH C H IO B aTH

exhibition [.eksi'bijn] n BHCTaBKa explain [iks'plein] v noacnioBaTH exploration [,eksplo:'reiJn] n r o CJliAHCeHHH

explore [iks'pla:] v AOCJiiAHcysaTH, BHB^iaTH explorer [iks'ploira] n aocjuahhk expression [iks'prejn] n bhcjiI b eye [ai] n o k o

Ff face [feis] n oSjihh^h facilitate [fa'siliteit] v nojiermyBath ;CnpHHTH factory ['faektari] n $a6pHKa fair [fea] a cbItjihh; achhh; 6ijiabhh; ^ecHHn; cnpaBeA-JinBHH fair-haired ['feahead] a cbI tjioBOJIOCHH fairy-tale ['fesriteil] n Ka3Ka fall [fx l] (fell, fallen) v n a A a r a to fall ill 3axBopi™ family ffaemili] n ciM’ h famine ffaemin] n r0Ji0A famous ['feimas] a 3HaMeHHTHH fan [faen] n y6ojiiBajibHHK fancy ffaensi] v yhbjihth (co6i) far [fa:] 1. a AajieKuft; 2. adv AajieKO


fare [feo] n BapTicTb

n p o i3 A y ;

njiaTa 3a npoi3A farm [fa:m] n $epMa farm er [rfa:mo] n <|)epMep; opeHAap fast [feust] a Miu,Htra; dibhakhh

My w atch is one minute fast. MiH roflHHHHK nocnimae Ha XBHJIHHy. fate [feit] n aojih, 4>aTyM favo u r ['feivo] n KOpHCTb; npH-

XHJIbHiCTb in favour of Ha KopHCTb

(

kozo-

nedydb)

favourite ffeivorit] a yjiio6jieHHH fear [fio] 1 . n cTpax; 2 . v 6oa™ ca feature ['fi:tjb] n noBHOMeTpaHCHHH (J )ijib M

feel [fi:l] (felt, felt) v BiAnyBara feeling ['fiilii)] n nonyTTa; eMOu,ia feet [fi:t] n Horn (cmynni ) fellow f felou] n xjionen,b; jnoAHHa; TOBapHHI fence [fens] n oropoaca, thh fertile ['fo:tail] a poaiohhh; 6araTHH few [fju:] a Majio, He6araTO field [fi.ld] n nojie fierce [fios] a jiiothh; majieHHH figh t [fait] n 6m; 6opOTb6a fig h t [fait] (fought, fought) v 6opoTHca figh ter ffaito] n 6opeu,b, 6oeu,b fill [fil] v HanoBHK)BaTH; bhkoHyBaTH

find

[faind]

(found,

found)

v

SHaXOAHTH fine [fain] a npeKpacHHH finger ['fnjgs] n najieu,b finish ffin ij] v 3aKiHHyBaTii fire ffaio] n BorHHiije fire-place n KaMiH first [fo:st] num nepniHH fish [fij] 1. n p«6a; 2. v jiobhth

pn6y fitter ['fits] n caiocap fla g [flaeg] n npanop

flat [fleet] 1 . n njiocica nosepxHa; KsapTHpa; 2 . a iijiockhh, piBHHH fla x [flaeks] n jiboh fligh t [fla it] n noaiT flood [fLvd] n noBiHb; noriK floor [fId:] n niAJiora flow er fflauo] n KBiTKa flu [flu:] n rpnn fly [flai] (flew, flown) v aiTaTH folk [fouk] a HapoAHHH folk-lore ['fouklo:] n (JwwibKJiop folk-song f fouksog] n HapOAHa nicHa follow ['folou] U iTH 3a KHMCb; HacjiiAYBaTH npHKJiaA fond [fond] a hIhchhh, jno6jia*mH

to be fond of jik>6hth food [fu:d] n IjKa fool [fu:l] 1. n AypeHb; 6jia3eHb; 2. v AypHTH foot [fu t] n {pi feet) cTynHa, Hora go on foot iTH niiiiKH football ffutbo:l] n (J)yT6oji fo o tb a ll p layer ['futbo:l,pleio] n <|>yT6ojiicT

foot-wear ['futweo] n B3yTTa for [f o:] prep AJia for breakfast Ha CHiAaHOK force [fo:s] n cHjia forefather ['fo:,fa:0o] n npeAOK foreign ['form ] a iH03eMhhh forest ['forist] n jiic forget [fs'get] (forgot, forgotten) v 3a6 yBaTH fork [fo:k] n BHAeJiKa form [fo:m] 1 . n 4>opMa; Kaac (y utKOJii); 2 . v yTBopioBaTH fortnight ['fo:tnait] n ABa TnacHi forw ard ['fo:wod] a nepeAHiii, nepeAObhh ; paHHiii found [faund] v 3acHOByBaTH founder ffaundo] n 3acH0BHHK fran k ly ['fraerjkli] adv BiABepTO

fra n k ly speakin g KaHcyHH

BiABepTO 187


free [fri:] a b1jii>hhh free of charge 6e3KOHiTOBHHH freedom ['friidam] n CBo6oAa French [frentj] 1. n $paHu,y3bKa MOBa; 2 . a (|)paHu,y3bKHH fresh [frej] a CBincHH freshwater ['frej/wa'ta] a n p ic H O boahhh

glad

a

[g la e d ]

pa-

AiCHHH g la s s [g la :s ]

n

c K jia H K a ; ^ a p n a

g l i d e r ['g la id a ]

n

n jia H e p

g o [g o u ] (w e n t, g o n e )

v ira, ixaTH,

p yxaraca to g o b y bus

i’xaTH aBTo6ycoM

t o g o f o r a w a l k iT H r y j i a T H

friend [frend] n Apyr, npHHTejib friendly ffren dli] adv Apy>Ke-

t o g o h o m e iTH AOAOMy t o g o i n f o r s p o r t s 3 a iiM a T H c a

CnopTOM

jik > 6 h o

friendship ffrendjip] n ApyacGa from [from ]prep BiA, 3, i3 front [frAnt] n <|>acaA> nepeA; (J)pOHT frontier ['frAntjs] n k o p a o h frost [frost] n Mopo3 frosty ['frosti] a m o p o 3 h h h fruit [fruit] n <J>pyKTH fry [frai] v CMajKHTu fulfil [ful'fll] V BHKOHyBaTH, 3AiwCHIOBaTH fundamental [,fAnd3'mentl] a OCHOBHHH; AOKOpiHHHH funny ['fAm] a cMiuiHHH, 3a6aBHHH

t o g o o u t BHXOAHTH to g o to b ed jia r a r a g o ld [g o u ld ] good

[g u d ]

G g gallery ['gaelari] n rajiepea game [geim] n rpa garden [ga:dn] n caA gargle [gaigl] 1. n nojiocicaHHa (Ojisi zopjia); 2 . v nojiocnaTH (eopjio) gas [gaes] n ra3 gather ['gaeda] v 36npaTH generation [,d3enyreijh] n n 0 K 0 jiiHHa, reHepaijia geography [d^j'ogrsfi] n reorpa<J)ia German ['d33:mon] 1. n HiMeu,bKa MOBa; 2 . a HiMeu,bKHH get [get] (got, got) v OAepncyBara; A06npaTHCH to get off b h x o a h t h to get in b x o a h t h to get up BCTaBaTH girl [go:l] n AiB^HHKa, AiB^HHa give [giv] (gave, given) v AasaTH

cnaTH

n s o jio to a xopoihhh ; ao6p h h ;

rapHHH n peni, TOBap f g u d ' b a i ] int a o

g o o d s [g u d z ] good -b ye

no6a-

MeHHa g o v e r n [ 'g A v s n ]

v

KepyBaTH , y n p a -

BJIHTH

govern or

[ 'g A v a n s ]

n

n p a B H T e jib ;

ry6epH aTO p g o v e r n m e n t [ 'g A v n m a n t ]

grain

[g r e in ]

n

g r a n d [g r a e n d ]

188

3aAOBOJieHHH;

n

ypaA

3epHO

a bcjihkhh; rpaHAi-

03H H H

n A iA y c b ['g r a e n d ^ A d o ] n

g r a n d f a t h e r ['g r a e n d ^ a id a ] g ra n d m o th er 6a6yca

graphite f g r a e f a i t ] n r p a $ i T grass [ 'g r a : s ] n T p aB a grating [ ' g r e i t i i ] ] n tpaTH; 3anpHBaHHH pemiTKOK) grave [ g r e i v ] n Mornjia great [ g r e i t ] a B ejiH K H H Creat Britain [ ' g r e i t ' b r i t n ] p r n B e jiH K a B p H T a H ia

Greece [ g r i i s ] p r n T p e i j i a green [ g r i : n ] a 3 ejieH H H greengrocer’s shop ['grkn.grousaz'jbp] n OBoneBa (4>pyKTOBa) KpaMHHH,a g r e e t [g r i:t] v B iT a ra g r e e t i n g [ 'g r i : t i Q ] n B iT a H H a g r e y [ g r e i ] a cipHH


grey-eyed f grei.aid] a cipooKHH grey-haired ['grei,hesd] a chbhh grocer’s shop ['grousss'Jbp] n SaKajiiiraa KpaMHHija ground [graund] n I'pyHT sports ground ciiopthbhhh MaHAaH^HK group [gru:p] n rpyna grow [grou] (grew, grown) v BHpomyBaTH; pOCTH grown-up ['groun Ap] a aopocjihh guide fgaid] n riA, eiccKypc0B0A guess [ges] v BiAraAyBa™ guest [gest] n ricTb gulf [gAlf] n MopcbKa 3aTOKa gun [gAn] n pyniHHija; ra p M a T a gymnasium [d 3im'neizjsm] n cnopTH BH a 3 ajia

gymnastics [d^im'nsestiks] n HacTHKa

r iM -

Hh haberdashery ['haebsdaefsri] n rajiaHTepea hair [hes] n bojiocch half [ha:f ] n nojic>BHHa ham [haem] n niHHKa hamburger ['haembs:gs] n 6yjio*iKa 3 6i4>HiTeKCOM, raMSyprep hand [haend] n pyna; cTpijiKa (ZOdUHHUKCL)

handsome fhaenssm] a rapHHH hang [haei}] (hung, hung) v BirnaTH happen ['hsepsn] v TpanjiaTnca, BiA^yBaTHca happy ['haepi] a macjiHBHH hard [hcud] a TBepAnii; ynepTHH harvest ['hcuvist] n yponcaii hat [haet] n Kanejiiox hate [heit] v HeHaBHAiTH head [hed] 1. n rojioBa; 2. v OTOJIIOBaTH at the head of Ha *iojii headache ['hedeik] n tojiobhhh 6ijib headmaster ['hedmaists] n&npeKTOp HIKOJIH

head-quarters fhed'kws:tsz] n mTa6 health [helG] n 3A0p0B’ a hear [his] (heard, heard) v *iyTH heart [ha:t] n cepu,e heavy fh evi] a BaHCKHH helicopter ['helikopts] n BepTOJiiT help [help] 1. n AonoMora; 2. v AonoMaraTH

help yourself npHroin;aiiTeca here [his] adv TyT; cioah here you are! ocb, 6yAb Jiacna! (npu epynenm noeocb) hero fhisrou] rt repon heroic [hi' rouik] a repoiHHHH heroism ['herouizm] n repoi3M herself [hsfself] pron ce6e; caMa hi [hai] int aMep. npHBiT!, ajuio! high [hai] a bhcokhh

higher education BHii^a ocBiTa highway ['haiwei] n aBTOMariCTpajib; moce hill [hil] n rop6, narop6 himself [him'self] pron ce6e; caM history ['histsri] n icTopia hobby ['hobi] n xo6i, yjno6jieHe 3aHHTTH

hockey ['hoki] n xoKeii hockey-player ['hski.pleis] xoKeicT hold [hould] (held, held) TpnMaTH holiday fholsd(e)i] n cbhto; a ^hb BiAnoHHHKy

holidays fholsdiz] n KaHiKyjin home [houm] n a im , jkhtjio at home BAOMa to go home iTH A°AOMy homely ['houmli] a AOManiHiii hometask [rhoumta:sk] n AOMaiirae 3aBAaHHa homework ['houmws:k] n AOManraa po6oTa

honour [ons] 1. n necTb; cjiaBa; 2. v maHyBaTH

hope [houp] 1. n HaAia; 2. v cnoAiBaTHca

horse [ho:s] n KiHb 189


h o s ie r y

['hou39ri]

TpHKcrraHc;

n

s p ite

o f He3Ba5KaioHH H a,

B cyn ep en

naH H im H i BHpo6n

fhospitl] n jiin a p H H h o s t [houst] n rocnoAap h o t [hot] a rapa^HH; ncapKHH h o t e l [hou'tel] n ro T e jib h o u r faus] n roAHHa h o u s e [haus] n Gyahhok h o u s e h o ld ['haushould] n ciivi’H, h o s p ita l

p oA H H a; AOM aniHe r o c n o A a p -

i n c lu d i n g [in 'k lu id iij] p r e p b TOMy MHCJli in d ig n a n tly

[ i n 'd i g n a n t l i ]

adv

o6ypeHO,rHiBHo i n d u s t r y [ 'i n d o s t r i ] n npOMHCJioBiCTb i n d u s t r i a l [in 'd A s t r io l] a n poM H CJTOBHH i n f l u e n c e ['in f lu s n s ] n BnjiHB

CTBO

[hau] a d v

how

in

i n f l u x f i n f U k s ] n nanjiH B ( n a p o d y )

hk

h o w m a n y c k d ib k h ( i3 3Jiiny-

i n f o r m [in 'fo :n i] v iH<|)OpMyBaTH

eaH U M U iM eH H U K a M u )

i n f o r m a t i o n [.in fs 'm e i In ] n in ^ o p -

h o w m u c h c k Ijib k h ( i3 ne3Jiiny-

eaHUMU iMenHUKUMU)

i n h a b it a n t [in 'h a e b ito n t]

H o w d o y o u d o ? 3 A p a c T y ii(T e )!;

Hk no^KHBacTe? how ever

n (n o c -

TiHHHfi) MeniKaHen,i>, HCHTejib i n j e c t i o n [in 'd 3 e k fn ] n iH ’ e K n ia

[hau'eva]

OAHaK,

cj

He3Ba^caiOHH Ha

in s o m n ia [ln 's o m m a ] n 6e3coHHH in s t e a d [in 's t e d ] p r e p 3aM icTb

BejmHe3HHH, sejie-

h u g e [h ju id s ] a

Man,ia

TeHCbKHH

i n s t i t u t e ['r n s tit ju :t] n iHCTHTyT in te g r a l

fhAndrad] n u m cto h u n g r y ['hAQgri] a t o jio a h k h h u s b a n d fhAzbond] n ^ojiobI k (dpywuHu) h y d r o - e l e c t r i c fhaidroui'lektrik] a h u n d red

riApoejieKTpH^HHH

[ 'i n t i g r a l ]

a

iio b h h h ,

iU jih h ; HeBiA’ eMHHH in te llig ib le

[in 'te lid 3 3 b l] a 3pC3y-

m u ih h i n t e r e s t [ ' i n t r i s t ] v n,iKaBHTii in te r e s tin g

[ 'm t r i s t i r ) }

a

I^iKaBHH i n t e r n a t i o n a l [.into'na^Janl] a m ' it k -

Ii I [ai] p r o n a ic e [ais] n jiiA ic e - c r e a m ['ais'kri:m] id e a [a f dia] n iA e a i f [if] c j HKU^O

HapOAHHH in te r v a l n m op o3 h b o

filastreit]

in

[i n ] p r e p

v ijiio c T p y -

i n v e n t o r [in " v e n t s ] n BHHaxiAHHK in v io la b le

[im'poitans]

n

BancjiH-

[ i n 'v a i s l a b l ]

a

H en o-

p yn iH H n ; HeAOTopKaHHHii i n v i t e [ i n 'v a i t ] n 3 an p om yB aT H

[im'poitant]

a

Baaum-

in v o lv e

[in 'v o lv ]

v

y M in jy B a T H ,

BTaryBaTH

[im'prejn] b, y

n

t o b e in G y m BAOMa in f r o n t o f

190

v 3 H aiio-

i n v e n t [ i n 'v e n t ] v BMHaxoAHTH

BHH im p r e s s io n

[ 'm t r a 'd j u i s ]

MHTH, BiApeKOMeHAOByBaTH

s ic T b ; 3HaneHHa im p o r ta n t

nepepB a;

i n t o ['m t u .'m t o ] p r e p b in tr o d u c e

BaTH im p o r ta n c e

n

aHTpaKT

i l l [ i l ] a XBOpHH illu s tr a te

[ 'i n t s v a l ]

nepeA

Bpa^ceHHa

i r o n f a i s n ] 1. n 3ajii30 2. v n p a c y -

BaTH, rjiaAHTH ir r e g u la r

[ 1' r e g j u b ]

BHJIbHHH

a

H enpa-


['aibnd] n o cT p iB is s u e ['is ju : ] v BHAaBaTH, BHnycnaTH (za3emy, Mypnaji moiu,o) i t [it] pron BiH, BOHa, boho (Ojih neMueux npedMemie i meapun )

is la n d

Jj jacket ['d 3aekit] n HcaneT; KypTKa jeans [d 3i:nz] n a>khhch; po6ohhh koctiom join [d 33in] v npHeAHyBaTHCH; BCTynaTH (0

napmim, cnijiuy)

joke [d 30uk] n ^capT journalist ['d 33:n3list] n >KypHajiicT juice [d 3u:s] n ciK jump [d 3Amp] v CTpn6aTH jumping ['d;> .mpio] n c t p h 6 k m (aud

cnopmy) juridical [ d 3u a ' r i d i k l ] a i o p h a h h HHH; 3aKOHHHH just [d 3Ast] adv iijohho justice f d 3Astis] n cnpaBeAJiHBicTb;

cyAAfl; npaBOcyAAH

Kk keep [ki:p] (kept, kept) v TpHMara, 36epirara; 3ajiHuiaTH to keep in mind M a t h H a y B a 3 i to keep to one’s bed a o t p h MyBaTHCH nocTijibHoro pencnMy

kill [kil] V B6HBaTH killer [ k i b ] n y 6HBn,H, KHJiep kilogram m e ['kibgraem] n K ijio rpaM kilometre ['kib,mi:t3] n KijiOMeTp kind [kaind] 1. n copT; b h a ; 2. a Ao6pHH king [kiq] n Kopojib kingdom ['kirjdsm] n k o p o j i I b c t b o kitchen fkitjin] n KyxHa kitchen-garden ['kitjin'gcudn] n

ropoA knight [nait] n pnijap, Jini^ap

know [ n o u ] (knew, known) v 3H aTH knowledge [ 'n o l i d 3 ] n 3H aH H H

LI laboratory [b'bor3t(9)ri] n jia 6opaT o p ia

labour [ l e i b o ] n n p a i j a labour-training n BHpoSnHne HaBHaHHH lack [laek] n HecTana, 6pan for lack of time 3a 6paK0M nacy lake [leik] n 03ep0 lamp [laemp] n jiaMna land [laend] n 3eMJia landlord ['laendb:d] n AOMOBJiacHHK,

HKHH

3Aae

(B H a H M H )

K B a p ra p n

lane [lein] n cTe^cxa; npOByjlOK language ['laeQgwid3] n MOBa large [la:d3] a b c j i h k h h last [la:st] 1. a ocTaHHiii 2. 1; TpHBaTH at last HapeniTi last night B^opa ysenepi for the last time BocTaHH€ late [ l e i t ] 1. a n i3 H iH 2. adv n i3H O to be late 3ani3HK)BaTHca later [ ' l e i t a ] adv n i3 H im e lathe [leid] n TOKapHHH BepcTaT Latin ['laetin] n jiaTHHb laugh [la:f] v c m I h t h c h law [lo:] n 3aKOH; npaso lawn [ b : n ] n r a 3 0 H , jiyncoK lay [ l e i ] (laid, laid) v KJiacTH to lay the table H a icp H B a T H H a CTijI lazy ['leizi] a jieAa^HH lead [li:d] (led, led) v BecTH, KepysaTH leader [ ' l i x b ] n b o jk a i> ; K e p iB H H K leadership [ 'l i i d a j i p ] n K e p iB H H ijT B o leaf [ l i : f ] n j i h c t o k league [li:g] n Jiira, cnijiKa leap [ l i : p ] (leapt, leaped) v CTpn6aTH leap-year [ 'l i i p j a : ] n b h c o k o c h h h p iK

191


least [li:st] 1. a HaHMemiraii; 2. adv HaHMeHine

leave [li:v] (left, left) v noKH^aTH; 3ajinmaTH; BiAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;incA^aTH ledge [led^] n ycTyn; Kpaii left [left] a jiiBHH

on the left 3Jiisa leg [leg] n Hora (eid cmeena do cmynni) legend fled3snd] n jiereH/ja legislation [,led3is'leijh] n 3aK0H0AaBCTBO

legislative ['led3islstiv] a

3aK0H 0-

AaBHHii

lend [lend] (lent, lent) v no3HHaTn; HaAaBaTH

less [les] 1. a MeHimm; 2. adv

log [log] a KOJiOAa; ACpeBHHa long [loij] a AOBrHH look [luk] v ahbhthch to look after niKJiyBaTHca npo to look for HiyKaTH to look like 6yra cxojkhm (ua KOZOCb)

lorry ['b r i] n BaHTa^KHim aBTOMo6ijib lose [lu:z] (lost, lost) v BTpa^aTH, nporpaBaTH loss [los] n BTpaTa loud [laud] a ry^mira loudly ['laudli] adv rynHO love [1av] v jiio6hth lunch [LmtJ] n Jienn, Apyrnii CHiAaHOK

MeHine

lessen flesn] v 3MeHinyBaTH let [let] V A03B0JIHTH letter ["lets] n 6yKBa; jiiTepa; jihct registered letter peKOMeHAoBaHHH JIHCT air-mail letter jihct aBiaIIOHITOK) liberation [,libs'reijn] rt 3Bijn>HeHHH, BII3B0JieHHH liberator ['libsreits] n bh3bojihTejib library ['laibrsri] n 6i6jiioTeKa lie [lai] (lay, lain) v jiencaTH to lie in the sun 3aropflra life [laif] n hchtth lift [lift] n Jii<j)T light [lait] 1 . 7i CBiTjio; 2. a cbItjihh like [laik] 1. a noAiftHHH, cxojkhh; 2. v noAoSaracH, jiioShth lip [lip] v ry6a listen flisn] v cjiyxaTH literary ['litsrsri] a jii/repaTypHHH literature ['litsritfs] n jiiTepaTypa litre flirts] n jiiTp little flitl] a MajieHbKHii live [liv] V 5KHTH living-room ['livirjrum] n BiTajibHH local flouksl] a MicijeBHH 192

Mm magazine [,ni3egs'zi:n] n HcypHaji mail [meil] n noniTa main [mein] a tojiobhhh, ochobhhh mainland fmeinlsnd] n MaTepmc; Haii6ijibmHH ocTpiB major ['meid 3s] a BancjiHBHH; BeJIHKHH make [meik] (made, made) v P06HTH to make a dialogue cKJiaAara AiaJior to make a snowman jiinnTH cHiroBHKa male [meil] a hojiobIhhh mamma [ms'ma:] n MaMa, HeHbKa manage fni2enid3] v KepyBara manager fmaenid3S] n MeHeAtfcep, aAMiHicTpaTop, KepiBHHK manganese [,maei3gs'ni:z] n Mapranen,b mankind [maen'kaind] n jiioactbo manuscript ['maenjuskript] n pyKonnc many ['mem] a 6araTO map [maep] n KapTa maple ['meipl] n KJieH


m a r b l e ['m a :b l] n M a p M y p m ark

1.

[m a :k ]

n

2.

o ijiH K a ;

v

BiA3HanaTH m a r k e t f m a :k it ] n p h h o k m a s t e r ['m custs] n x a 3 *iiH, ro c n o / ja p m atch

1. n

[m aetj]

m

&t h ;

2. v

n a c y e a T H ; n iA x o A H T H n ifl n a p y m a th e m a tic s

[,mse0 i'm setiks]

n

MaTeMaTHKa m a y [m e i] ( p a s t m i g h t ) v

m o ith ,

MaTH 3 M o r y m e [ m i m i ] p r o n M eH i, MeHe m e a d o w ['m e d o u ] n Jiyn a i n t h e m e a d o w H a Jiyiu m e a n i n g ['m i:m r)] n 3HaneHHH ['m e 3s r ig ]

m e a s u rin g

n

B H M ip io -

BaH H H

m e a t [m i.t] n m ’h c o m e d a l [m e d l] n M e ^ a jib m e d ic in e

['m e d s n ]

n

jiIk h ;

MeAHn;HHa m eet

[m i:t ]

(m e t ,

m et)

v

3ycTpiHaTH m e e t i n g fm iit iq ] n 3 6 o p n ; 3y cT p i*i m e m b e r ['m e m b s ] n HJieH ( n a p m i i ) m e m b e rs h ip

n

['m e m b s jlp ]

^ jie H -

CTBO

m e m o ry fm e m a n ] n n aM ’aTb to

honour

th e

m em o ry

HiaHyBaTH naM,HTi> m e n tio n

['m e n fn ]

v

3 r a fly B a T H ;

n o c m ia T H c a m e n u ['m e n ju :] n M eHio m e r e [m i s ] 1 . a n p o c T H ii; * ih c t h h ; 2 . a d v jiH in e f o r a m e r e p e n n y jm rn e 3 a o a h h neHH i

m i d d le ['m i d i ] n cep eA H H a m ild

[m a ild ]

n o M ip H H H

a

m ’a k h h ; (n p o

T e m iH H ;

KJiiMam) ;

jia riA H H H ( n p o x a p a u m e p ) m i l i t a r y ['m ilit s r i] a BiiicbKOBHH m i l k [m ilk ] n m o jio k o m i l k m a d e ['m ilk m e id ] n A o n p ica m i l l i o n ['m iljs n ] n u m MijibHOH m i n e r f m a in s ] n rip H H K ;

rnaxTap

minor ['mains] MeHinnH 3 a b o x ; mojioaihhh minority [,mai'nDnti] n MeHmicTb; MeHina ^acTHHa minus ['mainss] n Mmyc minute ['mimt] n xBHjiHHa miserable ['mizsrsbl] a HeujacHHH miss [mis] 1. n Mic, naHHa; AiB^HHa; 2 . v cxh6hth, He BJiy^HTH mistake [mis'teik] n noMHjraa mistress ['mistns] n rocnoAHHH, xa3HHKa modern ['modsn] a cynacHHH modest ['msdist] a ckpomhhh; COpOMJIHBHH

money ['num] n rporni monkey ['niAijki] n MaBna month ['nunG] n Mican,b monument ['monjumsnt] n naM’HT-

HHK more [mo:] 1. a 6ijibmim; 2. adv 6ijibme moreover [mofrouvs] adv KpiM Toro, ao Toro hc morning ['mo:mq] n paHOK in the morning BpaHu,i most [moust] 1. a Haii6ijibmHH; 2. adv HaMijibme mother ['nuds] n MaTH motherland ['mAdslaend] n 6aTbKis-

n^HHa motto fmotou] n AeBi3 mountain ['mauntin] n ropa mountainous ['mauntinss] a ropncTHH

mouse [maus] n MHina mouth [mau0] 1. n pot; 2. v BnaAaTH (npo pinicy) move [ m i i ’v ] v pyxaTHcn; nepeiHCA3KaTH

movement ['miuvmsnt] n pyx Mrs. fmisiz] n (cKop. eid Mistress) Micic, nam much [m A tJ ] 1. a 6araTo; 2. adv Ryxze murder ['ms:ds] n ySHBCTso 193


museum [mjufziam] n My3eii mushroom fmAjrum] n rpu6 music ['mju:zik] n My3HKa musician [mjufzijn] n My3HKaHT must [nust] v noBHHeH mustard ['nust3d] n ripMHn,a mutual ['mjtttjuol] a B3aeMHHii; cnijibHHH my [mai] pron Miii, moh, moc, Moi myself [mafself] pron ce6e; co6i

N n name [neim] n iM’a napkin f nsepkin] n cepBeTKa narrow f naerou] a By3i>KHH nation fneijn] n Hau,ia, Hapo# national ['naefonl] a Han,ioHajibHHH national history Hap0A03HaBCTBO

nation-wide a BceHapoflHHH native fneitrv] a pIahhh natural fnaetjrel] a iiphpoahhh, HaTypajibHHii natural conditions npnpoAHi yMOBH

natural resources npnpoAHi

n ew sreel

['nju:zri:l] n KiHOJKypHaji;

K iH o x p o H iK a

[nekst] a HacTynHHH n i c e [nais] a rapHira nickel [nikl] n HiKejib;

next

aMep.

M O H eTa b 5 i^eH TiB

night [nait] n h!h n o [n o u ] adv He, HicKijibKH He n o b le

a

[ 'n o u b l ]

G jia r o p O A H H ii;

CJiaBHHH n o b o d y ['noubodi] pron H ix T O n o i s e [noiz] n r n y M , rajiac n o r t h [no:0] n n iB H i^i n o r t h e r n ['no:dan] a n iB H i^ H M H n o s e [nouz] n H ie n o t [not] adv H e n o t a t a l l H e BapTO ( nodsiKu) n o te d

['noutid] a BHAaTHHH

n o t h i n g ['n A 0 ir )]

pron H in o r o

fnoutifai] v nosiAOMjiHTH n o v e l ['novl] n poMaH n o w [nau] adv T e n e p , 3apa3 n o w a d a y s ['nausdeiz] adv T e n e p ; 3a

n o tify

HaniHx naciB n u m b e r [' n A m b a ] n H O M ep n u r s e [nais] n M e A c e c T p a

6araT C T B a

naturally adv npupoAHo; 3 b h naiiHO nature ['neitja] n npupo^a near [ms] adv 6ltih nearly ['mail ] adv npH6jiH3HO necessary ['nesisori] a noTpiSimii neck [nek] n mu h need [n i:d ] v M aTH n o T p e 6 y neighbour ['neibo] n cyciA neither ['naida] a mcoach; Hi toh, Hi iHHIHH neither... nor cj Hi... Hi... never fneva] adv hIkojih nevertheless [,neved3'les] 1. adv Bce-TaKH; 2. cj npOTe new [nju:] a hobhh New Year tree ['nju'ja: tri:] n hobopi^raa ajiHHKa newspaper ['nju:s,peipo] n ra3eTa

194

Oo obstacle ['obstakl] n nepeniKOAa o f f e r [ ofe] v n p o n o H y B a ™ o f f i c e fofis] n o<|)ic, b I a o m c t b o o f t e n fo(:)fn] adv ^ a c T O o l d [ 'o u id ]

a cTapH H

How old a r e you? CKijibKH To6i pOKiB? Olympic [ou'limpik] a ojiiMniiicbKHH on

[on] prep Ha

num o a h h o n l y ['ounli] adv jiHme, TijibKH o p e n ['oup(a)n] v BiAKpHBaTH; po3-

o n e [wAn]

ropTaTH o p e r a t e fopareit] v aIhth o p p o s i t e fopozit] adv HaBnpoTH o r [o:] conj a6o o r c h a r d ['o :t| b d ]

n (JjpyKTOBHH

caA


order ['aids] 1. n HaKa3; nopa^on; 2. V 3aMOBJIHTH ore [d:] n py#a organization [p:gsnai zeijn] n opraHi3au;ia organize ['oigsnaiz] v 0pram30ByBaTH

organizer [ rD:gsnaizo] n opram3aTop

other ['a5s] a imiiHH the other day He^aBHO our ['aus] pron Ham ourselves [.auo'selvz] pron ce6e; caMi out [aut] adv Ha30BHi to be out He 6yTn B^OMa; bhhth outer ['auts] a 30BHimHm outer space k o c m p ih h h npocTip outsider [ aufsaids] n CTOpOHHin; ayTcaH^ep outstanding [aut'stsendig] a BH#aTHHH, 3HaMeHHTHH

oval ['ouvsl] a oBaabHHH over ['ouvs] adv no; nepe3; Ha#, BHin,e to be over 3aiciHHyBaTHca own [oun] a BJiacHHH

p p page [peid3] n cTOpiHKa on page 2 Ha cTopiHn,i 2 pain [pern] n 6ijib (ocodjiueo

eocmpuu) paint [pemt] 1. n <J)ap6a; 2. v MajnoBaTH $ap6aMn; <J>ap6yBaTH painter f'peints] n xyaojkhhk; mrjiap palace fpaelis] n najian, pale [peil] a Sjuahh paper fpeips] n nanip paper-mill ['peipomil] n n a n e p O B a 4>a6pnKa parade [pa'reid] n napaa parcel fpa:sl] n nanyHOK; nocHjiKa parent ['pesrsnt] pi SaTbKH park [pa:k] n napK

parliam ent ['patomant] n napaaM eH T

part [pcut] n ^acTHHa

to take part 6paTH ynacTb participant [pcu'tisipont] n ynacHHK participate [paftisipeit] v 6paTH ynacTb party fp a t i] n napTia; Benipica pass [pa:s] v iiphxoahth, nepexoftHTH to pass examinations CKJia^aTH ic n H T H

past [past] 1. n MHHyjie; 2. a MHHyJIHH patient fpeijant] n naijieHT patriot ['peitnat] n naTpioT patriotic [paetn'otik] a BiTHH3HaH H H , n a T p iO T H H H H H

Great Patriotic W a r Bejmica BiTMH3HaHa Biifoia pay [pei] (paid, paid) v naaTHTH to pay tribute BiflflaBaTH

HajiencHe peace [pi:s] n mhp peaceful ['pi:sful] a mhphhh peasant ['pezsnt] n cejiaHHH pen [pen] n pynica pen-name n nceB,a;oHiM pence [pens] n (pi eid penny) neHCH pencil ['pensl] n ojiiBen,b pencil-box n neHaji penny ['pern] n neHHi, neHc; aMep. MOHeTa b 1 n,eHT pensioner ['penjbno] n neHcioHep perfect ['pstfikt] 1. a AOCKOHajmii; 3aiciH*ieHHH;

epaM. nepc|)eKT-

2. v B flo c K O H a jiio B a T H , nojiinmyBaTH perform [pa'fo:m] v BHKOHyBaTH; CTaBHTH (nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ecy) performance [ps'fismsns] n BHCTaBa period fpiarisd] n nepiofl perish fpenfl v rHHyTH personal ['paisnl] a ocoShcthh photo ffoutou] n 4>OTorpa(J)ia physical training ['fiziksl 'treimrj] n 4>i3KyjibTypa hhh;

195


physics ['fiziks] n <|)i3HKa piano ['pjaenou] n <})0pTeniaH0,

p o l i t i c a l [p s 'lit ik l] a n ojiiT H M H H H

POHJIB pick [pik] v 36HpaTH to pick up nifliHMaTH picture fpiktjs] n KapTHHa; KiHo piece [pi:s] n inMaTOK pig [p ig ] n c b h h h pig-farm n CBHHo<})epMa pink [pirjk] poaceBHH pity f piti] n HcajiicTb, ncajib It’s a pity. IIlKOAa. placard fplaekaid] n njianaT; actinia place [pleis] n Micu,e to take place TpanjiaTHca, BiflGyBaTHCH plain [plein] n piBHHHa plan [plsen] n njiaH plant [plaint] 1. n pocjiHHa; 3aB0A, $a6pHKa; 2. v caAHcara

p o o r [p u s ] a 61a h h h ; H em ,acH H H

a

( p

o

c

j i u

-

plate [pleit] n TapijiKa; MHCKa play [plei] n rpa; n ’eca; 2. v rpat h ( c h ) , po3Ba}KaTHCH; rpaTH u

a

M

y

s

u

H

H

u

x

i

n

c

m

p

y

M

e

u

m

a

to play chess rpaTH b rnaxn to play snow balls rpaTH

x

)

p o p u l a t i o n [.p o p ju 'le ijn ] n H a c e jie H -

h h ; HCHTejii

Kama

p o r r i d g e [ 'p o n d 3 ] n

(e ie c n n a )

p o r t [p o it] n n o p T p o r t r a i t ['p o it n t ] n n o p T p e T p o s s i b l e ['p o s s b l] a m o jk jih b h h p o s t [p o u s t] n n o iH T a p o s t-c a rd

n

['p o u s tk a id ]

n o n iT O B a

J IH C T iB K a

p o s t e r e s t a n t e ['p o u s t'r e s ta in t] n a o

3 an H TaH H H ( K o p e c n o n d e H v , i s i ) p o t a t o [p s 't e it o u ] n K a p T o n jia fr ie d (b o ile d , to e s

m ashed)

CM a>KeH a

p o ta ­

(B a p e H a ,

to b -

n e H a ) K a p T o n jia p o u l t r y f a r m ['p o u lt n fa : m ] n n T a x o -

pound

[p a u n d ]

b

n iam H O

( c lh z ji.=

$yH T

p o u r [p o :] V JIHTH, HaJIHBaTH p o w e r ['p a u s ] n B jia A a ['p a u s fu l]

a

M o r y T H iii;

CHJIbHHH

p o w e r - s ta tio n

to play the piano rpaTH Ha

n

453,6 z); 4>yht cTepjiiHriB

p o w e r fu l

CHiHCKH

M y3 H K aH T

n

['p a u s 's t e ijn ]

ejieKTpocTaHi^ia

npaK-

p r a c t i c a l l y fp r a e k t ik s li] a d v

player ['pleis] n r p a s e ijb ; a K T o p ;

THHHO p r e f e r [ p n 'f s ] v B iA A aB aT H n e p e B a r y

please [p l i : z ] x o t I t h , Sanca™ pleasure [p le s] n 3aAOBOJieHHa plot [plot] n AiJiflHKa ( KJianTHK 3eMJii plump [pLvmp] noBHHH, t o b c t h h plus [ p Ias] n njiioc pocket ['pokit] n KHineHH poem ['pouim] n noeMa; Bipm poet ['pouit] noeT point ['point] 1. n Kpanna; c y T b ; MeTa; 2. uyKa3yBaTH; 3a3HanaTH; BHAiJIHTH pointer ['points] n yna3Ka polar fpouls] nojiapHHH v

3

3

a

r t

a

196

p o p u l a r f p o p ju ls ] a n o n y jia p H H H

$epMa

hu)

(

p o l l u t i o n [p s 'lu ijn ] n 3 a 6 p y A H e H H a

e

M

J

i i ) \

p rep a re

[ p n 'p e s ]

v

roT yB aT H

(3a 6 H a cn o )

p r e s c r ib e

v

[p r i's k r a ib ]

n p H im c y -

BaTH p r e s e n t ['p r e z n t ] 1 . n n 0 A a p y H 0 K ; 2 . a

npHcyTHin

p reserve

[p n 'z s iv ]

v

36epiraTH;

o S e p ir a T H p r e s s e d [p r e s t] a c n p e c o B a H H H p r e t t y [ ' p n t i ] a ra p H e H b K H H p r i c e [p r a is ] n i j m a p r i m a r y ['p r a im s r i] a n on aT K O B H H p r in c ip a lit y 3iBCTBO

[p n n s i'p a e lit i]

n

KHa-


private f p r a m t ] a n p u B a T H im ; oco hcthh prize [p ra iz ] n npn3; npeMia; 6

Haropofla

produce

[pro'dju:s]

v

bhpo jihth; 6

CTBOpIOBaTH

profession [p ro'fejn ] n npo(J>ecia programme fprou graem ] n nporpaMa progress [' prougres] n n p o rp e c progressive [pro'gresiv] a n p o rpeCHBHHH prohibit [prohibit] v a opoHHTH promise ['promis] 1. n o iu,HHKa; 2. V o ilJHTH pronunciation [pra.nAnsi'eiJri] n 3

6

6

6

BHMOBa

proposition

TBepA-

[p ro p s 'z ijn ] n

Rr race [reis] n 3MaraHHH 3 iry radio freidiou] n paAio raft [rcuft] n njiiT; nopoM r a i l r o a d ['reilroud] n 3a j i i 3HHu;a r a i n [rein] n Aom It is raining. lAe Aom;. raincoat ['reinkout] n miam rainy ['reini] a aou^obhh reach [ri:tj] v AocaraTH read [ri:d] (read [red], read) v HHTaTH r e a d e r ['ri:d9] n H H Tan r e a d y fredi] a totobhh to be ready 6yTH totobhm ready-made totobhh ( o d a e ) real [r ia l] a cnpaBHCHm realize fndaiz] v yaBJiHTu c o 6 i ; 6

jKeHHa; npono3Hi],iH

BH KO H yBaTH

protect [pra'tekt] u axmi^aTH; OXOpOHHTH proud [praud] a ropahh to be proud of immaTHCH hhm3

r e a lly

['riali]

r e a s o n a b le

a d v H acn paB A i

fiiz n o b i]

a p o 3c y A J in -

BHH; npHHHaTHHH It is reasonable... . G

He6yAi>

Bci n iA -

CTaBH... .

prove fp ru iv ] v a o b o a h t h provide [p re'vaid ] v 3a6e3ne^yBaTH pub [pAb] n IIIHHOK public ['pAblik] a rpOMaACbKiiii; AepacaBHHH; HapoAHHH

publish fpAbliJ] v ny jxiKyBaTH pull [pul] V THITH pupil fp ju :p l] n y^eH b puppy ['pApi] n uyijeHfl purify fp ju s n fa i] v OMnnjaTH push [p u j] v niTOBxaTH put [put] (put, put) V KJiaCTH put on OAaraTH put down anHcyBaTH; HHHcyBaTH (Utinu) 6

3

3

[ri'sirv] v O A ep ^ cyB aT H r e c e n t l y [' ri:sntli] a d v H eA aB H o r e c i t e [n'sait] v A e K J ia M y B a r a r e c o l l e c t [,reka'lekt] v n p H r a A y s a r a r e c o r d frekoid] n 3a n n c ; npoTOKOJi; r e c e iv e

penopA recover [n'kAva] v BHAyncyBaTu

rectory

SyAHHOK

[ 'r e k ta r i] n

napa-

4>iaJibHoro CBanjemiKa red

[red]

a ^ ep B O H H ii

[n'frid reit ] n xojioAhjibhkk, pe<J)pHHcepaTop r e f u s e [ n 'lju iz ] v bIamobjihth; 3a n e penyBaTH regard [ri'gaid] v BBajKaTHj p03rjia-

r e fr ig e r a to r

3

9

9

AaTH, p03I^iHK)BaTH

Qq quarter ['kwo:ta] n ^BepTb question fkwestjan] n amiTaHHH ask questions CTaBHTH 3aimTaHHfl quickly fkwikli] a d v hibhako 3

to be regarded BBancaTHca region [' iid3(9)n] n oSjiacTb, paiioH relative ['rebtiv] . n poahh; . a BiAHOCHHH 1

r e lia b le

[ n 'l a i s b l ]

2

a

H aA iH H H H ;

AOCTOBipHHH 197


remain [rf mein] v 3ajimnaTHca remember [n'memba] v naM’aTaTH remove [nma'v] v ycysaTH rent [rent] n KBapTHpHa njiaTa repeat [n'pi:t] v noBTopK)BaTH report [n'pDit] n flonoBiflb, nosiAOMJieHHH representative [.repri'zentstiv] n npeflCTaBHHK, flejieraT reproduce [ri:pr9'dju:s] v BiflTBopiO B aTH , nOBTOpiOBaTH

republic [rfpAblik] n pecny6jiina request [rfkwest] v npocHTH required [ri'kwaiad] a o6oB’ a3KoBHH

research [n'ss:tj] n Rocm&yKeHHH respect [ris'pekt] v noBancaTH, rnaHyBaTH

responsible [ris'ponssbl] a BiflnoBi/UUIbHHH rest [rest] n Biflno'iHHOK

to have a rest Biflno^HBaTi* restaurant ['restront] n pecTopaH restore [ns'to:] v nosepTaTH; Bi#HOBJIIOBaTH result [n'zAlt] n pe3yjibxaT return [ri'tarn] v noBepTaTHca revive [ri'vaiv] v BiapoflHcyBaTH revolution ^reva'liujn] n peBOJiK)-

ijia; nepeBOpOT ribbon fnban] n cTpinna rich [ntj] a 6araTHH ride [raid] (rode, ridden) v ixaTH right [rait] 1. n npaso; 2. a npasira on the right npasopy^i on the right hand of ripaBOpyn Bifl That’s right! IIpaBHJibHo! A ll right! ^o6pe! T h at’s all right. Bee b nopaflKy. ring [n r )] (rang, rung) v Tejie<j)OHyBaTH ripe [raip] a CTHrjiira; cnijiHH rise [raiz] (rose, risen) v niflHOCHTHCH 198

river ['rrvo] n pi^Ka road [roud] n flopora, nuiax rocket frokit] n p a n e T a roof [nri] n Aax room [r u (: )m ] n KiMHaTa root [ru :t] n K o p iH b rope [roup] n KaHaT; BipbOBKa rose [rouz] n TpoaHAa rosy ['rouzi] a pyM’amiH round [raund] a K p y rjiH H row [rou] n pa# ruin [ru:in] n 3arH6ejit; pi pyiHn ruler ['nria] n jiiHiHKa run [ixn] (ran, run) v 6irTH to run away yreKTH runner ['rAna] n 6iryH running [ ' rAnirj] n 6ir ( eud cnopmy) Russia ['rAjo] p r n Pocia Russian frAjn] 1. n pociaHira; pociH H K a; p o c iH C b K a MOBa 2 . a

pOCiHCbKHH

Ss sad [ssed] a cyMHHH safeguard fseifga’d] n r a p a H T ia sailor ['seib] n M o p a n ; MaTpoc salary ['saeton] n 3 a p o 6 iT H a n jia T a , oKJia^ salt [soilt] n cijib same [seim] pron toh caMHH sandwich fsaenwid ] n 6yrep6po£ Saturday ['saetedi] n cyfioTa sausage ['sosidj] n KOB6aca, 3

COCHCKa

save [seiv] v paTysaTH say [sei] (said, said) v tobophth, CKa3aTH scarf [skcuf] n m ap4>, K p a s a T K a school [sku:l] n mnojia school uniform micijibHa 4>opMa s c h o o lb o y n m K O Jiap, y ^ e H b s c h o o l g i r l n n iK O JiapK a, yneH H ina s c h o o l - l e a v e r ['skirl.luva] n B H n ycK -

HHK niKOJIH science fsaisns] n nayna


scientist ['saion tist] n b h b h h h score ['sko:] n paxyH O K Scotland ['s k o tb n d ] p r n IIIoTJiaH A ia Scottish ['s k o tij] a moTJiaHACbKHH scout [skaut] n po3BiflH H K; c n a y T , n C K y jitn T o p

s c u lp t o r [ ' slovlpta]

n M op e n MOpcbKe y36e-

pe^CHCH n ce30H; n o p a p o n y

n C T ijieijb ; c h a ih h b ; Micu,e s e c o n d ['sek o n d ] 1. n c en y H A a ; 2. a s e a t [si:t]

ApyrHii s e c o n d a r y fs e k o n d o n ] s e c r e t fs iik n t ] 1.

a c e p e A H iii

n TaeM H H ija; 2. a

TaCMHHH s e c t io n fs e k ja n ]

n

c e K n ,ia ; BiAAiJi

v 6anHTH [si:k] ( s o u g h t ) v m y n a ™ ,

s e e [si:] (s a w , s e e n )

t o d o o n e ’ s s h o p p in g p o 6 h t h noK ynK H go

s h o p p in g

xoahth

no

M ara3H H ax

n

rocn oA ap cb K a

cyMKa

n 6 e p e r (,Mopn, 03epa) s h o r t [[o .1 ] a k o p o t k h h s h o w [fo u ] (s h o w e d , s h o w n ) v n oK a3ysaTn; BHasjiHTH s h u t [fA t] (s h u t , s h u t ) v 3aKpHBaTH;

s e le c t [s i'le k t]

3ropTaTH

a xbophh s id e [sa id ] n 6 iK , CT0p0Ha s ig h t [sa it] n 3ip s ig h t s [saits] n BH3Ha*rai M ic ija s ig h ts e e in g ['sait,si:ig] n o r jia A s ic k [s ik ]

BH3HanHHx Micn;b

n p a rH yT H

v B H 6H para

s ig n a t u r e ['s ig n itjo ]

s e lf d e te r m in a tio n ['s e lfd i.te m i'n e ijn ]

s ilk [s ilk ]

n caMOBH3HaTieHHH s e ll [s e l] (s o ld , s o ld ) v npoAaBaTH s e n d [s e n d ] (s e n t , s e n t ) u nocHJiaTH s e n io r ['si:n jo] a C Tapim ra

s in c e

s e n io r p u p il CTapm oKJiacHHK s e n t e n c e ['sen ton s] s e r io u s ['sio rio s]

n pe^eH H a

a cepH03HHH

v cjiyncH TH ; o6 cjxyro-

ByBaTH

v o c e jia r a c a s e v e r a l fs e v r o l] a K ijib K a s h e e p [fi:p ] n b1bd,h; Bisi^i s h e e t [firt] n n p o c r a p a A J io ; a p K y n i s h e l f [fe lf] n n o jr a ija s h in e [ja m ] (s h o n e , s h o n e ) v c b Ith s e t t le ['s e tl]

th ,c a a r a

n K o p a d e jib ; cyAHO s h ir t [fort] n c o p o n K a s h o e [fu:] n *iepeBHK, Ty<})jia s h o o t [ftc t] (s h o t , s h o t ) v C TpijiaTH s h o p [fo p ] n Mara3HH s h o p - a s s is ta n t ['Jopo.sistant] n n p o AaBeijb

s h ip [fip ]

B iA B iA aH H a

s h o r e [fo:]

s e a s o n ['s i:zn ]

s e r v e [sorv]

n

K y n is jia , K yn yB aH H a

s h o p p in g - b a g

s e a s id e fs i:'s a id ]

seek

['J op iq ]

M ara3H H y, m o 6 m,ocb K ynH TH ;

to

6 o iic K a y T s e a [si:]

s h o p p in g

n

n

h Ia h h c

ih o b k

[sm s]

prep 3 T o r o

nacy;

BiATOAi; b Ia k o jih s in g [s ig ] (s a n g , s u n g )

v c n iB a r a

a cahh hh s ir [so:] n c e p , naH, A o 6 p o A in (mk 36epmaHHsi) s is t e r ['sista] n c e cT p a s i t [s it] (s a t , s a t ) v c h a I t h s i t u a t e d ['s itju e itid ] a p o 3 T a m o s in g le ['s n jg l]

BaHHH s k a t e [sk eit] 1.

n

KOB3aH; 2.

v KaTa-

TH ca Ha KOB3aHax s k a tin g

['s k e itir)]

n

K aT aH H a

Ha

K0B3aHax s k i [ski:] 1.

n jmxca; 2. v x o a h t h

Ha

JIHHCaX s k i r t [sko.1]

n

cn iA H H i ,a

n He6o sledge [sled3] 1. n

3

s k y [sk a i]

caHH;

2. v

K a ra -

TH ca Ha ca H ^ a T a x s le e p [slirp] (s le p t , s le p t )

v cn a ra

a nOBlJIbHHH s l o w l y ['s lo u li] adv n o B ijib n o

S lo w [slOU]

199


sm all [sma:l] a MajieHbKHH smile [smail] 1. n ycMiniKa; 2. i; ycMixaTHca smoke [smouk] n ahm snow [snou] n cHir It is snowing. I^e C H ir . snowball ['snoubo:l] n crnjKKa snow-man fsnoumsen] n CHiroBHK so [sou] adv Tan, TaKHM hhhom soap [soup] n mhjio sock [sok] n HiKapneTKa sofa fsoufo] 7i co(J>a, AHBaH soldier ['sould33] n cojiAaT solve [solv] v BHpimyBaTH, po3B’a3yBaTH ( 3adany, npodjieMy) some [sAm] pron KijibKa; fleHKi somebody fsAmbodi] pron xtocb ;

xT0-He6yAi» som ething ['sAmGir)] pron Aeiqo, moci>; mo-He6y,n;i> sometimes f SAmtaimz] adv iHKOjra son [ saii] n c h h song [sog] n nicHH soon [su:n] adv CKopo; H e3 a6 ap oM sorry ['son] a 3acMyneHHH I am sorry! Bn 6aHTe! Ilepenpomyio! soul [soul] n ayiiia sound [saund] n 3ByK soup [su:p] n cyn sour [ ' sauo] a khcjihh sour cream ['sauokrim] n CMeTaHa source [so:s] n /picepejio; sepxiB’a (p i K u )

south [sauG] n niBAeHb south-east fsau 0'i:st] n niBAeHHHH cxiA souvenir ['survnio] n cyBeHip sovereignty ['sovronti] n cyBepeHiTeT space [speis] n KOCMhraHH npocTip; KOCMOC spaceship fspeisjip] n kocm Ihhhh Kopa6ejib speak [spi:k] (spoke, spoken) v TOBOpHTH

200

speaker fspi:ka] n cninep; ahktop special [ spejol] a cnemiajibHHH spend [spend] (spent, spent) v BHTpa^aTu; iipoboahth (nac) spoon [spuin] n jioncKa sport [spo:t] n cnopT to go in for sports 3aHMaTHca CnopTOM spring [spng] n BecHa sprint [spnnt] n 6ir Ha K0p 0TKy AHCTaHn;iK) square [skweo] n KBaApaT; njionja;

CKBep squeeze [skwi:z] v cTHcnyBaTH stadium ['steidjom] n CTaAioH stamp [staemp] n noniTOBa Mapna stand [staend] (stood, stood) v CTOHTH star [sta:] n 3ipica Stars and Stripes AepHcaBHHH npanop C IIIA start [sta:t] 1 . n CTapT; 2 . v no*mHaTH starve [sta:v] v noMnpaTH Bi# rojioAy state [steit] n AepacaBa state emblem AepncaBHHH rep 6 statement ['steitmont] n 3aaBa, TBepAHceHHa statesman ['steitsmon] n A^pHcaBH H H A l^ H

station ['steijn] n CTaHijia, BOK3aji railw ay station 3ajii3HHHHHH

BOK3ajI statue fstaetju:] n CTaTya stay [stei] v 3ajiHinaTHca stay behind b Iactohth stay-at-home fsteiothoum] aomoc ' steel [sti:l] n cTajib stew [stju:] v BapHTH(ca); Tymic, BaTH(ca) stick [stik] n najimja, u;inoK still [stil] adv Bee me, Aoci stock [stok] n 3anac, $oha stock exchange ['stokiks,tJein(d)3] n $OHAOBa 6ipaca stocking ['stokirj] n naHnoxa


t o h a v e s u p p e r B e^epaT H

s t o n e [s t o u n ] n K a M iH b sto p

[sto p ]

n

1.

3yiiH H K a;

2.

v

3ynHHaTHca sto rm

[sto :m ]

suppose

n

iiit o p m ;

ra^aTH, ayaiaTH

y p araH ,

su re

6ypa

s t r a i g h t [stre it] a n paM H H a

[stre in d 3 ]

H e 3 H aiio M H H ; n

^yn co3e-

[stre s]

v

n iflK p e c jiio B a T H ,

v

[stretfl

[s t n k t ] a

B H T ary B aT H ca;

s t r iv e

[s t r a w ]

(s w e p t , s w e p t ) v

nifl-

[swim]

s w im

(s w a m ,

v

sw um )

njiaBaTH

tom hhh,

neBH irn;

CyBOpHH s t r ip e [s tra ip ] n

[swi:p]

K oxaH a

npocTHraTHCH s t r ic t

3AHBysaHHa

s w e e t h e a r t ['swLthcut] n KoxaH H H ;

H a r o jio in y s a T H stretch

n

MiTaTHJ HHCTHTH

s t r e e t [stri:t] n B y jm i ja stress

[so'praiz]

S W a llo W ['s w o lo u ] V KOBTaTH

sw eep

Meu;i>; ^ y 5KHHeu;b

noBepxH a

s u r g e o n fso :d 3on ] n x i p y p r s u r p r is e

f s t r e in d 3 o ]

B neB H em ra

['so:fis] n

s u rfa c e

AHBHHH stran ger

[fuo] a

t o b e s u r e 6yTH BneBHeHHM

s t o r y ['s t o :n ] n onoBi,n;aHHa

stran ge

[so'port] v niflTpmviyBaTH [ss'pouz] v n p u n y c ic a T ii;

su p p o rt

fswimir)] n njiaBaHHH s w im m in g -p o o l fswimiQ'piri] s w im m i n g

CMyra (s t r o v e ,

n

6aceHH s t riv e n )

v

CTapaTHCH, HaMaraTHca

['switjbn] v BMHKaTH fsimb(o)l] n c h m b o j i

s w it c h o n sym bol

s t r o n g [s tro g ] a c h jib h h h s t r u g g l e fs t r A g l] n 6 opoTi>6a

Tt

s t u d e n t f stju:dant] n CTyzjeHT

fteibl]

s t u d y ['s tA d i] v BH B*iaTn; b h h t h ( c h )

t a b le

s u b j e c t ['sA b d 3 ik t ] n (H a B ^ a jib H H H )

t a b le -c lo t h

n c t I ji

['teiblklo:0]

n

cnaTep-

['teiblspu:n]

n

CTOjioBa

THHa

npe^M eT s u b t r o p i c a l fsA b'tropikol] a cyST po-

t a b le -s p o o n

niHHHH

jiojKKa

[teil] n x b I c t t a i l o r fteilo] n KpaBeiji, t a k e [teik] (t o o k , t a k e n ) xanaTH

s u c c e s s [sok'ses] n y c n ix

ta il

s u c c e s s fu l [sok'sesful] a ycniniH H H s u c h [sAtJ] a TaKHH, no/uSHHH s u d d e n ly ['sA dn li] a d v panTOM

v

6paTH;

s u g a r ['Jugo] n u,yKop

to

s u g g e s t [ s a f e s t ] v nponoH yBaTH

npo

s u it [sju:t] n k octiom

to t a k e th e f l o o r BHCTynaTH Ha

s u lt r y fs A ltn ] a ayniH H H

3 6 op ax

s u m u p fsA m 'A p ] v ni^cyM OByBaTH

to t a k e o f f 3HiMaTn

s u m m e r ['sAm o] n jiiTo

to t a k e p a r t 6paTH y*iacTi>

tak e

care

o f niKJiyBaTHca

s u n [sa ii] n coH ije

t a le [te il] n Ka3Ka

S u n d a y ['sA n di] n H eflijia

t a l k [to:k] 1. n p03M0Ba; 2. v po3-

s u n n y ['sA m ] a coh h ^ihh h

MOBJiaTH t a l l [to:l] a b h c o k h h t e a [ti:] n ^ a n

su p erm ark et

[,sju:p9'ma:kit]

cynepM apneT,

BejiH K im

3h h caM 006cjiyr0B yB aH H a s u p p e r fs A p o ] n B en ep a

n

Mara-

teach

[tirtj]

( npo jn o d u n y )

(t a u g h t ,

tau gh t)

v

HaB^aTH

201


teacher ftiitjs] n B^urrejib; bhhTejibKa team [ti:m] n KOMaH^a technician [tek'mjn] n TexHiK teen-ager ['ti:n,eid3s] rt niAJiiTOK (eid 13 do 19)

telegram fteligraem] n TejierpaMa telephone ['telifoun] a TejiecjjoH tell [tel] (told, told) v po3noBi#aTH, CKa3aTH temperature ftempritjs] n TeivmepaTypa ten [ten] num AecnTb tennis ['tenis] n remc tennis player n TemcncT tent [tent] n HaMeT; TeHT terrible ftersbl] a ?KaxjmBHH territory f teritsri] n TepHTopin test [test] 1 . n TecT, BHnpo6yBaHHH; nepesipKa; 2 . v nepeBipnTH textile ['tekstail] a TeKCTHJibHHii thank [Gaegk] v AHKyBaTH Thank you! flaKyio! Thanks! JJaKyio! that [daet] pron toh, Ta, Te th at’s why TOMy theatre ['Gists] n TeaTp their [des] pron ixmn themselves [dsrn selvz] pron ce6e, caMi

then [den] adv noTiM therapeutist [,Gers'pju:tist]

n

TepaneBT there [des] adv TaM, tyah these [5 i:z] pron n,i thick [Gik] a tobcthh thin [Gin] a tohkhh

think [6113k] (thought, thought) v AyMaTH thirsty ['Gs:sti] a cnparjinii those [douz] pron Ti thousand ['Gauzsnd] num raca^a threaten f Gretn] v 3arpo?KyBaTn throat [Grout] n ropjio throw [Grou] (threw, thrown) v KHflaTH 202

to throw away B H K H ^ a T H ticket ftikit] n k b h t o k tidy ["taidi] a aKypaTHHH tie [tai] n rajiCTyn, KpasaTKa tiger ['taigs] n THrp tights [taits] n KOJiroTKH till [til] prep ao time [taim] n nac time-table n p03KJiaA tin [tin] n o j i o b o ; 6ijia ncepcTb; KOHcepBHa 6aHKa tinned fru its K O H c ep B O B a H i (JpyKTH tinned meat KOHcepBOBaHe m ’ hco

tiny ftaini] a &yxze MajieHbKHH, K p n x iT H H H

title ['taitl] n 3ar 0ji0 B0 K, Ha3Ba to [tu:,ts]prep y, b , Ha today [ts'dei] adv cboroAHi together [ts'geds] adv pa30M tomb [tu:m] n Mornjia; HaArpoSHHH naM’HTHHK tomorrow [ts'morou] adv 3aBTpa tongue [tAi]] n h 3 h k ; MOBa mother tongue p iflH a MOBa too [tu:] adv TaKO^c; 3aHaAT0 toothache ftu:Geik] n 3y6HHH 6ijib top [top] n sepxiBKa, BepniHHa touch [tAtJ] V TOpKaTHCH tourist f tusnst] n TypucT towel ftausl] n pyuranK tower ftaus] n 6aniTa the Tower of London JIohaohcbKHH Tayep town [taun] n MicTO, MicTenKO toy [toi] n irpamica tradition [trs'dijn] n TpaAHii,iH train [trein] 1 . n no‘i 3A; 2 . v b h x o ByBaTH; TpeHyBaTHca trainer ['treins] n TpeHep tram [traem] n T p a M B a fi translate [traens'leit] v nepeKJiaAaTH

travel ftrsevl] v MaHApyBaTH treasure ftre3s] n cnap6


treatment ['trLtmsnt] n jiiKyBaHHH;

U n io n

CTRBJieHHH, IIOBOflHCeHHH trident ['traidant] n TpH3y 6

n o p C n o j i y n e H o r o K o p o jiiB C T B a

trip [tnp] n nofloponc, MaHApiBKa trolley ['troll] n Bi30K; BaroHeTKa trolley-bus ftrolibAs] n TpojieiiSyc troop [tiu*p] n 3ariH troops [trmps] n BiiicbKa trousers ftrauzoz] n GpiOKH, niTaHH true [tru:] a npaBHjii>Hira; BipHHH,

BiAAaHHH trust [trASt] 1. n AOBip’n 2. v AOBipflTH(CH) t r u t h [tnr 0 ] n npaB^a t r y [trai] v HaMaraTHca; Bnnpo6oByBaTH to try on npmviipHTH tulip ftjiriip] n TiojibnaH turn [ta:n] v BepTiTu; nepesepTaTH to turn o ff BHMHKaTH to turn on BMmcaTH to turn out ['totn'aut] v BHraHHTH, turned-up fto:nd\p] a KHpnaTHH

n

TO K ap

T V -set ['ti:'vi:,set] n Te:ieBi30p

Uu U k r a i n e [jufkrein] p r U k r a in ia n

n YKpaiHa [jufkreinjan] 1 . n yKpa-

'meub, yKpaiHKa; yKpaiHCbKa MOBa; 2. a yKpamcbKHH um brella [Am'breb] n napacojibKa uncle fAflkl] n asai>ko under fAnds] prep niA underground fAndograund] a niAn ijib H H H ; n iA 3 e M H H H

underlined [^ d a 'la m d ] a niAKpec-

JieHHH understand [^nd^staend] (under­ stood, understood) v p03yMiTn uniform [ ju:mfo:m] n <})opMa; (J)opM 6H H H O A ^ r

school u n iform uiKijibHa 4>opMa union [ juinjan] n coio3; oS’eAHamia

A epH caBH H H n p a -

B e jiH K o 6 p H T a m i u n i t a r y [ jv u m t s n ]

n

u n i t y [ ju im t i] u n iv e r s ity

a y H iT a p H ir a

e A H ic T b

[ j u : m 'v 9:siti]

n

ym B ep-

CHTeT unknown ['An'noun] a HesiAOMHii unless [anles] cj h k i i j o He adv Bropi, Bropy; B H iije u s [as] pron H aM , H a c u s e [ju :z ] v 3a c T O c o B y B a T H u s e f u l ["juzsful] a k o p h c h h h u s u a l l y [ ju : 3u 9h ] adv 3B H H aiiH o u s u r p [ ju :'z 9:p ] v y s y p n y s a T H u p [Ap]

Vv vacatio n

n KaHiKyjm;

[ v o 'k e ijn ]

B iA n y c T K a

a iu h h h h ,

k o h i-

value ['vselju:] 1. n iUHHicTb,

saac-

v a l u a b l e ['v s e lju o b l] TOBHHH JIH BiCTb;

3 B ijIb H H T H

t u r n e r [ 't a n s ]

Jack

v a r ie ty

2.

AOpOHCHTH; II,iHHTH

n

[ v s 'r a i a t i ]

p i 3H O M aH iT -

H iC T b

v a rie ty

th eatre

Bap’ eTe;

e cT p a A H H H KOH ii;epT

various

[ 'v e s r ia s ]

a pi 3mm, pi 3HO-

M aH iTH H H v a s e [ v a :z ]

n

B asa

v e g e t a b l e [V e d ^ ito b l]

n oBoni; ropo-

AHHa v e h ic le

[ 'v i:ik l]

n

e K in a ^ c ;

3a c i 6

nepecyBaHHH v e r tic a l

fv o :tik l]

1. n

B e p T H K a jib ;

nepneHAHKyjiap; 2. a sepTHK ajIbH H H

n 5K H JieT , a c u jie T K a v i c t o r y [ 'v i k t s n ] n nepeMora v i e w [v ju :] n b h i v i h a ; b h a ; K p a e B H A ;

v e s t [ v e s t]

TO H K a 30p y ; A Y M K a

village [ 'v ilid 3 ] n cejio; MicTenKo violin [.vaia'lm] n cKpnnKa visit [Vizit] 1 . n BiAsiAaHHa, Bi3HT; 2 . v B iA B iA y fia T H visitor fvizita] n BiABiAyBaB 203


v o c a b u la r y

[v s 'k a e b ju ls ri]

hhk vocation al [vou'keijsnl] CiHHHH v o c a tio n a l

school

n

c jio b -

w e s t [w e s t ] n 3 a x iA w e t [w e t ] a m o k p h h

a

t o g e t w e t n p oM O K H yra

npo4>e-

w h a le [w e il] n k h t n p o (J > T ex -

w h e a t [w i:t ] n n m e H H ijH w h e n [w e n ] a d v , cj k o j i h

yHHJinme v o l l e y - b a l l ['v o lib o :l] n B0j i e n 60ji v o l l e y - b a l l p l a y e r B0J ie n 60JiicT

w h e r e [w e s ] a d v , cj % e ; K y A H w h i c h [w it J\ p r o n k o t p h h , h k h h w h i l e [w a il] cj a o k h , y t o h M ac h k

v o t e r ['v o u t s ] n BH6open,i>

w h i t e [w a it ] a 6 1 jih h

W w w ait

w h o l e [h o u l] a B e e t , u,ijiH H w h o s e [h u :z ] p r o n h h h

[w e it ] v n e K a r a

w a i t e r [ 'w e i t s ] n o 4>iu,iaHT

w h y [w a i] a d v HOM y

w a k e [w e ik ] ( w o k e , w o k e n ) v n p o -

w i d e [w a id ] a i h h p o k h h

KHflaTHca; 6yAHTH w alk [w o :k ] 1. n n p o r y jiH H K a

w i d e s p r e a d ['w a id s p r e d ] a n rn p o K O w i f e [ w a i f ] n A p y a c H H a , n ciH K a

k h ; 2 . v r y jiH T H

to go fo r a w alk niTH noryjiaTH w all [w o :l] n c T iH a want [w o n t ] v xoTira w ar [w o :] n B iH H a wardrobe fw o r d r o u b ] n rapAepo6, warm [w o :m ] a TemiHH wash [ w o j ] i; m hth (cs); yMHBath(ch) to wash up mhth nocyA watch [w o t j] 1 . n roAHHHHK ( k u n a p y H H u u );

2. v

cnocTepiraTH, CTe^KHTH to watch T V ahbhthch TejieBi3op w ater [ 'w o t e ] n BOAa way [ w e i ] n m j i a x ; Aopora weak [w i:k ] a cjiaSKHH, kbojihh w ealth [w e lG ] n 6araTCTBO w ealthy ['w e lG i] a S a ra T H H , 3aMO^c-

w i l d [w a ild ] a a h k h h ; H e o 6 A y M a H H H w in

[w ig ]

(w o n ,

v

w on)

nepeM a-

r a T H , B H rp a s a T H w i n d [w in d ] n B iT e p

weather [ 'w e d s ] n n o r o A a week [w i:k ] n THjKAeHb w e e k l y ['w i:k li] 1. a

w i n d o w ['w in d o u ] n b I k h o w i n t e r ['w in t s ] n 3H M a w i r e l e s s ['w a is lis ] n p a A io w i s e [w a iz ] a m y a p h h w is h

[w ij]

n

1.

6 a n ca H H H ,

no6a-

H caH H a; 2 . v S an caTH , x o t I t h w i t h o u t [w id a u t ] p r e p 6e3 w o m a n ['w u m s n ] n H ciH Ka w o n d e r ['w A n d s ] 1. n A H B H H a, n y A o ; v AH B yB aTH ca

2.

w o n d e r fu l

['w A n d s fu l]

a

ahbhhh;

HyAOBHH w o o l [w u l] n m e p c T b , BOBHa w ood

[w u d ]

n

J iic ,

r a il;

AepeB o

(Mamepiaji)

HHH

m oTH >K H eB H H ;

2 . a d v mOTHHCHH w eigh [ w e i ] v 3Ba>KyBaTH w eight [w e it ] n Bara w ell [ w e i ] a d v A o 6 p e t o b e w e l l 6y T H 3a o p o b h m

204

w ig [w ig ] n n ap H K , n e p y K a

w i n d y [ 'w i n d i ] a b I t p h h h h

m a cj)a

u ien h K o eu u ,

p03II0BCI0AHCeHHH

n iin -

w o o d e n f w u d n ] a A e p e B ’ a m iH w ood w ork

fw u d w s :k ] n p o 6 o T a n o

A epeB y w o r d [w s :d ] n c jio b o w o r d - c o m b in a tio n

n

c jiO B O c n o jiy -

*ieH H a w ork

[w s :k ]

1.

npai^iOBaTH

n

p o 6 o ia ;

2.

t;


w ork er

Yy

fwo:ko] n poSiTHHK

n Tpy^am i w o r k s h o p pwo:kJbp] n MaiicTepHH w o r l d [wo:ld] n c b I t , BcecBiT

w o r k in g p e o p le

a ll

over

th e

w o r ld

y BctOMy

CBiTi n T p u B ora ; T yp S o T a w o r s e [wo:s] a ripniira w o r s t [wo:st] a H a i i r i p i i m H w o u n d [wu:nd] n n o p a H e H H H w o u n d e d ['wu:ndid] a n o p a H e H H H w r a p [rsep] v 3aropTaTu; ynaico-

w o r r y [ 'w

ao

]

ByBaTH w r i s t [n s t ] w r ite

n 3 a n ’ acT0K

[r a it ]

(w r o te ,

w r itte n )

IIHCaTH t o w r i t e d o w n 3 a im c y B a T H w r i t e r ['r a it o ] w r o n g [r o q ]

n im c i> M e H H K K

a H en p aB H J ib H H H

v

yard [ja:d] n flBip, noflBip’a year [jo:, jio] n pin yellow fjelou] a hcobthh yes [jes] adv Tan yesterday [ jestsdi] adv ynopa yet [jet] adv me young [j a q ] a mojioahh your [jo:] pron TBm; Barn yourself [jo:'self] pron ce6e; caM(a) yourselves [jofselvz] (pi eid your­ self) ce6e; caMi youth [ju:0] n mojioab

Zz zero ['zia ro u ] n H im ,o ; H y j i t zone [z o u n ] n n on e; paiioH zoo [zu:] n 300napK zoology [zou'olod 3i] n 3O0Ji0ria

205


UKRAINIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY Aa 6 a c K e T 6 o ji b a s k e t - b a ll

a6o or a6o... a6o either... or aBCTpajiiifCBKHH Australian aBTo6 iorpa 4>i*iHHH autobiographic(al) aBTo6iorpa 4>in autobiography aBTop author aAMiHicTpaTHBHHii adm inistrative a^peca address a,npecaT addressee aeponjiaH aeroplane aKTOp actor, player aKTHBHHH active aKypaTHHH tid y ajie but ajuio! hallo!, hello! aji^asiT alphabet aMepifKaHCbKHH American aHrjiiifCBKuif English aurjiiHCbKa MOBa English AHrjiin England aHxpaKT interval anTeica chemist’s shop apMia army apracT actor, artist acoi^iai^in association acTpouaBTHKa astronautics aTana attack aTjieTHKa athletics aTpaKi^ioH attraction a^ima poster, placard

6 a c K e T 6 o jiic T b a s k e t - b a ll p l a y e r 6 a T b K iB u p iH a m o t h e r la n d 6aTbKH p a r e n t s 6aTbKO f a t h e r SaMHTH se e G a iir r a t o w e r

6 A »c o jia b ee 6e3 w i t h o u t 6e3COHHH in s o m n ia

6eper (piHKu) b a n k 6 e p e r (M o p c b K n ii) s e a s h o r e S w x H b e a t; s t r i k e 6 i6 jiio T e K a l i b r a r y

Bi6jiiH t h e B ib le 6 ir r u n n in g

6 irara r u n 6iryH r u n n e r 6iAHHH p o o r

6iii f i g h t , b a t t l e 6iK side 6 ijm H w h it e

6 ijin b y , n e a r dijiHBHH f a i r , f a i r - h a i r e d

6ijib p a in , a ch e rojiOBHHM 6 ijit h e a d a c h e 6iorpa4>in b i o g r a p h y 6iojiorin b i o l o g y 6i4>uiTeKC b e e f s t e a k ()JiaKHTHHH b lu e 6jiiAH H p a le

6jiy3Ka b lo u s e 6oei^b f i g h t e r

B6

6 ok c b o x in g 6 op oT b 6 a s tr u g g le

6a6ycn grandmother 6araTHH rich 6araTO many, much 6araTCTso wealth 6axcaTH wish, want 6ajiKOH balcony Gap, 6y4>eT bar 6aceiiH swimming-pool

206

6 o T a m ic a b o t a n y

6 o h th c h be a fr a id ; fe a r 6paT b ro th e r

dpaTH take 6paTH y^acTb take part 6pHTaHCbKHH British 6pyAHHH dirty 6piOKH, nrraHH trousers


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6yAHHOK b u i l d i n g , h o u s e 6y,nyB aTH b u i l d

B H ro jE o in y B a T H n p o M O B y d e l i v ­

6yjsj> J ia c K a p le a s e

e r a speech

6 y A & -m o a n y t h i n g

B H A e jn c a f o r k

6yRB-H KH H a n y

B H A yacysaTH r e c o v e r

6yK B a le t t e r

B H 3 B O jiH T ejii> l i b e r a t o r

6ypH K b e e t

B H 3H a*iH H H p r o m i n e n t ; n o t e d

6 y r e p 6 p o f l s a n d w ic h

B H 3H aM H i M icu,H s i g h t s

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b

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p e r fo r m ,

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Ba?KKHH d i f f i c u l t , h e a v y

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B aacjiH B H H i m p o r t a n t

B H H a x iA i n v e n t i o n

Ba3a v a s e

B H H axoAH TH in v e n t

B a H H a (K iM H a T a ) b a t h r o o m

B u n p a s jiH T H c o r r e c t

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B H npacysaH H H p ressed

B B a H c a in t h i n k ; s u p p o s e ; r e g a r d ;

B im p o fty B a H H H t e s t

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B H n y c K H H K m KO JiH s c h o o l - l e a v e r

B e p r iT H t u r n

B H C TasK a e x h ib it io n , d is p la y

B e p T O J iiT h e l i c o p t e r

BH Tpa^aTH sp en d

s e p x is K a to p

bhxoahth

B ecH a s p r in g

b h u ih h

B e p x is ’ a ( p i K u ) s o u rc e

B iB i^ a , BiBu,i s h e e p

s e c B a ll, w h o le , e n t ir e

B iA s e p T o f r a n k l y

B H p im y s a T H d e c i d e bhpo

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B enepH TH h a v e s u p p e r

s p e a k in g

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fr a n k ly

B e q ip ic a p a r t y

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»a c e a lr e a d y

B iA B iA y s a n v i s i t o r

B3AOB3R a l o n g

B iA A a H H H t r u e

B H 6 a^aT H ca a p o lo g iz e

b ia a

B H dH paTH c h o o s e ; s e le c t

B iA riHCA9RaTH l e a v e

BHB^iaTH s t u d y

B iA K p H B a T H o p e n ; d i s c o v e r

b h 6 o p h e le c tio n

b Ia m o b j ih t h c h

B H ra H H T H t u r n o u t

B iA n o s iA a T H

BHTJIHfl v i e w

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207


BiAnoBiAajibHHH responsible BiAnoBi^aTH answer siAnoBiAi> answer BiqnoHHBaTH have a rest BiAno^iHHOK rest si^po bucket siACTaBaTH stay behind BiACTaHB distance BiAcyraiH absent 6yTH BiAcyTHiM be absent BiA'iyBaTH feel si30K trolley Biiraa war b Ih c b k o b h h

m ilita r y

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dam p

BorHHUtye f i r e BOAa w a t e r

npicHa BOAa fresh water boa Ih driver BOHCA& leader BOK3aji station BOJieHdoji volley-ball BOJiorHM damp bojkocch hair sopor enemy snaAaTH ( npo pinny) mouth BnepTHH stubborn, hard b iu ih b influence BnpaBa exercise BpaxceHHH impression

208

BpaHi^i in the morning Bee everything Bce6iMHHii comprehensive BceHapOAHHH nation-wide BCTaBaTH get up; stand up BTijiiOBaTH embody BTimaTHCH enjoy BTpanaTH lose By3bKHH narrow ByjraijH street Byxo ear b x o a h t h enter, come in, get in BneHHH scientist b h h h o k deed bhhthch learn Tt

raAaTH suppose ra 3 gas ra3eTa newspaper ra 30H lawn rajiac noise rajiepen gallery rajiy 3b branch siitHa

ra H M ip n a

(Ojlx eumupanuH nujiy)

duster raHb6a disgrace rapaHTyBaTH assure rapAepo6 cloak-room; wardrobe rapMaTa gun rapHHH nice, fine; good; hand足 some; pretty; beautiful rapHHHii hot rep6 state emblem rHHyTH perish riA (eKCKypcoeod) guide riAHicTt dignity riApoejieKTpHMHHH hydroelectric rijuca branch riMHacTHKa gymnastics ripHHK miner rip^HUjH mustard ripniHH worse ricTB guest tjihGokhh deep rjiHAani audience


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AeM OHCTpai^ia d e m o n s tr a tio n AeHB d a y A e m HapoA^ceHHH b ir t h d a y A e n y r a T d e p u ty A ep eso tre e A ep eB ’ aHHH w o o d e n A e p x c a s a s ta te AeproaBHHH R im s ta te s m a n Aem eBH H c h e a p A3b1h b e ll A3BOHHTH r in g A h b h t h c h lo o k A h b h h h s tra n g e Ahbo w onder

AHKTaHT d ic t a t io n Ah m sm o k e A u n jio M d ip lo m a

AHpeKTop ( u i k o j i u ) h e a d m a s te r AHTHHa c h ild A h t h h c t b o c h ild h o o d

A ia jio r d ia lo g u e AiB^H H a g i r l A iA g r a n d fa t h e r AiJiHTH d iv id e AiitCHO r e a lly AiM h o m e A i ™ c h ild r e n A ia jib H icT b a c t i v i t y

9

A iaTH o p e r a te

Axcepejio source A »c h h c h j ean s

AJiH f o r AO to ; b e fo r e ; t i l l

Ao6pe w e ll Ao6pHH k in d ; g o o d

Aff

A o6poA iH H icTb c h a r it y AOsrHH lo n g

AajieKHH far AaTa date Aax roof ABepi door A B ip yard ABrai twice AeBi3 motto Aeiui&MyBaTH recite AejieraT delegate

AOBipATH t r u s t A O b k u ijih e n v ir o n m e n t

A orjiH A c a r e A orjiH A aTH ( Koeocb) ta k e c a r e o f A03B0JIHTH a llo w , le t AOKH w h ile AOKyMeHT d o c u m e n t AOjih fa t e AO M anm e 3aBAaHHH h o m e ta s k

209


7K 5K

A O M am H H po6oTa h o m ew o rk A o n o s iA B re p o rt

xcaiceT j a c k e t

A o n o M o r a h e lp

x a j i i c T b p it y

A o n o M a r a T H h e l p , assist

acapKHH h o t

A opora road

acapT jo k e

AOpoxcH TH v a lu e

x cap T y saT H t e ll jo k e s

A o p o c jiH H g r o w n - u p

3K axjiH B H ii t e r r i b le , d r e a d f u l

Aoch tb e n o u g h

3ECHBHH a liv e

A o c i still

x c H ji e T ( K a ) v e s t

A O C K O H a jiH H p e rfe c t A O C JiiA ^K e H H H

research;

3KMTTH l i f e

e x p lo

r a t io n

3KiHKa w o m a n 2KOBTHH y e llo w

AOCjriAftcyBaTH e x p lo r e A O C T a B K a d e liv e r y

AocnraTH r e a c h

xcypH aji m a g a z in e xcypH ajiicT jo u r n a li s t

33

A O c a r H e H H H a c h ie v e m e n t A o w a daughter

3 w ith , fr o m

Aonnca b o a r d

3, 3

Aoui, r a in

Toro ^ a c y

hk s i n c e

3a6e3n eH yB aTH p r o v id e ; s e c u re

It is raining. Aon^OBHH rainy Aoapica milkmaid Apyr friend ApyrHH second Apyac6a friendship ApyraHHa wife Apy»cejiK)6Ho friendly AyMaTH think; believe AypeHB fool AyTH blow Ayma soul AHAbKO uncle lA e aoiii,.

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3a6opO H H TH p r o h ib it

3 a 6 pyAHeHHH p o llu t io n 3 a 6 yBaTM f o r g e t 3 a s »c A H a lw a y s 3 a s o A p la n t

3aBTpa t o m o r r o w 3 a r iH d e ta c h m e n t

3 a r o jio s o K t it le

3 a A H iii b a c k 3 aAOBOJieHHH p le a s u r e 3 aKiH^iyBaTH f i n i s h 33KOH la w

3 aK pH B aTH c lo s e , s h u t 3 ajiH m aTH C H r e m a in ; s t a y 3 aM OBjiATH o r d e r

eK3 a M e H e x a m in a t io n

3 a H a s ic K a c u r t a in

e K 3a M e H y B a i n e x a m i n e

3 aneBHHTH a s s u r e

e K C K y p e ia e x c u r s io n

3anHc r e c o r d

e K c n e p H M e H T e x p e r im e n t

3 an H cy B aT H w r i t e d o w n

e ji e K T p H ^ H H H electric

3 anH TaH H H q u e s t io n

e jie K T p o c T a n i^ia p o w er- statio n

cTaBHTH 3 anH TaH H H a s k q u e s ­

e T H i n u H H e t h n ic

t io n s

Ce €spona Europe c a h h h h single €AHicTb unity

210

3amrryBaTH a s k 3 a n i 3 HioBaTHCfl b e la t e 3 a n o B iA B c o m m a n d m e n t AecflTB 3 a n o B iA e H t h e te n c o m ­ m an d m en ts


invite 3acBoioBaTH adopt 3acMyHeHHH sorry 3acH 0B H H K founder 3 a c H y s a x H found 3acTOCOByBaTH use 3axHn;aTH defend 3axi^ west 3axi,qH H H western 3 6 e p ir a T H preserve 36upaTH pick; gather, collect 3 6 o p H meeting ypoHHCTi 36opH grand meeting 36poH arms 3sa»cyBaTH weigh 3BiraaH custom 3BHHaHHO certainly; usually 3Bijii>HeHHH liberation 3ByK sound 3Aa*ia change 3AopoB’a health 3ejieHMH green 3eMJiH land 3epHo grain 33a«y behind 3’eAHyBaTH connect 3ip sight 3ipKa star 3JiHKaHHii afraid 3MaraHHH competition 3MiHa change 3HanoMHTH introduce 3HaMeHHTHii famous 3HaHHH knowledge 3HaTH know 3HaxoAHTH find 3Ha*ieHHH meaning 3 H 0 B y again 3 0 B H i u m i i i outer 30BHimHiH npocTip outer space 30JI0T0 gold 30Ha zone 3oojioria zoology 300napK zoo 3omMT exercise-book 3 y 6 tooth 3 a n p o iu y B a T H

3y5HHH jrinap dentist 3ynHHKa stop 3ycHJiJia effort 3ycTpi^aTM meet

Ii i and izjea idea irpaunca toy iM’a name maceHep engineer m ’eKi^H injection iHKOJiH sometimes iH03 eMHHH foreign iHCTHTyT institute iH<t>opMai^a information iH<|)opMyBaTK inform iHuiHH other; another icTopia history icTOTHHH essential E ’vnajifeHH dining-room *ma food im them icTH eat ix them ixaTH BepxH ride i i

I

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Kk KaBa coffee Kas’apHH cafe Ka3Ka tale KaMiH fire-place KaMiHb stone KaM’HHe Byrijuia coal KaHaji channel KaHaT rope KamKyjiH holidays Kanejnox hat KaniTaH captain KapTa map KapTHHa picture KapTHHHa rajiepea art-gallery 211


KapTonjiH potato KamjiHTH cough KaniTaH chestnut tree KBa^paT square KBapTH pa flat; apartment(s) KBapTHpHa n jia T a rent KBHTOK ticket KBinca flower KeKC cake Kenica cap KepiBHHK manager KepyBara manage KHAaTH throw k h jih m carpet K H p n aT H H turned-up kht whale KHnieHH pocket KijiorpaM kilogramme KijiOMeTp kilometre KijiBKa several KiMHaTa room Kmo cinema; movies KiHOHcypHaji newsreel KiHOTeaTp cinema KiHB horse KJiac class; form KJiacHa AOiiuca blackboard KJiacTH put, lay KJiieHT client KJiiMaT climate Kos6aca sausage k o b 6 o h cowboy K0B3aH skate K03aK cossack KOBTaTH swallow koskhhh every; each KOM6aHH combine KOM6aifHep combine-operator K 0Jir0TK H tights k o jih when KOJiH-He6yAiÂť ever K o jiip colour circle, ring KOMaHAa team KOHBepT envelope, cover KOHcepsyBani tin

kojio

212

KOHcepBOBaHi 4>pyKTH tinned fruits KOHCTHTyi^ia constitution KOHCTpyKTop designer KOHTHHeHTajibHHii continental KOHi;epT concert KonaTH dig kopaoh boundary; border; frontier KOpHCHHH u s e fu l

KOPHCTB favour KOpHHHeBHii brown K0p 06Ka box K O p O B a cow K o p o j i i s c T B o kingdom K O pO TK H H short K o c a ( q o j i o c c h ) braid, plait k o c m Ih h h h K o p a S e jib spaceship

KOCMOHaBT cosmonaut KocMOHaBTHKa cosmonautics kocmoc space koctiom suit; costume KOTJieTa cutlet which ( npo meapun npedMemu); who ( npo JLtodeu) KOxaHHH, K o x a H a sweetheart koihhk basket KOinTyBaTH cost KpaBanca tie KpaB^HHs dress-maker npama country KpaMHHi;a shop, store KpaupiH better KpeiiAa chalk KpHKeT criket KpHMaTH cry KpiM besides; except Kpicjio arm-chair KpyrjiHH round Ky6oK cup K yjiB T yp a culture KynaniCH bathe KyniBjiH shopping KynyBain buy K y p c course K y p n a chicken

KOTpHii

i


KyT corner Ky^iepHBHH curly KyxHH kitchen

M a i m e a lm o s t M aiiC T epH H w o r k s h o p M ajieH B KH H s m a ll, l i t t l e M a jio f e w

ji ji

M a jiio B a T H d r a w

jia6opaTopia laboratory jiaBKa bench jiaMaTH break jiaMna lamp jiaffq lunch jiaTHHb Latin jiereHAa legend jierKMii easy jteAa^HH lazy jieacaTH lie jiHKa ski jihc( hi^a ) fox jihct letter jihctok leaf jiiBHH left jiiBopyn on the left ( ); to the left d

(

i

c

y

d

u

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jiira league jii# ice jiinap doctor jiiicapHH hospital jiiKH medicine jiinyBaHHH treatment jiiHiHKa ruler jiic forest; wood

M a jn o s a T H 4>ap6aM H p a in t M ajiK)H O K d r a w i n g M a M a , M aTH m a m m a , m o t h e r M a H A p iB K a t r i p , t r a v e l l i n g M aH A pysaTH t r a v e l M a p M y p m a r b le M a c jio b u t t e r M a T eM a T H K a m a t h e m a t ic s M aTH h a v e MaTM m a t c h M au iH H a c a r Me.uajib m e d a l M e^cecT p a n u rse M eacyB aTH

3

b o rd er on

M eH eAXcep m a n a g e r M eH etfxcM eH T m a n a g e m e n t

Mem m e MeHine le s s M eH iuH H m in o r M eH uiH H a m i n o r i t y

memo m e n u M epTBHH d e a d M euiK aH ei^B in h a b it a n t MHJIO s o a p M HHyjIHH p a s t

jiiT a T H f l y

M H p peace

jiiTepaTypa literature jiiTepaTypHHH literary jiiTO summer JIOBHTH catch jioHCKa spoon jiyKa meadow jik>6hth love; like; be fond of jiioah people jiiothh ( ) fierce jiHJiBKa doll

M H pH H H p e a c e fu l

u

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i

a

j

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fla x

M HCTei^Tso a r t m h t h (c h ) w a s h m h th n o cy A w a sh up

MHiua m o u s e Miac b e t w e e n ; a m o n g M ixcH apoAH H H i n t e r n a t i o n a l Mm m y MijiBHOH m i l l i o n

Mmyc

m in u s

MiHHTH c h a n g e

MM Masna monkey MaricTpajiB highway

M icT b r i d g e M icTO c i t y ; t o w n M ici^e p la c e M icfli^B m o n t h

213


MOBa language iH03eMHa MOBa foreign lan­ guage p i/ jn a MOBa mother tongue, native language M o r n jia grave; tomb MorTH can MoryTHiH powerful m o x c jih b h h possible Moxma may MOKpHM Wet m o j i o a h h young m o j io a b youth m o j i o k o milk M o p e sea M op o3 frost M0p 03HB0 ice-cream M0 p 03HHH frosty M O p H K sailor motop engine; motor Mpia dream My^cHiit courageous My^cHicTb courage My3eii museum My3HKa music m ’ hkhh mild; soft; sweet m ’ hco meat m ’ h c h h h Mara 3HH butcher’ s shop m ’ h h ball

Hh Ha on, at HasiTb even HaBKpyrn around HaBnpOTH opposite HaB'iaTH teach H a r o p o ^ a award HaropOAHcysaTH award Ha« above, over HaAiHHHH reliable HaAin hope Ha3aA back Ha3HBaTH call; name Ha30BHi out 214

Haii6ijiBiiiHH the most HaHripmHH the worst HajiesKaTH belong HaM us HaMaraTHca try HaMeT tent HanaAaTH attack HanepeAOAHi on the eve HanoBHK)BaTH fill HapoA nation; people HapoAHTHca be born HapOAHHH folk; national HapoAna n ic H a folk-song H a c e jie H H a population HacTynHHH next H ayica science Hai^ioHajibHHH national Hai^ioHajibHa MeHuiHHa natio­ nal minority Hai^ia nation He6e3neKa danger He6o sky HesiA’cMHHH integral HeBiAOMHH unknown HeAaBHo recently HeAOTOpKaHHHH inviolable HeHCHTb a cold in the head HeHaBHAiTH hate HenpaBHjibHHH wrong HecTa^a lack HecTH carry Heu^acHHK unhappy, miserable Heu^acHHH BHnaAOK accident Hi no H i... H i neither... nor Hiicejib (Monema e 5 i^enmie) nickel HiKOJiH never H ie nose HixTO nobody Hih night m n o r o nothing h o b h h new H o b h h p in New Year H0B0p i*ra a h jik h k h New Year tree H o ra foot; leg


HOMep number

najiei^B finger

carry; bear; wear (odxe) Hyjib zero

najiHi^H stick najibTO coat

h o c h th

Oo o6rosopH)BaTH discuss odiiABa both o6»paTH elect odifl dinner o6iAaTH have dinner o6ii*HTM promise o6jiaAuaHHH equipment o6jiaAHyBaTH equip oGjihhhh face 060b’ «30K duty OBajibHHH oval oBoni vegetable o^epacyBaTH get; receive; gain, win (npn3) OAHOKJiacHMK classmate OA«r clothes; dress OAararaca dress oropoxca fence 03epo lake 03HaKa attribute OKJiaA salary oko eye onHcysaTM describe onoBiAaHHH story opram 3au,iH organization 0pram30ByBa™ organize ocBiTa education ocejiHTMCH settle ocim> autumn ochobhhh fundamental oco6hcthh personal oco6jihbo especially ocTaHHiii last o<J>ii;iaHT waiter ou,iHKa mark

I ln na^a™ fall naKyHOK parcel najiaij palace

naM’HTaTH remember naM’flTHHK monument

naM’ HTb memory n a H mister (M r.), sir nam mistress (Mrs.), madam naHHa miss (M .) n a c r a o x a stocking

nanip paper a p K y u i n a n e p y sheet

of paper

n a p a # parade n a p a c o jib K a umbrella

napHK wig

napjiaMeHT parliament naponjias ship napTa desk napTin party namicHT patient n e B H H ii sure Gym n esH H M be sure neHaji pencil-box neHc penny (pi pence) neHcioHep pensioner nepBHHHHii primary nepe 6ijibinyBaTH exaggerate nepesopoT revolution; overturn nepeB 9H3yBaTH bandage nepeA before nepeAA^HB eve nepeKJiaAaTH translate nepeMaraTH win nepeMora victory nepepBa interval; break nepeTHHaTH cross n e p e u iK O A a obstacle nercap baker i i h j i dust nucaTH write nHCbMeHHHK writer nHTH drink niBAeHb south niBHin north niBHiMHHii northern niA under

215


niA3eMHHH underground niAicpecjiiOBaTH emphasize; under­ line ni^JiiTOK ( eid 13 do 19) teen-ager

nojiHi^H s h e lf

niAJiora floor ni^MiTaTH clean; sweep niAHiMaTHCH rise

n ojiO B H H a h a l f

ni^nHC signature niacyMOByBaTH sum up ni^TpHMyBaTM support ni 3Hm late nijiiojiH pill nicjia after nicHH song njiasaHHfl swimming njiasaTH swim njianaTH cry iuiaH plan njiaHep glider njiaTa 3a n p o i3 A fare njiaTHTH pay njiam raincoat njiix raft njiocKHH flat njiou^a square; area njiHimca bottle

n o n y jia p H H H p o p u la r

noBepTaTHCH return, come back noBi£OMJiHTH inform, notify noAin event noAo6aTHCH like, please noBHHeH must nOBijIBHHH slow noBiTpn air ( moecmuu) plump noBTopiosaTH repeat noraHHH bad noroAa weather noroAHcyBaTHca agree no3aAy behind no 3m aTH lend noKa3ysaTH show; display noKHAaTH leave noKOJiiHHH generation noKpHB aTH cover noKynei^B buyer nojie field iio b h h h

216

n o jiin iu y B a T H a m e n d , i m p r o v e

nojriT f l i g h t nojiiTH H H H ii p o lit ic a l n o M H jiK a m is t a k e

n o n p a sn a am endm ent n o p a ^ a a d v ic e nopoH C H iii e m p t y

nopT p o r t n o p T ^ e ji b b a g n o p aA O K o r d e r nocojii>cTBO e m b a s s y n oT iK f lo o d

n o iiM th en n o T p e 6 a n e e d ; n e c e s s it y noMaTOK s t a r t n o H H H a T H (c a ) s t a r t ; b e g i n nonyT T H f e e l i n g

n o n r r a p o s t , m a il nom TOBa M apK a sta m p noHCHioBaTH e x p la in npaB Aa tru th npaBH H r ig h t

T h n p a B H H . You are right. npaBHJEBHHH correct npaBHjiBHo correctly npaBjiiHHH board n p a s o p y q BiA o n th e r i g h t (de); to th e r i g h t ( Kydu) npaKTHMHO p r a c t ic a lly n p an o p fla g n pai^H l a b o u r n p eA M eT s u b je c t npeAO K f o r e f a t h e r npeicpacH H H f i n e , b e a u t i f u l ; f a i r n p H 6 n p a T H c le a n ; c le a r n p H B aTHHH p r i v a t e npH BiT! h a llo ! h e llo ! hi! n p H r a A y s a T H r e c o lle c t npH C AHyB aTHCB jo in

n pH 3 p r iz e npHHiviaTH a c c e p t npHHHHTHHH a c c e p t a b le n p H K p a c a d e c o r a t io n


npHKpamaTH decorate npHjiasoK counter npHMipHTH try on npHMycoBHH compulsory npHHOCHTH bring npuroAa adventure npHiuicyBaTH prescribe npHpOAHHH natural npnpoAHi yMOBH natural condi足 tions npHpoAHirai HayKH natural sci足 ences npHpoAHo naturally npncBH^yBaTH devote npHcyxHiH present npHxoAHTH come npHxoAHTH B^acHO come in time npo about npOByjioic lane nporpecHBHHH progressive nporyjiHHKa walk nporyjnosaTHCH go for a walk npo^aBaTH sell npOAaBei^b shop-assistant npOAOBacysaTH continue npoeKT design, plan, project npoKHAaTHCH wake up, awake npOMHCJiOBHH industrial npoMHCJiOBicTB industry nponoHysaTH offer, propose npocHTH ask, beg, request npocHTH npoda^ieHHH beg par足 don npocxip space npocTopHH ample npocTHraTHCH stretch, reach npOTH against npo4>eciiiHHH vocational npo^Texy^HJiHii^e vocational school npo<}>eciH profession npoxoAHTH pass npOXOJIOAHHH cool npHMHH straight nceBAOHiM pen-name

irraxo<t)ep M a p o u lt r y f a r m n T an n ca b i r d n y d jiin y B a T H p u b lis h nm eHHi^H w h e a t

p p

p a^H T H a d v is e paA icH H H g l a d

pa 30M t o g e t h e r p a n o H d is t r ic t paH a w ound p a n o e a r ly paHOK m o r n in g panT O M s u d d e n ly p ax y saT H count p axyH O K ( 3a

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acco u n t; b ill;

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M OBa

m o th er

to n gu e,

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Christmas piaHHM different, various pi3HOMamTHicTB variety p in year proica river phHHi^A anniversary pim eH H H decision P o 6 h t h do, make p o 6 iTHHK worker p o 6 o T a work p o 6 oT a n o A e p e s y woodwork Poahh relative POAiohhh fertile poaceBHH pink P i 3 ABo (X pH C T O B e)

217


p030HBaTH defeat p03BHBaTH develop po3rjiHAaTH consider; examine, look at po3KJia# time-table p 0 3 M 0 B J IffT H talk p03n0Bci0A»ceHHH widespread p o 3 p i3 H H T H differ p o 3 T a m o s a H H H situated po3yMiTH understand pOMaH novel pocjiHHa plant pocTH grow poT mouth pyAa ore pyAHH red pyraa ruin p y n a hand ( Kucmb ); arm (eid Kucmi do ruiena) pyKOimc manuscript pyM’HHHH rosy pyx movement ByjiiniHHH pyx street traffic pyxaTHCH move pymHHK towel pyuiHHi^a gun p « A row pHTysaTH save

Cc caA garden 4>pyKTOBH» caA orchard caA^caTH plant caMOBH3Ha^eHHA self determina­ tion ca H H sledge CBHHo^epMa pig-farm c b h h h pig CBisKHH fresh CBiT world b y c b O M y cfiiTi all over the world cBiTjmH bright; light cso6oAa freedom CBHTKyBaHHfl celebration CBHTKysaTH celebrate

218

holiday ce30H season ceicyHAa second ceiciU H section c e jio village cejiHHHH peasant c e p sir cepaeTKa napkin cepAHTHH angry cepAHTHCH be angry cepeA among cepeAHHa middle cepiio3HHH serious c e p ije heart chbhh grey; grey-haired chaI hhh seat CHAiTH sit CHjia force c h jib h h h strong c h m b o ji symbol c h h son C H H iif blue c h h b o o k h h blue-eyed CHp cheese, curds ciK j uice cijib salt eijiBCBKorocnoAapcbKHH agricul­ tural cip H H grey c ip o o K H H grey-eyed CKa3am say; tell CKaTepTHHa table-cloth cica p 6 treasure cKayr scout CKBep square CKijibKH how many; how much CKJiaAaTHCH 3 consist of cKopo soon ckpomhhh modest CKyjitnTop sculptor cjia6KHH weak c jia s a glory; fame cjiobhhk vocabulary; dictionary cjiobo word cjiofiocnojiy^eHHH word-combina­ tion cbhto


cjiyHc6oBeiji> clerk; employee cjiyjKHTH serve cjiyxara listen cjuocap fitter CMa»CHTH fry CMepTB death CMijiHBHii brave CMijiHBicTB bravery CMimHHH funny, comical CMiHTHCH laugh civiyra stripe C H ir snow I#e crnr. It is snowing. C H iro sH K snowman cHi^aHOK breakfast CHi^aTH have breakfast CHiacKa snowball cojiaaT soldier comje sun c o h jt c h h h sunny copoHKa shirt cocHCKa sausage co<{>a sofa coh )3 union coH>3HHK ally cnani sleep cnei^ia^bHHH special cnHHa back cniBain sing cniAHHi^H skirt cniikMaTH catch cnijiBHHH mutual cnijLbHOTa community cnoAiBaTHca hope cnopT sport 3aifMaTHCH cnopTOM go in for sports cnpasa business cnpaBSKHiH real cnpo6a attempt CTasaTH become CTa^ioH stadium CTajib steel CTapHH old CTapm HH senior; ( y c i M ’ i ) elder CTapm oKJiaoHHK senior pupil

CTaTTH article CTaTya statue c t h t j ih h ripe ciiji table HHCBMOBHH CTUI d e s k

ciijiei^ chair cTma wall c t o j ih ij h capital CTOjiirra century c t o h t h stand CTpaHK strike cipax fear CTpHdam jump; leap CTpijIHTH S h o o t

CTpiwa ribbon CTy^eHT student cyeepeHiTeT sovereignty cyKHH dress cyMKa bag cyMHHH sad cyMHis doubt cyn soup cynepMapneT supermarket cyxHH dry cynacHHH modern cym H TH dry cxia east cxiAHHH eastern c h h t h shine

Tt Ta and (cnoji.); that (6K03. 3oum . M.p.) Ta6ip camp TaeMHHi^H secret TaK so, yes TaK H H such TaKoac too; also TaM there TaHeub dance TaHi^BaTH dance Tapunca plate TBapHHa animal TsepAHceHHH statement TBepAHik hard

219


TBepAHTH assert TBih your t b o p h t h create TeaTp theatre T e a T p a jiB H a ic a c a box-office

TeKCTHjiBHHH textile Tejiesi3op TV-set Tejie^oH telephone TeMHHH dark

TeMHOsojiocHH dark-hai red TeMneparypa temperature TeHic tennis Tenep now, nowadays TenjiHH warm

TepaneBT therapeutist territory T e x m K technician Ti those T i j i o body Tinea aunt r a r p tiger THHCAeHB week THcana thousand TKaHHHa cloth T e p H T o p ia

TOBCTHH t h i c k

that to m caMHH the same T O K a p turner TOKapHHH BepCTaT lathe t o h k h h thin TOMy ( Ha,3ad) ago TO M y (npuHiiHa) that is why TOMy mo because TopKaTHca touch T O pT cake TpaAimia tradition TpaKTOpHCT tractor-driver TpaMBaH tram TpanjiHTHca happen TpeHep trainer TpeHyBaTH(ca) train TpHsaTH last TpHBora alarm TpHMara keep; hold TpojieMyc trolley-bus TpoHHAarose

T o il

220

rpyAHiia working people rypSoTa care; trouble xypHCT tourist ryr here ryflwia shoe riojiBnaH tulip r a m i pull, draw

yy y (b) at, in; into yftHBani kill ydHBCTBO murder y6HBijH killer y6ojiiBajiBHHK fan yBara attention yAap blow ysdepeaeaca coast yica3Ka pointer yKpama Ukraine Ukrainian y K p a m c B K a MOBa Ukrainian (lan足 guage) yjiK>6jieHiiM favourite yMHpaTH die ymsepMar department store yHisepCHTeT university yHiTapHHH unitary ynaKOBysaTH pack; wrap ypoHcaft harvest ypoK lesson ypaA government ycMimna smile ycnix success ycniuiHHH successful ycTaHOBa office, establishment, institution yCTaHOBjiiosaTH establish ycysaTH remove yTBOpiOBaTH form yTinaTH escape yqacHHK participant yneHB pupil yHHTejiB teacher ynopa yesterday yK pam einB; y K p am ica


0(J) <J>a6piiKa f a c t o r y 4>ap6a p a i n t aKBapejibHa

<})ap6a

xoneicT hockey-player

w a te r­

c o lo u r

4>apTyx a p r o n <}>ax s p e c i a l i t y ;

p r o fe s s io n ; tr a d e

<{>epMa f a r m TBapHH H H ii,BKa (Jjepivia c a t t l e fa r m

4>epMep f a r m e r 4>i3HKa p h y s ic s

xoKen hockey xojioAHJibHHK refrigerator xojioahhh cold xop choir x o p o 6 p n H brave xopouiHif good xoTi™ want xoh, xo^a though, although XT0-He6yAb anybody; anyone; somebody x p e c T cross xyAOHCHHK painter; artist

4 >i3KyjibTypa p h y s ic a l t r a i n i n g ^ ijib M f i l m xyAOHCHiif (Jh j ib m f e a t u r e 4 > o jib icjio p f o l k - l o r e 4>o h b a c k g r o u n d 4>o h a s t o c k ^O H AO B a 6ip5Ka s t o c k e x c h a n g e <)>opMa; 4>opM eHHH o a o t u n i f o r m u iK ijib H a

<))0pM a s c h o o l u n i ­

fo r m

4 >opTeniaHo p ia n o

<J>0T0rpa4>ifl p h o t o <})paHi^y3bKHH F r e n c h ^pyK TH fr u it <|>yHT p o u n d 4 > y r6 o ji f o o t b a l l (J jy r d o jiic T f o o t b a l l - p l a y e r

X x xa3HiH

m a s te r;

ow n er;

la n d lo r d

(O ju i n o M u jib U J i); h o s t (O jlh z o crru i); b o s s ( n id n p u e M e i^ b ) xB H jiH H a m in u t e x B ic T t a i l XBOpHH s ic k , i l l

xBopo6a d is e a s e x iM ia c h e m is t r y

xipypr s u r g e o n xjii6 b r e a d xjii6HHH Mara3HH b a k e r ’ s x jio n e i^ b b o y , f e l l o w xo6i hobby

u;eif this i^eH3ypa censorship u,eH Tp centre i^eHTpajibHHH central u ,ep K B a church i^ h k ji cycle i^MpK circus l^HTysaTH cite iji these i^iKaBHH interesting i^iKaBHTH interest i^ina price i^iHHHH valuable i^iHHicTb value u,yKop sugar i*yi*eiiH puppy

shop

naif tea nac time nacTHHa part Macro often nairnca cup HBepTb quarter neMnioH champion ^eMnioHaT championship nenaTH wait HeprysaTH be on duty nepeBHK boot »iecTb honour 221


push iirropM storm urynaTH look for; seek; search for HiyxjiH^a drawer

r a il w hose

U ITO B X aTH

*m c T H it c le a n ^i h c t h t h b r u s h ; c le a n

*iH Ta*i r e a d e r H oeeH b o a t h o jio b u c m a n ; h u s b a n d

mm

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m,acjiHBHH happy me yet; else iiaTKa brush moAeHHHK day-book; diary II 4OHHO j ust m,OKa cheek iu,o-He6yAt anything moTHHCHH weekly

why

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rnaxH p l a y

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n i a x i c T c h e s s - p la y e r

uiBeifii,ap d o o r m a n h ib h a k o q u ic k ly

H>H3K youth

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lOHHif young locTHi^ia justice

nie4> chief, principal IIIHHOK p u b uiHpO KH H b r o a d , w i d e u ih h

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222

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Английский язык для 10 класса. Плахотник  

Учебник по английскому языку. 10 класс. Плахотник

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