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OLD GEOLOGY The expansion joint on the brick wall allows any expansion and contraction due to thermal reasons. Also, most of brick work is done in the type of stretcher course and the mortar joints finishings are usually ironed mortar joints !SPORTS CENTRE/ POOL The light- weight framed pool building has many raked joints. The steel base framework with cross- bracing footing and roof allows the enormous spatial span of LOT 66 the building. The exterior walls are Photos below demonstrate the concrete composed by reinforced UNION HOUSE concrete- mass construction strip footing and its structure. The membrane structure at the back of Union House is an example of structure with tension forces. Apart from the aesthetic use, this light weight structure is also economic and efficient to be built for the sheltering function

WEEK 3 KNOWLEDGE MAP End Bearing Piles




Retaining Wall


Raft Strip

Dead Loads Live Loads

Tie (Compression)

Friction Bearing Piles


Week 3

Strut (Tension)

Walls Floating slabs / Plate

Foundation Beam (Tension+Compression)

WEEK 3 GLOSSARY Moment: A measure of an object's resistance to changes to its rotation Formula Moment (kN/m) = Force x Distance Foundation: The lowest division of a building- it’s substructure. Partly or wholly below the ground surface. Support and anchor the superstructure above and transmit its loads safely into the earth. Differential Settlement: The relative movement of different parts of a structure caused by uneven consolidation of the foundation oil. Shallow Foundation: Stable soil, adequate bearing capacity, transfer building loads directly to the supporting soil by vertical pressure. Deep Foundation: unstable or inadequate bearing capacity soil, transfer building loads to a more appropriate bearing stratum of rock or a dense sands and gravels well below the superstructure. Strip Footing: Number of columns in a row, supported on a soil with low bearing capacity. Pad Footing: Pad foundations is the support used at a point load such as columns or framed structures. The pads are usually shallow but deep ones can be found depending on the structure. Retaining Wall: A structure that retains (holds back) any material (usually earth) and prevents it from sliding or eroding away. Slab on Ground: A foundation slab is laid directly on the ground without a basement.

WEEK 4 TUTORIAL ACTIVITY REPORT This week’s tutorial is about reading the information from construction diagrams. The Oval Pavilion drawing set is in the scale of 1:100.However, it is actually in the scale of 1:200 because the original drawing set was A1 format rather than A3 format.
 Different annotations can be recognised in the set. The “clouds” means the any changes in the drawing. Grids in the drawing are used to indicate the position in the drawing similar to the coordinates in a map. Any materials, sections lines, doors and windows are shown in a form of abbreviations and annotations Only vertical dimensions are a plan and horizontal dimensions are in elevations.



Project Name





Concrete Steel




Floor + Framing System

Week 4 Beam Cantilever In- Situ


Precast Cement + Fine aggregate +Coarse aggregate + water

Reinforcement (Improves on tension)

WEEK 4 GLOSSARY Span: Distance measured between two structural supports. Spacing: The repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements. *Spacing of the supporting elements depends on the Spanning capabilities of the supported elements Reinforcement: As concrete is very strong in compression but weak in tension, reinforcement improves the structural performance of the concrete. Since steel is strong in tension, it is added in the form of mesh or bars in the concrete when produced. Beam: A horizontal structural element which carries loads along the length of the beam and transfer these loads to the vertical supports. Cantilever: A structural element where structure is supported at only one end (or the overhanging portions of a member are significant). Floor System: The horizontal planes that must support both live loads and dead loads. It must transfers their loads horizontally across space to either beams and column or to load bearing walls Joist: One of a number of small parallel beams of timber, steel, or reinforced concrete that support a floor or ceiling. Precast Concrete: A concrete wall, panel, etc that is poured in a controlled manufacturing facility. More efficient, economic, qualified. In- Situ Concrete: The concrete panel that is poured on site normally with reinforcement, it is used primarily in foundations and for forming the structural base of buildings


Load Path

1:20 model -Pavilion (canopy)
 Material: balsa wood, knifes, glues, pins, white paper Processes:allocate the canopy to each group member--draw the 1:20 drawing on white paper---making models according to the drawing--group all different parts together The load path is shown in the diagram. All loads are transferred down to the columns of the canopy. The cantilever part does not take loads. Almost all structural elements are timber framed. This makes the whole structure lighter.Important joints are made of painted steel. Difficulties: due to the false calculation, the model was made in a 1:40 ratio. Making individual model is easy, however, connect and bond different parts together is challenging.

WEEK 5 KNOWLEDGE MAP Concrete Requires bracing /shear walls




Accomodate thermal insulation, vapor retarders, mechanical and electrical service

Cold- form Metal

Fail by crushes



Short Column

Structural Frames


Fail by buckles

Long Column




Stud Walls Flexible

Noncombustible Strong in compression

Load Bearing Walls Require reinforcement for tensile stress

Week 5 Material

Timber Masonry


WEEK 5 GLOSSARY Wall Systems: Vertical construction of a building that enclose, separate, and protect its interior spaces. Might be interior or exterior. In addition, exterior wall must be able to withstand horizontal wind loading. Structural Frames: Typically uses a grid of timber posts or poles connected to timber beams. Stud: A vertical framing member used to create walls and partitions. Studs can be either wood or metal. Nogging: Short cross-pieces of timber used to brace studs/joists. Axial Load: A force with its resultant passing through the centroid of a particular section and being perpendicular to the plane of the section. Buckling Load: In a compression member or compression portion of a member, the load at which bending progresses without an increase in the load. Seasoned Timber: <15% moisture content in the timber is considered as seasoned timber. It is typically used for furnitures and flooring. Columns: vertical structural members designed to transfer axial compressive load Universal Column Circular Hollow Section Rectangular Hollow Section (UC) (CHS) (RHS)

WEEK 5 GLOSSARY Reinforced masonry: Load bearing walls can be constructed from core filled hollow concrete blocks or grout filled cavity masonry. Bond beamsover openings can be created using special concrete blocks which are filled with concrete to bond the individual units together.
 After the concrete has cured, the temporary propping can be removed, leaving only the appearance of the concrete block wall. Solid masonry: Load bearing walls can be created with single or multiple skins of concrete masonry units or clay bricks. The skin of masonry are joined together using a brick(with header showing in face of wall) or with metal wall ties placed within the mortar bed. Cavity masonry: Better thermal performance and opportunities for insulation within the cavity
 Better waterproofing(ability to drain water from the cavity) The opportunity to run services within the wall cavity damp proof coarse & weep holes indicates a cavity wall rather than a solid wall CHIPBOARD & STRANDBOARD: Uses:part of structural systems/cladding finish made by layering hardwood or softwood residuals in specific orientations with wax and a resin binder by applying high temperature an pressure PLYWOOD--made by gluing and pressing thin laminates together to form a sheet Grain in laminates in alternate directions Strength in two directions Uses: structural bracing/structural flooring/formworks/joinery/marine applications LVL--laminated veneer lumber. Made from laminating thin sheets of timber
 Very deep and long sections possible high strength
 GLULAM--glue laminated timber. Made from gluing pieces of dressed sawn timber together to form a deep member
 --Both: most laminates with grain aligned to longitudinal direction Uses: mainly structural(beams,posts,portal frames)


Construction Site Visiting Report

WEEK 6 KNOWLEDGE MAP Steel (structural)

Flat Truss Roof

Raised Chord




Warren Flat




Light framed



Week 6 Stainless Alloy

Non- Ferrous

Tin Steel Sheeting

Aluminium Bronze


Zinc Lead

Wrought/ Cast Iron



Reinforcing Bars

Hot rolled/ Cold formedSteel


Truss: generally fabricated by welding or bolting structural angles and tees together to form the triangulated framework. Roof: functions as the primary sheltering element for the interior spaces of a building. Ferrous: Ferrous is iron; the 4th most common element in the earth with a relatively cheap price. Non-ferrous: all other metals--generally more expensive(, less likely to react with Oxygen and superior working qualities

Alloys: combinations of two or more metals Wrought iron: formed when iron is heated and hammered into the desired shape in construction.
 Cast iron: formed when iron is melted and the molten metal is poured into moulds to cool--acquires a very high compressive strength. Hot rolled steel:elements shaped while metal is hot--more material required
 Used as primary structural elements Joints are welded or bolted
 Often protected from rusting and corroding by coatings(paint or hot dipped galvanising)
 Cold formed steel:elements folded from sheets that have been previously produced and cooled down Used as secondary structure Joints are bolted or screwed Protected by hot dip processes(galvanisation) Reinforcing bars: used in conjunction with concrete to produce reinforced concrete due to its good tensile resistance Steel sheeting: Cladding and roofing(corrugated iron or other sheet profiles)
 must be protected from weather exposure(paint,enamelled finishes, galvanisation) Stainless steel alloys:Chromium-main alloying element(minimum of 12%)
 Used in harsh environments or where specific inert finishes are required(kitchens operating rooms) Rarely used as primary structure(only in harsh environments)--high cost

WEEK 7 KNOWLEDGE MAP Different surfaces Meridional Forces Tension Ring






(Detailed in Glossary)

Week 7


Durable, Flexible

(Detailed in Glossary)



Hoop Forces




High Gloss

Rubber Natural

Water Based Oiled Based Not Water Soluble


Groin/ Cross Synthetic


WEEK 7 GLOSSARY Arches: curved structures for spanning an opening Vaults: arched structures of stone, brick, or reinforced concrete,
 forming a ceiling or roof over a hall, room, or other wholly or partially enclosed space Domes: spherical surface structure having a circular plan and constructed of stacked blocks, a continuous rigid material or of short, linear elements Shells: thin, curved plate structures typically constructed of reinforced concrete Moisturising: Opening:
 Planned: windows,doors, skylights Unplanned: poor construction workmanship/ Deterioration of material Remove openings: sealants e.g. silicone Keep water from opening:
 Grading roofs:the water is collected in gutters which then discharge the water to downpipes and stormwater systems
 slopping windows and door sills and roof /wall flashings --slopping the ground surface away from the walls at the baseof buildings Neutralise the forces that move water through openings: Gravity-- use slopes and overlaps to neutralise
 Surface tension and capillary action--use a drip or a break (e.g. Window sill/parapet capping)



Heating: Thermal insulation: reduce heat conduction Thermal breaks--made from low conductive materials like rubbers and plastics to reduce heat transfer Double/triple glazing: air spaces reduces the flow of heat Reflective surfaces low-e glass white-painted roofs Shading system verandahs, eaves, blinds Thermal mass: used to regulate the flow of heat, works well when there are large differences in temperatures between day and night Materials: masonry, concrete, water bodies. Drip: a strip which extends beyond other parts of a roof and which directs rainwater off the roof. Parapet: a parapet is a low wall projecting from the edge of a platform, terrace, or roof. Insulation: a board-type product, usually of low or medium density, made of mineral fibres, cellular glass, foamed plastic, lightweight concrete, wood fibreboard, or other materials, one or both sides of which may be faced with another material; provides thermal insulation in a roofing system. Vapour Barrier: a layer of material applied to the inner (warm) surface of a concrete wall or floor to prevent absorption and condensation of moisture. Downpipe: a pipe to carry rainwater from a roof to a drain or to Moisture Vapour Barrier ground level. Barrier Sealant: a substance, such as sealing wax, used to seal a surface to prevent water from coming in. Gutter: a channel at the edge of a street or road for carrying off surface water. Flashing: a sheet of metal used to reinforce and weatherproof the joints and angles of a roof.


The drawing is part of the function parapet of the Oval Pavilion.
 As annotated on the graph, it includes ‘roof thermal insulation, wall thermal insulation, roof acoustic insulation, wall acoustic insulation, flashing, proprietary gutter bracket, aluminium fascia, joint sealant with backing rod, vapour barrier and compressed fibre cement cladding.’ However, due to the position of the parapet is in the middle of the roof, it is difficult to obtain a vision of it.





Float Glass

Steel windows & frames


Aluminium windows & frames

Double/ Triple Glazing

Timber windows & frames

Aluminium doors & frames



(Tinted, patterned, curved, etc)

Timber doors & frame Steel doors & frames

Flat Glass



Week 8

WEEK 8 GLOSSARY Window sash: the frame of the window
 Deflection: the perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course Stress: the combination of compressive and tension stresses
 Moment of inertia: the sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a coplanar axis of rotation Shear force: a typical type of horizontal force Clear float glass(annealed glass): simplest & cheapest glass product. No further treatment beyond the float fabrication.
 Ideal in low risk/low cost/small size glazing scenarios Breaks into very sharp and dangerous shards Laminated glass: a tough plastic interlayer(PVB) is bonded together between two glass panes
 Improves the security and safety of the glass product
 Tempered glass(toughened glass): bending strength increased by a factor of 4-4.5 times that of annealed glass Break into small,pellet shaped pieces-improving safety. Ideal to use in highly exposed situations (balustrades.partitions,facades) or in large size

WEEK 9 TUTORIAL ACTIVITY REPORT Victoria Cancer Centre! Foundation- wet clay soil behaves like grease, unstable, stable mudstone underneath! Steel frames! Radiation bunker - Thick concrete stops radiation 800mm concrete + 300mm steel - densest part of building ! Monolithic, no control joint! Metal steel decking, bonded with timber (bond deck), welded! In situ concrete slabs, still supported with steel formwork! "Surfacing has to happen from within" - massive concrete short columns support car park ceiling, car park as loading base! Retaining wall - reinforced concrete! Reinforced concrete columns, solid with reinforcing bar in matrix form! Windows resist wind load, lateral force! Concrete formwork: hydraulic jacks push screen to next level, 1.5m ! Floor sealant!

WEEK 9 KNOWLEDGE MAP Fibre Reinforced Cement (FRC)

Week 9



Aluminium sheet composite Timber


Fibre Reinforced Polymers

Cleanable Surface

Repairable Surfaces Resistance to damage

Maintenance Access

Joint Movement


Monolithic materials: A single material/ materials combined so that components are indistinguishable (e.g. Metal alloys) Composite material:Two or more materials are combined in such a way that the individual materials remain easily distinguishable Composite: formed from a 1.Combination of materials which differ in composition or form 2.Remain bonded together 3.Retain their identities and properties â&#x20AC;¨ 4.Act together to provide improved specific or synergistic characteristics not obtainable by any of the original components acting alone


Elements in the graph: roof thermal insulation, wall thermal insulation, roof acoustic insulation, wall acoustic insulation, flashing, proprietary gutter bracket, aluminium fascia, joint sealant with backing rod, vapour barrier and compressed fibre cement cladding.

WEEK 10 KNOWLEDGE MAP Pollution Health IEQ (indoor environment quality) Waste/recycling/recycled
 Energy use and embodied energy Life cycle

Suitability of material Exposure,Compatibility, Strength and Deflection Long term performance
 Construction & detailing

Material Selection

Wind Forces

Earthquake Forces

Lateral Force

Week 10

WEEK 10 GLOSSARY Timber Fascia:a type of horizontal wooden trim that surrounds a home beneath the roof shingles. The fascia boards serve as exterior caps for the rafter beams, the ends of which would otherwise be exposed to the outside. Wind Forces: mainly act on surface of building. Earthquake Forces: mainly act at the base of the structure Strategy (wind+earthquake forces) : diaphragms ( shearing wall), bracing and moment joints/ seismic base isolator Weakness: High-rised building, Re-entrant corner, Discontinuous columns, Torsion Galvanic corrosion: Copper oxidisation Sandwich panel &Composite beam:seen in the knowledge map Bending:buckling
 Cornice:an element in eave system
 Soft storey: weak points of high rise when applied by lateral force
 Braced frame: bracing element to prevent a structure from affected by lateral loads Life cycle: the overall consideration of a material
 Corrosion: the broken of a structure/material
 IEQ: Indoor environment quality


Material:1200×3.2×90mm Ply ×1 1200×35×35mm Pine×3 Nails, hammers, measuring taped and drill are used
 Our group:
 All pines are nailed together. The knots are put on the top of the timber for the reason that when loads are applied, the top will be in compression and the bottom will be in tension. The part with knots will not break when being put at the top. For the same reason, more nails are drilled in the upper part of the beam.

 Maximum loads:360kg





The force load of this structure works similar to the previous structure. However, the gaps between the woods improve the flexibility of the structure since the contact area is decreased. Deflection:33mmâ&#x20AC;¨ Maximum loads:400kg

REFERENCE Ching, F. 2008. Building Construction Illustrated. Hoboken: John Wiley&Sons, lnc.. Melbourne University - LMS Weekly Guide

A01 week 3-10 Jiajun Yang  
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