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MUSEUMS The Symbol of City




Museum of Islamic Art


The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art

166 Royal Ontario Museum

240 China Science and Technology Museum

14 MAXXI: National Museum of XXI Arts

100 Kalmar Museum of Art

174 Getty Villa

248 Maritime Centre Vellamo

22 New Museum of Contemporary Art

106 Hermitage Amsterdam

182 New Acropolis Museum

254 National Museum of the Marine Corps

28 Art Gallery of Alberta

114 Provincetown Art Association and Museum (PAAM)

190 Archeological Museum of รlava

34 Contemporary Jewish Museum

120 Bowdoin College Museum of Art

196 Davidson Museum

260 Andalucia's Museum of Memory

42 Akron Art Museum

128 Moderna Museet Malmรถ

202 The Collection, Lincoln

272 Wyspianski 2000 Pavilion

48 New Wing of the Charleroi Museum of Photography 134 Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum

208 Ljubljana City Museum

278 Xi Gallery

58 Herning Museum of Contemporary Art

144 The Museum of Design Art + Architecture (MODAA)

214 Colognese Mill, Bread Museum and Baking Workshop

284 Lightcatcher at the Whatcom Museum

64 Tampa Museum of Art

148 Nakamura Kelth Haring Collection Art Museum

72 Jeju Museum

152 Museion

220 Mercedes-Benz Museum

286 Index

80 National Portrait Gallery

156 Rodin Museum Bahia

226 Dornier Museum

88 The Nerman Museum of Art

160 SSM

234 Darwin Centre


Museum of Islamic Art Location: Doha, Qatar Designer: I. M. Pei Architect (New York) Photographer: Museum of Islamic Art & Lois Lammerhuber Completion date: 2008 Construction area: 35,000 sqm Award name: The Overall Project of the Year/Second Annual Middle East Architect, 2009.

The Museum of Islamic Art is the result of a journey of discovery conducted by I.M. Pei, whose quest to understand the diversity of Islamic architecture led him on a world tour. During visits to the Grand Mosque in Cordoba, Spain; Fatehpur Sikri, a Mughal capital in India; the Umayyad Great Mosque in Damascus, Syria; and the ribat fortresses at Monastir and Sousse in Tunisia, he found that influences of climate and culture led to many interpretations of Islamic architecture, but none evoked the true essence he sought. Mr. Pei's final design inspiration was the 13th-century sabil (ablutions fountain) of the Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt (9th century). In the "austerity and simplicity" of the sabil, Mr. Pei stated, he found "a severe architecture that comes to life in the sun, with its shadows and shades of colour". The sabil offered "an almost Cubist expression of geometric progression", which evoked an abstract vision of the key design elements of Islamic architecture. Declining to build the structure on any of the proposed sites along the Corniche, Mr. Pei suggested a stand-alone island be created to ensure that future buildings would never encroach on the Museum. The building stands in the sea some sixty metres off Doha's Corniche. A park of approximately 259,000 square metres of dunes and oases on the shoreline behind the Museum offers shelter and a picturesque backdrop. Built of fine materials, such as cream-coloured Magny and Chamesson limestone from France, Jet Mist granite from the United States and stainless steel from Germany, as well as architectural concrete from Qatar, the Museum is composed of a five-storey main building and a two-storey Education Wing, which are connected across a central courtyard. The main building's angular volumes step back progressively as they rise around a fifty-metre-high domed atrium, which is concealed from outside view by the walls of a central tower. At the top of the atrium, an oculus captures and reflects patterned light within the faceted dome. The desert sun plays a fundamental role, transforming the architecture into a play of light and shadows. A glass curtain wall on the north side of the Museum offers panoramic views of the Gulf and West Bay area of Doha from all five floors of the atrium. Ceilings are embellished with intricate coffered domes, and perforated metal chandeliers hang in the atrium. Two more lanterns, each 30 metres tall, mark the boat dock on the west side of the Museum, creating a grand entrance for guests arriving by boat. The galleries, designed by Jean-Michel Wilmotte from Paris, France feature dark grey porphyry stone and Louro Faya, a Brazilian lacewood that was brushed and treated to create a metallic appearance, which contrast with the lightcoloured stonework of the rest of the Museum. To protect the fragile antiquities on display, the exhibition rooms feature specially designed cases and lighting. Mr. Wilmotte also created custom furniture for the museum, inspired by Pei’s architectural style. The Museum's education programmes are housed in a 2,694-square-metre wing, located to the east of the main building across a fountain courtyard. The Education Wing, scheduled to open late 2009, includes a light-filled reading room in the Museum library, classrooms, workshops, study spaces, and


technical and storage facilities. Among the latter is the conservation laboratory, an important new resource for the entire region. Underscoring the central role of education in the Museum of Islamic Art, the Education Wing will host educational and community activities to develop and foster an understanding and appreciation for Islamic art.


Upper left The grand spiral staircase at the centre of the atrium of the Museum of Islamic Art is offset from the patterned chandelier. The Museum of Islamic Art features a 5-storey window that offers views of the Gulf and the West Bay of Doha. Lower left Entrance for the museum. Upper right The grand staircase at the Museum of Islamic Art, as seen from the main entrance. Lower right Walkway and the open space create a new attractive public area.




Location: Rome, Italy Designer: Zaha Hadid Architects Photographer: Helene Binet,Iwan Baan,Roland Halbe Completion date: 2010 Construction area: 27,000 sqm

MAXXI: National Museum of XXI Arts

Designed by architect Zaha Hadid (winner of the international competition in 1999), the MAXXI is located in the Flaminio quarter of Rome, in the area of the former Montello military barracks. The complex houses two institutions: MAXXI Arte (Director Anna Mattirolo) and MAXXI Architecture (Director Margherita Guccione), aiming to promote art and architecture through collection, conservation, study and exhibition of contemporary works. Designed as a true multi-disciplinary and multi-purpose campus of the arts and culture, the MAXXI creates an urban complex for the city that can be enjoyed by all. The MAXXI includes — in addition to the two museums — an auditorium, library and media library, bookshop and cafeteria, spaces for temporary exhibitions, outdoor spaces, live events and commercial activities, laboratories, and places for study and leisure. The two museums — MAXXI Art and MAXXI Architecture — are located around a large full height space which gives access to the galleries dedicated to permanent collections and temporary exhibitions, the auditorium, reception services, cafeteria and bookshop. Materials such as glass (roof), steel (stairs) and cement (walls) give the exhibition spaces a neutral appearance, whilst mobile panels enable curatorial flexibility and variety. The fluid and sinuous shapes, the variety and interweaving of spaces and the modulated use of natural light lead to a spatial and functional framework of great complexity, offering constantly changing and unexpected views from within the building and outdoor spaces. Two principle architectural elements characterise the project: the concrete walls that define the exhibition galleries and determine the interweaving of volumes; and the transparent roof that modulates natural light. The roofing system complies with the highest standards required for museums and is composed of integrated frames and louvers with devices for filtering sunlight, artificial light and environmental control.


Left The steel stairs together with the concrete wall create a simple and implicit atmosphere. Right The colour of black and white contrasts with each other sharply.




New Museum of Contemporary Art Location: New York, USA Designer: Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA Photographer: Dean Kaufman Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 5,574 sqm Awarded date: 2010 Award name: Honorably Mentioned in the Pritzker Architecture Prize 2010.

The New Museum of Contemporary art is an urban infill in Downtown Manhattan. Given such a dense urban setting, stacking museum spaces might easily have led to an introverted mass, but by shifting the volumes in relation to each other, the designers opened the building up and the museum started to interact with its surroundings. The shifting allows for skylights, terraces, and variation, all while maximising wall space and keeping within the zoned building envelope. As the relation between core and envelope vary, different lighting conditions and proportions arise. The New Museum consists of eight floors above grade and two floors below, totaling nearly 5,574 sqm gross. The ground floor houses the Lobby, CafÊ, New Museum Store and open loading corridor. The building has four public galleries — Lobby Gallery located on the ground floor and three full-floor, column-free exhibition galleries on the building's second, third, and fourth levels. Each gallery has skylights for natural lighting combined with fixture lighting. One level below grade, the building's cellar level holds a 182-seat "white box" theatre, pre-function hall, and public restrooms, as well as mechanical areas, theatre back-of-house functions and storage. A workshop and additional storage areas are housed on the cellar mezzanine. The Museum's Education Centre occupies the fifth floor. Administrative offices are on the sixth floor, and a multi-purpose event room (with adjacent pantry) occupies the seventh floor, surrounded by exterior terraces wrapping the east and south sides of the building. At 110 feet above street level, it offers uninterrupted views of downtown Manhattan.


Upper left The simple lighting upgrades the space perfectly. Lower left The colourful chairs turn to be active elements in the interior space. Right The decoration of the interior wall has invigorated the space.



Art Gallery of Alberta Location: Edmonton, Canada Designer: Randall Stout Architects, Inc. Photographer: Robert Lemermeyer Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 7,897 sqm

The new Art Gallery of Alberta is an engaging and inviting visual arts centre in downtown Edmonton, Alberta. Celebrating its prominent location on Sir Winston Churchill Square, the city's arts and government core, the building's architectural design formally and philosophically extends out into the community, welcoming visitors of all ages and backgrounds to experience contemporary art firsthand. Designed by Los Angeles-based Randall Stout Architects, the Gallery opened to the public in January 2010. Crafted of painted zinc, high performance glazing, and stainless steel, the building has a timeless appearance and extraordinary durability in the northern climate. Transparent glazing planes and reflective metal surfaces animate the building, exposing the activities within and engaging people and art at multiple levels on both the interior and exterior. Selected to reflect Edmonton’s dramatic weather patterns and the extreme contrast of the long days of summer and the short days of winter, these materials create a dynamic quality that allow the building to transform along with its natural surroundings. The design reinvents the museum’s public spaces through a continuous stainless steel surface that moves lithely through the museum's interior and exterior spaces. Wall and ceiling become one fluid surface which captures the spatial volume while guiding the public through entry points, wrapping event and gathering spaces, and leading on to the galleries. Galleries were conceived as more conventional spaces in order to maximize flexibility for curators and maintain the high level of environmental control necessary to house traveling exhibitions and the Gallery’s collection. On the exterior, the galleries are expressed as simple stacked rectangular boxes, establishing a dialogue with the existing building mass as well as a heightened juxtaposition with the undulating surfaces of the public spaces. These two languages of mass and curvilinear form define an inviting rhythm of destination and path in a unique way-finding experience for visitors. The original museum building, a 1960s Brutalist-style concrete structure, was undersized and not taking full advantage of its high-profile location on the public square. The addition/renovation project has upgraded the previously below-standard galleries and art handling facilities and includes new celebratory public event areas including the entry lobby, great hall, multi-purpose theatre, café, museum store, Borealis Lounge, and outdoor sculpture terrace. Edmonton’ s underground light rail transportation system (LRT) and public pedway are accessible from the main entry lobby.


Left The stainless steel ribbon acts as a way-finding device, directing visitors from public spaces to galleries via the grand stair. Right The infusion of natural light into the Great Hall allows it to successfully perform as a public events space as well as an exhibit space.



Contemporary Jewish Museum Location: San Francisco, California, USA Designer: Studio Daniel Libeskind Photographer: Studio Daniel Libeskind Completion date: 2008 Construction area:: 5,853 sqm Award name: 2007 American Architect Award.

With the opening of its new building in June 2008, the Contemporary Jewish Museum (CJM) ushered in a new chapter in its 20-plus year history of engaging audiences and artists in exploring contemporary perspectives on Jewish culture, history, art and ideas. The new facility is a lively centre where people of all ages and backgrounds can gather to appreciate art, share diverse perspectives, and engage in hands-on activities. Inspired by the Hebrew phrase “l’chaim” (to life); the building is a physical embodiment of the CJM’s mission to bring together tradition and innovation in an exploration of the relevance of Jewish values and traditions in the 21st century. The new 5,853-square-metre facility, located on Mission Street between 3rd and 4th Streets in downtown San Francisco, will enable the museum to present an expanded array of engaging programming including art exhibitions, live music, film screenings, lectures and discussions, and educational activities for audiences of all ages and backgrounds. The design of the Contemporary Jewish Museum (CJM) in San Francisco provides a space for exhibitions, a place for activities and a symbol dedicated to the revitalisation of Jewish life in San Francisco and beyond. Such a building, rooted in the Jewish imagination, and opening itself to the diverse contemporary currents of life, will be a fundamental contribution to the Yerba Buena renaissance. The challenge, significance and potential of this site and the programme of the CJM are themselves part of the cultural process symbolising the foundation of a new and innovative Jewish institution in San Francisco-an institution which will deal with continuity and identity. This relation is revealed by the struggle to make space in this delicate location. The atmosphere of the old power station is carefully retained, while at the same time providing wholly new programme and circulation spaces for the CJM. The visitor is made aware of the old parameters of the power station, the walls where batteries and equipment were once lodged, the skylights and the structure. In contrast and complement to this experience of history, the visitor will also experience the reconfigured spatial form of the new extension. History does not come to an end but opens to the future; history is a dynamic ground.


Left The unique shape of the architecture. Right The aerial view of the museum.




Akron Art Museum Location: Ohio, USA Designer: COOP HIMMELB(L)AU Photographer: Roland Halbe Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 8,370 sqm Award name: RIBA International Award 2008; American Architecture Award 2005.

The building is broken up into three parts: the Crystal, the Gallery Box, and the Roof Cloud. The Crystal serves as the main entry and operates as an orientation and connection space serving both the new and old buildings. It is a grand, flexible space that can also be used for banquets, arts festivals, and events hosted by outside organisations. The traditional idea of a banquet hall as an enclosed isolated event space dissolves away into a visible, public experience. The energy necessary for lighting, heating and cooling the Crystal is minimised by strategic building massing and extensive day lighting. The mass and location of the Gallery Box and High Roof protect the southern oriented Crystal glazing from direct sunlight. At the same time the reflectivity of the faรงade material raises natural light levels in the Crystal and reduces the need to power artificial light sources. The interior of the Gallery Box is an expansive space which has very few columns and is therefore extremely flexible for varying exhibition requirements. A large freight elevator brings oversized works to and from the storage areas and serves as a link between the loading dock and Gallery Box. Natural light is eliminated in the galleries so that it can be strictly controlled and damage from sunlight can be eliminated. The floors of the Gallery Box and Crystal are composed of poured in place concrete slabs with water filled tubes that supply heating and cooling by changing temperature state of the massive floor slab. This radiant floor system is more efficient than simple forced air systems because it uses the mass of the concrete as a storage device which delivers a stable continuous source of heating and cooling. Forced air systems are much less efficient than radiant systems because of the extra work required by the system when occupancy loads suddenly change and create a far higher burden of use of non-renewable resources. The Roof Cloud, which hovers above the building, creates a blurred envelope for the museum because of its sheer mass and materiality. It encloses interior space, provides shade for exterior spaces, and operates as a horizontal landmark in the city.


Upper left The whole building overflows with a full sense of modernity and art. Lower left The unique shape. Upper right, Lower right The transparent glass has perfectly blurred the boundary between the indoor space and outdoor space.



Location: Mont-sur-Marchienne, Belgium Designer: L’Escaut Architectures/Olivier Bastin, Eloisa Astudillo, Nele Stragier, Florence Hoffmann Photographer: Gilbert Fastenaekens Completion date: 2008 Construction area: 2,175 sqm Award name: 2009 Mies van der Rohe Awards: Nominated; 2009 Belgian Building Awards: Heritage Award; 2008 Hainaut Architecture Awards: Special Cultural Award.

New Wing of the Charleroi Museum of Photography

The new wing of the Photography Museum in Charleroi is located in the old orchard of the former Carmelite convent. The architects and the museum director defined the programme, guided by the formula 1+1=1: both buildings serve as one museum, the new one becoming the interface between the convent and its park. During the programming phase, the needed new functions were distributed between the two buildings. Like a game of dominoes, as rooms in the convent were stripped of their functions, new ones took their place. The old building now shows the collection in chronological order, while the new wing uses each room to showcase a theme with photographs from the past thirty years. One of the main objectives of the project was to open the park to the visitors and the public. The convent is of a centripetal nature, with circulation and exhibition spaces organised by the cloister. The new wing works quite differently, by subverting the borders between inside and outside spaces, orchestrating a physical and visual promenade. Light-wooden framed bay-windows incite glances at the park and the neighbourhood creating a constant interaction, and questioning photography by the juxtaposition of these "real frames". The implantation of the new wing within a traditional block of houses appeared as a unique opportunity to make of the park a public space and enhance the public institutions around it: a public school and a sports complex. Supported by the international standing of the museum, the opening of the park prompts an urban transformation process based on social and cultural dynamics. The architectural configuration of the new building demanded a light structure with no long-term heavy shoring. The choice was a massive timber structure whose walls would work as concrete walls. These panels are generally used vertically, juxtaposed to form a wall; but in this case they were used horizontally, piled up to achieve a very tall beam that would support the 12 m cantilever. Contrasting with the dark bricks of the carmelite convent, the new wing is covered with a luminous skin. Photographic in its own right, the work questions the meaning of photography as well as people’s perceptions.


Upper left The surface is covered by glowing building materials. Lower left The appearance of the building uses the block of wood to replace the wall. Right The whole building is imposing and delicate.





Location: Herning, Denmark Designer: Steven Holl Architects Photographer: Susan Wides, Steen Gyldendal, Thomas Mayer, Thomas Moelvig Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 5,600 sqm Award name: RIBA International Award 2010, UK, 2010, International Architecture Award; USA/ Ireland, 2010.

Herning Museum of Contemporary Art

The Herning Centre of the Arts unites three distinct cultural institutions: the Herning Museum of Contemporary Art, the MidWest Ensemble and the Socle du Monde. The new centre is intended to be an innovative forum combining visual art and music. The museum's design fuses landscape and architecture in a one-level building that will include permanent and temporary exhibition galleries, a 150-seat auditorium, music rehearsal rooms, a restaurant, a media library, and administrative offices. Herning's prominent relationship with textiles and the Museum’s large collection of original works by Piero Manzoni (in total 46 works) form the inspiration for the concept design. The museum is sited near Herning's original Angli shirt factory, and the shirt collar-shaped plan of its 1960s building has inspired the shape of the new museum building. Viewed from above, the roof geometry resembles a collection shirt sleeves laid over the gallery spaces: the curved roofs bring balanced natural lights to the galleries. The loose edges of the plan offer spaces for the cafÊ, auditorium, lobby, and offices. The exhibition spaces can be easily closed, while all peripheral spaces remain open for after-hours use. Truck tarps were inserted into the white concrete formwork to yield a fabric texture to the building's exterior walls. Gallery spaces are orthogonal and finely proportioned for art, while overhead curved roof sections transport natural light into the spaces. The galleries' perimeter walls are load bearing elements, emphasizing these as "treasure boxes" in the museum. Internal gallery walls of lightweight construction are movable, providing flexibility in anticipation of changing exhibitions. Floors of integral colour charcoal concrete unify the ground plane into a continuous patina with a wax finish. The surrounding landscape is partially shaped in the reversecurve of the geometry of the roof. In transforming the flat field, a new 40,000 sf bermed landscape of grass mounds and pools conceals parking and service areas, while drawing focus onto reflecting pools positioned in the south sun.


Upper left Dialogue between the architecture and the environment. Details of building’s façade. Lower left The museum against the blue sky and lawn gives a sense of tranquility and elegance. Right The white colour as the base colour could highlight the architecture among the landscape.



Tampa Museum of Art Location: Florida, USA Designer: Stanley Saitowitz / Natoma Architects Inc. Photographer: Richard Barnes Completion date: 2010 Construction area: 6,131 sqm

The new Tampa Museum is like a beautiful jewel box whose sole purpose is to be filled with art. A glass pedestal supports the “jewel box” of art above. The building floats in the park, embracing it with its overhanging shelter and reflective walls. It is a hovering abstraction, gliding above the ground. The building is not only in the landscape, but is the landscape, reflecting the greenery, shimmering like the water, flickering like clouds. It blurs and unifies, making the museum a park, the park a museum. The long building is sliced in the centre. This cut divides the programmes in two, the one public and open, the other support and closed. Each of the two sections is organised around a court, one the lobby, the other a courtyard surrounded by the offices and curatorial areas. The 40’ cantilever provides a huge public porch for the city, raising all the art programmes above the flood plane. The walk along this porch, flanked by the park, focused on the river, leads to the lobby. Off the lobby is a long glass room that houses the café and bookstore in a storefront along the riverwalk. The designers have built the most expansive and generous field of galleries as instruments to enable, through curation, a world to expose art. They are arranged in a circuit, surrounding the vertical courtyard void. The galleries are blank, walls, floor and ceiling all shades of white, silent like the unifying presence of snow. The floors are ground white concrete with a saw cut grid to echo the illuminated white fabric ceiling above. Linear gaps in the ceiling conceal sprinklers, air distribution and lighting. The second segment, around the open court, contains all the support for the museum. Offices surround the court on three sides. A bridge on the lower level is a secondary crossing from preparation to storage, a place for museum staff to be outside. The image of the museum results from the nature of its surface — it does not symbolise or describe. It disengages through neutral form, providing a kind of pit stop in the attempt to represent. It is a moment to savour things in themselves. By day the surfaces appear to vary almost, but never quite. They are smudged and stammering, with moray like images of clouds or water or vegetation, a shimmering mirage of reflections.


Upper left, Lower left The appearance is novel and unique. Right The original reflective wall. The building integrates with the surrounding park, forming a beautiful park-style museum.



Upper left The white wall together with the floor and ceiling creates a snow world, quiet and pure. Lower left The floors are ground white concrete with a saw cut grid to echo the illuminated white fabric ceiling above. Upper right  White display walls have unified the artistic effect of the interior space. Lower right Light in the exhibition design plays an important role.


Jeju Museum Location: Jeju, Korea Designer: G.Lab* By Gansam Partners Photographer: Gansam Partners Architects & Associates Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 39,759 sqm

Jeju Museum of Art is situated in the mountain area on the north-west of Jeju Island. Through the Japanese cedar forest along the long rectangular site, Mt. Halla is seen on the rear, while the clear sky and warm sunshine fills this sunny place. Generally the architecture of art museums in Korea tends to show massive plasticity with a heave sense of space, boasting its architectural magnificence. However, in this project, the architects of Gansam tried to create an open frame enabling new appreciation for the nature of Jeju. It steps back as a background to spotlight the various art works which are to be lodged in. Also it creates the sense of place as a cultural complex park, where its art works and visitors can be its protagonists, weaving interesting stories, rather than being a complete architecture in terms of the form. Its basic concept is a cube, the most basic form in the architectural space. This simple and rational shape of the building shows the architect’s will to harbor wind and light of Jeju, to a full degree, and to spotlight its art works displayed inside. The cube becomes a vessel meeting with land, embracing rapes, pampas grass, water, and crater; while two engaged volumes of art museum with aesthetic simplicity, become a mirror reflecting Jeju sky and Mt. Halla, by the specialisation of surface into a plane and frame. The pond embracing Jeju Museum of Art is a reflection of the Island’s natural atmosphere as well as the ceremony of purifying oneself before appreciating the works of art. Across the pond by a bridge, there is a small courtyard. It is a geometric form of access yard surrounded by black basalt of Jeju and exposed concrete. Different from the conventional access square of other museums, full of liveliness, four sides of this small courtyard is surrounded by nature, consequently shunning crowdedness. Visitors could enjoy the colourful nature of Jeju, and calm their mind, and concentrate fully on the art works inside of the museum. The architect’s will is realised in this arrangement. Jeju Museum of Art is also a gallery to view the unique nature of Jeju. The dazzling beauty of the Island, such as the colour of sky changing constantly through the time, Mt. Halla which is seen from every direction in the Island on a sunny day, splendid rapes on the field, beautiful waves of pampas grass in the wind, etc., become the special masterpiece and memory for oneself, through the open frame of this museum.


Upper left To use the most simple cube structure to accommodate the art and the natural beauty of the surrounding environment. Lower left The pool at the entrance could reflect the sunlight into the interior space. Right The simple and rational appearance contrasts with the surrounding environment sharply.




National Portrait Gallery Location: Canberra, Australia Designer: Johnson Pilton Walker Photographer: Brett Boardman Completion date: 2008 Award name: Sir Zelman Cowen Award for Best Public Building; National AIA Awards, 2009; National Architecture Award for Interior Architecture, National AIA Awards, 2009,etc.

The National Portrait Gallery is sited in the Parliamentary Triangle. Won through open international competition in late 2005, the building provides exhibition space for approximately 500 portraits in a simple configuration of day-lit galleries. The building responds to its site by connecting key vistas, levels and alignments around the precinct. Five fingers of space, arranged perpendicular to the Land Axis refer to Griffin's early planning concepts for the National Capital. The building illustrates its purpose as an art gallery with two principal elements — walls for display and reflectors to control natural light. These devices, visible inside and out, are employed universally throughout the building to capture Canberra's unique light. The clarity of planning with all public spaces on one level is ideal. Despite the simplicity of the plan, the National Portrait Gallery creates a rich visitor experience and adds a variety of new public and civic spaces to the galleries and visitor facilities that are unique to Canberra. Within the 12-metre module defined by the concrete walls, various arrangements of mobile display walls create a flexible range of exhibition spaces. All spaces enjoy controlled natural light from translucent glazed clerestory windows, significantly reducing reliance on artificial lighting. Within the galleries a simple blind system enables control of light levels down to 50 lux for delicate works on paper. A rich palette of materials and plants from around Australia counterpoints the directness of the concrete structure and adds a fine grain, human scale to all spaces. Detailing highlights the method of construction, and the crafting of applied materials, both natural and manufactured, are making the character of the building both bold and intimate. The design is inspired by the Vitruvian notion that the proportion of a building should correspond to that of a person. This is particularly relevant to a building for portraiture and for the scale of works in the collection. The building's sitting in the landscape and relationship to its neighbours, its external form, the internal spaces and the individual components and details are all based on the golden section, a unique proportional relationship that describes a part’s proportion to the whole-creating a harmonious relationship between the visitor, space, material, light and art.





The Nerman Museum of Art Location: Kansas, USA Designer: Kyu Sung Woo Architects Photographer: Kyu Sung Woo Architects Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 3,809 sqm

The Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art is sited in Overland park, a college campus suburb characterized by large surface parking lots and evenly scaled buildings of brown brick. The new museum contrasts with this sprawling suburban context and through its simple volumes and minimal materials creates a connection to the expansive prairie landscape beyond. The building programme and the limited use of architectural elements render an austere yet serene building, and forces attention and restraint with respect to architectural detailing. The materials are derived from nature and from the local context. The exhibition galleries are housed in a solid light controlled volume that hovers above the open lobby function below. Regional whitish limestone is used in contrast to the adjacent buildings, making reference instead to local geology. The planar reading of the wall is achieved by the careful proportioning of the sixteen-foot-high low iron glass panels and structural glass fins, and through its minimal detailing. The stone volume cantilevers beyond the building's structural core to reveal a horizontal soffit that becomes a surface for a permanent exterior LED light installation, bringing the art experience to the outside. Inside the building, the stone language continues; a monumental stair connects the public lobby to the exhibition spaces above. Its reading as a single sculptural volume is made possible by insetting and burying the glass rail, and by wrapping the edge with a solid piece of stone. The building is connected by a glass atrium to an adjacent technology centre on campus. For this supporting space, industrial and inexpensive steel bar joists were chosen as the structure for both walls and roof. For light control, early studies included suspending perforated fabric below the steel structure. This solution was eventually abandoned because of maintenance issues. The final solution was for a panelised folding metal scrim: its perforations provide sun shading and by filling alternate bays of its valley construction with sound absorbing material, it provides acoustic control. The final effect is a delicate and varied light filter that provides scale and definition, and unifies the two buildings and disparate spaces.


Upper left A double-height atrium, wrapped with perforated metal to filter and soften light, joins the museum to an adjacent technology centre. Lower left The simple lighting upgrades the space perfectly. Right The exhibition hall suspends over the open hall on the ground floor, the sunlight goes through the glass window, mixing up with the interior colourful light.



The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art Location: Kansas City, USA Designer: Steven Holl Architects Photographer: Andy Ryan Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 15,329 sqm Award name: AIA New York Chapter Project Award, USA, 1999; Progressive Architecture Award, USA, 2000; The International Parking Institute, Award of Excellence for Best Design of a Parking Facility with Fewer than 800 Spaces, USA, 2004; AIA Central States Architecture Award, USA, 2007; 2008 AIA Honor Award, USA, 2008; AIA New York Chapter Architecture Honor Award, USA, 2008; Capstone Architectural Design Award, USA, 2008; BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award, Spain, 2009.

The expansion of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art fuses architecture with landscape to create an experiential architecture that unfolds for visitors as it is perceived through each individual’s movement through space and time. The new addition, named the Bloch Building, engages the existing sculpture garden, transforming the entire Museum site into the precinct of the visitor’s experience. The new addition extends along the eastern edge of the campus, and is distinguished by five glass lenses, traversing from the existing building through the Sculpture Park to form new spaces and angles of vision. The innovative merging of landscape, architecture and art was executed through close collaboration with museum curators and artists, to achieve a dynamic and supportive relationship between art and architecture. As visitors move through the new addition, they will experience a flow between light, art, architecture and landscape, with views from one level to another, from inside to outside. The threaded movement between the light-gathering lenses of the new addition weaves the new building with the landscape in a fluid dynamism based on a sensitive relationship to its context. Rather than an addition of a mass, the new elements exist in complementary contrast with the original 1933 classical "Temple to Art". The first of the five "lenses" forms a bright and transparent lobby, with café, art library and bookstore, inviting the public into the Museum and encouraging movement via ramps toward the galleries as they progress downward into the garden. From the lobby a new cross-axis connects through to the original building’s grand spaces. At night the glowing glass volume of the lobby provides an inviting transparency, drawing visitors to events and activities. The lenses’ multiple layers of translucent glass gather diffuse and refract light, at times materializing light like blocks of ice. During the day the lenses inject varying qualities of light into the galleries, while at night the sculpture garden glows with their internal light. The "meandering path" threaded between the lenses in the Sculpture Park has its sinuous complement in the open flow through the continuous level of galleries below. The galleries, organised in sequence to support the progression of the collections, gradually step down into the Park, and are punctuated by views into the landscape.


Upper left The renovated part has integrated the building with the landscape. Lower left The entrance square. Right Keeping the neo-classical style of the existing building, the added geometric modern building could provide new exhibition space for the new collections. The surface of the architecture is composed with translucent glass layers.



Kalmar Museum of Art Location: Kalmar, Sweden Designer: Tham & Videgård Arkitekter Photographer: Åke E´son Lindman Completion date: 2008 Construction area: 1,600 sqm Award name: Winner of the Kasper Salin award 2008 - Best building of the year in Sweden.

The new Kalmar Museum of Art is the result of a winning proposal in the open international competition in 2004 and was inaugurated on the 10th of May 2008. Situated in the City Park of the renaissance town of Kalmar, it is built next to a restaurant pavilion dating from the 1930s by Swedish modernist architect Sven-Ivar Lind. The competition motto was Platform and that is also the conceptual idea of this museum, a series of open platforms for art related activities. It is also how the museum is constructed, large spans for maximum flexibility on each level, so that not only light but also space can be transformed and adjusted to meet the specific needs of each exhibition. The new museum is a black four-level cube clad with large scale wooden panels and punctuated by large glazed openings. It will house both the Kalmar collection of Modern Art as well as provide spaces for temporary exhibitions of contemporary art, videos, performances and concerts. Almost domestic in its scale this museum still provides a variety of exhibition conditions. The two main spaces are the white boxes where one side can open up completely to bring in the exterior of the park, and the top floor gallery that is lit by shed head light shafts doubling its ceiling height. In addition there is a public art library and open workshops. One of the architectural main features is the open stair spiralling the full height of the building, starting from the new entrance lobby that interconnects between lake-side and park. The four floors, each different from the others, are stacked on top of each other and create a vertical walk up into the greenery of the trees with a series of different spacial experiences while offering views of the environs; the Kalmar castle, the lake and the city centre. Construction is in situ cast concrete, the big spans are made with "after tension" slabs. Interior finishes are exposed concrete, black stained plywood doors and panels, white painted walls and ceilings, natural ash. TVH have also designed some furniture; the green bock-tables, the hexagon tables in white ash and steel/carrara, the museum bench, library book shelves.




Hermitage Amsterdam Location: Amsterdam, the Netherlands Designer: Hans van Heeswijk Architects Photographer: Luuk Kramer Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 15,000 sqm Award name: Geurt Brinkgreve Bokaal, price for Amsterdam's best renovation or re-development project 2009.

The Hermitage Museum has a collection of three million works of art, much more than can ever been shown in St. Petersburg. Pieces from the collection were first shown in the Nieuwe Kerk, a 16th century church in the heart of Amsterdam, and a venue for art from all over the world. After several successful exhibitions of Russian art, the idea was born to establish an annex of the Hermitage in Amsterdam. Besides fine arts, this centre of Russian culture is to be home to concerts, symposiums, a library, a documentation centre and shops. Amstelhof, the building that housed the Amsterdam elderly for more than 400 years, opened part of its premises in 2004 as Hermitage Amsterdam. This modest beginning is expanded into a new accommodation that fills the entire building. The visitor strolls from the entrance on the Amstel River through the courtyard to the east wing with its foyer, auditorium and restaurant. The whole of the garden wing is devoted for receiving the public and functions as a central meeting point in the building. It comprises a large auditorium, smaller halls for lectures and courses, a spacious shop and cafĂŠ-restaurant with a terrace on the garden side. This wing is open to the public who are not visiting the exhibition, also outside museum opening times. The rear side of the garden wing has a public terrace favourably situated-out of the wind and in the sun. Temporary exhibitions are being held in the two exhibition wings. They comprise two large exhibition halls surrounded by cabinets. The Neerlandia building on Nieuwe Herengracht, the first phase of the Hermitage Amsterdam has become the Hermitage for Children.


Upper left The museum provides a new accommodation for a large number of Russian works of art. Lower left The stairs lead the visitors to the restaurant. Right The circular chandelier goes harmoniously with the wall, enlarging the space visually.




Location: Massachusetts, USA Designer: Machado and Silvetti Associates Photographer: Anton Grassl/Esto Completion date: 2006 Construction area: 1,746 sqm Award name: 2007 American Architecture Award.

Provincetown Art Association and Museum (PAAM)

The Provincetown Art Association and Museum (PAAM) is an organisation dedicated to the exhibition and collection of art, as well as the education of the public in the arts. Since its founding in 1914, the museum has always fostered exhibitions and programmes that serve both the artist and lay communities. The organisation acquired its current site in 1918, and over the years several additions were built to accommodate growing membership. The renovation and expansion to PAAM created a new architectural identity for the institution, while improving PAAM’s ability to display and store art. The objectives for the project included establishing a clear entry for the Museum that incorporated an existing historic structure; developing a clear sequence of gallery spaces that could be used individually or collectively; and expanding the Museum School and art storage areas. The project was realised in two phases. The first involved the renovation of the Hargood House and two galleries, making a library and expanding the office spaces. This was followed by a second phase of new construction. This included creating the Patrons, Jalbert and Duffy Galleries, as well as much needed new art storage areas and an expanded Museum School. In contrast to the existing galleries, which are closed within the building, the new ones open towards Commercial Street, Provincetown's major pedestrian thoroughfare. This gesture is meant to literally and figuratively open the institution to the community. As part of the second phase, all of the building’s mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems were replaced, and the building was brought into compliance with current building. All told, the work has roughly doubled the size of the institution.


Upper left The modern building pays much more attention to the details. Lower left The renovated building connects with the existing building naturally. Right The wood material on the building’s surface injects a sense of soft feeling.



Bowdoin College Museum of Art Location: Maine, USA Designer: Machado and Silvetti Associates Photographer: Facundo De Zuviria Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 3,112 sqm Awarded date: 2008 Award name: 2008AIA New England Design Award; 2008 American Architecture Award.

Bowdoin College holds one of the oldest collegiate art collections in the country, dating from 1811 when James Bowdoin III, bequeathed his collection of European paintings and Old Master drawings to the College. The collection's first official home was a small gallery, fitted out in 1850, at the rear of the campus Chapel. In 1891, Mary and Harriet Walker endowed the construction of a freestanding museum building worthy of the collection. The result was the historically significant Walker Art Building, which was designed by Charles Follen McKim of McKim, Mead and White, and dedicated in 1894. While the 19th-century Walker Art Building symbolically projected Bowdoin's continued commitment to the arts, it did not provide the space or technical amenities required of a 21st-century teaching museum. In November of 2003, after three years of evaluating the Museum’s physical needs and refining its programmatic vision, Bowdoin hired Machado and Silvetti Associates to develop designs for the building renovation and expansion. The design addresses new programme needs, necessary code and accessibility upgrades and incorporates state of the art security and climate control systems to meet current museum standards. A dramatic glass, bronze and blackened steel pavilion on the south side of the original building provides a new entry to the expanded museum from the town of Brunswick to the West, and the Bowdoin College quad to the East. This fifty-six square metres pavilion houses a gracious new steel and stone stair and glass elevator which lead down to visitor service spaces and a new lower level gallery entrance. A larger addition on the west side of the historic structure houses seven new galleries, including a dedicated seminar room, and includes an upgraded loading facility and high capacity elevator as well as a new public stair connecting upper and lower gallery spaces. To support the teaching mission of the museum, the design of the 3,112 square metres project provided a highly efficient administrative office wing and high-density archival storage spaces. The restoration of the Walker Art Building included structural and waterproofing upgrades as well as new gallery lighting, signage and the insertion of state of the art mechanical systems within the historic building envelope.


Upper left Entrance for the new museum, locating in the south of the existing building. Lower left Stairs lead the visitors down to the service area and the entrance for the new gallery at the bottom of the building. Right The transparent glass has perfectly blurred the boundary between the indoor space and outdoor space.



Upper left Exhibits displayed around the hall has enlarged the space visually. Lower left The rich red walls highlight the exhibits perfectly. Right Semi-circular booth in the wall goes harmoniously with the collections.


Moderna Museet Malmö Location: Malmö, Sweden Designer: Tham & Videgård Arkitekter Photographer: Tham & Videgård Arkitekter Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 2,650 sqm

The creation of a new art museum, as a public and cultural building, presented a rare opportunity for Tham & Videgård Arkitekter to create a new node within the city of Malmö, in the South of Sweden. The Electricity Board's disused industrial building from the year 1900 provided the perfect location for this new museum, which was to complement the existing Moderna Museet in Stockholm. The greatest challenge posed by the project, (in addition to the demanding eighteen-month time limit from sketch-design to inauguration), was the need to adapt the existing industrial brick building to current climatic and security requirements for world-class art exhibition spaces. It soon became clear that in reality what was needed was a building within a building, a contemporary addition within the existing shell. This radical reconstruction not only provided a solution to the challenge, but also gave the opportunity for a new addition. The contemporary addition marks the building's new entrance externally. The extension provides a new entrance space, cafeteria and upper gallery, and its perforated orange façade both connects to the existing brick architecture and introduces a new element to the neighbourhood. Its perforated surface gives the façade a visual depth, and is animated through the dynamic shadow patterns which it creates. The ground floor façade is fully glazed and sunlight is screened by the perforated surface. The contemporary addition plays with scale, and from a distance is only intelligible in comparison to the adjacent houses. In close proximity the building is read in its own right. This addition clarifies the museum's presence, at the same time as establishing a relationship with Malmö as a whole. Inside, the building has been spatially reconstructed. Two new staircases allow the visitor to move in a loop between the grand turbine hall and the upper exhibition rooms. The staircases are each enclosed between two walls, which functions to split the turbine hall into three separate spaces, housing a children's studio and a separate loading bay in addition to exhibition spaces. As in Kalmar Art Museum, the architects have been committed to providing an exhibition space which allows artists and curators to tailor the conditions to each individual exhibition. The upper gallery provides a smaller hall, whilst the Turbine Hall boasts a unique space of almost eleven metres in height.




Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum Location: Nagasaki, Japan Designer: Daici Ano Photographer: Daici Ano Completion date: 2005 Construction area: 12,680 sqm

Nagasaki was the only port permitted to remain open when Japan was closed to the rest of the world. Since it was the only point of contact between Japan and Western Europe, this museum boasts a wonderful collection of artworks from Spain and Portugal. The site condition was quite unusual: a canal running through the centre of the premises. To make the canal one with the art museum, the designer created an intermediate space along the canal, and made it a promenade for city residents and a place for appreciating works of art. This space was protected from the strong sun by stone louvers that created a breezy, pleasant shade. Nagasaki, located in southern Japan, is known for its Colonial-style veranda architecture using wooden latticework. The detail the designer used here is a contemporary version of this traditional architecture; it also is a criticism for contemporary Japanese architecture that ignores both indigenous climate and landscape. The box-shaped glass bridge crosses over the canal. All the visitors to this art museum walk over this bridge, experience the water, and then continue into the gallery. The entire roof area, as well, acts as gallery space. One can enjoy a beautiful view of Nagasaki Port from the roof. The chosen logo features a rhythmic pattern made up of stone louvers, based on a design by a leading architect. The use of thin lines conveys a modern, dynamic impression, a sense of liberation. The aim was to express the transition between stillness and movement: a graphic is motionless by nature, but this one is also meant to be a graphic-in-motion, illustrating movement, action, communication, and understanding. This is expressed in the kind of natural rhythm seen in the panoramic view over Nagasaki port, or in palm trees swaying from side to side in a sea breeze. In this sense, Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum is a "museum that breathes" breathing in new information and inspirations, and then passing them on in new shapes, ideas and forms. A "logo that moves" thus symbolises a "museum that breathes" and in fact functions as a museum of movement too.


Upper left, ďźŒlower left Stone shutters provide effective protection for the indoor exhibits, and create a comfortable and pleasant interior atmosphere. Right Transparent stair railing echoes with the glass façade.


Left The museum store locates in the west of the hall. Upper right The glass façade could help the visitors to enjoy a beautiful view of Nagasaki Port. Lower right In the cafÊ, white tables contrast with the black roof sharply.


Upper left A daylight patio among upper-floor galleries. Lower left The open exhibition space is simple and stylish. Upper right The clever lighting layout has greatly invigorated the exhibition space. Lower right The shutter design of the ceiling echoes with the faรงade of the building.



Location: Culver City, CA, USA Designer: Studio Pali Fekete architects (SPF:a) Photographer: SPF: architects Completion date: 2006 Award name: 2007 American Architecture Award; 2007 AIA California Council Merit Award; 2007 LA Business Council Award for Built Mixed-Use Design Award; 2007 AIA/LA Citation Award; 2006 Southern California Development Forum Community Enrichment Award.

The Museum of Design Art + Architecture (MODAA)

The Museum of Design Art + Architecture (MODAA) sits on the edge of Culver City’s burgeoning revival, just to the east of Main Street on a major transportation artery. The building, with its dynamic façade, and culturally stimulating mixed-use programme, amplifies the enthusiasm and motion of the city’s growth and serves as a visual bridge between the city's downtown art deco theater district and the world-class art gallery district emerging directly to the east. Studio Pali Fekete architects (SPF:a) opened the MODAA Gallery with a mission "to publicly explore the synergistic relationship between design, art, and architecture." The building explores such relationships in the MODAA Gallery-specific space, but also in the synergy of disciplines that occupy the entire building. The physical aspects of the building explore the variation, movement, velocity and tempo of the city on all scales, using materials, textures, and variations that stimulate and delight the imagination. Concrete fiber panel boards on the exterior provide a unique rain-screen that also serves to break up street noise from busy Washington Boulevard below, and to insulate the building from the constant rays of the California sunshine. Concrete fiber panel boards on the exterior provide a unique rain-screen that also serves to break up street noise from busy Washington Boulevard below, and to insulate the building from the constant rays of the California sunshine. The variation of the panels in width and depth is intended as a visual "music", and three different colours randomly alternate on the surface of the building. At the street level, MODAA houses working offices for SPF and a gourmet café wine-bar. The 204-square-metres MODAA Gallery, sandwiched cleanly between the two, is open on both sides, allowing continuous flow to users in every portion of the building's ground floor. The architecture studio is open for exploration, as is the MODAA gallery itself, featuring exploratory art, design, and architecture exhibitions that change throughout the year. Ceilings are 6-metres high, with partial mezzanine space. Upstairs, seven live/work artist residences deepen MODAA's design synergy "experiment", housing SPF:a's two principal architects, and six independent design-related enterprises. The lofts feature 16-foot high ceilings with mezzanine space, 8'-high Fleetwood Sliding doors mounted on the high walls as windows, and two separate entrances per loft, serving alternate live and work functions for occupants.


Upper left The whole building integrates the exhibition, office, home area altogether. Lower left The ground floor is taken up by the offices of the SPF Architects. The exquisite cafĂŠ with simple style could satisfy the young people. Right The spacious space together with the reasonable layout provides favourable environment for various exhibits on display.


Location: Yamanashi, Japan Designer: Atsushi Kitagawara Architects Photographer: Shigeru Ohno Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 842.03 sqm Awarded date: 2007 Award name: 2008 AIA Japan Design Award; 2008 Togo Murano Award; 2005 Grand Prix JIA Award; 2010 The Japan Art Academy Award.

Nakamura Kelth Haring Collection Art Museum

This project attempts to achieve a "creative succession" of the existing environment and a "creative sustainability" for future. Nakamura Kelth Haring Collection Museum is located at the foot of Japan's Yatsugatake Mountains. There are a lot of excavations from the Jomon Period (B.C. 7000-1000) in this area. Those remained excavations prove that the land is full of energy, as a venue of the civilisation. The art of Keith Haring is in the chaotic New York, the multilayer metropolis of the world. His graffiti are made up with single lines. Those primitive lines are energetic as if they are about to move. The art in New York City and the nature in Kobuchizawa seem to be mutually exclusive. However, they share "vital energies" and "primitive minds" in the basis of their existences. They both connote human activities. It is one of the designers' main themes to propose how human beings can contribute to the nature in a positive and inventive way. The experience of the design of the museum starts with the landscape. On the one hand, visitors would appreciate the art works of Keith Haring, feel the "vital energies" and the "primitive minds" from them. On the other hand, the site would remind them of the origin of the Japanese culture. The ancient culture is no longer things in the past. The works of Keith Haring who is contemporary designer would trigger people to feel the "vital energies" and the "primitive minds" of the ancient Japan. This is what is so called "creative succession", providing "creative sustainability" to the site. The project awakes ancient memories of human beings and opens up to a harmonious coexistence of nature and human activities. The project won four awards since its establishment, bringing great honour to the design team.



Museion Location: South Tyrolia, Italy Designer: KSV Krüger Schuberth Vandreike Photographer: Ludwig Thalheimer lupe Completion date: 2007 Awarded date: 2001 Award name: Museum for Modern and Contemporary Art Bolzano.

The new Museum for Modern Art is a museum which communicates. It combines the flexibility and openness of a workshop with the qualities of a classic gallery. A closed metal hull covers the elongated cube; in contrast, its ends open as transparent storefronts and serve as projection surfaces towards the city and the landscape. The building connects the city centre with the Talfer meadows and the landscape, similar to a large tube. The interior of the museum with its exhibition levels, library, education department, shop, and info room are made visible to the exterior via the glazed entry façade. Visitor access is provided across an entry plaza through the lofty foyer on the ground level and the exhibition levels – via a broad staircase to the subterranean level and the event space. The building can be accessed and traversed from both sides depending on how exhibitions and events are organised on the ground level. The main staircase connects all “levels of art” in a sense both immediate and metaphoric beginning in the foyer on the ground floor and terminating on the top-most floor, featuring a panoramic view towards the city and the landscape. On all levels, areas of production and event spaces, as well as exhibition and library, are interconnected. The organisation of access areas enables an independent usage of event space, café, shop, library, and education department. The retracted ends, protected by cantilevered building elements, provide for use as stage area and forum for events in the entry plaza and/or the riverside meadows. The artists' ateliers and project rooms are situated in a singular dedicated building in the northern part of the site. The museum garden is placed in a field of tension between the atelier building and the museum and simultaneously serves as space for exhibition and action for both buildings.The museum bridges, as projected continuations of the foyer of the new museum, create a new connection between the historic city and the city quarters located in the west across the river Talfer. Bike riders and pedestrians use two separate bridge constructions, oscillating towards each other in vertical and horizontal movement.


Left The faรงade of the elongated cube building is covered with a closed metal shell. Right The transparent faรงade could bring the sunlight into the interior space easily.


Rodin Museum Bahia Location: Salvador, Bahia, Brazil Designer: Francisco Fanucci & Marcelo Ferraz Photographer: Nelson Kon Completion date: 2006 Award name: 2006 First Prize Quito Biennial of Architecture (BAQ); 2006 2° Ibero-American Prize; 2006 First Prize Brasília Biennial of Architecture; 2007 First Prize São Paulo Biennial of Architecture.

The first affiliate out of France, the Rodin Museum in Salvador, state of Bahia, is required to meet the prerequisite of finding a site with cultural relevance to the city and with the capacity to house about seventy original plaster pieces, part of the collection of the Museum in Paris. The eclectic style Palacete Comendador Catharino – built in 1912, and located among centenarian trees in the district of Graça – was chosen. The adaptation of the spaces to the new use and the construction of an annex to expand them were the two operations that should be carried out in harmony with the original architecture, protected as heritage property because of its importance to the history of the city. The objective of both the restoration of the building and the new interventions was to provide the necessary infrastructure, adapting the spaces to the activities of the museum. Spaces for educational activities and reception were located on the ground floor; exhibition areas for the pieces from the Rodin collection in the two floors above; and administrative activities in the attic, accessed by a new stairway. The extension building, as big as the main building, represents a compromise between the limitations of the site and the architects' resolve to affirm the contemporary identity of the new building. The result can be read as a situation of confrontation and of harmony between the two distinct historical moments. The main solution to offer continuity to the set is represented by the prestressed concrete elevated walkway.


Upper left The French window makes the space more transparent. Lower left Wood material softens the space greatly. Right The new building has kept the classical European style of the existing building.


SSM Location: Shiogama, Japan Designer: Atelier Hitoshi Abe Photographer: Daici Ano Completion date: 2006 Construction area: 638.49 sqm Awarded date: 2007 Award name: International Architecture Award.

Located in a small town on a hilly site with a view of the Pacific Ocean, this is a design for a private art gallery intended to permanently display eight sculptures owned by the client. SSM was given form by creating the eight spaces to hold each sculpture as if inflating them like soap bubbles. This form is defined by balancing the conditions (location, size) that give rise to the boundary surfaces of each cell. The cells that constitute each of these rooms are made of steel plates 3.2 mm thick, with about twenty-five embossed protuberances per square metre. Honeycomb panels are formed by welding the embossed protuberances of a cell to those of the adjoining cell, resulting in an unusual structure like an aggregation of soap bubbles. With its ground level below the road, the cube stands apart from its densely built immediate surroundings. Yet the approach to this object building proceeds effortlessly from the street, across the museum’s small, cast-concrete parking area, and up a series of steps into the boxy volume. The main entrance, marked by an L-shaped CorTen canopy, brings visitors directly into the museum’s top level. Leaving behind the mundane streetscape, the front door opens onto a reception area — the entrée into a magically white world, textured exactly like the exterior. Here, floors become walls, walls become ceilings, and art becomes the focus.  Steel stairs descend immediately to an exhibition space, the first of a spiraling sequence of irregularly shaped galleries on three levels, all contained within the building’s rectilinear enclosure. With slashed doorways and white, angled walls defining the three display spaces, the journey culminates on the building's lowest level, with the largest gallery, a room intended for small concerts and art installations. From there, an elevator back up to the top completes the circulation loop, depositing passengers in a small vestibule, where glass floor panels allow glimpses of the galleries below. But what really draws the eye is a triangular window across the adjacent reception room, opening toward ocean views—one of the few points of contact between the otherworldly interior and the real-world exterior.


Left The white colour as the base colour creates a pure and clear world. Upper right Floor, wall and ceiling integrates with each other seamlessly. Lower right The complex texture of the wall enlarges the space visually.



Royal Ontario Museum Location: Toronto, Canada Designer: SDL Photographer: Sam Javanrouh, Steven Evans Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 18,600 sqm

The Extension to the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM), now called the Michael LeeChin Crystal is situated at one of the most prominent intersections in downtown Toronto. Opened in June 2007, the Extension provides 100,000 square feet of new exhibition space. Approximately half of this building is devoted to gallery space, while the ground floor features a spacious new entrance and lobby as well as a new retail shop accessible directly from the street. Also included are three new restaurants, the most spectacular of which is located on the Crystal's fifth floor, which cantilevers over the existing West Wing galleries and provides panoramic views of downtown. The Michael Lee-Chin Crystal derives its name from the building’s five intersecting volumes, which are reminiscent of crystals. The intersection of two of the crystals, each of which is dedicated to new galleries, creates a void, known as the Spirit House. Essentially a large atrium rising from below ground level to the fourth floor, and containing a number of criss-crossing bridges at various levels, the Spirit House is intended to be a place for visitors to reflect upon the exhibitions they have experienced in one of the gallery spaces before moving on to the next. A fourth crystal, known as the Stair of Wonders, is dedicated to vertical circulation but also features exhibition vitrines at the landings. A fifth crystal houses the major new restaurant. The main entrance to the Museum, formerly accessed from Queens Park, has been moved to the Lee-Chin Crystal on Bloor Street. The ground floor, which includes ticketing, coat check, member services, the new shop, and event spaces, has been designed to function as an extension of the new public plaza at the front of the building, inviting the public into the Museum and affording uninterrupted access from the outdoors, through the space of the Crystal, to the existing heritage building. The Lee-Chin Crystal building envelope consists of two layers, a water-shedding skin covered by champagne-coloured anodized aluminum extrusions that shimmer in the sunlight, and in the nighttime pick up the glow of the city. Approximately 20 percent of the façade is pierced by stunning windows that provide views out of the building, but also into the building and the galleries, thereby furthering the link between the Museum and passers-by.


Left Transitional space for light and sound events. Right Crystal Chairs are a microcosm of the building.




Getty Villa Location: California, USA Designer: Machado and Silvetti Associates Photographer: Machado and Silvetti Associates Completion date: 2006 Construction area: 258,990 sqm Awarded date: 2007 Award name: Honor Award-New England Chapter of the American Institute of Architects.

As an educational centre and museum dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of ancient Greece, Rome, and Etruria, the Getty Villa serves a varied audience through exhibitions, conservation, scholarship, research, and public programmes. Through an extensive international search, the Getty Trust commissioned Machado and Silvetti Associates for the master plan and design of the new expansion. The project includes the remodeling of the existing J. Paul Getty Museum (a re-creation of the Villa dei Papiri, a first-century Roman country house) to create a new home for the Getty's permanent collection of antiquities; the transformation of Mr. Getty’s ranch house into a research facility; and the construction of new buildings, public areas, and gardens. The various elements-including the new Entry Pavilion, the Barbara and Lawrence Fleischman Theatre, CafÊ, Museum Store, conservation labs, scholar's library and educational facilities-are conceived as an integral part of the new gardens and outdoor spaces, with the original villa serving as the centrepiece. The new architecture neither contrasts nor emulates the architecture of the museum building itself, but defines the character for the new Getty Villa site so that it stands on its own while seeking harmony with all the disparate existing structures, steep topography, the gardens, and public spaces. The renovation was not intended to repair historical inaccuracies in a building that is less a replica of a single villa than a seamlessly stitched Frankenstein's monster, with parts borrowed from several Roman buildings. That eclectic method is most evident in the striking "Hall of Coloured Marbles" -- the ornately tiled floor there was inspired by several sources. The renovation's main goals were practical: to help visitors navigate more logically and easily, and to let in the light of day. The new architecture transforms the inherent topographical difficulties into an amenity, allowing visitors to wander through the lush site, following the contours of the design and terrain, as if experiencing the drama of an archaeological dig.


Left Natural materials give a tactile experience. Right The entrance for the pavilion. The building is surrounded by the public spaces.




New Acropolis Museum Location: Athens, Greece Designer: Bernard Tschumi Photographer: Peter Mauss/Esto, Christian Richters, Bernard Tschumi Architects Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 21,000 sqm

With exhibition space of more than 14,000 square metres (150,000 square feet) and a full range of modern visitor amenities, the New Acropolis Museum will tell the complete story of life on the Athenian Acropolis and its surroundings. It will do so by uniting collections that are currently dispersed in multiple institutions, including the outdated Acropolis Museum (built in the 19th century with gallery space of 1,450 square metres, or 15,500 square feet). The rich collections will provide visitors with a comprehensive picture of the human presence on the Acropolis, from pre-historic times through late Antiquity. The collection consists primarily of works of sculpture, many of them architectural pieces that originally decorated the monuments of the Acropolis, so the building that exhibits them is a museum of ambient natural light. The use of various types of glass allows light to flood into the top-floor Parthenon Gallery, to filter through skylights into the archaic galleries, and to penetrate the core of the building, gently touching the archeological excavation below the building. Integral to this program is the display of an archeological excavation on the site of the Museum itself: ruins from the 4th through 7th centuries A.D., left intact and protected beneath the building and made visible through the first floor. The Museum is surrounded by 7,000 square metres (75,000 square feet) of landscaped green space on the ground. The Museum offers a cafÊ overlooking the archeological excavation, a museum store, and a museum restaurant, with a public terrace commanding views of the Acropolis. The top is the rectangular, glass-enclosed, skylit Parthenon Gallery, over 7 metres high and with a floor space of over 2,050 square metres (22,100 square feet). It is shifted 23 degrees from the rest of the building to orient it directly toward the Acropolis. Here the building’s concrete core, which penetrates upward through all levels, becomes the surface on which the marble sculptures of the Parthenon Frieze are mounted. The core allows natural light to pass down to the Caryatids on the level below. The collection is installed in chronological sequence, from pre-history through the late Roman period. The visitor's route is therefore a clear, three-dimensional loop. It goes up from the lobby via escalator to the double-height galleries for the Archaic period; upward again by escalator to the Parthenon Gallery; then back down to the Roman Empire galleries and out toward the Acropolis itself.


Upper left The archeological excavation beneath the building. Lower left The historical ruins is retained. Right The designers employ the most advanced construction technology to restore a simple and exquisite architecture of the ancient Greece.



Left The stream of visitors. Upper right The unique glass gallery corridor from which people could enjoy the Acropolis monuments 300 metres away. Lower right Owing to the unique ancient statues, the exhibition area is designed according to the characteristics of each exhibit without much decoration.


Archeological Museum of Álava Location: Vitoria, Spain Designer: Francisco Mangado Photographer: Pedro Pegenaute, Cesar San Millán Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 6,000 sqm Award name: COAVN (BasqueNavarrese) Awards 2010, Civic Construction Category; FirstPrize; Architecture Award for 2010. Given by The Chicago Athenaeum ( Museum Of Architecture And Design) and The European Centre for Architecture Art Design and Urban Studies; European Copper in Architecture Awards - Shortlist 2009 ; XIV Edition European Copper Prize in Architecture 2008. First Prize; Saloni Architecture Awards 2007. Finalist. Client: Diputación Foral de Álava; Collaborators - architecture: José Mª Gastaldo, Richard Král’ovič, Eduardo Pérez de Arenaza; Structural engineering: NB 35 SL (Jesús Jiménez Cañas / Alberto López) Ingenieros; Installations engineering: Iturralde y Sagüés ingenieros / César Martín Gómez; Quantity surveyor: Laura Montoya López de Heredia; Contractor: UTE Arqueología (Dragados SA, Lagunketa SA)

This winning archaeology museum provides a modern setting for the exhibits of a historically rich region. The new museum has taken over the task of housing the towns' archaeological exhibits from the 16th century palace that previously held them. The architect likes to think of an archaeology museum as a compact jewel box concealing treasures entrusted to you by history. In the permanent exhibition halls, all horizontal surfaces are dark; the wood floors are almost black, and the continuous ceilings black. They are boxes that evoke the passage of time concentrated in layers of earth that have gradually formed the thick walls of history. These dark spaces are traversed by white glazed prisms drawing in natural light from the roof. The displays are organized around these prisms that are inlaid with graphics and information on the items in a style designed to encourage interpretation. The building adjoins the Palace of Bendaña, today the Naipes Fournier museum. Access to the building is through the same courtyard that leads to the Palace and conveys the full scope of the project. The proposal includes extending the courtyard surface area in order to upgrade the access area. This does not encroach on the whole court, however, taking only a narrow strip for an appendix perpendicular to the main building. As well as housing auxiliary programmes, this addition provides a more attractive access façade than the current party walls of the neighbouring constructions. Thanks to the sloping terrain, the courtyard is reached through a bridge over a garden that allows light to penetrate to the lower areas that otherwise would be permanently in shadow. The areas housing the various activities, including the library and workshops, are located on the ground level oriented towards the street, and have an independent access. The assembly hall and galleries for temporary exhibitions are on the same level as the public entrance shared with the Naipes Fournier museum. The permanent exhibition halls are on the upper levels. The stairs linking the different levels define part of the façade onto the access courtyard. The outer walls comprise a series of different layers. The façade facing the access courtyard is bronze grilles, a material with clear archaeological references. In the middle, a double-layered wall of silkscreen printed glass contains the stairs that offer visitors views of the courtyards. In contrast, the façade fronting the street is more hermetic, comprising an outer layer of opaque prefabricated bronze louvers, with openings where needed, and an inner layer formed by a thick wall containing the display cabinets and systems. In this way the internal exhibition spaces are unencumbered and only traversed by translucent light prisms.


Left The museum seems like a compact jewel box concealing treasures. Upper right Cast bronze pieces configure the outer faรงades that define the access court. Lower right Courtyard view.



Davidson Museum Location: Jerusalem, Israel Designer: Kimmel-Eshkolot Architects Photographer: Amit Giron Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 1,000 sqm

The Davidson Centre is a museum located in the old city of Jerusalem, woven into the archaeological excavation site of an Umayyad palace at the southwestern corner of the Temple Mount. The encounter with such a project set in such a major site of Jerusalem cast a sharp light on the complexities of form versus meaning, universal versus regional, and in particular-the tension between the site’s monumentality and the interaction of the diverse cultures that left their footprint on this monumental site. The designers sought an architectural language that could strike a precise dialogue with the surroundings, the skyline of the walls, and the gravity of the ancient stone remains-a language that would form a coexistence with the limestone landscape and the inimitable Jerusalem light. In a location where each epoch had eradicated the marks of its precursors, the designers were looking for the possibility of reconciliation. They strove towards a state where the new observes the old with love and reverence, touching it and weaving through it, generating surprises and stimulating new situations. The task is to create a space where these different and often adversary cultures could coexist both in time and in place. The Davidson Centre is a place to experience in motion. The designers wished to provide the visitor with a wellorchestrated experience, a path of several stages: a dramatic entrance, a last glance at the world outside, and a plunge into the depth of the earth. The inner journey coincides with a loss of orientation which intensifies the experience. At journey’s end, the visitor climbs back to the surface and sees the surroundings with new eyes. In contradiction of the timeless stone remains, the museum keeps changing and evolving, hosting and displaying new findings and presenting recent research such as the new interactive model of the Umayyad palace, and a planned coin exhibition of Sasany and Fatimy treasures. The process of design and execution flowed in cycles between site, office work-desk, archaeologists, and builders. This circular movement consisted of a continual search for strategies to adapt the 1,500 year-old space to its new function. How does one transform an antique storage basement into an innovative museum, containing sophisticated logistic systems, built to accommodate large masses of visitors, and bound to the strictest safety regulations? All of these factors dictated endless casting about for the perfect marriage between old and new. As the work progressed, it became apparent that the key to the design was in setting up a fine balance between completely submerging the structure underground, and marking new traces on the surface, hints of the subterranean levels underneath. Thus, only two elements emerge above the plane surface: a transparent glass structure enveloping the Hall of Arches magnifying the mass of the ancient wallsand, and the Oculus, a unique architectural element, built of steel and glass, hinting at the existence of a 21st century structure underground. The inner structure is made of ultra-light material, totally detached from the existing walls and highlights the time-strata of the stone; the big roof’s geometry and technology, as they meet the remains of ancient structures rooted in the ground, amplify the plastic and organic nature of the walls.




The Collection, Lincoln Location: Lincoln, UK Designer: Panter Hudspith Architects Photographer: Panter Hudspith Architects Completion date: 2006 Construction area: 48,000 sqm Award name: 2009 Civic Trust Award; 2007 AIA Design in Excellence Award; 2006 RIBA Award; 2006 Gulbenkian Prize-Shortlisted.

The project, in the centre of Lincoln, involved masterplanning the Flaxengate area and the design of a new museum to house a substantial collection of archaeological and historical artifacts. The museum is the first stage of the regeneration of the Flaxengate area and will help establish the area as an Arts Quarter. The Museum is a modern building that uses local stone and wellframed vistas to unite the old and new parts of the city.  L incoln Museum's success lies both in the quality of its design and in its role in the development of the Flaxengate area — a rundown area which forms a crucial link between the upper town around the cathedral and the lower, commercial, and part of town. Redevelopment of Flaxengate, including the building of the Museum and connecting routes into town, is intended to play an important role in regeneration for Lincoln. The design of the museum has looked at creating connections through the site and improving links with the Usher Gallery and adjoining Temple Gardens. The external courtyard is designed to allow activities within the museum to spill out in summer months, while also creating a new public space for Lincoln. The museum houses historical and archaeological artefacts reflecting the city’s development since prehistoric times, as well as providing space for temporary exhibitions and educational and social facilities. The design reflects the irregularity and layering of the historic city of Lincoln. It is a building concerned with movement within and around the site. The project received an RIBA Award, AIA Excellence in Design Award, Concrete Society Awards, the International Green Apple Award for Architecture and the Built Environment, was shortlisted for the Gulbenkian Prize,etc.


Left The well-arranged pendant lamp combines with the natural light perfectly. Upper right The walls of the exhibition hall integrates with the ceiling seamlessly. Transparent windows enlarge the space visually.



Ljubljana City Museum Location: Ljubljana, Slovenia Designer: Rok Oman, Špela Videčnik, Rok Gerbec, Josip Konstantinovič, Karla Murovec, Damjan Brada Photographer: Tomaž Gregoric Completion date: 2004 Construction area: 2,650 sqm (existing building); 790 sqm (extension).

The project involves the renovation and extending of the Auersperg Palace, which is located in the heart of the protected historical city centre. The palace and the plot have a very rich history dating from the prehistoric period to Roman and medieval times. Each era added something to the building. During the course of history the purpose of the palace changed several times, such that the existing organisation of the floor plan was not suitable for hosting a museum programme. The spaces were labyrinthine and disconnected. The competition entry suggested a spiral itinerary for the visitor through the exhibition spaces and proposed an added element to connect the wings of the palace. The first spiral. The walk starts underground at -3 m, where the ground level of Ljubljana was situated in prehistory. Since the city’s ground level rose over the years the walkway ascends through the era of Rome, represented by an original Roman road, then medieval and baroque Ljubljana, where the museum bar is located, before returning to the ground-floor lobby. The second spiral functions as a roof over the archaeology from level -3 m to level zero, rising above the courtyard and becoming a level balcony, thus affording different views of the courtyard and the palace. The third spiral continues inside the palace on level +4 m as a balcony overlooking the main hall. Ascending up the old staircase, the spiral becomes a suspended ceiling (at +7.5 m), containing the whole service infrastructure: climate control, diffuse lighting, the sound and fire protection system. The suspended spiral continues through the rooms, taking the visitor through the exhibition. The existing palace was renovated using necessary, minimal elements like frameless windows and doors and neutral materials. The exhibition spaces are preserved at their original size, as per the conservation programme. Furniture in the palace is integrated within the existing walls. The oak used is local oak, and the colours of the glazed surfaces arise from those used by archaeologists to define different historical eras. At the time of the competition it was thought that there would more archaeological remains on the site but it was not known where these might be and what importance they would have. This part of the project had to be flexible and adaptable, therefore. The proposed solution was an open-plan basement with an adaptable structural system.


Upper left The spiral stretch from level -3 m to level zero. Lower left The floor-to-ceiling glass window has blurred the boundary between the space of indoor and outdoor. Right The museum in the night is solemn and quiet.


Location: Ilópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Designer: Brasil Arquitetura Photographer: Nelson Kon, Brasil Arquitetura Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 1,011sqm Award name: 2008 Rodrigo de Mello Franco Awards; 2008 Brazilian Institute of Architects – Best Constructed Work; 2008 World Architecture Festival Finalist – Category: New and Old.

Colognese Mill, Bread Museum and Baking Workshop

Culture needs to be understood as something ranging from tradition to invention. There are certain things created and built in the past that need to be preserved, otherwise people will be trapped within a distorted, disfiguring present. However, by the same token, people need to bet on the new, as it is a fundamental means for the establishment and transformation of the communities and the society as a whole. Brazilian culture, being at the same time open and critical for assimilation and re-creation of languages and information from other regions of the world, is profoundly characterised by the never-ending dialectics between tradition and invention. Within this context, the Colognese Mill had been built by the Italian immigrants; and within the same cultural conditions, the designers have conducted the making of the Bread Museum complex, incorporating the museum, the Baking Workshop, and the restored old Mill. The restoration of the mill, realised in conjunction with the Italo Latino American Institute (IILA) and on the basis of a project prepared by the University of Caxias do Sul and the 12th regional sector of IPHAN, was carried out according to strict rules of scientific restoration, recovering the original elements and functions and reintegrating the abandoned back into the day-to-day of Ilópolis. The relationship of the two new buildings, housing the Bread Museum and the Baking Workshop, to the old Mill – its architecture, its materials, its machinery, the production and transformation – is a delicate yet harsh one. Without playing on words and without pursuing cheap mimicry, the new context highlights the Colognese Mill as a technical and poetic document of the past. The first exhibits are the museum and the workshop, both "contaminated" by the presence of the centenary construction, physically and symbolically: its craftsmanship, the use of local materials, its reference to the immigrant culture. The new and the existing, side by side, spell out the value of workmanship and heritage as an evidence of the human existence. Everything contributes as an artefact: the structure of the buildings, their relationship to the city, the timber walkways, the materials used, the way the light enters, the supports for the exhibits and, last but not least, the pieces on exhibition. The history of bread and bread-making, as well as the bread-history specific to the "Brazilian Veneto" in the Taquari Valley are documented in a thoroughly illustrated time line.



Left At night, the whole exhibition space look just like a transparent Crystal Palace. Right The L-shape enclosure creates a playful interior courtyard, which turns to be an extended outdoor exhibition area.



Mercedes-Benz Museum Location: Stuttgart, Germany Designer: UNStudio Photographer: Brigida Gonzalez Completion date: 2006

The Mercedes-Benz Museum makes everyone forget that they are in a museum. None of the problems that make the traditional museum less and less sustainable occur. The works around you belong to no other culture than your own. They are much closer to you and speak more clearly to you than most of today’s art. The designers integrated the pedestal into the architecture. Instead of individual plinths, in the Legend Rooms they have made semicircular ramps to generate different perspectives. Visitors will see the cars alternately from higher, lower, closer and more distant, frontal and more oblique points of view as they move around the cars. In the Collections Rooms visitors will gain access via a high staircase and then find themselves at equal level with the cars. Maybe they could say that in the Mercedes-Benz Museum it is the visitor who is put on a pedestal. Viewing the leaf-shaped exhibition spaces from variable heights generates panoramic overviews. The designers are not just interested in helping the visitor to find a focus on each object, but also in the question of the perception of the individual work in relation to the exhibition as a whole. The designers have focused on the oblique as a means to stimulate mobility, the sense of direction, and the communication between people in buildings. The use of angles in walls, floors and ceilings gives the eye something to focus on; the repetition of these elements paradoxically results in environments that are experienced as tranquil. As such the oblique condition is ideal for the museum since it brings into being spaces that provide minimum distraction. Especially, when, as in the Mercedes-Benz Museum, the repetition of oblique elements is combined with another architectural ingredient with which the designers have experimented profusely: the curve. The merging of oblique surfaces with symmetrical curves, engendering deep, asymmetrical spaces is found in the plans and the facades of the building. The chronology of the car unfolds along a spiraling trajectory, which is counter-balanced by the horizontal platforms that provide restfulness. Telling the story of the car in this spatial manner, instead of simply hanging or placing objects next to each other is telling the story of automobility. Movement and the machines that produce it are intrinsic to the Museum and its contents.


Left The designers employ the ramp to enhance the circulation of the space. Right The glass ribbon composed with triangle glass windows spirally surround the whole building.



Dornier Museum Location: Friedrichshafen, Germany Designer: Allmann Sattler Wappner Architekten Photographer: Jens Passoth, Florian Holzherr Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 7,000 sqm

This museum documents the corporate history and rich tradition of the Dornier Corporation. It is sited in connection to the Friedrichshafen Airport, thus facilitating a uniquely contextual design concept. The goal of the museum’s architectural concept is to influence this process by facilitating and designing transitions, similar to an airport and its transitory function. Museum and airport, past and present, in one location. This simultaneity manifests itself within a bow-shaped runway, resembling an exit in proximity to the southern airstrip. At its apex, it is superimposed with a rectangular volume. The geometric intersection area is the basis for the museum floorplan. The exhibition space volume features curved perimeter surfaces in the north and south, projecting the contour of the runway upward to the rectangular roof structure. In the west and east, the lateral perimeter permits a transition from roof to façade to the runway. The roof elements, projecting outward from the longitudinal perimeter along the intersection of floor plan and runway, distort the accustomed, conventional image of a hangar. The hangar as recognisable type is subject to formal transformation. It thus evokes similarity and difference to the surrounding airport buildings. The hangars on site have a hermetic appearance. The museum on the other hand provides the location with a character beyond its functional properties. In the north, the vertical perimeter retreats beneath the roof construction, similar to a lens. This produces an open and covered space facing the airside. In the south, the roof construction, reduced to its primary structure, projects beyond the vertical perimeter, thus creating landside connections. The triangular entry plaza leads to this point, serving as visitor access to the museum. This asphalt-covered area seemingly slides beneath the prominent roof edge, creating a further superimposition, terminating in an ascending perimeter surface. The surrounding’s gracious dimensions inform the volume. The perimeter surfaces correspond to the bordering areas. Their amplitudes react perceptibly to the runway in the north and the entry plaza in the south. Thus, the museum is integrated into both airport and landscape. Paved and unpaved areas are connected and focused. At the same time, exhibition and visitors interact via varying spatial zones and progressing proximity. The museum is perceived in an ambivalent manner. Entry plaza, perimeter surface, and semi-open antes pace gradually transcend the border between interior and exterior, museum and landscape, exhibit and individual.


Left Light plays with the shadow. Right The exhibition space is filled with a sense of modernist.




Darwin Centre Location: London, UK Designer: C. F. Møller Architects Photographer: Torben Eskerod Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 16,000 sqm Award name: 2009 Concrete Society Award Overall Winner; 2009 Structural Award for Arts or Entertainment Structures; 2008 Nominated for the Mies van der Rohe Award 2009.

The second phase of the Darwin Centre is an extension of the famous Natural History Museum in London, taking the form of a huge eight-storey concrete cocoon, surrounded by a glass atrium. The Natural History Museum is both one of the UK's top five visitor attractions, and a world-leading science research centre. The architecture of the Darwin Centre reflects this dual role, and reveals to the public for the first time the incredible range and diversity of the Museum's collections and the cutting-edge scientific research they support. The centerpiece is made to appear like a large silk cocoon, and forms the inner protective element that houses the museum’s unique collection of 17 million insects and 3 million plants. The shape and size give the visitor a tangible understanding of the volume of the collections contained within. The collections areas within the Cocoon are world class, the regulation of temperature and humidity reduce the risk of pest infestations ensuring that the collections will be protected and preserved for many years to come. The exposed thermal mass of the continuous sprayed reinforced concrete shell maintains a stable internal environment, and minimizes energy loading. Public access to the scientific core of the second phase of the Darwin Centre takes the form of a visitor route up and through the cocoon, overlooking the science and collection areas. Visitors can experience the Darwin Centre as a compelling and interactive learning space, observing the scientific and research activities without interrupting scientific work in progress. C. F. Møller Architects was chosen for the commission in 2001, in competition with 59 other international architectural firms.


Left The cocoon-like concrete structure is surrounded by a glass atrium. Right The black ceiling contrasts with the walls sharply, highlighting the cultural atmosphere of the space.


Upper left, Lower left The interior cocoon-like structure together with the rough materials, giving the whole area a unique character. Upper right Visitors that travel through the cocoon-like structure in the self-service way could take full view of the equipment and collections. Lower right The green spiral sculpture is the visual focus of the whole space.


Location: Beijing, China Designer: RTKL International Inc. & Beijing Institute of Architectural Design Photographer: Fu Xing & Shu He Photography Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 102,000 sqm

China Science and Technology Museum

Located in the centre of Beijing's Olympic Village, the China Science and Technology Museum expresses China’s accomplishments in these fields through state-of-the-art exhibits, labs and training areas, retail, restaurants and a cinema. The innovative cubic design scheme for the 102,000-square-metre facility composes exhibit blocks linked by central corridors, and references the creativity and logic of childhood puzzle games. To focus on the relationship between science and nature, the exterior includes colour-changing features that reflect shifts in the weather and the seasons. The architecture of the New Museum was jointly designed by the Beijing Institute of Architectural Design and the US-based RTKL International Inc. Its main structure is in the shape of a single gigantic cube which combines the scientific thinking of the ancient Chinese with the features of a modern science and technology museum, and the entire structure is divided into a number of building blocks that occlude each other like toy bricks, making it appear like a huge cubic jigsaw puzzle. Such a structure is the embodiment of the intrinsic correlations between man and nature as well as science and technology; it is also symbolic of the fact that science has no absolute boundaries and that different disciplines intermingle and promote each other. The conception of the New Museum is "to experience science and inspire innovations"; "to serve the general public and promote harmony". As the most prominent education vehicle for the New Museum, the permanent exhibitions will be organised in line with the thematic ideas of "innovation and harmony" and under six themes of display, namely "Children’s Science Paradise", "the Glory of China", “Exploration and Discovery", "Science, Technology and Life", "the Challenges and the Future" and "the Beautifulness of Science", covering a total exhibition floorage of approximately 30,000 square metres. The New Museum will also feature such educational functions as short-term exhibitions, "News of the Day exhibitions", training and experiments, scientific and cultural exchanges, special-effect film and television, digitalised and cyber science and technology museum; such service functions as visitors' comprehensive services and services for science and technology museums nationwide; and such supporting functions as operation and evaluation, the development of exhibition education resources, and theoretical study and research.


Upper left The cube shape is creative, just like a large cube puzzle toy. Lower left The PV glass that contains thin silicon solar panels inside could collect solar energy easily. Right The continuous white wave plates of the faรงade create a sense of nature and harmony.


Left The spacious grand hall. Upper right The lights have enriched the ceiling perfectly. Lower right The green spiral sculpture is the visual focus of the whole space.



Maritime Centre Vellamo Location: Kotka, Finland Designer: Architects Lahdelma & Mahlamäki Photographer: Jussi Tiainen Completion date: 2008 Construction area: 14,601 sqm

Kotka's Maritime Centre Vellamo is the beacon of the Cityscape. The figure guides travellers from the city into a harbour of culture. The Old Harbour will soon be transformed into a Culture Harbour. As the first building completed the Maritime Centre will be the functional cornerstone of the area. References to the sea incorporated in the building’s distinctive architecture link the Maritime Centre to the sea and also to the features of the Kymenlaakso region. The abstract image of a large wave creates a physical representation of the sea. Situated at the end of the planned culture harbour, the roof of the Maritime Centre, forms a square which will play host to a wide array of different events. The interior of the Maritime Centre is characterised by the application of timeless architectural concepts. The entrance, the foyer and the elevated, centrally located exhibition hall give the interior of the Maritime Centre its distinctive character; together they form a spatial entity fashioned from freeshaped wall faces, a material world dominated by oak-wood surfaces and the expanding nature of the surrounding space. The Maritime Centre is home to two permanent residents: the Maritime Museum of Finland and the Museum of Kymenlaakso. There are also a museum shop, a restaurant, a library, seminar and teaching rooms and a 250-seat auditorium. The elevated exhibition space housing the permanent collection plays a key role. The exhibition rooms have been designed to make them as adaptable as possible. The clearly defined shape and proportions of these rooms, the neutral grey colouring specified on all surfaces and fittings make them suitable for housing a whole host of different museum exhibitions. The Maritime Centre is primarily built around a column and beam system of reinforced concrete girders. The floors consist largely of structural hollow-core slabs, while the walkway on the roof is designed as an inverted structure. The outer walls are constructed using a lightweight skeleton structure. Sheet-metal cassettes, painted in a variety of different shades, are the primary building material on the exterior of the building, to which a lattice made of aluminium and pressed-silk glass has been affixed.


Left The colourful ceiling and walls turn to be active visual elements of the space. Right The simple oak walls create a spatial entity, integrating with the surrounding natural environment completely.



Location: Virginia, USA Designer: Fentress Architects Photographer: Matt Popowski Completion date: 2006 Construction area: 11,150 sqm Awarded date: 2008 Award name: American Architecture Award.

© Fentress Architects (both elevations)

© James P. Scholz

National Museum of the Marine Corps

At the National Museum of the Marine Corps, infusing form with meaning required architect Curtis Fentress to discover a powerful symbol of this 235-year military culture, while resisting literal imagery. Fentress achieved near perfection with the building’s dominating architectural element-a stainless steel mast that serves two functions: icon and signpost. Set at a 60-degree pitch, the 210-foot-tall mast evokes the Marines' flag raising on Iwo Jima, signaling a turning point for the famous victory over the Japanese during World War II. The museum also creates a breathtaking landmark visible from the East Coast’s busiest interstate. Fentress' design won first prize in a national design competition and was honored with 20 awards in its first 20 months after opening. Recognized worldwide for creating sustainable, iconic architecture for national museums and public buildings, Curtis Fentress was honored by the American Institute of Architects with the highest award for public architecturethe 2010 Thomas Jefferson Award."Military museums are not about war," says Fentress. "Instead, they celebrate the importance of maintaining peace and protecting citizens. We mindfully searched for the ultimate image to symbolize the end of war." The Museum will eventually become an icon in its own right, as recognizable as the Washington Monument or the U.S. Capitol Building dome. Visitors enter a grand rotunda, known as the Leatherneck Gallery, enclosed by a conical glass skylight through which the grand mast rises skyward. Circling the central rotunda, exhibits allow visitors to "walk in the shoes" of a Marine, learning stories of courage and honor through World Wars and peacekeeping missions. With 70 percent non-military visitors, the Museum's role is more than a repository of military artifacts; it must be an interactive educational experience. Twenty-first century museum goers discover active involvement in the Museum’s life-size, walk-through battle scenes, multimedia and interactive exhibits. Using state-of-the-art, virtual-reality technology, it arouses the senses and raises the bar for all museums worldwide.

© James P. Scholz

Jason A. Knowles © Fentress Architects


Nick Merrick © Hedrich Blessing Left The atrium skylight consists of 35,000 square feet of glass, and together with the aircraft suspended within, weighs 450 tons. Right The 210-feet angled steel mast pierces a conical glass skylight that tops the museum’s Central Gallery. Numerous high-tech, interactive exhibits circle the central rotunda.

© James P. Scholz


© James P. Scholz Left A restored military airplane is suspended in front of a three-level steel deck, which calls to mind a battleship tower and serves as a platform for military ceremonies. Upper right The 20,000-square-foot Central Gallery is the museum’s centerpiece. The 210-foot, iconic mast rises dramatically through a glazed skylight. Lower right More than doubling attendance projections in its first year, the Museum has since earned its reputation as a top cultural destination in the United States.

Jason A. Knowles © Fentress Architects

© Fentress Architects


Andalucia’s Museum of Memory Location: Granada, Spain Designer: Alberto Campo Baeza Photographer: Javier Callejas Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 15,000 sqm Awarded date: 2010 Award name: Saloni Prize, Nominated, 2010.

The designers would like to make "the most beautiful building" for the Museo de al Memoria de Andalucía (Andalusia's Museum of Memory) in Granada, the MA, a museum that wishes to transmit the entire history of Andalusia. As early as Roman times, Strabo described the inhabitants of Andalusia as "the most cultivated of the Iberians, who have laws in verse." The project for the MA is a building in line with the Central Headquarters of the CAJA GRANADA Savings Bank that the designers finished in 2001. The designers propose a podium building measuring 60x120m and rising three stories, so that its upper floor coincides with the podium of the main CAJA GRANADA building and its façade as well. This building designed to connect the three levels of space through the features of the ramp. Everything is arranged around a central courtyard, in elliptical form in which circular ramps rise, connecting the three levels and creating a very interesting spatial tension. The dimensions of the elliptical courtyard have been taken from the courtyard of the Palace of Charles the V in the Alhambra. And to crown it all, as if it were a Gate to the City, a strong vertical piece emerges, the same height and width as the main building of the CAJA GRANADA. It thus appears before the highway that circles Granada as a screen-façade that sends messages over the large plasma screens that will cover it entirely, like Piccadilly Circus in London or Times Square in New York. And to finish the entire operation, a large horizontal platform all the way to the River, the MA open FIELD that will serve as a public space in that new area of the city of Granada. The new building, silent in its forms, is resounding in its elements to communicate the messages of the new millennium in which the designers are already immersed.


Left The main building stands as the city's gate. Right Elliptical courtyard with helicoidal ramps, screen building in the background.



Left The restaurant is simple and elegant  Right The French window has greatly enlarged the space visuallyspace and outdoor space


Wyspianski 2000 Pavilion Location: Kraków, Poland Designer: Ingarden & Ewy Architekci Photographer: Krzysztof Ingarden Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 297sqm Award name: 2007 The Leader of Malopolska Region (Poland) Award donated by Society of Communities and Districts of Malopolska Region; 2007 Award of Polish internet portal dedicated to architecture.

The design task was actually even more complex than the architect describes. There were three additional problems. Firstly, the public controversy regarded even the correctness of the very idea of exhibiting the stained glasses in a rather mundane place, at an urban square (even the one near to the Town Hall). The mystical, giant drawings by Wyspiański, who was influenced by the aforementioned Romantic prophetic poet slowacki, depicted the late Kings and Princes of Poland. The designs were originally meant for the Wawel Cathedral — and were never placed there, as they were too expressionistic for the taste of the belle époque — and for the Chapter of the Cathedral. Finally, the backing of the pre-eminent director Andrzej Wajda, and the 100th anniversary of the death of Wyspiański, led to the completion of the pavilion. The glasses (1:1) were cast in the same Atelier eleń s ki (albeit by a different owner), which had completed all of the famed stained glasses by Wyspiański in his lifetime. Secondly, the site, apart from being very exposed in the urban fabric, had one more vicissitude: it was very narrow (merely 4 metres). Paradoxically, these constraints led to another successful architectural device. The plan was logically based upon Wyspiański’s own sketches for a stage set of one of his dramas; its semi-cylindrical ends have a lot in common with the architecture of expressionism. But the most amazing quality is revealed inside. Due to the application of the graphite-coloured, large Italian tiles and the full height of the interior, the narrow room in which the stained glasses are exhibited has indeed the atmosphere and proportions of a dimly lit, vertical, Gothic sacred space. Thirdly, the stained glasses were to be visible also in an inverted manner, so to speak — that is from the outside of the pavilion, from the Square. Fortunately, at night, due to the proper illumination, the stained glasses and the pavilion are perfectly visible — and during the day they soar above the un peu bourgeois pavements and eclectic flower beds.


Upper left The appearance of the building. Lower left Stained glasses have invigorated the whole building. Right The ceiling has offset the narrow space.



Xi Gallery Location: Pusan, Korea Designer: Mass Studies Photographer: Yong-Kwan Kim Completion date: 2007 Construction area: 10,074.80 sqm Award name: Chicago Athenaeum Museum of Architecture and Design/International Architecture Award, 2008.

Located in Yeonsan-dong, Pusan, this building was constructed for the purpose of promoting "Xi", a brand of apartments. In addition to the standard type of an apartment unit exhibition space (a common practice in Korea to publicise and market prospect constructions), an even larger share of the floor area is allocated as a variable cultural space for the locals, which as a result creates a brand-new building typology: a Housing Cultural Centre. As economic forces and cultural activities seem to form complex interrelationships causing our private and public spheres to merge and invade each other, this building comes as a product of these current phenomena. The focus of the designers' investigation is to create a fluid space that can respond to the "continuously new" situations arising from the dynamic flux of economy and culture, and in the organisation of the movement system to correspond to such a space. This new movement organisation is necessary to maintain the existing individuality of the spaces, but at the same time be able to expand/unify them in diverse manners to suit future possible needs. Through this, people may be able to discover a new type of spatial efficiency to actively respond to the present and near-future cultural variances, and subsequently open the possibilities for a progressive culture. This three-storey, 9,400-square-metre building is organised as follows: [Piloti Floor] This floor serves as pedestrian and vehicular access. In the most prominent street corner, a spacious outdoor staircase flows up to the second floor as a pedestrian entrance, while the rest of the first floor as marked as a parking lot and a small lobby to connect to the upper floors. [Third Floor] The uppermost floor is dedicated for apartment unit exhibitions. This 3,396-square-metre space has a maximum ceiling height of seven metres, allowing up to seven different unit types to be showcased at once. The truss structure permits a wide thirty-five metres column span, creating a universal, neutral space for varying situations. At the centres of its four edges are different access facilities, such as elevators, stairs and escalators, as well as a stepped rest space. [First/Second Floor] A variety of public cultural programmes are located on these floors. They efficiently connect the piloti and the third floors, while the organisation creates a different spatial condition as opposed to those functionally focused ones. The fundamental logic is as follows: All the programmes that act as a closed-off block (lecture hall, yoga room, offices, future housing exhibits, etc.) are dispersed within this two-floor-height space as individual volume. Simultaneously, all the remaining spaces are adjoined to flow in a continuous manner, and accommodates the rest of the open programmes (special exhibition hall, open lecture room, hall, lounge, etc.), by adjusting the locations of the closed masses. These two typologies placed within this twofloor-height space are therefore all interconnected, and is a composition of small private spaces within a large open field.


Upper left The entrance hall. Lower left The exquisite colours have injected the space a touch of elegance and relaxing feeling. Right The natural vegetation perfectly decorates the whole space.



Location: Washington, USA Designer: Olson Kundig Architects Photographer: Olson Kundig Architects Completion date: 2009 Construction area: 3,902 sqm

Lightcatcher at the Whatcom Museum

The Lightcatcher at the Whatcom Museum is a regional art and children's museum. It takes its name from its most visible and innovative feature – the Lightcatcher: a multi-functional translucent wall that reflects and transmits the Northwest's most precious and ephemeral natural resource, sunlight. As architect Jim Olson describes it, "the Lightcatcher wall celebrates the Northwest glass movement and glows like a yellowish agate from a nearby beach. I wanted to soften light like our clouds and create a sense of mystery like our mist and fog." The Lightcatcher, 37 feet high and 180 feet long, is at the physical centre of the project, gently curving to form a spacious exterior courtyard, while bridging the Museum's interior and exterior spaces. During daylight hours, the light-porous wall floods the halls and galleries inside with a warm luminosity, serving as an elegant and energy-saving light fixture. The Lightcatcher also helps ventilate the building. Its double-glazed skin allows the surface and gallery space to be kept cooler via the stack effect. In cooler weather, large upper vents can be closed and radiant energy is captured in the wall, insulating the building. The first floor of the building features a lobby, three galleries (two of which are double height), an interactive children's learning space, and other amenities. The building’s second floor houses an additional exhibition gallery, meeting and classroom space, and Museum offices. The single-story lobby is topped by a 3,000-square-foot green roof which features an interpretive exhibit about the roof and low-impact development strategies. The building utilises natural materials endemic to the region and is the first museum in Washington designed to LEED Silver-Level specifications. Outside, the lightcatcher reflects light into the Garden of the Ancients, the 7,000 square foot courtyard designed as civic gathering space and a dynamic backdrop for sculpture. In the evening, the lightcatcher glows with the colours of the structure’s interior illumination. Like a lantern, it provides a warm and welcoming beacon to the community. Pedestrians can view the courtyard-and the art and activities within-through large openings to the street, ensuring the Museum is as active outside as it is inside.


Left The aesthetic arc-shaped design has blurred the boundary between the indoor and outdoor space. Right The translucent multi-wall could catch much more sunlight.




Alberto Campo Baeza

Andalucia's Museum of Memory

Francisco Fanucci & Marcelo Ferraz


Rodin Museum Bahia

Allmann Sattler Wappner Architekten Dornier Museum

Archeological Museum of Álava

Architects Lahdelma & Mahlamäki P248

Jeju Museum

Hermitage Amsterdam

Atsushi Kitagawara Architects

Nakamura Kelth Haring Collection Art Museum

New Acropolis Museum

Colognese Mill, Bread Museum and Baking Workshop



New Museum of Contemporary Art



Kimmel-Eshkolot Architects

Daici Ano

KSV Krüger Schuberth Vandreike

Akron Art Museum


Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum

Fentress Architects

Davidson Museum


National Museum of the Marine Corps





Kyu Sung Woo Architects The Nerman Museum of Art




The Museum of Design Art + Architecture (MODAA) P280

Tham & Videgård Arkitekter Kalmar Museum of Art



Tham & Videgård Arkitekter Moderna Museet Malmö




Mercedes-Benz Museum



Zaha Hadid Architects

MAXXI: National Museum of XXI Arts

RTKL International Inc. & Beijing Institute of Architectural Design China Science and Technology Museum


Studio Pali Fekete architects (SPF:a)

Rok Oman, Špela Videčnik, Rok Gerbec, Josip Konstantinovič, Karla Murovec, Damjan Brada Ljubljana City Museum

Steven Holl Architects

Contemporary Jewish Museum

Randall Stout Architects Art Gallery of Alberta


Studio Daniel Libeskind


The Collection, Lincoln

Stanley Saitowitz / Natoma Architects Inc

The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art

Panter Hudspith Architects



Steven Holl Architects


Light Catcher at the Whatcom Museum

Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA


Olson Kundig Architects


Royal Ontario Museum

Herning Museum of Contemporary Art

Machado and Silvetti Associates

Xi Gallery

Johnson Pilton Walker National Portrait Gallery


Mass Studies


Wyspianski 2000 Pavilion

Provincetown Art Association and Museum (PAAM)

Bowdoin College Museum of Art


Tampa Museum of Art

Machado and Silvetti Associates

Getty Villa

Ingarden & Ewy Architekci

Brasil Arquitetura

Darwin Centre

Museum of Islamic Art


C. F. Møller Architects


I. M. Pei Architect (New York)



Machado and Silvetti Associates


Hans van Heeswijk Architects


Bernard Tschumi


G.Lab* By Gansam Partners

Atelier Hitoshi Abe SSM

New Wing of the Charleroi Museum of Photography

Francisco Mangado


Maritime Centre Vellamo


L’Escaut Architectures/Olivier Bastin, Eloisa Astudillo, Nele Stragier, Florence Hoffmann





To some extent, it is from museums that we learn about the past and present of a city. A museum is a materialised history; there, with the h...


To some extent, it is from museums that we learn about the past and present of a city. A museum is a materialised history; there, with the h...