Page 1

Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass Analysis of which works best during the Winter Season

By Kerone Folkes April 6th, 2009 Ryerson University - Thesis Report Advisor: Prof. Ramani Ramakrishnan


Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performace During Winter Months, 2009

Copyright Š 2009 Kerone Folkes Toronto Ontario, Canada


Table of Contents 1

Acknowledgments

3

2

Executive Summary

4

3

Overview

5

4

Test Site

9

5

Process and Schedule

12

6

Research Methodology

7

Recommendations and Conclusions

3.1 3.2 3.3

6.1 6.2 6.3

Timeline of Events Making the Screens Data Loggers and Screens Installed Collection of Results Data logger Captions

Data Collection Methods Data Analysis Discussion

Appendices A B C D E

19

Drawing Package Calculations Typical Energy Bill Hot2000™ Analysis Daily Data Report

References

24

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Purpose Rational Sources


List of Illustrations

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Figure

Page

Figure 4-1

Front of Residence (4 Shallamar Court)

9

Figure 4-2

South-East Facing Window (WIC)

10

Figure 4-3

North-West Facing Window (Bedroom 4)

10

Figure 4-4

Google Map of Site

11

Figure 5-1

Installed Fabric Screen in Bedroom 4

13

Figure 5-2

Installed Tint Screen in WIC

13

Figure 5-3

Frame Construction

14

Figure 5-4

Fabric Screen Construction

14

Figure 5-5

Tint Screen Construction

15

Figure 5-6

Data Logger Software Setup Dialogue

17

Figure 5-7

Typical Data Logger Results (Graph)

17

Figure 6-1

Comparison of Temperature Variances in Bedroom 4

22

Figure 6-2

Comparison of Temperature Changes Between Both Spaces

22

Figure 6-3

Comparison of Temperature Variances in WIC

23

Table

Page

Table 5-1

Testing Conditions

12

Table 5-2

Timeline of Events

13

Table 5-3

Typical Data Logger Results (Excel)

18

Table 6-1

Summary of Average Temperature Readings During Testing Period

20

Table 6-2

Summary of Temperature Differences

21


1

SECTION

Acknowledgements Acknowledgements

I would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the following persons; without whom, this thesis would not have culminated successfully: Professor Ramani Ramakrishnan (Thesis Advisor) Monica and Trevor Gayle (Home owners) J. Warren Borg (Editor)

Boyan Bozhkov (Drawings) Ryerson University (Architecture Department)

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Evadney and Robert Folkes (Transportation)

3


SECTION

2

Executive Summary

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

This thesis presents the findings of an investigation comparing the effectiveness of fabric sunscreens versus window tints. In order to determine if the use of fabric sunscreens was more advantageous to the home owner during the winter months than a window tint, the magnitude of heat loss and/or gain was calculated during that period of time.

4

By critically analyzing performance issues of an existing building, further development of applied knowledge in practical problem solving and investigating will be honed. The building tested is currently experiencing both heat loss and air infiltration from its existing windows at an unacceptable rate. In an effort to prescribe a solution to this problem, it was proposed,to test

two types of sun screening methods then evaluate they performed in enhancing the heat retention capabilities of the space. The parameters of the investigation included: gathering temperature data from the windows for uncovered, fabric covered and tinted conditions. Measurements were taken from two different sides of the house. With the aid of ASHARE, HOT2000速, along with data gathered through Environment Canada and the use of Data Loggers, testing conditions were proposed, analyzed and applied to the recommendations and conclusions of this paper.


The comfort of our living spaces are significantly influenced by solar radiation and heat gain. In high-rise apartment buildings and condos where the increased use of curtain wall systems have turned living spaces into virtual green houses.

Similarly, residential areas are constantly being developed with little attention paid to the optimal orientation to house plans and specific room layouts. In some cases, bedrooms have been located where the occupants have been awaken by the morning sunlight. For this reason it becomes necessary to find solutions. Majority of the houses in use today, hasve some form of traditional window screening device that is used to reduce or eliminate the effects of extra lighting or heat gain within a space (i.e. Window blinds or curtains).

From an intrusive method, such as a sun shading device, to a less intrusive method like tinting; the scope of this thesis is to test on a microl evel. Focusing on the effects of fabric screens and window tint as screening methods over a three month winter period winter, the results were quantified to determine their effectiveness. The test site was located in Brampton, Ontario. It is a rectangular building which is oriented with its longitudinal axis parralel to its northwest/south-east direction. Its dominant windows face the north-west and southeast sides of the house. This house was chosen because of its orientation and the comparison that could be made for summer conditions for later testing. Controlled testing conditions were established and feedback from the occupants help to bring a quantitative and qualitative understanding of their environment. (refer to Appendix A for Drawing Package)

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

The chain reaction triggered by this effect has caused an influx of design approaches and development of highly sensitized HVAC systems whose functions are to reduce or counter the green house effect and ensure that living spaces remain habitable. The problem is particularly pronounced in areas where large amounts of south facing windows create a constant struggle of balancing heat transfers to and from living spaces. It is at this point where the need to reduce the green house effect has prompted innovative solutions in the research and development of indoor screening methods. Questions arose about their overall effectiveness, both as a supplementary screening solution or as a complimentary one.

3

SECTION

Overview

5


3

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

SECTION

Overview

6

3.1 Purpose

3.2 Rational

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how various window shading devices enhance or reduce the effects of the heat load of an interior space. Fabric and window tint were used as sunscreening devices where their performance was tested using temperature data Logger. Conducting the test during the winter months (heating season), eliminated the influences of summer heat, enabling the tests to be conducted in an unbiased environment. Central heating influences were considered negligible due to the heating load being equally dispursed throughout the house. Through a process of comparisons, collected results were used to quantify the effectiveness of the screens mentioned in affecting the heating load within the living space.

Fabric and tinted glass, diffuses the sun’s heat and glare before it enters our and consequently reduce the harmful effects within our living spaces. While exterior shading devices reduce solar heat gains, as much as (70%) of the heat and glare getting reflected, absorbed and dissipated before it enters. Acting at times, similarly to a louvered awning, a sun screening device will reduce the amount of heat and glare entering through a window, while allowing visibility to the exterior. Tinted glass is often times used to filter the effects of near infrared solar energy reducing the solar heat gain that can be experienced whereas, fabric screens are geared more towards occupant privacy and glare reduction. The investigation conducted is intended to compare the effectiveness of two types of screening methods, by measuring the magnitude of heat loss or heat gain within the space over time. In this instance the test period was conducted during the period, December 21st thru March 20th. The test was conducted on a general level, where the results would assist in determining if either of the chosen window covering devices were more effective in the heat gain or loss of the living space.


3

SECTION

Overview 3.3 Sources ASHARE

National Climate Data and Information Archive The National Climate Data and Information Archive is operated and maintained by Environment Canada. It contains the official climate and weather observations for all Canada allowing direct access to climate and weather values within its database. This database has values for weather conditions and averages that ranges from a particular day and time from different weather stations.

International Window Film Association The IWFA is an association that provides value-added services to its members, helping to sustain and develop there businesses. They partner with manufacturers and other members to increase consumer awareness and demand for all types of professionally installed window film products. They act as a standardizing agency where they connect the consumer to the various laws and regulations that apply to their products based on the market that they are trying to enter or are currently involved.

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers ASHARE (refer to Appendix B) is an international technical society for persons and organizations interested in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R). The Society, organized into regions, chapters, and student branches, which allow for the global exchange of HVAC&R knowledge and experience as it benefits the field’s practitioners and the public. ASHRAE’s mission statement is focused on the sciences of heat, ventilation, air condition and refrigeration to serve humanity and promote a sustainable world.

7


SECTION

3

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Hot2000TM

8

HOT2000 (refer to Appendix D) is a lowrise residential energy analysis and design software that is used to analyze the heat loss or gain and system performance of existing and new building designs. This evaluation takes into account the thermal effectiveness of the building and its components. The passive solar heating impacts based on the location of the building, its operation and performance of its ventilation, heating and cooling systems is also computed. Developed by the Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy Technology Centre, and Sustainable Buildings and Communities this software is used to enhance the designs of clean energy projects and optimizing how integrated energy efficient design, complies with code requirements.

Overview


4 Shallamar Court, Brampton, Ontario

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Figure 4-1: Front of Residence

SECTION

4 Test Site

9


4

SECTION

Test Site

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Walk In Closet (WIC)

10

Figure 4-2: South-East Facing Window

Bedroom 4

Figure 4-3: North-West Facing Window


4

SECTION

Test Site

RO

YA L

OR

CH

AR

D

DR

IV

W

IL

LI

N

Figure 4-4: Google Map of Site

The test site is located near the intersections of McLaughlin Road and Williams Parkway in Brampton, Ontario. Built in the community of Fletcher Meadows by Mattamy Homes, during the late 1990s, the building is approximately twelve years old. The site location was chosen mainly for its northwest to southeast orientation along with a direct line of sight to the sun, having little influence from external shading accessories. The building is a two storey residential home with a four person occupancy. It is usually uninhabited during the daytime hours and therefore the influence of occupancy energy was disregarded for the calculations.

It was noted that there is air infiltration from both test windows which is proven by its symptoms of sweating in the corners. The influence of this on the results were also considered negligible. The first window (Figure 4-2) is located in the Walk in Closet on the facing southeast, while, the second window (Figure 4-3) is located in Bedroom 4 facing the northwest.

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

AM

S

SH

PA R

AL

LA

M

AR

KW AY

CO

UR

T

E

11


5

SECTION

Process and Schedule

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

The scope of this experiment investigated the difference that occurred in the heating load of the space, based on the type of screening devices used. Two types of window shading devices, a fabric screen and a window tint, were chosen for this location. The initial house analysis included a whole house audit which was used to determine the current energy loads of the rooms in question, by conducting a HOT2000TM analysis. A heat load calculation was performed using ASHARE to analyze the results gathered from the testing period. In the second phase of calculations, the focus was on the temperature differences that occurred during the time the screens were installed. The process included taking temperature readings from each sample space during the winter period. Actual testing time lasted from December 7, 2008 thru February 28, 2009. Through this process of testing and comparing, the results

12

accumulated helped to quantify the effectiveness of each screening device as an effective shading device for winter. The main measurements were taken from the interior of each room. The parameters for conducting the tests allowed for an establishment of datum points. These included the following phases; first, the windows were tested uncovered for approximately three weeks and the results were used to establish the first comparison point. The second phase saw the installation of the screens on opposing windows for approximately three weeks, after which they were interchanged with each other for another three weeks. During these phases, a log of the interior temperatures within the house and used as a comparison point fo rthe internal temperature that was unaffected by the use of window cladding. These datum points were then used in conjunction with the temperatures from the Environment Canada Weather Data Website. (See table below)

Control

Condition 1

Condition 2

WIC

Uncovered

Fabric

Tint

Bedroom 4

Uncovered

Tint

Fabric

Hallway

Interior Temp

Interior Temp

Interior Temp

Table 5-1: Testing Conditions


5

SECTION

Process and Schedule 5.1 Timeline of Events Nov. 2, 2008

Initial site visit

Nov. 14, 2008

Devices have been selected and ordered (Quantity 3)

Nov. 22, 2008

Frames were built

Nov. 24, 2008

Mid-Year Thesis Report submitted

Nov. 24, 2008

Arrival of devices

Nov. 29, 2008

Installation of devices and start of testing

Dec. 6, 2008

Analysis of preliminary data

Dec. 7, 2008 thru Dec. 25, 2008 Jan. 12, 2009 Feb. 8, 2009 thru Feb. 27, 2009

Collection of results for WIC (Tinted) and Bedroom 4 (Fabric) Collection of results for WIC (Fabric) and Bedroom 4 (Tinted)

Mar. 16, 2009

Draft report submitted

April 6, 2006

Final report submitted

Table 5-2:Timeline of Events

Figure 5-1: Installed Fabric Screen in Bedroom 4

Figure 5-2: Installed Tint Screen in WIC

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

thru Jan. 24, 2009

Collection of Uncovered results (Both windows)

13


SECTION

5

Process and Schedule

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

5.2 Making the Screens With the initial site visit completed and the building measured, the dimensions of the test windows were determined and the amounts of materials needed to cover each window was calculated. It was decided that one pair of screens would be built and interchanged between the windows; together they would reflect the same testing conditions, but for two types of screens during each three week period. Screens were built based on the largest window size and measured to, 1525mm x 1525mm, allowing each screen to fit over both windows.

1.5 m 1.5 m

Figure 5-3: Frame Construction

These screens were made from 1”” x 1”” spruce wood, making the frames lightweight and maneuverable. The process involved the following steps:

14

a. The longest dimension was used to govern the size of the frame (Figure 5-3). This dimension had an additional 15% of materials considered to ensure that the frame would sit around the finished window opening and not inside it’s frame. b. For the fabric screen, (Figure 5-4), an egg shell colored, tightly woven fabric was chosen. Once the frames were constructed, the fabric was secured to the screen using screws and given enough yield which enabled the screen to be folded in half for easier transportation.

Figure 5-4: Fabric Screen Construction


c. Similarly with the tint, (Figure 5-5), the frame was constructed, as per the fabric screen. The main difference was the tint was split into two panels because of manufactured widths. These were secured to the frame and the central gap was secured using a clear tape thereby maintaining the visual integrity of the tint. The adhering film that came with the tint was retained for purposes of rigidity.

5

SECTION

Process and Schedule

Figure 5-5: Tint Screen Construction

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

15


SECTION

5

Process and Schedule

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

5.3 Data Loggers and Screens Installed

5.4 Collection of Results

Three data Loggers were acquired and The results of each three week span was collected, averaged and graphed. installed as follows: These results were analyzed and 1. The first data Logger was installed in comments were summarized. The data the Walk-in-Closet approximately was groupped into the following three 1220mm away from the window, categories and a relationship between and the existing blinds were left each was analyzed. For each three week open. This position was choosen batch of readings, the averages were to reduce the influence of the taken from the warmest time period heating system which provided a of the each day (9:00am to 6:00pm), vent directly below the window. and a graph was plotted depicting the 2. The second data Logger was placed temperature changes.The time period in the hallway, as the overall was chosen based on its similarlarity to interior temperature was needed the summer months taking into account to establish an uninfluenced that during the winter months the reading. This data was used warmest periods of each day is shorter. alongside the results of the The total changes in the temperatures previously mentioned condition to for each day were averaged. A portion determine if a significant change of the results calculated to determine in the ambient temperature was the air infiltration. (refer to Appendix E)

16

achieved from a heat gain or loss.

3. The third data Logger was installed in Bedroom 4, 2940mm away from the window but was directly in front of it. The variance in distances was based mainly on the rooms layout and to additionally keep it away from the vent.


5

SECTION

Process and Schedule 5.5 Data Logger Captions

Figure 5-7: Typical Data Logger Results (Graph)

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Figure 5-6: Data Logger Software Setup Dialogue

17


5

SECTION

Process and Schedule

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

>>LoggingName:WalkinCloset >>FROM:12Ͳ07Ͳ200809:46:52TO:01Ͳ04Ͳ200904:16:52 >>SamplePoints:4000 >>SampleRate:600sec. >>TemperatureUnit:Celsius >>RelativeHumidity(LowAlarm:35.0ͲHighAlarm:75.0) >>Temperature(LowAlarm:Ͳ40.0ͲHighAlarm:40.0)

18

NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

DATE 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008 12/07/2008

TIME 9:46:52 9:56:52 10:06:52 10:16:52 10:26:52 10:36:52 10:46:52 10:56:52 11:06:52 11:16:52 11:26:52 11:36:52 11:46:52 11:56:52 12:06:52 12:16:52 12:26:52 12:36:52 12:46:52 12:56:52 13:06:52 13:16:52

Table 5-3: Typical Data Logger Results (Excel)

TEMPERATURE 23 22.9 22.2 22.2 22.4 22.7 23 23.3 23.5 23.7 23.7 23.7 23.7 23.8 23.8 23.8 23.7 23.7 23.5 23.4 23.2 23

RELATIVEͲ HUMIDITY 39.2 32.4 44.2 45.3 45.3 44.9 44.5 44.2 44 43.6 43.3 43.4 43.5 43.7 43.9 44 44.1 44.1 44.3 44.5 44.6 44.8

DEWͲPOINT 8.3 5.5 9.4 9.8 9.9 10.1 10.2 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.7 10.7 10.6 10.6 10.4 10.3


The main goal of this thesis was to determining if significant changes occurred within a living space, based on the type of sun screening device used. Conducted over a three month period, the interior temperatures of the building were recorded for testing conditions cited above, (see Table 5-1). Within these parameters, the datum points established were compared and used to determine if these changes made a significant impact on the building.

The methods used to gather data for the analysis of this report included using the HOT2000TM analysis program to conduct a whole home analysis (see Appendix D). Data Loggers were used to record temperature changes within the interior spaces of the house. Although the Loggers were capable of recording temperature changes, relative humidity and dew point changes, our focus was on the temperature changes within the building. The ASHARE handbook was consulted to determine the factors and coefficients needed to make a comparison between the analyzed results and their calculations.

The DT-171 Compact Digital USB Temperature & Humidity Data Logger was chosen as the best choice for long term data acquisition. This instrument is USB compatible, enabling a plug and go freedom. The recorder allows one to remotely record the changes in temperatures. Equipped with its own software program data can be manipulated to plot graphs and analyze the collected results, promoting quick responses to the data and interpretation process. Additionally, it exports a copy of the data file as “*.txt� format for use in software programs, such as Microsoft Excel (see Table 5-3); here the data was manipulated for analysis and presentation purposes. The captions (pages 17 -18) give an idea of the steps involved while setting up the Data Logger and process the information. Along with the results from the logger, data from Pearson International Airport’s weather station were collected as a record of the external temperatures being experienced on a daily basis in the area. This was done via Environment Canada website. (http://www.climate.weatheroffice. ec.gc.ca/climateData)

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

6.1 Data-collection Methods

6

SECTION

Research Methodology

19


SECTION

6

Research Methodology

6.2 Data Analysis This section summarizes the results collected with comments about the findings. Table 6-1 below shows the summarized temperature readings over the time period under varying test conditions.

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Summary of Average Temperature Readings During Testing Period

20

Table 6-1: Summary of Ave. Temp. Readings During Testing Period


6

SECTION

Research Methodology Summary of Temperature Differences

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Table 6-2: Summary of Temperature Differences

21


6

SECTION

Research Methodology

COMPARISON OF TEMPERATURE VARIANCE IN BEDROOM 4 25.00

TEMPERATURE

20.00

15.00 BEDROOM 4 UNCOVERED 10.00

BEDROOM 4 TINT BEDROOM 4 FABRIC

22

0.00 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

DAYS

Figure 6-1: Comparison of Temperature Variance in Bedroom 4

COMPARISON OF BOTH SPACES DURING CONDITION 1 25

20

TEMPERATURE

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

5.00

15

WIC (UNCOVERED)

BEDROOM 4 (UNCOVERED)

10

CONDITION 1 (WIC TINT & FABRIC)

5

0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7 DAYS

8

9

Figure 6-2:Comparison of Temperature Changes Between The Spaces.

10

11

12

13


6

SECTION

Research Methodology

COMPARISON OF TEMPERATURE VARIANCE IN WIC 25

20

TEMPERATURE

y

15 WIC UNCOVERED 10

WIC TINT WIC FABRIC

5

0 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

DAYS Figure 6-3:Comparison of Temperature Variance in WIC

6.3 Discussion The results derived from the change in temperature averages (Table 6-2), shows that the uncovered results from the northwest face of the building had a lower rate of heat gain over the period of time analyzed, as opposed to the southwestern face. This side of the building had a smaller window and received the afternoon sun. The southern side of the building showed heat gain from the solar radiation when the fabric screen was in place (Figure 6-3). The result it appeared to be of a higher percentage of heat being lost

from the buildings’ southeastern face when the tinted screen was used. When compared to the original heating load, during the winter there was 32.8% retention of heat, resulting from the use of the fabric screen. It should be noted that the rate of air infiltration may have acutely influenced some of these results.

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

1

23


SECTION

7

Recommendations

Recommendation 1 For those who want to use a fabric screen as their option, should consider using it during the summer months as they act as an effective diffuser of the sun; where as, during the winter months they are ineffective except when applied to the southern facing windows in allowing solar gains which is important for winter thermal comfort.

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Recommendation 2 If you chose to use a window tint as a shading device, it will have a higher heat gain during the winter months but due to an issue with visibility it is not recommended for privacy issues however, areas where privacy is not an issue window tint is recommended over fabric. Recommendation 3 The combination of both types of shading devices is the best of these three recommendations. It is suggested to the home builder to place the bedroom(s) on the southern side of the building taking full advantage of a fabrics ability to enhance the gain gains of the space and tint on the northern sides during the winter months.

24


7

SECTION

Conclusions

The main goal was to determine if any significant changes occured within the living space based on the type of sun shading device chosen and heat gains/ losses achieved. Conducted over a three month winter period, the focuses on the orientation of the building and the effect on the solar heat gains within the space was investigated.

The Window Tint had a greater solar heat gain than the fabric. Unfortunately, though it was beneficial during the winter monthsfor keeping the space warmed, the resident found it too

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009

Overall, the results of this experiment has been successful in determining which sun screening method works more efficiently during the winter months. Not only has it been found that the fabric screen works better at reducing the amount of solar heat gain in the space, it has also been derived that the southern side of the building was the only adequate side that fabric screens were beneficial for solar heat gains for thermal comfort.

25


Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009


Appendices

Analysis of Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass: Performance During Winter Months, 2009


1

M. Gayle House

APPENDIX A

28 M. Gayle House

Owner

BB, KF, AE, JB

November 17,2008

Ryerson University- Thesis

Drawn by

Date

Heat System Design Project

Cover Page

Contents: A0 - Cover Page A1 - First & Second Floor Plans A2 - Second Floor & Roof Plan A3 - North & South Elevations A4 - East Elevation A5 - West Elevation A6 - North South Section A7 - East West Section A & B

Design Person: Kerone Folkes

Scale

A0

Heat System Design Project Drawing Package

Drawing Package 24/11/2008 7:11:30 AM


1 : 100

Basement

M. Gayle House

Owner

1 : 100

1 A6

UP

Kitchen 16 m²

Pantry

WC 2 m²

DN

UP

Porch

Dining Area 16 m²

Foyer 16 m²

UP

UP

BB, KF, AE, JB

November 17,2008

Ryerson University- Thesis

Drawn by

Date

Heat System Design Project

Scale

A1

First & Second Floor Plan

Living Room 17 m²

Garage 23 m²

First Floor

A7

2

2 A7

A7

HWC

UP

1

Basement 73 m²

Unexcavated

1

APPENDIX A

1

2

A7

1

F DW

A6

1 : 100

Drawing Package

29

24/11/2008 7:39:13 AM


1

Bedroom 3 15 m²

1 : 100

DN

WC 4 m²

WIC 7 m²

Bedroom 4 10 m²

Hallway 9 m²

Bedroom 2 10 m²

Ensuite 9 m²

Master Bedroom 21 m²

Second Floor

A7

1

A7

2

APPENDIX A

30 A6

1

M. Gayle House

Owner

2

1 : 100

BB, KF, AE, JB

November 17,2008

Ryerson University- Thesis

Drawn by

Date

Heat System Design Project

Scale

A2

Second Floor & Roof Plan

Roof Plan

A7

1

2 A7

1 A6

1 : 100

Drawing Package 24/11/2008 7:39:20 AM


1 : 100

North

APPENDIX A

1

First Floor 0

First Floor 0

South

2675

2675

2

Second Floor

Second Floor

M. Gayle House

Owner

BB, KF, AE, JB

November 17,2008

Ryerson University- Thesis

Drawn by

Date

Heat System Design Project

Scale

A3

North & South Elevations

-2474

-2474

1 : 100

Basement

Basement

Grade

5075

5075

Grade

Top of Ceiling

Top of Ceiling

1 A6

1 A6

1 : 100

Drawing Package

31

24/11/2008 7:39:26 AM


1

1 : 100

East

APPENDIX A

32 M. Gayle House

Owner

2 A7

1 A7

-2474

Basement

0

BB, KF, AE, JB

November 17,2008

Ryerson University- Thesis

Drawn by

Date

Heat System Design Project

East Elevations

Grade

First Floor

2675

Second Floor

5075

Top of Ceiling

Scale

A4 1 : 100

Drawing Package 24/11/2008 7:39:30 AM


1 : 100

West

APPENDIX A

1

M. Gayle House

Owner

1 A7

2 A7

Scale

-2474

BB, KF, AE, JB

November 17,2008

Ryerson University- Thesis

Drawn by

Date

Heat System Design Project

0

Basement

West Elevation

Grade

First Floor

2675

Second Floor

5075

Top of Ceiling

A5 1 : 100

Drawing Package

33

24/11/2008 7:39:45 AM


APPENDIX A

34

1

1 : 100

North South Section

Kitchen

Bedroom 3

Basement

Bedroom 2

Ensuite

Living Room

Garage

Master Bedroom

M. Gayle House

Owner

2 A7

1 A7

-2474

Basement

0

BB, KF, AE, JB

November 17,2008

Ryerson University- Thesis

Drawn by

Date

Heat System Design Project

Scale

North South Section

Grade

First Floor

2675

Second Floor

5075

Top of Ceiling

A6 1 : 100

Drawing Package 24/11/2008 7:39:52 AM


1 : 100

East West Section A

APPENDIX A

1

Kitchen

Dining Area

Basement

Bedroom 3

Bedroom 4

2

Garage

Grade

M. Gayle House

Owner

1 : 100

BB, KF, AE, JB

November 17,2008

Ryerson University- Thesis

Drawn by

Date

Heat System Design Project

Scale

East West Section A & B A7

-2474

-2474

East West Section B

Basement

Basement

Basement

0 Grade

First Floor

0

2675

2675

First Floor

Second Floor

Second Floor

Foyer

5075 Master Bedroom

5075 WIC

Top of Ceiling

Top of Ceiling

1 A6

1 A6

1 : 100

Drawing Package

35

24/11/2008 7:40:26 AM


Calculations The following tables summarizes the total load reductions experienced by each room and over all Bedroom 4 located on the North-West side of the experienced the largest use of cooling loads based on the GLF.

Load Calculations for Un-shaded Window areas Room Direction Net Area GLF 2 (W/m2) (m ) Bedroom 4 North-West 3.07 337 WIC South-East 1.37 344

Cooling Load (kW) 1.05 0.47

Load Calculations for Opaque roller shades, fully drawn (Fabric Screen) Room

Direction

Bedroom 4 WIC

North-West South-East

Net Area (m2) 3.07 1.37

GLF (W/m2) 142 145

Cooling Load (kW) 0.44 0.20

Load Reduction (Typical) Calculated in referenced from the ASHARE handbook for fabric screens Bedroom 4 WIC

APPENDIX B

36

58.1% 57.5%


21.58 13.89 17.76 19.07 18.34 18.28 17.9 19.24 18.81 18.42 20.64 18.33 17.9 21.16 19.29 21.87 18.25 16.84 22.06

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

APPENDIX B

UNCOVERED

DAYS 19.99 15.95 17.12 20.62 21.25 19.11 19.34 18.03 21.49 17.76 17.93 20.77 22.52

TINT

WIC

22.74 23.21 18.98 20.19 19.45 21.24 21.94 23.03 23.43 22.27 19.43 20.83 21.71 21.65 18.59 22.66 22.44 23.36 22.38 20.87

FABRIC 18.85 17.54 18.16 17.97 17.33 18.44 18.54 19.37 19.48 19.06 19.00 18.86 18.63 18.86 18.87 19.58 18.49 18.94 22.02

UNCOVERED 19.75 19.89 19.42 20.30 19.13 20.56 20.13 19.28 20.05 20.32 20.33 19.06 19.55 19.71 19.10 18.60 19.04 19.11 20.21 21.26

TINT

BEDROOM4

18.29 17.80 16.96 16.77 17.55 19.08 19.31 19.08 19.63 18.56 19.06 21.19 19.98

FABRIC

CONDITION1 (WICTINT& FABRIC) 20.22 19.19 18.80 19.31 18.67 18.69 19.58 20.43 19.48 18.97 19.71 18.78 18.85 19.86 19.27 20.72 19.23 19.43 21.83

CONDITION2 CONDITION3 (WICFABRIC& (HALLWAY) TINT) 19.08 20.76 18.77 21.08 18.07 19.47 19.35 20.51 20.55 19.60 20.21 21.08 19.67 21.05 19.02 20.96 20.42 21.43 18.53 21.07 19.00 21.24 21.16 19.61 21.38 20.76 20.65 19.80 20.53 20.49 20.32 20.65 21.66

HALLWAY

Calculations

37


APPENDIX B

38

AVERAGES

1.90 3.54 1.31 2.54 2.27 2.64 2.50 1.59 1.96 2.01 2.25 0.76 2.13 1.79 0.94 0.95 2.00 1.38 -1.37 1.74

1.66

BEDROOM 4 DELTA T

-0.82 7.19 1.71 1.44 1.26 2.80 3.15 1.72 2.62 2.65 0.60 1.28 2.86 -0.51 0.51 -1.34 2.24 3.48 -1.41

WIC DELTA T

UNCOVERED DELTA T

Summary of Temparature Differences

0.24 3.23 1.68 -1.31 -2.58 -0.41 0.24 2.40 -2.02 1.21 1.78 -1.99 -3.68

-0.09

WIC DELTA T -0.67 -1.12 -1.35 -0.95 1.41 -0.36 -0.46 -0.26 0.37 -1.79 -1.34 2.09 1.83

-0.20

BEDROOM 4 DELTA T

SHADED TINTED DELTA T

1.93 1.38 1.84 2.54 1.13 -0.39 0.27 1.35 -0.16 0.41 0.65 -2.41 -1.13

0.57 -1.79

BEDROOM 4 DELTA T

-3.66 -4.43 -0.91 -0.84 1.09 -1.04 -2.26 -4.01 -3.01 -3.74 -0.44 0.33 -0.33

WIC DELTA T

SHADED FABRIC DELTA T

Calculations


APPENDIX C

Typical Energy Bill

39


Typical Energy Bill

APPENDIX C

40


APPENDIX C

Typical Energy Bill

41


Hot 2000TM Analysis HOT2000

HOUSE REPORT

Natural Resources CANADA Version

Client:

Gayle, M

Audit Date:

19/11/2007

Address:

4 Shallimar Court

Auditor:

BBEF

City:

Brampton

File ID:

November192008

Province:

Ontario

Code:

L6X4N2

Phone:

905-555-5555

Your house was analysed using a computer program developed by Natural Resources Canada. The following charts show the components of yearly energy consumption and heat loss for your home. COMPONENTS OF ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION

COMPONENTS OF ANNUAL HEAT LOSS

APPENDIX D

42


Hot 2000TM Analysis Your house currently uses approximately 32005.7 kWh for space and hot water heating in an average year. The following chart illustrates the relationship between the energy used by your house and the energy used by an equivalent R2000 home.

APPENDIX D

ANNUAL HEATING + HOT WATER ENERGY CONSUMPTION (kWh)

43


Hot 2000TM Analysis Notice to Homeowner

Your house was analysed using a computer program developed by Natural Resources Canada. Natural Resources Canada makes no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the energy consumption figures included in this assessment. In no event will Natural Resources Canada nor its minister, officers, employees or agents have any obligations or liability arising from tort, or for loss of revenue or profit, or for indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages as a result of the homeowner’s use of the assessment report. Some of the assumptions within the computer program may, or may not, be applicable to your household. Where assumptions have been made, they are based on an average appliance usage rate.

H2Kv9.2-Mar2004

APPENDIX D

44


Hot 2000TM Analysis HOT2000 Natural Resources CANADA Version 10.12 File: Application Type:

M House.HSE General

User Weather File: Weather Data for ,

Builder Code: November192008 Data Entry by: BBEF Date of entry: 19/11/2007 Company: BBEF Client name: Gayle, M Street address: 4 Shallimar Court City: Postal code:

Brampton L6X4N2

Region: Telephone:

Ontario 905-555-5555

GENERAL HOUSE CHARACTERISTICS House type: Number of storeys: Plan shape: Front orientation: Year House Built: Wall colour: Roof colour: Soil Condition: Water Table Level:

Single Detached Two storeys Rectangular Southwest 2000 Red Flat black Normal conductivity (dry sand, loam, clay) Normal (7-10m/23-33ft)

Absorptivity: Absorptivity:

0.74 0.95

House Thermal Mass Level: (A) Light, wood frame Effective mass fraction 1.000 Occupants :

2 Adults for 50.0% of the time 2 Children for 50.0% of the time 0 Infants for 0.0% of the time

APPENDIX D

Sensible Internal Heat Gain From Occupants: 2.40 kWh/day

45


Hot 2000TM Analysis HOUSE TEMPERATURES Heating Temperatures Main Floor: Basement:

21.0 °C 21.0 °C

TEMP. Rise from 21.0 °C:

2.8 °C

Cooling Temperature: Main Floor :

25.00 °C

Basement is- Heated: YES Cooled: NO Separate T/S: NO Fraction of internal gains released in basement : 0.150 Indoor design temperatures for equipment sizing Heating: 22.0 °C Cooling: 24.0 °C

WINDOW CHARACTERISTICS Label

Location

#

Overhang Header Tilt Curtain Shutter Width Height deg Factor (RSI) (m) (m)

Southeast Southeast0001

Main floor

1 0.41

2.10

90.0 1.00

0.00

Southeast0003

Second level

1 0.41

2.14

90.0 1.00

0.00

Southeast0004

Second level

1 0.41

2.14

90.0 1.00

0.00

Southeast0005

Foundation - 1

1 0.41

2.11

90.0 1.00

0.00

Patio Door

Main floor

1 0.41

2.14

90.0 1.00

0.00

Northeast0001

Main floor

1 0.41

2.15

90.0 1.00

0.00

Northeast0002

Main floor

1 0.41

2.15

90.0 1.00

0.00

Northeast0003

Second level

1 0.41

2.10

90.0 1.00

0.00

Northeast0004

Foundation - 1

1 0.41

2.11

90.0 1.00

0.00

Northeast0004

Second level

1 0.41

2.10

90.0 1.00

0.00

Northwest0001

Main floor

1 0.41

2.11

90.0 1.00

0.00

Northwest0002

Main floor

1 0.41

2.11

90.0 1.00

0.00

Northwest0003

Second level

1 0.41

2.13

90.0 1.00

0.00

Southwest0001

Second level

1 0.41

2.10

90.0 1.00

0.00

Southwest0002

Second level

1 0.41

2.16

90.0 1.00

0.00

Southwest0003

Second level

1 0.41

2.16

90.0 1.00

0.00

Southwest0004

Second level

1 0.41

2.16

90.0 1.00

0.00

Label

Type

Northeast

Northwest

Southwest

APPENDIX D

46

#

Window Window Total Window Width SHGC Height Area RSI 2 (m) (m) (m )

Southeast Southeast0001

200000

1 1.45

1.30

1.88

0.280

0.7031

Southeast0003

200000

1 1.00

1.00

1.00

0.260

0.6827

Southeast0004

200000

1 1.00

1.00

1.00

0.260

0.6827


Hot 2000TM Analysis Southeast0005

100000

1 0.70

0.30

0.21

0.142

0.6536

Patio Door

SldDr

1 1.83

2.13

3.91

0.261

0.7036

Northeast0001

200000

1 1.00

1.00

1.00

0.260

0.6827

Northeast0002

200000

1 1.00

1.00

1.00

0.260

0.6827

Northeast0003

200000

1 1.00

1.00

1.00

0.260

0.6827

Northeast0004

200000

1 0.70

0.30

0.21

0.194

0.5821

Northeast0004

100000

1 0.80

0.80

0.64

0.149

0.7488

Northwest0001

200000

1 1.00

1.00

1.00

0.260

0.6827

Northwest0002

200000

1 0.67

0.77

0.52

0.237

0.6538

Northwest0003

200000

1 0.67

0.77

0.52

0.237

0.6538

Southwest0001

200000

1 1.05

1.30

1.36

0.270

0.6932

Southwest0002

200000

1 1.05

1.60

1.68

0.275

0.6986

Southwest0003

200000

1 1.05

1.60

1.68

0.275

0.6986

Southwest0004

200000

1 1.05

1.60

1.68

0.275

0.6986

Northeast

Northwest

Southwest

WINDOW CODE SCHEDULE Name

Internal Code

Description (Glazings, Coatings, Fill, Spacer, Type, Frame)

200000

200000

Double/double with 1 coat, Clear, 13 mm Air, Metal, Picture, Aluminum, ER* = -31.08, Eff. RSI= 0.10

100000

100000

Single (SG), Clear, 13 mm Air, Metal, Picture, Aluminum, ER* = -88.52, Eff. RSI= 0.10

SldDr

200020

Double/double with 1 coat, Clear, 13 mm Air, Metal, Slider with sash, Aluminum, ER* = -50.02, Eff. RSI= 0.08

APPENDIX D

* Window Standard Energy Rating estimated for assumed dimensions, and Air tightness type: CSA - A1; Leakage rate = 2.790 m3/hr/m

47


Hot 2000TM Analysis

BUILDING PARAMETER DETAILS CEILING COMPONENTS

Construction Type Ceiling01

Attic/hip

Code Type

Roof Slope

Heel Ht.(m)

Section Area (m2)

2231J02000

4.0/12

0.13

100.60

R. Value (RSI) 6.29

CEILING CODE SCHEDULE

Description (Structure, typ/size, Spacing, Insull, 2, Int., Sheathing, Exterior, Studs)

Name

Internal Code

2231J02000

2231J02000

Wood frame, 38x235 mm (2x10 in), 400 mm (16 in), N/A, None, Gypsum + Non insul. strapping, N/A, N/A, N/A

MAIN WALL COMPONENTS

R. Area (m2) Value (RSI)

Lintel Type

Fac. Dir

Number of Corn.

Number of Inter.

Height (m)

Perim. (m)

Main floor Type: 1211371121

100

N/A

4

4

2.40

43.00

103.20

3.55

Second level Type: 1211371121

100

N/A

4

4

2.40

49.30

118.32

3.60

N/A

4

4

0.23

43.00

9.89

3.85

Label

MWhdr-02 Type: 1800300520 WALL CODE SCHEDULE

Description (Structure, typ/size, Spacing, Insull, 2, Int., Sheathing, Exterior, Studs)

Name

Internal Code

1211371121

1211371121

Wood frame, 38x140 mm (2x6 in), 400 mm (16 in), RSI 3.5 (R 20) batt, 25 mm (1 in) semi-rigid, 12 mm (0.5 in) gypsum board, Waferboard/OSB 9.5 mm (3/8 in), Hollow metal/vinyl cladding, 3 studs

1800300520

1800300520

Floor header, N/A, N/A, RSI 3.5 (R 20) batt, None, N/A, Plywood/Particle board 12.7 mm (1/2 in), Hollow metal/vinyl cladding, N/A

EXPOSED FLOORS

Label EXPFloor-01

Floor Code Type

Area (m2)

R. Value (RSI)

3231506610

28.70

5.10

EXPOSED FLOOR SCHEDULE

APPENDIX D

48

Name

Internal Code

3231506610

3231506610

Description (Structure, typ/size, Spacing, Insull, 2, Int., Sheathing, Exterior, Studs) Wood frame, 38x235 mm (2x10 in), 400 mm (16 in), RSI 4.9 (R 28) batt, None, Wood, Plywood/Particle board 15.5 mm (5/8 in), Wood (lapped), No

DOORS

Label

Type

Height (m)

Width (m)

Gross Area (m2)

R. Value (RSI)


Hot 2000TM Analysis Door-01 Loc: Main floor

Wood hollow core

2.11

0.91

1.92

0.37

Door - 2 Loc: Main floor

Wood hollow core

2.10

0.75

1.57

0.37

FOUNDATIONS

Foundation Name: Foundation Type: Data Type:

Foundation - 1 Basement Library

Total Wall Height: Depth Below Grade:

2.00 m 1.40 m

Non-Rectangular Floor Perimeter: Floor Area:

40.10 m 73.20 m2

Interior wall type: Exterior wall type: Number of corners : Lintel type: Added to slab type : Floors Above Found.:

2102C10 User specified 8 Bsmnt Lintel User specified 4231000660

R-value: R-Value:

2.49 RSI 0.00 RSI

R-Value: R-Value:

0.00 RSI 0.72 RSI

146.4 m3 0.00 m2

Volume: Opening to Main Floor:

Exposed areas for: Foundation - 1 Exposed Perimeter: 40.10 m Configuration: BCIN_1 - concrete walls and floor - interior surface of wall insulated over full-height - any first storey construction type

FOUNDATION CODE SCHEDULE Interior Wall

Name 2102C10

Description (Fram., Spac., Studs, Ins/fram., Xtra ins, Int)

Code

38x89 mm (2x4 in) wood, 400 mm (16 in), 2 studs, RSI 2.1 (R 12) batt, N/A, 12 mm (0.5 in) gypsum board, N/A

2102C10

Floors Above Foundation

Name 4231000660

Description (Structure, typ/size, Spacing, Insul1, 2, Int., Sheathing, Exterior, Drop Framing)

Internal Code 4231000660

Wood frame, 38x235 mm (2x10 in), 400 mm (16 in), None, None, None, Plywood/Particle board 15.5 mm (5/8 in), Wood, No

Label BWhdr01 Type: 1800J00540

Lintel Type

Fac. Dir

Number of Corn.

Number of Inter.

Height (m)

Perim. (m)

N/A

N/A

4

4

0.23

40.10

Basement Floor Header Code Schedule

Name

Internal

Description

R. Area (m2) Value (RSI) 9.22

7.14

APPENDIX D

BASEMENT FLOOR HEADER COMPONENTS

49


Hot 2000TM Analysis Code 1800J00540

(Structure, typ/size, Spacing, Insul1, 2, Int., Sheathing, Exterior, Studs)

Floor header, N/A, N/A, N/A, None, None, Plywood/Particle board 12.7 mm (1/2 in), Tile1800J00540 linoleum, No

Lintel Code Schedule

Name

Description ( Type, Material, Insulation )

Code

1800J00540

100

Double, Wood, None

1800J00540

100

Double, Wood, None

Bsmnt Lintel

100

Double, Wood, None

ROOF CAVITY INPUTS

APPENDIX D

50

Gable Ends Sheathing Material Exterior Material:

Plywood/Part. bd 9.5 mm (3/8 in) Hollow metal/vinyl cladding

Sloped Roof Sheathing Material Exterior Material:

Plywood/Part. bd 12.7 mm (1/2 in) Asphalt shingles

Total Cavity Volume:

48.1 m3

Total Area:

0.00 m2 0.08 RSI 0.11 RSI

Total Area:

106.04 m2 0.11 RSI 0.08 RSI

Ventilation Rate:

0.50 ACH/hr


Hot 2000TM Analysis BUILDING ASSEMBLY DETAILS Construction Code

Nominal (RSI)

System (RSI)

Effective (RSI)

2231J02000

7.00

6.53

6.29

Main floor

1211371121

3.99

3.59

3.55

Second level

1211371121

3.99

3.64

3.60

MWhdr-02

1800300520

3.50

3.85

3.85

4231000660

0.00

0.72

0.72

Label CEILING COMPONENTS Ceiling01 MAIN WALL COMPONENTS

FLOORS ABOVE BASEMENTS Foundation - 1

BUILDING PARAMETERS SUMMARY ZONE 1 : Above Grade

Area m2 Gross

Area m2 Net

Ceiling

100.60

100.60

6.29

4377.87

3.46

Main Walls

231.41

208.04

3.59

21554.54

17.04

Doors

3.50

3.50

0.37

4066.57

3.22

Exposed floors

28.70

28.70

5.10

2205.46

1.74

Southeast Windows

7.79

7.79

0.27

12649.00

10.00

Northeast Windows

3.64

3.64

0.23

6819.36

5.39

Northwest Windows

2.04

2.04

0.25

3546.88

2.80

Southwest Windows

6.40

6.40

0.27

10074.37

7.97

65294.04

51.63

Component

Effective Heat Loss % Annual (RSI) MJ Heat Loss

ZONE 1 Totals: INTER-ZONE Heat Transfer : Floors Above Basement Area m2

Gross

Area m2 Net

73.20

73.20

Effective Heat Loss (RSI) MJ 0.721

2312.36

ZONE 2 : Basement

Area m2 Gross

Area m2 Net

Walls above grade

24.06

23.64

-

4933.31

3.90

Southeast windows

0.21

0.21

0.14

602.74

0.48

Northeast windows

0.21

0.21

0.19

441.33

0.35

Basement floor header

9.22

9.22

7.14

671.18

0.53

Below grade foundation

129.34

129.34

-

14200.74

11.23

20849.30

16.49

Effective Heat Loss % Annual (RSI) MJ Heat Loss

ZONE 2 Totals: Ventilation

House Volume

Air Change

Heat Loss MJ

% Annual Heat Loss

566.40 m3

0.480 ACH

40319.359

31.88

APPENDIX D

Component

51


Hot 2000TM Analysis AIR LEAKAGE AND VENTILATION Building Envelope Surface Area: 523.33 m2 Air Leakage Test Results at 50 Pa.(0.2 in H2O) = 3.82 ACH Equivalent Leakage Area @ 10 Pa = 807.86 cm2 Terrain Description @ Weather Station : Open flat terrain, grass @ Building site : Suburban, forest Local Shielding:

Leakage Fractions-

Height Anemometer Bldg. Eaves

Walls: Flue :

m 10.0 5.1

Heavy Light

Ceiling: 0.200

Walls: 0.650

Normalized Leakage Area @ 10 Pa: Estimated Airflow to cause a 5 Pa Pressure Difference: Estimated Airflow to cause a 10 Pa Pressure Difference:

Floors: 0.150

1.5437 cm2/m2 129 L/s 202 L/s

F326 VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS Kitchen, Living Room, Dining Room

3 rooms @ 5.0 L/s: 15.0 L/s

Utility Room

1 rooms @ 5.0 L/s: 5.0 L/s

Bedroom

1 rooms @ 10.0 L/s: 10.0 L/s

Bedroom

3 rooms @ 5.0 L/s: 15.0 L/s

Bathroom

3 rooms @ 5.0 L/s: 15.0 L/s

Other

1 rooms @ 5.0 L/s: 5.0 L/s

Basement Rooms

: 0.0 L/s

CENTRAL VENTILATION SYSTEM System Type: Manufacturer: Model Number:

APPENDIX D

52

Fans w/o HR

Fan and Preheater Power at : Fan and Preheater Power at : Preheater Capacity: Sensible Heat Recovery Efficiency at Sensible Heat Recovery Efficiency at Total Heat Recovery Efficency in Cooling Mode

Watts Watts Watts % % %

Low Temperature Ventilation Reduction: Low Temperature Ventilation Reduction: Airflow Adjustment

% (%)

Vented combustion appliance depressurization limit: 5.00 Pa. Ventilation Supply Duct Location: Main floor

Type:

Flexible


Hot 2000TM Analysis Length: Insulation:

1.5 m 0.7 RSI

Ventilation Exhaust Duct Location: Main floor Length: 1.5 m Insulation: 0.7 RSI

Diameter: 152.4 mm Sealing Characteristics: Sealed

Type: Flexible Diameter: 152.4 mm Sealing Characteristics: Sealed

SECONDARY FANS & OTHER EXHAUST APPLIANCES

Dryer

Control

Supply (L/s)

Exhaust (L/s)

Continuous

-

1.20

Dryer is vented outdoors

AIR LEAKAGE AND VENTILATION SUMMARY F326 Required continous ventilation:

65.000 L/s (0.41 ACH)

Central Ventilation Rate (Balanced):

50.000 L/s (0.32 ACH)

Total house ventilation is Balanced 40600.387 MJ 0.000 % 3458.188 MJ 483.812 MJ 42048.449 MJ

APPENDIX D

Gross Air Leakage and Ventilation Energy Load: Seasonal Heat Recovery Ventilator Efficiency: Estimated Ventilation Electrical Load: Heating Hours: Estimated Ventilation Electrical Load: NonHeating Hours: Net Air Leakage and Ventilation Load:

53


Hot 2000TM Analysis SPACE HEATING SYSTEM Primary Heating Fuel: Equipment: Manufacturer: Model:

Natural Gas Induced draft fan furnace/boiler Wizard SPH man

Calculated* Output Capacity: 15.00 kW * Design Heat loss X 1.10 + 0.5 kW Steady State Efficiency:

90.00 %

Fan Mode: Low Speed Fan Power: High Speed Fan Power:

Auto 0 watts 291 watts

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM System Type: Manufacturer: Model: Capacity: Sensible Heat Ratio: Indoor Fan Flow Rate:

Conventional A/C Wizard A/C man Wizard A/C mod 7645 Watts 0.76 426.15 L/s

Ventilator Flow Rate:

0.00 L/s

Fraction of windows Openable Economizer control:

Rated COP

3.0

Fan Power (watts) Crankcase Heater Power (watts):

330.26 60.00

0.00 Indoor Fan Operation: Auto

N/A

Air Conditioner is integrated with the Heating System

DOMESTIC WATER HEATING SYSTEM Primary Water Heating Fuel: Water Heating Equipment:

Natural gas Conventional tank

Energy Factor:

0.55

Manufactuer: Model:

Wizard DHW man Wizard DHW mod

Tank Capacity =

151.40 Litres

Tank Loacation: Pilot Energy =

Basement 0.00 MJ/day

Tank Blanket Insulation

Flue Diameter 76.20 mm

ANNUAL SPACE HEATING SUMMARY

APPENDIX D

54

0.00 RSI

Design Heat Loss at -20.00 째C (23.88 Watts / m3): Gross Space Heat Loss:

13528.42 Watts 126462.70 MJ

Gross Space Heating Load: Usable Internal Gains: Usable Internal Gains Fraction: Usable Solar Gains:

124476.43 MJ 28335.92 MJ 22.41 % 20232.47 MJ


Hot 2000TM Analysis Usable Solar Gains Fraction: Auxilary Energy Required:

16.00 % 75908.03 MJ

Space Heating System Load: Furnace/Boiler Seasonal efficiency: Furnace/Boiler Annual Energy Consumption:

75907.98 MJ 90.17 % 82737.11 MJ

ANNUAL SPACE COOLING SUMMARY Design Cooling Load for July at 31.00 째C: Design Sensible Heat Ratio: Estimated Annual Space Cooling Energy: Seasonal COP ( June to August):

8165.24 Watts 0.77 1574.13 2.56

ANNUAL DOMESTIC WATER HEATING SUMMARY Daily Hot Water Consumption: Hot Water Temperature: Estimated Domestic Water Heating Load:

225.00 Litres 55.00 째C 15340.72 MJ

Primary Domestic Water Heating Energy Consumption: Primary System Seasonal Efficiency:

27580.68 MJ 55.62%

BASE LOADS SUMMARY Interior Lighting Appliances Other Exterior Use

kwh/day 3.40 9.00 7.60 4.00

Annual kWh 1241.00 3285.00 2774.00 1460.00

HVAC Fans HRV/Exhaust Space Heating Space Cooling

3.00 1.10 0.52

1095.00 401.27 188.02

Total Average Electrical Load

28.61

10444.30

Hours

HRV/Exhaust Fans

Space Heating

Space Cooling

Heating Neither Cooling

960.61 0.00 134.39

401.27 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 188.02

Total

1095.00

401.27

188.02

APPENDIX D

FAN OPERATION SUMMARY (kWh)

55


Hot 2000TM Analysis ENERGY CONSUMPTION SUMMARY REPORT

Estimated Annual Space Heating Energy Consumption Ventilator Electrical Consumption: Heating Hours Estimated Annual DHW Heating Energy Consumption

= 84181.70 MJ = 3458.19 MJ = 27580.68 MJ

= 23383.81 kWh = 960.61 kWh = 7661.30 kWh

ESTIMATED ANNUAL SPACE + DHW ENERGY CONSUMPTION

= 115220.56 MJ

= 32005.71 kWh

Estimated Greenhouse Gas Emissions

11.89 tonnes/year

ESTIMATED ANNUAL FUEL CONSUMPTION SUMMARY Space Heating

Fuel

Space Cooling

DHW Heating

Appliance

Total

Natural Gas (m3)

2220.59

0.00

740.24

0.00

2960.83

Electricity (kWh)

1361.88

1574.13

0.00

8760.00

11696.01

ESTIMATED ANNUAL FUEL CONSUMPTION COSTS Fuel Costs Library = Embedded

APPENDIX D

56

RATE

Electricity (Ottawa97)

Natural Gas (Ottawa97)

Oil (Ottawa97)

Propane (Ottawa97)

Wood (Sth Ont)

Total

$

1030.16

739.87

0.00

0.00

0.00

1770.03


Hot 2000TM Analysis MONTHLY ENERGY PROFILE Month

Energy Load (MJ)

Internal Gains (MJ)

Solar Gains (MJ)

Aux. Energy (MJ)

HRV Eff. %

Jan

22112.486

2873.512

2313.521

16925.453

0.000

Feb

19118.117

2595.260

2730.488

13792.369

0.000

Mar

17025.535

2886.218

3338.601

10800.716

0.000

Apr

11142.221

2811.868

2709.118

5621.235

0.000

May

6161.432

2923.918

1971.486

1266.028

0.000

Jun

2594.188

2291.785

292.643

9.759

0.000

Jul

28.401

28.401

0.000

0.000

0.000

Aug

487.799

486.406

1.359

0.033

0.000

Sep

4073.263

2791.552

1079.203

202.508

0.000

Oct

9086.356

2938.613

2266.128

3881.616

0.000

Nov

13533.651

2819.219

1667.775

9046.657

0.000

Dec

19112.978

2889.168

1862.150

14361.659

0.000

Ann

124476.422

28335.918

20232.473

75908.031

0.000

FOUNDATION ENERGY PROFILE

Month

Heat Loss (MJ) Basement

Crawl Space

Slab

Walkout

Total

Jan

0.000

0.000

1965.058

0.000

1965.058

Feb

0.000

0.000

1601.025

0.000

1601.025

Mar

0.000

0.000

1253.710

0.000

1253.710

Apr

0.000

0.000

652.478

0.000

652.478

May

0.000

0.000

146.927

0.000

146.927

Jun

0.000

0.000

1.130

0.000

1.130

Jul

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Aug

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Sep

0.000

0.000

23.489

0.000

23.489

Oct

0.000

0.000

450.537

0.000

450.537

Nov

0.000

0.000

1050.118

0.000

1050.118

Dec

0.000

0.000

1667.100

0.000

1667.100

Ann

0.000

0.000

8811.573

0.000

8811.573

FOUNDATION TEMPERATURES & VENTILATION PROFILE Temperature (Deg 째C) Crawl Space Basement Walkout

Air Change Rate Natural Total

Heat Loss (MJ

Jan

0.000

20.058

0.000

0.247

0.572

7608.594

Feb

0.000

19.665

0.000

0.237

0.562

6512.010

Mar

0.000

19.376

0.000

0.212

0.538

5623.120

Apr

0.000

19.454

0.000

0.175

0.500

3463.134

May

0.000

20.008

0.000

0.121

0.447

1736.261

Jun

0.000

21.321

0.000

0.087

0.413

601.523

Jul

0.000

22.669

0.000

0.070

0.396

98.683

APPENDIX D

Month

57


Hot 2000TM Analysis Aug

0.000

22.543

0.000

0.067

0.393

255.277

Sep

0.000

21.391

0.000

0.097

0.422

1090.560

Oct

0.000

20.767

0.000

0.142

0.467

2716.968

Nov

0.000

20.601

0.000

0.185

0.511

4258.463

Dec

0.000

20.358

0.000

0.221

0.546

6354.763

Ann

0.000

20.693

0.000

0.155

0.480

40319.359

SPACE HEATING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Month

Space Heating Load (MJ)

Furnace Input (MJ)

Pilot Light (MJ)

Indoor Fans (MJ)

Heat Pump Total Input Input (MJ) (MJ)

System Cop

Jan

16925.452

18448.163

0.000

322.105

0.000

18770.268

0.902

Feb

13792.370

15033.215

0.000

262.480

0.000

15295.695

0.902

Mar

10800.717

11772.413

0.000

205.546

0.000

11977.959

0.902

Apr

5621.235

6126.955

0.000

106.977

0.000

6233.931

0.902

May

1266.028

1379.927

0.000

24.094

0.000

1404.021

0.902

Jun

9.748

10.625

0.000

0.186

0.000

10.810

0.902

Jul

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Aug

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Sep

202.508

220.727

0.000

3.854

0.000

224.580

0.902

Oct

3881.616

4230.829

0.000

73.870

0.000

4304.699

0.902

Nov

9046.658

9860.547

0.000

172.165

0.000

10032.713

0.902

Dec

14361.656

15653.714

0.000

273.314

0.000

15927.027

0.902

Ann

75907.992

82737.109

0.000

1444.590

0.000

84181.703

0.902

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Month

APPENDIX D

58

Sensible

Latent

AirCond

Fan

Ventilator

Total

COP

Av.RH

Jan

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Feb

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Mar

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Apr

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

May

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Jun

2797.4

435.2

300.9

167.6

0.0

360.3

2.5

40.7

Jul

4543.2

958.1

509.0

278.6

0.0

590.6

2.6

43.6

Aug

3667.4

857.2

418.9

230.7

0.0

488.8

2.6

44.5 0.0

Sep

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Oct

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Nov

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Dec

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Ann

11008.0

2250.5

1228.8

676.9

0.0

1439.7

2.6

43.1

MONTHLY ESTIMATED ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY DEVICE (MJ)


Hot 2000TM Analysis Month

Space Heating Primary Secondary

DHW Heating Primary Secondary

Lights & Appliances

HRV & FANS

Air Conditioner

Jan

18448.2

0.0

2549.9

0.0

2678.4

656.9

0.0

Feb

15033.2

0.0

2339.2

0.0

2419.2

564.9

0.0

Mar

11772.4

0.0

2565.8

0.0

2678.4

540.3

0.0

Apr

6127.0

0.0

2400.2

0.0

2592.0

431.0

0.0

May

1379.9

0.0

2353.2

0.0

2678.4

358.9

0.0

Jun

10.6

0.0

2137.5

0.0

2592.0

491.7

1129.5

Jul

0.0

0.0

2132.5

0.0

2678.4

613.4

1847.7

Aug

0.0

0.0

2101.9

0.0

2678.4

565.5

1529.0

Sep

220.7

0.0

2055.0

0.0

2592.0

327.9

0.0

Oct

4230.8

0.0

2221.6

0.0

2678.4

408.7

0.0

Nov

9860.5

0.0

2264.3

0.0

2592.0

496.2

0.0

Dec

15653.7

0.0

2459.7

0.0

2678.4

608.1

0.0

Ann

82737.1

0.0

27580.7

0.0

31536.0

6063.5

4506.2

ESTIMATED FUEL COSTS (Dollars) Electricity

Natural Gas

Oil

Propane

Wood

Total

Jan

Month

82.46

129.44

0.00

0.00

0.00

211.90

Feb

75.61

108.68

0.00

0.00

0.00

184.30

Mar

80.19

91.31

0.00

0.00

0.00

171.50

Apr

76.37

58.05

0.00

0.00

0.00

134.42

May

76.65

30.34

0.00

0.00

0.00

106.99

Jun

99.58

20.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

120.56

Jul

117.65

20.89

0.00

0.00

0.00

138.53

Aug

110.50

20.71

0.00

0.00

0.00

131.20

Sep

74.36

21.74

0.00

0.00

0.00

96.10

Oct

77.62

46.17

0.00

0.00

0.00

123.79

Nov

77.64

78.64

0.00

0.00

0.00

156.29

Dec

81.51

112.93

0.00

0.00

0.00

194.44

Ann

1030.16

739.87

0.00

0.00

0.00

1770.03

APPENDIX D

The calculated heat losses and energy consumptions are only estimates, based upon the data entered and assumptions within the program. Actual energy consumption and heat losses will be influenced by construction practices, localized weather, equipment characteristics and the lifestyle of the occupants.

59


Daily Data Report Daily Data Report for December 2008

D a y 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Max Min Mean Heat Cool Total Total Total Snow Dir Temp Temp Temp Deg Deg Rain Snow Precip on of °C °C °C mm Grnd Max Days Days mm cm °C °C cm Gust 10's Deg 3.4 -0.9 1.3 16.7 0.0 3.2 0.4 3.6 0 21 0.6 -1.6 -0.5 18.5 0.0 0.0 T T T 26 6.4 -1.0 2.7 15.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4 0 20 4.8 -4.3 0.3 17.7 0.0 1.0 T 1.0 0 27 -2.2 -8.0 -5.1 23.1 0.0 0.0 T T 0 26 -1.7 -6.6 -4.2 22.2 0.0 0.0 2.2 1.8 T 19 -2.1 -12.7 -7.4 25.4 0.0 0.0 T T 2 30 -2.6 -11.2 -6.9 24.9 0.0 0.0 3.4 1.4 2 3.7 -3.4 0.2 17.8 0.0 6.4 6.0 12.4 6 2.6 -9.6 -3.5 21.5 0.0 3.6 0.4 4.2 1 34 -1.8 -10.1 -6.0 24.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 -1.4 -11.9 -6.7 24.7 0.0 0.0 T T 1 29 1.1 -12.9 -5.9 23.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 1 20 5.1 0.6 2.9 15.1 0.0 1.0 T 1.0 1 22 10.6 -7.3 1.7 16.3 0.0 3.8 T 3.8 0 24 -3.3 -7.6 -5.5 23.5 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.0 T -0.1 -5.8 -3.0 21.0 0.0 0.0 5.4 4.6 8 28 -2.2 -8.4 -5.3 23.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7 26 -4.2 -14.5 -9.4 27.4 0.0 0.0 16.0 15.2 7 3 -10.4 -17.7 -14.1 32.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.2 22 7 -3.6 -13.7 -8.7 26.7 0.0 0.0 5.4 5.4 24 25 -7.1 -13.5 -10.3 28.3 0.0 0.0 T T 24 30 -1.4 -11.7 -6.6 24.6 0.0 0.0 11.0 11.6 23 18 6.1 -1.5 2.3 15.7 0.0 10.8 1.8 12.6 36 27 1.2 -4.6 -1.7 19.7 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 31 28 2.5 -4.9 -1.2 19.2 0.0 T 2.2 1.8 30 14.2 1.4 7.8 10.2 0.0 9.0 0.0 9.0 22 20 15.9 0.1 8.0 10.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.8 2 25 5.1 -2.2 1.5 16.5 0.0 T T T T 30 -0.5 -5.9 -3.2 21.2 0.0 0.0 3.8 3.4 T 29 -5.8 -14.3 -10.1 28.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.2 5 31

654.6

Sum Avg Xtrm

APPENDIX E

60

1.1 -7.3 -3.1 15.9 -17.7

0.0 40.0 64.8

Spd of Max Gust km/h 46 44 44 56 52 37 63 <31 <31 44 <31 41 39 37 74 <31 39 33 57 32 69 59 35 93 74 <31 39 93 85 72 57

99.8 27S

93S

http://www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climateData/dailydata_e.htm


Daily Data Report Daily Data Report for January 2009

y 01† 02† 03† 04† 05† 06† 07† 08† 09† 10† 11† 12† 13† 14† 15† 16† 17† 18† 19† 20† 21† 22† 23† 24† 25† 26† 27† 28† 29† 30† 31†

830.2

Sum Avg Xtrm

-4.5 -13 -8.75 3.6 -22.1

0.0

1.0 45.2

Spd of Max Gust km/h <31 48 35 <31 44 33 46 48 <31 39 33 35 65 <31 33 50 37 33 <31 44 41 <31 63 46 37 33 33 35 35 48 37

44.8 31

65

http://www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climateData/dailydata_e.htm

APPENDIX E

D a

Max Min Mean Heat Cool Total Total Total Snow Dir Temp Temp Temp Deg Deg Rain Snow Precip on of °C °C °C mm Grnd Max Days Days mm cm °C °C cm Gust 10's Deg -3.8 -15.6 -9.7 27.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 0.7 -4.7 -2.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.6 2 28 -1.9 -11.8 -6.9 24.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 28 -0.7 -12.2 -6.5 24.5 0.0 T 0.0 T 2 0.6 -7.7 -3.6 21.6 0.0 T 0.0 T 1 27 -0.6 -10.0 -5.3 23.3 0.0 0.0 3.6 3.4 1 11 0.7 -2.8 -1.1 19.1 0.0 1.0 7.0 10.0 5 25 -2.8 -12.0 -7.4 25.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 11 30 -6.0 -12.2 -9.1 27.1 0.0 0.0 T T 11 -6.8 -14.9 -10.9 28.9 0.0 0.0 3.8 3.4 11 1 -6.3 -12.8 -9.6 27.6 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.2 14 36 -3.5 -10.6 -7.1 25.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14 27 1.1 -16.9 -7.9 25.9 0.0 0.0 4.0 4.6 15 31 -13.1 -22.1 -17.6 35.6 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 18 -10.8 -19.3 -15.1 33.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.6 18 26 -12.7 -18.0 -15.4 33.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 18 26 -6.9 -20.0 -13.5 31.5 0.0 0.0 4.8 4.0 18 14 -3.0 -8.6 -5.8 23.8 0.0 0.0 3.8 2.8 21 14 -5.6 -11.6 -8.6 26.6 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 24 -10.2 -17.5 -13.9 31.9 0.0 0.0 T T 24 36 -5.5 -19.0 -12.3 30.3 0.0 0.0 T T 24 27 -1.9 -6.0 -4.0 22.0 0.0 0.0 T T 24 3.6 -6.8 -1.6 19.6 0.0 0.0 T T 24 30 -6.7 -19.2 -13.0 31.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21 31 -8.9 -15.6 -12.3 30.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21 25 -8.8 -16.9 -12.9 30.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21 26 -4.0 -13.8 -8.9 26.9 0.0 0.0 T T 21 11 -3.4 -8.2 -5.8 23.8 0.0 0.0 13.4 12.6 23 27 -3.1 -10.2 -6.7 24.7 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 32 22 -3.2 -10.8 -7.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 T T 32 27 -4.7 -16.7 -10.7 28.7 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 32 23

61


Daily Data Report Daily Data Report for February 2009 D a y 01† 02† 03† 04† 05† 06† 07† 08† 09† 10† 11† 12† 13† 14† 15† 16† 17† 18† 19† 20† 21† 22† 23† 24† 25† 26† 27† 28†

Max Min Mean Heat Cool Total Total Total Snow Dir Temp Temp Temp Deg Deg Rain Snow Precip on of °C °C °C mm Grnd Max Days Days mm cm °C °C cm Gust 10's Deg 4.4 -4.8 -0.2 18.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 32 26 2.0 -7.9 -3.0 21.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 28 -3.8 -10.5 -7.2 25.2 0.0 0.0 7.4 6.2 27 8 -10.2 -18.0 -14.1 32.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.0 35 35 -9.0 -22.2 -15.6 33.6 0.0 0.0 T T 35 -2.0 -11.8 -6.9 24.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 35 7.9 -8.3 -0.2 18.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 32 24 4.0 -4.8 -0.4 18.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9 30 3.2 -6.2 -1.5 19.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 9.3 -0.1 4.6 13.4 0.0 T 0.0 T 3 22 8.9 6.5 7.7 10.3 0.0 25.8 0.0 25.8 1 7.8 -2.1 2.9 15.1 0.0 11.8 T 11.8 T 29 -0.9 -7.4 -4.2 22.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 35 -1.8 -8.2 -5.0 23.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 1.3 -8.9 -3.8 21.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.7 -7.5 -3.4 21.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 2.2 -6.8 -2.3 20.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 22 1.0 -0.8 0.1 17.9 0.0 0.0 9.0 12.4 T 1.3 -7.9 -3.3 21.3 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 3 27 -2.6 -8.8 -5.7 23.7 0.0 0.0 T T 3 29 -0.5 -11.2 -5.9 23.9 0.0 0.0 4.6 3.6 2 12 -2.0 -8.3 -5.2 23.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 T 5 25 -6.0 -11.4 -8.7 26.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4 34 -3.2 -15.1 -9.2 27.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4 2.8 -6.9 -2.1 20.1 0.0 0.8 2.2 2.8 3 6.5 -0.5 3.0 15.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 3.8 1 9.4 -12.0 -1.3 19.3 0.0 5.8 T 5.8 T 35 -6.5 -16.4 -11.5 29.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 36

606.4

Sum Avg Xtrm

APPENDIX E

62

0.9 -8.2 -3.64 9.4 -22.2

0.0 48.0 25.6

Spd of Max Gust km/h 52 <31 37 35 <31 <31 70 57 <31 35 <31 85 32 <31 <31 <31 32 <31 59 70 37 54 59 <31 <31 <31 59 35

73.6 29

85

http://www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climateData/dailydata_e.h


References ASHARE. (2001). ASHARE Handbook. ASHARE. (2001). ASHARE HANDBOOK. W. Stephen Comstock. Canada, E. (2008, 10 09). Daily Observation Data. Retrieved March 13, 2009, from National Climate Data and Information Archive: http://www.climate.weatheroffice. ec.gc.ca/climateData Hutcheon, N. B. (1995). Building Science for aCold Climate. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada. Minnesota, U. o. (1998-2008). The Efficient Windows Collaborative. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from Efficient Windows: http://www.efficientwindows.org/city_all. cfm?new=E&prodtype=WN&id=48 Smith, D. L. (n.d.). International Window Film Association. Retrieved March 12, 2009, from International Window Film Association: http://www.iwfa.com/iwfa/consumer_ info/qa.html

REFERENCES

Wells., B. A. (July 1996). Passive Solar Energy -- The Homeowner’s Guide to Natural Heating and Cooling”. Brickhouse Pub. Co.; 2nd edition.

63

Fabric Sunscreen Vs Tinted Glass  

Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass Analysis of which works best during the Winter Season

Fabric Sunscreen Vs Tinted Glass  

Fabric Sunscreens vs. Tinted Glass Analysis of which works best during the Winter Season

Advertisement