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An Introduction

George Max ISH TZ’IƁANKIL RU K’EQCHÎ


2 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max

ISH TZ’IƁANKIL RU K’EQCHÎ – URL: http://www.keqchi.org/ EMAIL: info@keqchi.org


K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 3 George Max

K’EQCHÎ GRAMMAR An Introduction

Ish Tz’iɓankil ru K’eqchî

George Max

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4 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max Book design: George Max Cover design: George Max K’eqchî title: Ish Tz’iɓankil ru K’eqchî English title: K‘EQCHÎ GRAMMAR – An Introduction

COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY GEORGE MAX. GUATEMALA, MIDDLE AMERICA

 

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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the author. NO PRINTED VERSION YET. INHOUSE PRODUCTIONS, 2014 | GUATEMALA, MIDDLE AMERICA

WARNING: This grammar book is provided as is for free use but with the caveat that it is only an introductory book since the grammar of KC is still in the process of compilation, research and development for use in written form. Thus any documentation presented at KEQCHI.ORG or other places on the Web (e.g., box.com, issuu.com) is regularly updated without prior notice. Nonetheless, it is within the author’s best of knowledge and belief as a K’eqchî speaker that the data contained here is true and legitimate.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 5 George Max

CONTENTS CONTENTS ....................................................................................................................................................5 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................................7 PREFACE.........................................................................................................................................................8 SUBJECT PRONOUNS .................................................................................................................................9 VERBS .............................................................................................................................................................9 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE......................................................................................................................9 ACTIVE AND ANTIPASSIVE .............................................................................................................................9 Active Verb Form ...............................................................................................................................10 Antipassive Verb Forms ....................................................................................................................10 TENSES .........................................................................................................................................................10 TENSE MARKERS .........................................................................................................................................10 PRESENT TENSE ..........................................................................................................................................11 PAST TENSE ................................................................................................................................................12 PRETERITE ...................................................................................................................................................12 FUTURE TENSE ............................................................................................................................................13 CONTINUOUS AND PROGRESSIVE .......................................................................................................14 PSEUDO-PERFECT ......................................................................................................................................15 PASSIVE VOICE ...........................................................................................................................................16 MODALS ......................................................................................................................................................17 IMPERATIVE MOOD ...................................................................................................................................18 PRONOUNS ................................................................................................................................................18 SUBJECT .....................................................................................................................................................19 OBJECT ......................................................................................................................................................19 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (WITH A NOUN)....................................................................................................19 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (WITHOUT A NOUN) ............................................................................................19 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS................................................................................................................................20 NOUNS ........................................................................................................................................................20 PLURAL NOUNS ..........................................................................................................................................20 COUNT AND NON COUNT NOUNS ..........................................................................................................20 NOUN SUBSTITUTES ...................................................................................................................................21 ARTICLES ......................................................................................................................................................21 ADJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................................22 COMPARISONS ...........................................................................................................................................22 SUPERLATIVES .............................................................................................................................................23 ANY/SOME ................................................................................................................................................23 SUPPORT THE AUTHOR – URL: http://www.deensp.com/ EMAIL: info@deensp.com


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MANY/A LOT OF ....................................................................................................................................... 23 A LITTLE/A FEW ......................................................................................................................................... 23 PREPOSITIONS ........................................................................................................................................... 23 ADVERBS ..................................................................................................................................................... 24 ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY .......................................................................................................................... 24 VERY/TOO................................................................................................................................................. 24 ALREADY/YET/NOT YET ............................................................................................................................. 25 SINCE/FOR................................................................................................................................................ 25 DEMONSTRATIVES .................................................................................................................................... 25 BE, HAVE, THERE IS/THERE ARE ............................................................................................................. 26 USEFUL TIME EXPRESSIONS.................................................................................................................... 27 QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 27 YES/NO QUESTIONS ................................................................................................................................ 27 INFORMATION QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 28 TAG QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 28 NON-VERB QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................ 29 SPELLING .................................................................................................................................................... 29 ACTIVE AND ANTIPASSIVE VERB FORMS ..................................................................................................... 29 Active Verb Form .............................................................................................................................. 29 Antipassive Verb Form ..................................................................................................................... 30 PRESENT PARTICIPLE ................................................................................................................................... 30 PAST PARTICIPLE ........................................................................................................................................ 30 Present, Past and Preterite .............................................................................................................. 31 Future.................................................................................................................................................. 31 Continuous ........................................................................................................................................ 31 IMPERATIVE ................................................................................................................................................ 32 CAPITAL LETTERS ....................................................................................................................................... 32 TITLES ........................................................................................................................................................ 32 COMBINING SENTENCES ....................................................................................................................... 32 WRITING GOOD SENTENCES ................................................................................................................ 34 WRITING GOOD COMPOSITIONS ....................................................................................................... 35 ESTEBAN AJ TZOLONEL .............................................................................................................................. 35 APPENDIX 1 ................................................................................................................................................ 36 K’EQCHÎ TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS............................................................................... 36 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TRANSITIVE VERBS ................................................................................................... 36 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF INTRANSITIVE VERBS ................................................................................................ 42

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 7 George Max

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADJ ADV AFF AUX COMP CONT DO FUT IMP KC MOD NEG OBJ OPT

= adjective = adverb = affirmative = auxiliary word = complement = continuous aspect = direct object = future tense = Imperative Mood = K’eqchî = modal = negative word = Object = optional

PA PART PPERF PP PRES or PRS PRET PROG PAST or PST QA QI QW SPK TAM

= Possessive Adjective = Participle = Pseudo-Perfect = Possessive Pronoun = Present Tense = Preterite = progressive aspect = Past Tense = question auxiliary word = question interrogative word = auxiliary / interrogative word = spoken = Tense, Aspect, Modal

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PREFACE

K

‘EQCHÎ GRAMMAR – An Introduction aims to put together a simple yet concise and precise grammar for the K’eqchî Mayan Language of Guatemala (hereinafter KC.) It formally introduces the grammatical rules of a language that had remained only spoken for a yet undetermined period of time. Hence, the main emphasis of this book is on writing correct KC phrases and sentences. Firstly, it begins with a brief presentation of subject pronouns and an introduction to the main verb forms. This is followed by sections presenting the main tenses and other that characterize this natural language. Then, a good portion of the book covers the organization of the parts of speech inherent to KC. Lastly, sections on building questions, spelling, and combining and writing sentences can be found at the end. Overview of KC’s grammar: 

   

The main grammatical tenses are the Present, Past, Preterite and Future. These are followed by the Continuous and Progressive aspects and then the Pseudo-Perfect, Modals and Imperatives. The Passive Voice constitutes the third grammatical construction in KC after the active and antipassive voices. The main parts of speech include Pronouns, Nouns, Articles, Prepositions, and Adjectives. Two main types of questions are defined in KC: Yes/No and Information questions. The main rules to derive the different verb forms used in the three grammatical constructions of KC; namely, the active, passive and antipassive voices, are defined under Spelling. Combining Sentences and Writing Good Sentences provide guidelines to build phrases and sentences following the proper KC syntax.

The organization of this grammar guide allows an overall study of the structure of the K’eqchî Mayan Language. Only basic information is provided in each section in order to keep the introductory character of this book. Nevertheless, there are conjugation sets, classification tables, sentence structures and plenty of examples that successively illustrate different aspects of the language as much as possible. The definition of the spelling framework and the provision of methods on combining sentences are also important parts in the constitution of this grammar book. Lastly, an Appendix contains a selected list of transitive and intransitive verbs along with other derived verb forms as a reference for the study of KC grammar.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 9 George Max

SUBJECT PRONOUNS A subject pronoun in KC is used as the subject of a verb. Both singular and plural subject pronouns are presented in the table below. Refer also to PRONOUNS for a complete classification of KC pronouns. K’EQCHÎ SUBJECT PRONOUNS SINGULAR

Lain

I

laat

you

Aan

he/she

PLURAL

lao

we

laesh

you

aanheɓ

they

aan

it

REMARKS: The capitalization of the first and third singular persons Lain and Aan is here first introduced. For the former, to make it relevant within a sentence and for the latter to differentiate it from aan (it) which refers to inanimate objects, animals or things in general.

VERBS KC verbs exist in infinitive form proper of which only a few are irregular. All other verb forms are derived from the Infinitive including mainly those for the active, passive and antipassive voices. Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of Infinitive verbs.

Transitive and Intransitive W. Sedat (1955) first set apart these verb types in KC. However, not all verbs have yet been documented, let alone be distinguished into transitives and instransitives. Nevertheless, it appears that transitive verbs make up the majority of verbs in KC. Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of transitive and instransitive verbs.

Active and Antipassive These verb forms take part in the grammatical construction of the antipassive and active voices of KC. While the active verb form is a completely derived form, the antipassive verb form can be a derived form or the same form as the Infinitive. Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a list of these verb forms. The active and antipassive verb forms are integral parts in the construction of the active and antipassive voices in KC. However, they only work in conjunction with the tense marker sets (see TENSE MARKERS below) defined for them. These verb forms cannot be exchanged from one voice to another. REMARKS: Generally, infinitive verbs that end in k, preceeded by a vowel (e.g., ɓonok, cutuk), do not undergo any change and are used in their basic form for the antipassive voice and those that end in -nk, preceeded by a vowel (e.g., iqaank, tyaɓasīnk) are changed. For the active voice, the basic verb form is changed according to the spelling rules outlined in this book under SPELLING.

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Active Verb Form This is a derived verb for building the active voice in KC. According to the spelling rules devised here, most of these verbs have a double vowel end (long sound representation) that helps define and identify them for the active voice. Other verbs in particular may have a -v + ɓ ending (v = vowel, ɓ = b’). See the following 3rd and 4th examples.    

Aanheɓ enkesh mesuu li Nâjej. Ish Petra ish cuartesii lish C’uulal. Aj Alberto nash ch’utuɓ li Sî. Laat sha ach’aɓ li Ac’ach.

PRES PST PRES PST

They are sweeping the place. Petra put her baby to sleep. Alberto is gathering the wood. You set the turkey free.

Antipassive Verb Forms These verbs are comprised by a derived form and a base form. Most frequently, however, only the base form (Infinitive) is used in all tenses (except for in the future tense) in either spoken or written KC. This particularity can with certainty identify the antipassive voice in sentences such as the following.    

Li Cuiinq na jorrok Sî. Aanheɓ sheheɓ elk’aank re li Hal. Laat inkat lak’aɓānk reheb sâ Ch’aat. Li ishq ish puch’uk sâ li Nimhâ.

PRES PST PRES PST

The man chops wood. They are the ones that stole the corn. You are the one that puts them together in the bed. The woman washed (clothes) in the river.

The derived verb form for the antipassive voice is less known in either spoken or written KC and it is thus first formally introduced here. Mostly these verbs have a -v + n ending (v = vowel).   

Aanheɓ enkheɓ c’atyin Pish sâ C’atyil. Lao inko shaqaɓan Ochoch re li Neɓâ. Lain in ɓatz’un ric’in lin Cuitz’in.

They sell tomatoes in the market. We erect houses for the poor. I play with my little brother.

TENSES Tense Markers A tense marker in KC is an auxiliary word that indicates tense and person for any conjugated verb. Importantly, a tense marker is unique for each person and tense set. Syntactically, all tense markers go before the verb in any tense. Furthermore, tense markers are divided into active and antipassive as presented in the following tables. CLASIFICATION OF ACTIVE TENSE MARKERS PRESENT

PAST

PRETERIT

FUTURE

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Lain in

lao inqa

Lain shin

lao ishqa

Lain kin

lao kiqa

Lain tin

lao taqa

laat inka

laesh enke

laat sha

laesh she

laat ka

laesh ke

laat ta

laesh te

Aan nash

aanheɓ enkesh

Aan ish

aanheɓ shesh

Aan kish

aanheɓ kesh

Aan tish

aanheɓ tesh

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 11 George Max CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIPASSIVE TENSE MARKERS PRESENT

PAST

PRETERIT

FUTURE

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Lain in

lao inko

Lain shin

lao sho

Lain kin

lao ko

Lain tin

lao to

laat inkat

laesh enkesh

laat shat

laesh shesh

laat kat

laesh kesh

laat tat

laesh tesh

Aan na

aanheɓ enkheɓ

Aan ish

aanheɓ sheheɓ

Aan ki

aanheɓ keheb

Aan ta

aanheɓ teheɓ

Note that the tense marker of the first person singular is the same for both voices in all tenses. The one for the third person singular is also the same but only in the past tense. NOTE: Tense markers of the future tense set behave much more like the auxiliary verb will in English. Those of the present, past and preterit, however, have other connotations to be explained and categorized under this grammar introduction.

Present Tense The present tense in KC describes habitual or repeated actions. We can also use it to give general information. A sentence in the present tense can use an active or antipassive verb form. Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of ready-to-use verb forms. Study the following conjugation set. Verb: jalok – to change; Conjugated verb form: infinitive  antipassive SINGULAR PLURAL

Lain in jalok

laat inkat jalok

Aan na jalok

aan na jalok

I change

you change

he/she changes

it changes

lao inko jalok

laesh enkesh jalok

aanheɓ enkheɓ jalok

we change

you change

they change

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT    

Lain in atinak K’eqchî. Aan na ɓatz’un Ɓolotz-oq sâ Ɓee. Li Tz’î na kwoɓak Chik’eq. Aj Diego na tzolok chi tz’iɓak.

I can speak K’eqchî. He/she plays soccer on the street. The dog barks at night. Diego learns how to write.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting inc’â (literally not) before the verb in a sentence.  

Laat inc’â inka naw ilok ru Hu. Aj Manuel inc’â na wulak chi C’anjelak.

You don’t know how to read. Manuel does not go to work.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the present tense, we use the auxiliary particle ma at the beginning of the sentence (similar to using do in English). Other questions asking for information use interrogative words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS). Aj Felipe na shik chi tzolok Chik’eq.

Felipe goes to study at night.

 

Does Felipe go to study at night? Yes. Who goes to study at night? Felipe.

Ma na shik chi tzolok Chik’eq aj Felipe? Ehê. Ani na shik chi tzolok Chik’eq? Aj Felipe.

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Ɓar na shik chi tzolok Chik’eq aj Felipe?

Where does Felipe go to study at night?

Past Tense The past tense in KC describes a completed action. A sentence in the past tense can use an active or an antipassive verb form. Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of ready-to-use verb forms. Study the following conjugation set. Verb: ɓonok – to paint; Conjugated verb form: infinitive  antipassive SINGULAR PLURAL

Lain shin ɓonok

laat shat ɓonok

Aan ish ɓonok

aan ish ɓonok

I painted

you painted

he/she painted

it painted

lao sho ɓonok

laesh shesh ɓonok

aanheɓ sheheɓ ɓonok

we painted

you painted

they painted

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT    

Lain shin wulak chi ɓeek ecuer. Aanheɓ sheheɓ shajok ecuer Chik’eq. Laesh she ɓon li Ochoch. Ish Carmela ish lok’ jun ish Ac’ach.

I went out/for a walk yesterday. They danced last night. You painted the house. [PL] Carmela bought a turkey [for herself].

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting inc’â (literally not) before the conjugated verb in a sentence.  

Ish Angelia inc’â ish c’ul lish Tojbal. Lao inc’â sho wulak sâ Tzoleɓāl ecuer.

Angelia did not receive her payment. We did not go to school yesterday.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the past tense, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning of the sentence (similar to using did in English). Other questions asking for information use interrogative words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS). Aan ish wulak chi ɓeek ecuer.

He/she went for a walk yesterday.

  

Did he go for a walk yesterday? Yes. Who went for a walk yesterday? He did. When did he go for a walk? Yesterday.

Ma ish wulak chi ɓeek ecuer [Aan]? Ehê. Anii ish wulak chi ɓeek ecuer? Aan. Jok‘ee ish wulak chi ɓeek [Aan]? Ecuer .

Preterite The preterite in KC can indicate and express actions and events that took place or were completed in the past. Thus, it is mostly used for story telling (narrative). It can also be used to tell the probability of an action and event that must, should, would or could have happened in the past but it didn’t. We do this with the inclusion of the particle raj. Verb: awok – to sow; Conjugated verb form: infinitive  antipassive SINGULAR

Lain kin awok

laat kat awok

Aan ki awok

aan ki awok

I sowed

you sowed

he/she sowed

it sowed

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 13 George Max PLURAL

lao ko awok

laesh kesh awok

aanheɓ keheɓ awok

we sowed

you sowed

they sowed

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + [RAJ] + COMPLEMENT    

Lain kin c’ul in Ɓan re li Rashkehoɓ. Aanheɓ keheɓ shucuak ɓan li Caaq. Arran ki cuan jun nim Ochoch. Ish Elena kish tzol kemok sâ Tzoleɓāl.

I received a vaccine against malaria. They were frightened by the lightning. There used to be a large house there. Elena learned how to weave at school.

We can express probability, possibility and advice in the past by the use of the particle raj in the Preterite.  

Li Tz’î ki cam raj ɓan Tyajel. PROBABILITY Laat kat ok raj sâ Tzoleɓāl. ADVICE

The dog could have died of a disease. You should have entered school.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + [RAJ] + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting inc’â (literally not) before the conjugated verb in a sentence.  

Ish Paulina inc’â kish tzol ilok ru Hu. Lao inc’â ko elelik ɓan li Rahshiic’.

Paulina did not learn how to read. We did not flee by the violence.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the Preterite, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning of the sentence (similar to using did in English). Other questions asking for information use interrogative words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS). Li cheekel Ishq ki cam.

The old woman died.

  

Did the old woman die? Yes. Where did the old woman die? When did the old woman die?

Ma ki cam li cheekel Ishq? Ehê. Ɓar ki cam li cheekel Ishq? Jok’ee ki cam li cheekel Ishq?

Future Tense The future tense in KC describes an action yet to come, expected. As noted earlier, auxiliary words for this tense behave very much like the auxiliary verb will in English. A sentence in the future tense can use an active or an antipassive verb form. Refer to APPENDIX 1 for a selected list of ready-to-use verb forms. Study the following conjugation set. Verb: atinak – to talk, speak; Conjugated verb form: inflected SINGULAR PLURAL

Lain tin atinaq

laat tat atinaq

Aan ta atinaq

aan ta atinaq

I will talk

you will talk

he/she will talk

it will talk

lao to atinaq

laesh tesh atinaq

aanheɓ teheɓ atinaq

we will talk

you will talk

they will talk

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT  

Lao to shik sâ C’atyil. Ish Josefina tish tyiiɓ li Cuaa.

We will go to the market. Josefina will make the tortillas.

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14 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max  

Aj Juan ta c’atyiinq Keenk’. Aanheɓ teheɓ ɓatzuunq sâ cuiɓ Cutan.

Juan will sell beans. They will play in two days. [SPORT]

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting inc’â (literally not) before the verb in a sentence.  

Laesh inc’â tesh shik sâ C’atyil. Ish Marta inc’â tish lok’ li Cashlan.

You will not go to the market. Marta will not buy the chicken.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the future tense, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning of the sentence (similar to using will in English). Other questions asking for information use interrogative words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS). Laat tat pisc’oq sâ ishɓen li Pim.

You will jump over the bush.

  

Will you jump over the bush? Who will jump over the bush? He will. Where will he/she jump? Over the bush.

Ma tat pisc’oq sâ ishɓen li Pim? Anii ta pisc’oq sâ ishɓen li Pim? Aan. Ɓar ta pisc’oq Aan? Sâ ishɓen li Pim.

CONTINUOUS AND PROGRESSIVE KC has both grammatical aspects, the continuous and the progressive. They are built by using an auxiliary word that implies "to be doing sth." Then we use chi/ish (continuous/progressive) to connect the verb. Study the following conjugation set. SINGULAR

Lain tyokin

laat tyokat

Aan tyoo

PLURAL

lao tyokoo

laesh tyokesh

aanheɓ tyokheɓ

aan tyoo

To create the past continuous/progressive, we insert the particle raj to indicate that the action was happening in the past as shown in the following conjugation set. Then chi/ish follows. SINGULAR

Lain tyokin raj

laat tyokat raj

Aan tyoo raj

PLURAL

lao tyokoo raj

laesh tyokesh raj

aanheɓ tyokheɓ raj

aan tyoo raj

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + [RAJ] + CHI/ISH + VERBINF/PART + COMPLEMENT  

Lain tyokin chi ilok ru Hu. o Lain tyokin raj chi ilok ru Hu. Aj Leo tyoo ish ɓonɓal li Ochoch. o Aj Leo tyoo raj ish ɓonɓal li Ochoch.

PRES CONT PAST CONT PRES PROG PAST PROG

I am reading. I was reading. Leo is painting the house. Leo was painting the house.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + [RAJ] + CHI/ISH + VERBINF/PART + COMPLEMENT

The negative in the continuous/progressive is formed by adding inc’â (literally not) before the auxiliary word.  

In Nâchin inc’â tyoo chi cuaark. Eɓ li Mess inc’â tyokheɓ ish jochɓal li Ch’aat.

PRES CONT PRES PROG

My grandmother is not sleeping. The cats are not scratching the bed.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 15 George Max Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AUX + [RAJ] + CHI/ISH + VERBINF/PART + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the continuous/progressive, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning of the sentence (similar to using be in English). Other questions asking for information use interrogative words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS). Laesh tyokesh chi tz’iɓak sâ Hu.

CONT

You are writing on paper.

  

CONT PROG CONT

Are you writing on paper? What are you writing on paper? Who are writing on paper?

Ma tyokesh chi tz’iɓak sâ Hu? C’arruu tyokesh ish tz’iɓankil sâ Hu? Anii tyokheɓ chi tz’ibak sâ Hu?

PSEUDO-PERFECT The here termed pseudo-perfect in KC uses the auxiliary particle ac before the verb in past tense, not past participle. In this respect, it differs syntactically from certain modern languages (e.g., German, English or Spanish) that use have to form the Perfect. Still, in KC it gives the same sense and direction and shows that an action or task has been completed for the moment. Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AC + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT Verb: cuâak – to eat; Conjugated verb form: infinitive  past SINGULAR PLURAL

   

Lain ac shin cuâak

laat ac shat cuâak

Aan ac ish cuâak

aan ac ish cuâak

I have eaten

you have eaten

he/she has eaten

it has eaten

lao ac sho cuâak

laesh ac shesh cuâak

aanheɓ ac sheheɓ cuâak

we have eaten

you have eaten

they have eaten

Aj Mario ac ish choy lish C’anjel chican. Lao ac sho c’alen junsut. Ish Lola ac ish lok’ cuiɓ ish Cashlan. Li Tz’î ac ish cuâak chican.

Mario has finished his job already. We have grazed once. Lola has bought two chicks. The dog has already eaten.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The negative is formed by putting majî (literally not yet) before the conjugated verb in a sentence.  

Ish Josefa ac ish tzol chi tz’iɓak. o Ish Josefa majî nash tzol chi tz’iɓak. Aanheɓ ac shesh tzol chi ajlaank. o Aanheɓ majî enkesh tzol chi ajlaank.

Josefa has learned how to write. Josefa has not yet learned how to write. They have learnd how to count. They haven’t learnd how to count.

IMPORTANT: the pseudo-perfect negative uses a verb in the present tense (underlined). Questions Sentence Structure: QW + AC + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?

To create a Yes/No question in the Pseudo-Perfect, we use the auxiliary ma at the beginning of the sentence. Other questions asking for information use interrogative words as shown in the following 3rd and 4th sentences (See also QUESTIONS). Lain ac shin oksii li Sî sâ Caɓ.

I have brought the wood inside.

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16 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max   

Ma ac sha oksii li Sî sâ Caɓ? Ehê. Anii ac ish oksii li Sî sâ Caɓ? Aan. C’aput ac shat oksii li Sî sâ Caɓ?

Have you brought the wood inside [the house]? Yes. Who has brought the wood inside? He has. Why have you brought the wood inside?

PASSIVE VOICE The passive voice in KC can be formed in every tense, aspect and modal as shown in the table below. Note that the column labeled as past participle shows two verb forms which should be derived from the base form. Refer to PAST PARTICIPLE to find out how to derive passive participles. CLASSIFICATION OF THE PASSIVE VOICE ACCORDING TO TAM* TENSE

BASE FORM

AUXILIAR

PAST PARTICIPLE

PRESENT

ɓasok

SIT

ɓasê / ɓasman

PAST

ɓasok

SIT

basê / ɓasman

FUTURE

ɓasok

SIT

ɓasek’ / ɓasmaanq

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

AUX + chi ɓasok

SIT

chi ɓasec’

PAST CONTINUOUS

AUX + raj chi ɓasok

SIT

raj chi ɓasec’

PSEUDO-PERFECT

ac + AUX + ɓasok

SIT

ɓasê / ɓasman

MODAL

narruu + AUX + ɓasok

SIT

ɓasê / ɓasman

*TAM – Tense, Aspect, Modal; SIT - Same as in Indicated Tense BUT only those defined for the antipassive voice. Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + AUX + VERBPST PART + COMPLEMENT TENSE

K’EQCHÎ – A: ACTIVE VOICE, P: PASSIVE VOICE

ENGLISH

PRESENT

A: Aanheɓ enkesh tyiiɓ Caɓ ric’in Utz’aal.

They make brown sugar with sugar cane.

P: Caɓ na tyiɓman ric’in Utz’aal. PRESENT CONT

PAST

Brown sugar is made with sugar cane.

Lao tyokoo chi chapok Car.

We are catching fish.

P: Car tyoo chi chapec’.

Fish is being caught.

A: Aj Luis ish c’am chaq li Ishim.

Luis brought the maize.

P: Li Ishim ish c’amê chaq ɓan aj Luis.

The maize was brought by Luis.

Lao tyokoo raj chi ɓisok Peens.

PAST CONT

We were weighing allspice.

P: Peens tyoo raj chi ɓisec’. PSEUDO-PERFECT

FUTURE

Allspice was being weighed.

Lao ac sho c’atok naɓal chi Pim.

We have burned a lot of weed.

P: Naɓal chi Pim ac ish c’atê.

A lot of weed has been burned.

A: Tesh tyiiɓ junaq chic Ɓee.

They will build another road.

P: Junaq chic Ɓee ta tyibaaq. MODAL

Another road will be built.

A: Laat narru inka tyiiɓ a Ochoch sâ Tenamit. P: Ochoch narru na tyiɓman sâ Tenamit.

You can build your house in the city. A house can be built in the city.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERBPST PART + COMPLEMENT  

Cooc’al inc’â enke c’ulman sâ Ch’utam. PRES Ishim inc’â tyo raj chi ɓisec’. PST CONT

Children are not allowed in the meeting. Maize was not being weighed.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + SUBJECT + AUX + VERBPST PART + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]? 

Jok’ee ish chapê li Cuiinq?

PST

When was the man caught?

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 17 George Max   

Ma Pish tyoo chi ɓisec’? Ɓar ta tyibaaq junaq chic Ɓee? C’arruu ac ish tzolê?

PRS CONT FUT PPERF

Are tomatoes being weighed? Where will another road be built? What has been learned?

MODALS In KC, we can create a modal expressing physical ability by the use of the verb ruuk (can, be able to). We also use narruu (may, could) and marree (perhaps, maybe) to express probability and possibility, respectively. In addition, the modifier raj is used to create the sense of to like to and would like to. Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + MOD + [AUX] + VERB + COMPLEMENT    

Laat narruu inkat chapok Carr arrin. PERMISSION WITH VERB IN PRESENT TENSE o You can [catch] fish here. Lain narruu tin shik chi ɓeek kwulaj Ek’laa. POSSIBILITY WITH VERB IN FUTURE TENSE o I might be able to go out tomorrow morning. Aan marree tish lok’ junaq ish cashlan sâ C’atyil. PROBABILITY WITH VERB IN FUTURE TENSE o He/she might buy a chicken at the market. Marree inc’â teheɓ c’ulunq. SPK NON-PROBABILITY WITH VERB IN FUTURE TENSE o Perhaps they won’t come. OR They may not come.

In modals, the particle raj acts as a modifier after a verb so that it acquires equivalent meaning to the English modal should.     

Lao inko c’anjelak raj sâ commonil. o We should work together. Ac shat c’irraa raj. o You should have cured already. Li Mess ki tyolesiik raj ɓan li Tz’î. o The cat wanted to be chased by the dog. Laesh enke c’aytesii raj e riɓ chi aɓiink. o You should get used to listen. Aanheɓ cuankheɓ raj sâ Tz’alam. o They should be in jail/prison.

ADVICE, SUGGESTION WITH VERB IN PRESENT TENSE POSSIBILITY WITH VERB IN PAST TENSE PROBABILITY WITH VERB IN PRETERITE ADVICE, SUGGESTION; PRESENT TENSE W / REFLEXIVE PRONOUN STRONG ADVICE, SUGGESTION WITH VERB CUAANK

Particularly, raj can also be used after the verb ajok (to want, need, require) to give the meaning of would like to in English. 

Aanheɓ teheɓ raj1 raj shik a cuic’in. o They would like to go with you.

WOULD LIKE TO

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT / SUBJECT + NEG + MOD + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT / MOD + NEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT

To form the negative in a modal, we use inc’â (literally not) before the verb ruuk or the modal verb narruu. Marree can only be negated by a negative word after it.

The verb ajok is prefixed for each person in the active voice so that it becomes raj for the 3rd person singular and plural. The complete conjugated set is as follows: Singular: cuaj, cuaj, raj; Plural: qaj, raj, raj. 1

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18 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max Aan inc’â na ruu alinak sâ jumpaat.

INABILITY

He cannot run very fast.

Laat inc’â narruu inkat chunlaa arrin. Lain inc’â narruu tin shik chi ɓatz’uunk.

NON PERMISSION IMPOSSIBILITY

You may not sit here. I cannot be able to go play. [SPORT]

NON PROBABILITY

He/she may not have got paid.

ADVICE

We should not work on Saturday.

NOT TO LIKE TO

They would not want to come.

Marree inc’â ish c’ul ish Tumin.

SPK

Lao inc’â inko c’anjelak raj sâ Sabado. Inc’â enkheɓ raj raj chaalk.

SPK

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + [MOD] + AUX + VERB + [RAJ] + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]?    

Ma inkat ruu ajlaank? Ma narruu to ilaanq arrin? Ma ta cuaj raj shik chi lok’ok ekwuu? C’arruu ta cuaj1 raj?

Can you count? Can we rest here? Would you like to go shopping in the afternoon? What would you like?

IMPERATIVE MOOD We use the imperative mood to form commands or requests in KC. No subject is necessary in an imperative for the second person singular or plural unless we want to address someone(s) specifically. Affirmative Sentence Structure: VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]     

C’am chaq la Hu. Tyolesii li Cashlan. Mesuu li Nâjej. Ɓanumaq e C’anjel. C’amomaq e Tumin.

2nd S 2nd S 2nd S 2nd P 2nd P

Bring your book/notebook/paper. Chase the chicken. Sweep the place. Do your work. Take/bring money with you!

Negative Sentence Structure: NEG + VERB + COMPLEMENT

Ma/mat and me/mesh (literally do not, active/antipassive voices respectively) are used to create the negative form of imperatives for the second person singular and plural respectively.    

Ma tz’ap li Uc’al. Mat shucuak ɓan li Tz’î. Me ɓuyuɓ li Sî arran. Mesh shik sâ Ɓee.

2nd S 2nd P

Do not cover the pot. Do not be scared of the dog. Do not pile the wood there. Do not go to the street.

PRONOUNS KC pronouns are classified into Subject, Object, Possessive Pronoun, Possessive Adjective and Reflexive. The following table presents these pronouns according to the English classification. Although the Object and Possessive Pronouns are the same in writing and pronunciation, those of the latter are each preceeded by a definite article.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 19 George Max

CLASSIFICATION OF K’EQCHÎ PRONOUNS Subject

Object

Ob

Possessive Adjective (with a noun)

PA

Possessive Pronoun (without a noun)

PP

Reflexive

SINGULAR Lain

I

cue

me

lin / in

my

Ii cue

mine

cuiɓ

myself

laat

you

a cue

you

la / a

your

la cue

yours

a cuiɓ

yourself

li re

his/hers

riɓ

himself herself

Aan

he/she

re

him/her

lish / ish

his/her

aan

it

re

it

lish / ish

its

li re

its

riɓ

itself

lao

we

qe

us

li qa / qa

our

li qe

ours

qiɓ

ourselves

laesh

you

e re

you

le / e

your

le re

yours

e riɓ

yourselves

they

eɓ aan, reheɓ

them

eɓ lish / eɓ ish, esh

eɓ li re

theirs

ribeɓ

themselves

PLURAL

aanheɓ

their

Subject Use a subject pronoun as the subject of a sentence in KC.   

Aan na alinak sâ Ɓee. Aanheɓ tyokheɓ chi tzolok K’eqchî. Lao taqa lok’ li Cuyam.

PRES PRES CONT FUT

He/she runs on the street. They are learning K’eqchî . We will buy the pig.

Object Use an object pronoun as the object of a verb or the object of a preposition.  

Aan ta c’amoq e re. Shin lok’ re jun ish Punit.

FUT SPK

He/she will take you. [PL] I bought him a hat. OR I bought a hat for him.

Possessive Adjectives (with a noun) Possessive adjectives show that something belongs to someone. Use possessive adjectives with a noun (underlined). Possessive adjectives in KC distinguish between possessed (including body parts) and non-possessed items (things or objects).      

Aan lish Sî aj Beto. Lin Nâ na c’anjelak sâ Hospital. La Cuesh cuan chirruu li Caɓ. Tin lok’ e cuesh sâ C’atyil. Junaq raj qa Mess. Majun eɓ ish Ac’ach shesh lok’.

POSSD POSSD POSSD NON-POSSD NON-POSSD NON-POSSD

That is Beto’s wood. My mother works at the hospital. Your pants are against the [house’s] wall. I will buy you pants in the market. (PL) I wish we had a cat. They didn’t buy any turkeys.

Possessive Pronouns (without a noun) Possessive pronouns show that something belongs to someone. Use a possessive pronoun without a noun but always with the respective definite article before it. 

Lish Ac’ach cuan sâ Caɓ ut la cue cuan sâ Pim.

Her turkey is in the house and yours is in the bushes.

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20 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max 

Ain lin Mesleɓ ut aan li re.

This is my broom and that’s his/hers.

Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns in KC reflect on the subject of the sentence.  

Laat inka cuil a cuiɓ sâ Lem. Laesh enke tenk’aa raj e riɓ chi tzolok.

You see yourself in the mirror. You should help yourselves to learn.

NOUNS A noun in KC can be the name of a person, place, thing or idea. Following are some noun examples listed in several categories:

  

Person

Place

Object

Abstract

Nâ, Tyucuâ

Chisec

Mesleɓ

Usilal

mother, father

location

broom

Favor

Qanâ, Qacuâ

Chirrepec

Cuesh

Sahilch’olej

Mrs., Mr.

location

pants

happiness

C’uulal, Teelom

Raɓinal

Tz’umuy

Ch’inausal

baby, boy (sex)

location

anona

niceness, beautiful

SPK

Aurelia hugs her father. I bought three anonas. The broom is old already.

Ish Aurelia nash k’aluu lish Tyucuâ. Shin lok’ oshib chi Tz’umuy . Li Mesleɓ ac k’eel chic.

Plural nouns The pluralization of nouns follows this syntax: eɓ + li + noun, where eɓ = pluralizer, li = definite article. A noun should always be preceded by li when we refer to a specific noun in singular. SINGULAR

 

PLURAL

li Ochoch

the house

eɓ li Ochoch

the houses

li Ac’ach

the turkey

eɓ li Ac’ach

the turkeys

li Tz’î

the dog

eɓ li Tz’î

the dogs

li Ishq

the woman

eɓ li Ishq

the women

Eɓ li Ac’ach cuankheɓ sâ Ɓê. Tin tyolesii eɓ li Cashlan.

SPK

The turkeys are on the street. I will chase the chicken.

NOTE: Words already in plural include: li Cooc’al, li Poyanam.

Count and Non Count Nouns Nouns in KC can be counted. Counted nouns, however, have no plural form. Syntax: NUMBER + CHI + NOUN.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 21 George Max NOUN

 

COUNTED NOUN

Ochoch

house

oshiɓ chi Ochoch

three houses

Cashlan

chicken

ooɓ chi Cashlan

five chicken

Ɓee

road

cuiɓ chi Ɓee

two roads

Tin lok’ oshiɓ chi Ac’ach. Jun chi Ishq ki ok sâ Tz’alam.

SPK PRET

I will buy three turkeys. A woman went to prison.

The following examples are non-count nouns and cannot have a number before them or have plural forms.

 

Ik’

Ch’och’

Sahilch’olej

Sham

Haɓ

water

wind, air

earth, ground, dirt

happiness

fire

rain

C’ee li Tiɓ ut li Cuaa sâ Sham. Tiikil Hâ na moq sâ li Tzuul.

Put the meat and the tortillas in the fire. Pure water springs from the mountain.

We use ɓayaq (adj. some) and nâɓal (adj. a lot) as quantifiers for nouns to indicate small and large amounts respectively. Nâɓal still requires the preposition chi to connect with the noun. EXAMPLES: ɓayaq Hâ, some water; ɓayaq Atz’am, some salt; ɓayaq cashlan K’een, some pepper 

C’ee bayaq Atz’am sâ li Tiɓelcuaa.

Put some salt in the food.

EXAMPLES: nâɓal Tumin, much money; nâɓal Pim, much grass; nâɓal Utz’uuj, much flowers. 

Nâɓal chi Utz’uuj na lok’ê sâ K’esaant.

A lot of flowers are bought on All Saint’s Day.

Noun Substitutes Athough KC has no indefinite articles (e.g. a, an), a noun can be substituted by jun (one), junaq chic (another one; INDEFINITE) or junchic (the other one; DEFINITE). The following sentences illustrate this feature.     

Ish Nela cuan jun ish Ac’ach ut ish Amalia cuan jun re ajcuî. o Nela has a turkey and Amalia has one too. In Nâchin ta raj shik sâ li C’atyil ain aɓan Lain tin cuaj shik sâ junaq chic. o My grandmother wants to go this market but I want to go to another one. Aj Maco ac cuan jun ish Cashlan aɓan tish lok’ junaq chic. o Maco already has one chicken but he will buy another one. Ish Nâ ta raj shik sâ li C’atyiɓāl ain aɓan Aan ta raj shik sâ li junchic. o His/her mother wants to go to this store but he/she wants to go to the other one. Aan na wulak chi ruu li Cuesh ain aɓan inc’â na wulak chi ruu eɓ li junchic. o He likes this pants but he does not like the other ones.

ARTICLES The main definite article in KC is li. We can use it with all kinds of nouns: singular and plural; count and non-count. There are two definite articles for the 3rd person singular in KC: aj and

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22 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max

ish for male and female, respectively. There are no a or an indefinite articles in KC such as there are in other modern languages (e.g., German, English or Spanish).      

Li ishq ish wulak sâ C’atyil. Li Ochoch naj ish terram. Shin wulak toj sâ ishɓeen li Tzuul. Aj Miguel cuan sâ Caɓ. Ish Marta nash naw kemok. Lain ut aj Pedro inko tzolok.

The woman went to the market. The house is tall. I went to the top of the mountain. Miguel is at home. Marta knows how to weave. I and Pedro study.

[NO VERB] SPK

Although, li is an article it can also be used as a conjunction for that/the one that. The following examples illustrate this.  

Aan li1 Cuiinq li2 na c’atyin Chacach. Ainheɓ li1 Cooc’al li2 tyokheɓ raj chi sêek.

That’s the man that sells baskets. These are the kids that were laughing.

1

) li as a definite article; 2) li as a conjunction.

ADJECTIVES An adjective in KC describes a noun. It goes before the noun in syntactic terms (e.g., English, German). Study the following examples.

  

nim Ɓee

ac’ Chacach

chaaɓil Hal

Ch’ajom Cuiinq

chaj Sî

wide road

new basket

good corn

young man

pine wood

tzô Ac’ach

saq Tz’î

tiikil Hâ

teelom Mess

K’eel Punit

male turkey

white dog

pure water

male cat

old hat

Jun camenaq Mess cuan sâ li nim Ɓee. Li cuiinq na c’atyin chaaɓil Hal. Cuiɓ chi tzô Ac’ach taqa lok’ re K’esaant.

A dead cat is on the road. The man sells good corn. We will buy two turkeys for All Saints’ Day.

Comparisons We can use adjectives to compare two people or objects in KC. Adjectives do not undergo any change during this process. Comparison pattern 1: SUBJ1 + JWAL + ADJ + PA-NOUN/AUX-VERB + CHIRRUU + SUBJ2  

Ish Berta jwal nim ish terram chirru aj Manuel. Li Mess jwal naj na pisc’ok chirruu li Tz’î.

Berta is taller than Manuel. The cat jumps higher than the dog.

Comparison pattern 2: SUBJ1 + JWAL + AUX-VERB + […] + CHI US + CHIRRUU + SUBJ2  

Laat jwal inkat ch’eok Marimba chi us chirruu aj Kal. Aj Marcos jwal nash naw tz’iɓak chi us chirruu aj Ton.

You play the Marimba better than Karl. Marcos knows how to write better than Ton.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 23 George Max

Superlatives We can use adjectives to compare three or more people or objects in KC. Adjectives do not undergo any change during this process. Comparison pattern: SUBJ1 + K’ASHAL + ADJ/ADV + PA-NOUN/AUX-VERB + CHIRRUU + SUBJ2  

Ish Berta k’ashal nim ish terram chirruu eɓ li oshiɓ chi Ishq. o Berta is the tallest of the three women. Aj Leo k’ashal ek’laa na cuaclii chirruu eɓ li ooɓ chi Cooc’al. o Leo gets up the earliest of the five kids.

Any/Some Junaq (any, some, a, an) and ɓayaq (some, a little) are commonly used with question, request or wish statements. In opposition, majun (literally there is/are not/no […] any/not to have) and mac’â (there is not, not to have) are used in a negative sense to denote the lack of or absence of a possession or thing, including people.      

Ma cuan junaq ish Ac’ach ish Julia? Ma cuan ɓayaq Sak’ee anajcuan? C’ee bayaq ish Cuaa li Mess. Junaq raj in Hu re tzolok. Majun Cooc’al cuankheɓ sâ Tzolebāl. Li Mess mac’â ish Cuaa.

IMP → REQ WISH [NO VERB]

Does Julia have any turkeys? Is there some sun now/today/at this moment? Give the cat some food. I wish I had a book to learn. There are no children at school. The cat does not have food.

Many/A Lot of Nâɓal (there is many/a lot of, many) and c’ajô (there is a lot of) are generally used to express a large quantity and number for count and non-count nouns.   

Nâɓal chi Carr cuan sâ li Nimhâ. C’ajô chi Saank cuankheɓ sâ li Pim. Aj Mel ish c’ul nâɓal chi Tumin.

There is many fish in the river. There are a lot of ants on the grass. Mel received a lot of money.

A Little/A Few Baɓay (a little, some) and cach’in (a few, some; little, small) are generally used to express small quantity, number or measurement.  

Aan cuan ɓaɓay ish Tumin. Cach’in ajcuî ish May lin Jolom.

[NO VERB]

He has some money. My head only hurts a little.

PREPOSITIONS The following table contains a list of prepositions in current use in KC. The most common are chi, sâ, and re, literally to, in, and for.

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24 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max

TABLE OF K’EQCHÎ PREPOSITIONS

   

chalen

since

re

for, to, so

chi

to (for connecting verbs and other

ric’in

with, together with, along with

chirree

at the edge/border/mouth of

ruɓel

under

chirrish

in back of, behind of

in, into, at, to

chirruu chisâ

in front of, during, by inside, within, in

tak’aa taqek’

down, below up, high, above

/sâ/ ishɓeen

above, on, over, on top of

toj

until, as far as (distance), up to

/sâ/ ishɓeen cuaa

before, first

/sâ ish/ tyaanq

in between

nach’

near, close to, in the vicinity

/sâ ish/ tyitoq

in the middle of

Lin Cuas na wulak chi c’anjelak. Li Pish cuan sâ ishɓeen li Cuahileɓ. Laesh tesh tzoloq re naq te naw e C’anjel. Aanheɓ sheheɓ cuaak sâ li Pâɓaank.

My older brother goes to work. The tomatoes are on the table. You will study so that you can learn a skill. They ate at the party (RELIGIOUS).

ADVERBS Adverbs of Frequency The most common adverbs of frequency in KC include: junelik (always), cuannaq (sometimes), majuncuaa (never, ever), majok’ee (never, not at all; not at any time), and majarruj (not ever; not in any way). Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + ADV + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT  

Ish Teresa junelik na wulak sâ C’atyil. Li Chiin cuannaq inc’â na atzumak.

Teresa always goes to the market. Sometimes the orange tree does not blossom.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + ADVNEG + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT  

Lao majuncuaa inko wulak chi ɓeek. Majok’ee tin taw ru aan.

SPK

We never go out. I will never understand that.

Questions Sentence Structure: QA + ADV + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]  

Ma junelik na wulak chi ɓatz’uunk aj Gil? Ma majarruj na aɓin?

Does Gil always go to play? [GAME] Doesn’t he/she ever listen/learn?

Very/Too We use the intensifier c’ajô (very, too) to make an adjective stronger. It has similar meaning to the word very in English. ADJECTIVE PHRASE SENTENCE with C’AJÔ INDICATIVE MOOD ATTRIBUTIVE STRESSED PREDICATIVE Tiq ru li Hâ.

C’ajô ish tiqual ru li Hâ.

Li Hâ c’ajô ish tiqual ru.

The water is hot.

The water is very hot.

Same as previous

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 25 George Max Kee ru li Cutan.

C’ajô ish kehil ru li Cutan.

Li Cutan c’ajô ish kehil ru.

It is cold today.

It is very cold today.

Same as previous

K’eel ru li Ochoch.

C’ajô ish k’elil ru li Ochoch.

Li Ochoch c’ajô ish k’elil ru.

The house is old.

The house is very old.

Same as previous

The following examples show the use of c’ajô in conditional sentences   

C’ajô ish kehil ru li cutan re shik chi ɓeek. PRES C’ajô ish kehil raj ru li cutan re shik chi ɓeek. PST Ish Natalia c’ajô raj ish luɓik re shik chi c’atyiink. PST

It is very cold today to go out/for a walk. It was very cold today to go out/for a walk. Natalia was very tired to go selling.

Already/Yet/Not yet We often use chican (literally already, yet) with the PSEUDO-PERFECT. It shows that something has happened. Chican can only go after the verb. In opposition, majî (literally not yet) shows that something has not happened but will possibly happen.  

Aj Mario ac ish cuaklii chican. Laesh majî enke c’ul e Tojɓal.

Mario has already got up. You haven’t received your payment yet.

Since/For We use chalen (literally since, for) with the pseudo-perfect in KC. It is used to tell from a particular time until now and also for a period of time.  

Laat ac chalen a Ch’ajomal inkat numshik. Li Mess majî na cuaak chalen oshiɓ Cutan.

You swim since you were a boy. The cat has not eaten for three days.

DEMONSTRATIVES The following table presents KC’s demonstratives together with their respective plural forms and two adverbs of place, arrin and arran; for reference. ADV

DEMONSTRATIVES SINGULAR

    

arrin

ain

here

this

arran

aan

there

that

PLURAL ← PROXIMAL →

ainheɓ these

← DISTAL →

Ain li Ishim re li Ac’ach. Ainheɓ li Cuesh re C’ay. Aan li Ishq li na c’atyin C’um. Aanheɓ li ishq li tyokheb chi puch’uk. Arrin cuan li Ochoch ut arran cuan li Nimhâ.

aanheɓ those This is the maize for the turkey. These are the pants for sale. That’s the woman that sells squash. Those are the women that are washing [clothes]. Here is the house and there is the river.

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BE, HAVE, THERE IS/THERE ARE The verb cuaank (to be, have, there is/are) in KC may indicate a state of being, occurrence or possession (to have or to own sth.). The following table shows a derived form of cuaank that can indicate from physical presence to an emotional state. SINGULAR PLURAL

 

Lain cuankin

laat cuankat

Aan cuan

aan cuan

I am

you are

he/she is

it is

lao cuankoo

laesh cuankesh

aanheɓ cuankheɓ

we are

you are

they are

Laesh cuankesh raj sâ li Ch’utam. Aj Sec cuan sâ jun Ch’aajkilal.

You should be in the meeting. Sec is in a hardship.

Affirmative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + [AUX] + VERB + COMPLEMENT      

Aj Ton cuan sâ ish C’anjel. Li Tz’î cuan sâ Ɓee. Ish Chabela cuan jun ish Ac’ach. Tesh cuaanq sâ Usilal. Naɓal chi Choq cuan sâ li Chushaa. Aan ki cuan sâ Tz’oleɓāl.

FUT PRET

Ton is at work. The dog is on the street. Chabella has a turkey. [You will] stay in wellness. OR [You will] remain in peace. There are a lot of clouds in the sky. He/she attended school.

Negative Sentence Structure: SUBJECT + NEG + VERB + COMPLEMENT / NEG + SUBJECT + [VERB] + COMPLEMENT

Manii (is/are not), mac’â (there is/are not) and majun (none, nobody, not one, any) are used in opposition to cuaank to deny or negate a statement. It denotes the absence and/or lack of a person, thing or attribute as exemplified below.      

Ish Elena manii [cuan] sâ ish C’anjel. [OPT] Aj Mateo majun ish Aaq [cuan]. [OPT] Eɓ li Tz’î manii cuankheɓ sâ Ɓee. Mac’â Pim chirrish Caɓ. [NO VERB] Mac’â Choq sâ li Chushaa. [NO VERB] Majun chi Ch’aat cuankheb sâ li Ochoch.

NOT PRESENT LACK OF NOT PRESENT NONEXISTENT ABSENCE OF LACK OF

Elena is not at his work. Mateo does not have any pigs. The dogs are not on the street. There is no weeds outside the house. There is no clouds in the sky. There are no beds in the house.

Questions Sentence Structure: QW + [AUX] + VERB + COMPLEMENT

The auxiliary ma goes before the verb cuaank when making a question. Other questions asking for information use interrogative words such as in the following 3rd and 4th examples (see also QUESTIONS).    

Ma cuan sâ ish C’anjel aj Ton? Ma cuan junaq ish Ac’ach ish Nela? Anii cuankheɓ sâ li Ch’utam? C’arruu cuan sâ li Sec’?

Is Ton at his work? Does Nela have any turkeys? Who are at the meeting? What is in the cup/bowl?

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 27 George Max

USEFUL TIME EXPRESSIONS Time expressions are still not extended in KC. The following table presents the most common time expressions referent to past, present and future times. ecuer

anajcuan, oon

kwulaj

yesterday

today ↔ now

tomorrow

ecuer ek’laa

anajcuan ek’laa

kwulaj ek’laa

yesterday morning

this morning

tomorrow morning

ecuer ekwuu

anajcuan ekwuu

kwulaj ekwuu

yesterday afternoon

this afternoon

tomorrow afternoon

ecuer chik’eq

oon chik’eq

kwulaj chik’eq

last night

tonight

tomorrow night

sâ li Poo ish numê

sâ li Poo ain

sâ li junchic Poo

last month

this month

next month

sâ li Chaɓ ish numê

sâ li Chaɓ ain

sâ li junchic Chaɓ

last year

this year

next year

The hour can be roughly stated with the word oonal which denotes a certain time of the day. 

Sâ li oonal ain.

[No Verb]

At this hour.

QUESTIONS There are two main types of questions KC: Yes/No Questions and Information Questions. Tag Questions comprise a less frequently used type of question. Non-Verb Questions are more frequently used but in spoken KC.

Yes/No Questions Sentence Structures: QA + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]? / QA + SUBJECT + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT? / QA + NOUN/ADJECTIVE/OTHER + SUBJECT + COMPLEMENT?

Questions under this category use the auxiliary word ma at the beginning of an interrogative sentence. This makes them semantically similar to the use of do as an auxiliary verb for this type of questions in English. Ma can take on the meanings of the verbs be and have as examplified below.    

Ma inkat wulak chi auk? Inc’â. Ma Carmen ish C’abâ? Ehê. Ma ac shat cuaak? Majî. Ma cham li Nimhâ? Ehê.

AUX AS DO AUX AS BE AUX AS HAVE AUX AS BE + ADJ

Do you go to sow? No. Is Carmen her name? Yes. Have you eaten? Not yet. Is the river deep? Yes.

Yes/No Questions as such require an affirmative or negative answer that in KC corresponds to ehê or inc’â, yes and no respectively.  

Ma te c’at li Pim? Ehê Ma sha set li Tiɓ? Inc’â?

Are you going to burn the weeds? Yes. Did you cut the meat? No.

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Information Questions Questions under this category use interrogative words at the beginning of a sentence. The following table shows KC’s interrogative words according to the English classification. CLASSIFICATION OF INTERROGATIVE WORDS anii

c’arruu

ɓar

c’aput

jok’ee

chan ruu

who

what

where

why

when

how

The vowel repetition for anii, c’arruu and jok’ee resembles that of the English words flee, too, etc. in intonation, but not in vowel pronunciation. We combine the word jô (how) with a modified adjective to tell to what extent, amount or degree: jô nimal, how many/much, jô najtil, how far, jô oonal, what time, and so on. Harruɓ (how many/much) asks for quantity or amount.  

Jô oonal ta lok’ chaq li Keenk’? Harruɓ chi Cooc’al tyokheɓ chi alinak?

What time are you going to buy the beans? How many children are running?

Sentence Structures: QI + AUX + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]? / QI + VERB + COMPLEMENT + [SUBJECT]? / QI + [PA] + NOUN + [SUBJECT]?

Interrogative words should always go at the beginning of the question such as shown in the following examples.      

Anii na c’atyin Mol? PRES C’arruu ish C’anjel Aan? [NO VERB] Ɓar cuan lin Cuesh? C’aput cuankoo arrin? Jok’ee tesh shik chi c’anjelak? FUT Chan ruu na ɓichan aan? PRES

Who sells eggs? What does he/she do? [AS A JOB, PROFESSION] Where are my pants? Why are we here? When do you leave for work? How does he sing?

Examples showing the use of interrogative content clauses in yes/no questions:  

– Ma sha aɓii c’arruu ish tyee? – Ehê. – Ma she ril ɓar ish c’am? – Inc’â.

– Did you hear what he/she said? – Yes. – Did you see where he/she took? – No.

Tag Questions A tag question in KC uses the word ɓetyaal (right, correct) at the end of a sentence. It can be used in affirmative and negative questions.  

Tyoo chi cuaark a Nâchin, ɓetyaal? Inc’â ish coo chi c’anjelak aj Pablo, ɓetyaal?

AFF SPK Your grandmother is sleeping, isn’t she? NEG SPK Pablo did not go to work, did he?

A negative question tag with an affirmative sentence combines the words malaj (or) + inc’â (not) so that it translates more like “or not?” at the end of a sentence. This type of question tag may be confrontational in that it inquiries for the truth. 

Ma inka naw atinak sâ K’eqchî, malaj inc’â?

Do you or do you not know how to speak K’eqchî?

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 29 George Max 

Ma shesh wulak chi c’alek, malaj inc’â?

Did you or did you not go to graze?

Non-Verb Questions Non-verb questions are short sentences that inquiry on a person or thing’s properties, characteristics, attributes, look, appearance, condition, and so on. As the title suggests, they do not use verbs and they rely on the auxiliary word ma or interrogative words to formulate a Yes/No or Information question.    

Ma kee li Hâ? Ma tz’aj ru li Uc’al? Anii raj lish C’aɓâ? C’arruu lish C’aush Aan?

Is the water cold? Is the pot dirty? What was his/her/its name? What does he/she worry about?

SPELLING Active and Antipassive Verb Forms These verb forms are widely used in phrases and sentences in KC. So, in order to derive verb forms for the active and antipassive voices, one must take into account that all verbs end in v + k or v + nk; where v = vowel and k, nk = end consonants. Active Verb Form We apply a simple, general rule to derive an active verb from the basic form whereby if the verb ends in -v + k, the verb drops both letters. If it ends with -v + nk, the verb drops the -nk BUT there is an exception to this general rule for certains verbs and is explained further below. Verb: sac’ok – to hit

Dropping of -v + k ending ALL TENSES

SINGULAR

Lain AUX sac’

Laat AUX sac’

Aan AUX sac’

Plural

lao AUX sac’

laesh AUX sac’

aanheɓ AUX sac’

aan AUX sac’

LIKEWISE: ɓoqok, cutuk, chupuk, sachok, tojok, utz’uk, tyamok, tyuluk, etc. Verb: numsiink – to pass

Dropping of -nk ending ALL TENSES

SINGULAR

Lain AUX numsii

laat AUX numsii

Aan AUX numsii

PLURAL

Lao AUX numsii

aanheɓ AUX numsii

aanheɓ AUX numsii

aan AUX numsii

LIKEWISE: cuartesīnk, hasɓaank, keloonk, c’irrisīnk, taqsiink, etc.

IMPORTANT: From the two rules defined above to turn infinitive verbs into active verb forms, a group of verbs need special attention. These verbs show a -v + b + v + nk ending pattern and thus drop their -v + nk ending. Therefore, ach’aɓānk → ach’aɓ, buyuɓānk → buyuɓ, canaɓānk → canaɓ, ch’utuɓānk → ch’utuɓ, and so on. This rule applies for all tenses from present to future. 

Aanheɓ enkesh buyuɓ li Sî sâ Ɓee. Aj Luis ish ch’utuɓ ish Tumin re Raalankil.

PRES PAST

They are piling up the wood on the street. Luis saved money for Christmas.

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30 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max

Antipassive Verb Form We apply a general rule to derive an antipassive verb from the basic form whereby if the verb ends with -v + k, it is used in its basic form. If the verb ends with -v + nk, the verb drops the k and ends in n. Refer back to TENSE MARKERS for the list of tense markers that are used with antipassive verbs. Verb: lochok – to turn/switch on, light up

No change in verb ending PRESENT, PAST, PRETERITE

SINGULAR

Lain AUX lochok

Laat AUX lochok

Aan AUX lochok

PLURAL

lao AUX lochok

laesh AUX lochok

Aanheɓ AUX lochok

aan AUX lochok

Likewise: ɓoqok, cutuk, chupuk, sachok, tojok, utz’uk, tyamok, tyuluk, etc. Dropping of k PRESENT, PAST, PRETERITE

Verb: toloɓānk - to lay down

SINGULAR

Lain AUX toloɓan

laat AUX toloɓan

Aan AUX toloɓan

PLURAL

lao AUX toloɓan

laesh AUX toloɓan

aanheɓ AUX toloɓan

aan AUX toloɓan

LIKEWISE: ajlaank, cuartesīnk, hasɓaank, pumuɓānk, keloonk, salaɓānk,etc.

A simple rule pertaining KC phonetics makes the verb form for the future tense change its k ending into q. This change is valid according to the separate sounds currently assigned to these consonants. Change of k ending for q for verbs ending in –v + k

Verb: uc’ak - to drink

SINGULAR

Lain tin uc’aq

laat tat uc’aq

Aan ta uc’aq

PLURAL

lao to uc’aq

laesh tesh uc’aq

aanheɓ teheɓ uc’aq

aan ta uc’aq

LIKEWISE: quemoq, nuk’uq, topoq, tzoloq, etc. Change of k ending for q for verbs ending in –v + nk

Verb: nimaank - to grow up

SINGULAR

Lain tin nimaanq

laat tat mimaanq

Aan ta nimaanq

PLURAL

Lao to nimaanq

laesh tesh nimaanq

aanheɓ teheɓ nimaanq

aan ta nimaanq

LIKEWISE: toloɓānq, mesuunq, salaɓānq, etc.

Present Participle While all verbs can be used in their base form in the continuous aspect of KC, the progressive aspect uses two verb forms which correspond to the present participle (see CONTINUOUS AND PROGRESSIVE.) Consequently, all verbs ending with -ok and -uk are replaced by -ɓal. Examples: cutuk - cutɓal; cuosok - cuosɓal; chupuk - chupɓal. All verbs ending with -v + nk are added the suffix il. Examples: hasɓaank - hasɓankil; mesuunk - mesunkil; pajiink - pajinkil.  

Eb li Cuiinq tyokheɓ ish c’amɓal li Hal. Lao tyokoo ish ɓanunkil qa C’anjel.

The men are taking the corn. We are doing our work.

Past Participle In KC, we use the past participle to build the Passive Voice only. This verb form shows several variations according to TAM and whether the inflexion is possible or likely for a certain verb and the given case.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 31 George Max

Present, Past and Preterite As a general rule, verbs ending with -ok or -uk should be replaced by -ê or -man. Those concerned may be mono- and two-sylable verbs having this ending pattern. EXAMPLES: tzolok → tzolê/tzolman; c’uluk → c’ulê/c’ulman; rumuk → rumê; kemok → kemê; pejok → pejê/pejman, etc.  

Li Ismal na tz’ulman ric’in li Uk’. Li T’zî ish tz’olê chi c’ojlaak.

PRES PST

The hair is braided with the hands. The dog was taught to seat.

Similarly, verbs ending with -v + nk duplicate the vowel (in writing) and lose the n OR they lose their -nk ending and add -man. This rule applies strictly for verbs with two, three or more syllables having this end pattern. EXAMPLES: anaɓānk → anaɓaak/anaɓman; cuɓsiink → cuɓsiik/cuɓsiman; numsiink → numsiik/numsiman; jilosīnk → jilosiik/jilosiman; mesuunk → mesuuk/mesuman, etc. 

Li Tz’alam-chê ish anaɓaak chirruu li Tz’ak.

The plank was reclined against the wall.

Future Two variations happen here. Verbs ending with -ok or -uk should be replaced by -ek’ or maanq. Those concerned may be mono- and two-sylable verbs having this end pattern. EXAMPLES: rumuk → rumek’; cuotzok → cuotzek’/cuotzmaanq, tyuluk → tyulek’/tyulmaanq, etc. 

Li Ch’aat ta rumeq’ sâ Muhl.

The bed will be thrown in the trash/garbage.

For verbs with two or more syllables, the rule follows that of the present and past tenses for verbs ending in -v + nk except that the k changes to q and there is only one variation. EXAMPLES: ch’olanīnk → ch’olaniiq, atz’umānk → atz’umaaq, etc. 

Li C’ulal ta ch’olaniiq ɓan lish Nâchin.

The baby will be nursed by his/her grandmother.

Continuous Here we have one variation of the past participle for the passive voice whereby verbs ending in -ok or -uk are replaced with -ec’. This applies for mono- and two-sylable verbs having this end pattern. EXAMPLES: hamok → hamec’; jutuk → jutec’, etc. 

Lish Ochoch tyoo chi c’amec’ ɓan li But’. CONT

His/her house is being dragged by the flood.

Similarly, verbs ending in -v + nk duplicate the vowel (in writing) and lose the n. This rule applies for verbs with two or more syllables with this end pattern. EXAMPLES: k’ajtesīnk → k’ajtesiik; toloɓānk → toloɓaak, etc. 

Li Ishqaal tyoo chi k’aluuk.

CONT

The girl is being hugged.

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Imperative Since the imperative mood is expressed in the second person singular and plural, it uses two different verb forms. The verb for the imperative in the second person singular is the derived verb form of the active voice.  

Tyolesii li Imul. Ishimaa li Hal.

Chase the rabbit. Thresh the corncobs.

The verb for the imperative in the second person plural is generally modified with the suffix omaq for verbs ending in -ok or -v + nk or -umaq for verbs ending in -uk or -unk.  

Tzuqumaq ɓayaq Hâ sâ Ree. Sutumaq li Ochoch!

Drip some water in its mouth. Surround the house.

CAPITAL LETTERS The main rules for word capitalization in KC include the following:         

The first word in a sentence The name of a person A nationality or language Titles of people The names of cities, provinces, states, countries The names of buildings The names of holidays Religious words Every noun as introduced here

Aan na wulak chiruu alinak. Elena, Abel, Sofia K’ichê, Ingles, Mam Qanâ Belinda, Qacuâ Eliberto Chisec, Purulha, Kichê, Guatemala Poopol, Iglesia, Hospital Rahil Cutan, K’esaant, Ralanquil Jesus, Maria Ochoch, Ɓee, Nimhâ, Cutan, C’um

Titles Most words in titles must be capitalized. The following rules apply:   

Always use a capital letter on the first word of a title. Use a capital letter on all the important words. Do not use a capital letter on the following if they are not at the beginning of a sentence o Prepositions (sâ, re, chi, ishɓeen, chirruu, etc.) o Connecting words (ut, aɓan, malaj) o Articles (ish, aj, li)

COMBINING SENTENCES Method 1: Use of the conjunction ut (literally and)

We can join two or more verbs in one sentence with ut.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 33 George Max  

Li C’uulal na aj. Li C’uulal na ok chi tyaɓak. Li C’uulal na aj ut na ok chi tyaɓak.

The baby wakes up. The baby starts to cry. The baby wakes up and starts to cry.

We can also combine verbs and phrases with ut into one compound sentence. The components (verbs, phrases) can be in active1 and antipassive2 voice. 

Ish Adelia na jalok2, nash chap1 ish Chacach ut na shik2 sâ C’atyil. o Adelia changes, grabs her basket and goes to the market.

Method 2: Use of the conjunction aɓan (literally but)

We can join two phrases/clauses or sentences with aɓan to present a contrasting pattern.  

Sho wulak raj chi ɓeek. Tyoo raj li Haɓ. Sho wulak raj chi ɓeek, aɓan tyoo raj li Haɓ.

 

Aan ish lok’ raj chaq li Ishim. Mac’â raj chic Ishim Aan ish lok’ raj chaq li Ishim, aɓan mac’â raj chic.

SPK SPK

We wanted to go out. It was raining. We wanted to go out but it was raining. He had to buy maize. There was not any maize. He had to buy maize but there wasn’t any.

Method 3: Use of the combination ut ... ajcuî (literally and … too)  

Aj Juan na wulak chi tzolok. Ish Marina na wulak chi tzolok. o Juan goes to school. Marina goes to school. Aj Juan na wulak chi tzolok ut ish Marina na wulak ajcuî. o Juan goes to school and Marina goes too.

Use in modal sentences:  

Aj Roɓ na ruu atinak sâ Poqomchî. Aj Ton na ruu atinak sâ Poqomchî. o Rob knows how to talk in Poqomchî. Ton knows how to talk in Poqomchî. Aj Roɓ na ruu atinak sâ Poqomchî ut aj Ton na ruu ajcuî. o Rob can talk in Poqomchî and Ton can too.

Method 4: Use of the combination manii ... ut … ajcuî (literally not … and ... either)

In this sentence construction method, we use ajcuî at the end of the sentence to mean either since it can also be used in a negative clause.  

Ish Alicia manii raj sâ Caɓ ecuer. Aj Gil manii raj sâ Caɓ ecuer. o Alicia was not at home yesterday. Gil was not at home yesterday. Ish Alicia manii raj sâ Caɓ ecuer ut aj Gil manii raj ajcuî. o Alicia was not at home yesterday and Gil was not either.

Method 5: Use of the conjunction naq (literally when)

When using naq to join two clauses, the subject of the second clause is displaced at the end.  

Ac shin aj. Li Tz’ôshul ki tyaɓaak. Ac shin aj naq ki tyaɓaak li Tz’ôshul.

SPK

I have wakened up. The rooster crowed. I have wakened up when the rooster crowed.

 

Ac sho ok sâ Caɓ. Li Haɓ ki chal. Ac sho ok sâ Caɓ naq ki chal li Haɓ.

SPK

We had got home. It began to rain. We had got home when it began to rain.

Lain ac shin raqê chi shorrok. Lain in tyiiɓ li Tzacaemq. o I have finished making tortillas. I prepare the meal.

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34 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max 

Ac shin raqê chi shorrok naq in tyiiɓ li Tzacaemq. SPK o I had finished making tortillas when I prepare the meal.

Use of naq with combined events in the pseudo-perfect, preterite, continuous and past tense.  

Ish Natalia ac lajeɓ Chaɓ cuan re naq ki ok chi tzolok. o Natalia was already five years old when she started school. Tyokin raj chi cuaak naq shin esh ɓoq chi ɓatz’uunk. o I was eating when they called me to play.

PPERF - PRET CONT-PAST, SPK

Method 6: Use of the conjunction ishɓan naq (literally because)  

Tin tyiiɓ in Cuaa. Ac Cualeɓ chic. Tin tyiiɓ in Cuaa ishɓan naq ac Cualeɓ chic.

Aj Mario inc’â ish wulak sâ Tzoleɓāl. Aj Mario cualeɓ ish cuaklii. o Mario did not go to school. Mario got up late. Aj Mario inc’â ish wulak sâ Tzoleɓāl ishɓan naq cualeɓ ish cuaklii. o Mario did not go to school because he got up late.

SPK

I will make tortillas. It is noon already. I will make tortillas because it is noon already.

Method 7: Use of jôcan naq for cause and result sentences (literally that is why OR because → at the beginning of a sentence in English)  

Ish Delia mac’â ish Tumin. Ish Delia inc’â na shik sâ C’atyil. o Delia does not have money. Delia does not go to the market. Ish Delia mac’â ish Tumin jôcan naq inc’â na shik sâ C’atyil. o Delia does not have money, which is why she does not go to the market. OR o Because Delia does not have money, she does not go to the market.

Method 8: Use of ishɓen cuaa (before, first) and chirrish aan (then, after that) 

Ishɓeen cuaa in cuaklii, chirrish aan in tyiiɓ in Cuaa.

First I get up then I make tortillas.

WRITING GOOD SENTENCES  

Writing good and accurate sentences according to KC syntax and grammatical rules outlined throughout this grammar guide is mandatory. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb. (Imperatives do not necessarily have a subject.) Some short statements or questions describing/asking for a person’s or thing’s properties, characteristics, attributes, look, appearance, etc., however, DO NOT require a verb. EXAMPLES: o o o

Li Ch’ajom naj ish terram. Anii a C’abâ? Mac’â ish Cuaa li Tz’î.

The young boy is tall. What is your name? The dog does not have any food.

Some sentences have a direct object (DO) which goes directly after the verb. The direct object is usually a noun and sometimes it has an adjective or an article (li). SUBJ Li Ishq

AUX

na

VERB

DO

shokok

Sî.

The woman picks up wood.

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 35 George Max

SUBJ

AUX

VERB

DO

Aan

nash

mesuu

li Nâjej.

He/she sweeps the place.

A list of consecutive actions or things in a sentence is separated by commas. Ut (and) or malaj (or) is written before the last action or thing in the list. Examples: o o

Lain in cuaclii, in cuâak ut in shik sâ Tzolebāl. I get up, eat breakfast and go to school. Aan na awok Ishim, Kenk’ ut Pish sâ lish Cho’ch’. He grows corn, black beans and tomatoes in his land.

WRITING GOOD COMPOSITIONS  

Every composition must have a title as stated earlier in TITLES under CAPITAL LETTERS. A good composition has an introductory sentence. It introduces the composition to the reader and gives the general idea of the composition. It should also have a concluding sentence similar to the introductory sentence in mind. Follow each of the rules for creating compound sentences outlined in COMBINING SENTENCES.

Esteban aj Tzolonel Aj Esteban na c’anjelak sâ jun Tzoleɓāl. Tojê ish c’ul riɓ re aj Tzolonel ut anajcuan ac ish taw ish C’anjel. Aan tish tzol jun Ch’uut chi Cooc’al, li toj ishɓeen Chaɓ teheɓ oq sâ Tzoleɓāl. Sâ lish C’anjel cuan ish c’utɓal eɓ aan chi tz’iɓak ut ilok ru Hu chirruu jun Chaɓ. Jôcan ajcuî, tish c’ut eɓ li Cooc’al jalanq, jalanq chi Nâleɓ li na ajman sâ Tzoleɓāl ut sâ Ochoch. Ishɓan naq li Tzoleɓāl cuan chirree Tenamit, aj Esteban junelic na shik sâ Ɓeleɓāl-ch’ich’ re naq ek’laa na ok sâ lish C’anjel. Sâ li Tzoleɓāl nash ch’utuɓ riɓ ric’in rech aj C’anjelil, li enkheɓ c’utuk sâ eɓ li junjunk’ chi Nâjej. Naq na tiklaa li Tzolok, aj Esteban na ok sâ lish c’eeɓil Nâjej ut nash ɓoq eɓ lish C’aɓâ eɓ li junjunq’ chi Tzolom. Chirrish aan, na tiklaa li Tzolok ut na raqê toj Cuâleɓ. Aj Esteban tish tzol nim aj Tzolom naq ac ish taw ish Nâleɓ chi us chirrish Tzolok Cooc’al. Anajcuan tyoo ish tzolɓal jun Ch’uut chi ch’ina Al ut ch’ina Ishqaal li toj shesh tikiɓ chi tz’iɓak ut ilok ru Hu. Aan ajcuî na tzolok reheɓ chi c’anjelak sâ Komonil ut cuaank sâ Tuqtukilal. Jôcan ɓî lish C’anjel aj Esteban re tzolok jalanq, jalanq chi Tzolom sâ li Tzoleɓāl ut junelik saa sâ ish Ch’ool ish ɓanunkil rajlal Cutan.

Esteban the Teacher Esteban works in a school. He just graduated as a teacher and now he has found a job. He will teach a group of kids that will enter school for the first time. It is his job to teach them to write and read during one year. Also, he will teach the children different skills that are needed in the school and at home. Because the school is in the suburbs, Esteban always goes by bicycle so that he gets early at his work. At the school, he joins with his colleagues that teach in the different classrooms. When teaching starts, Esteban enters his assigned classroom and takes attendance of each student. After that, the class starts and finishes until noon. Esteban will teach young students when he gets good experience after teaching children. Now he teaches a group of kids and girls that just started to write and read. He also teaches them to work in community and in harmony. That is the job of Esteban in teaching different students at the school and he is always happy of doing it every day. SUPPORT THE AUTHOR – URL: http://www.deensp.com/ EMAIL: info@deensp.com


36 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max

APPENDIX 1 K’EQCHÎ TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TRANSITIVE VERBS INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

ACTIVE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ENGLISH

A aɓenānk aɓiink ach’aɓānk ajlaank ajsiink ajtesīnk ak’iink ak’unīnk alâank aloɓresīnk anaɓānk apusīnk apuunk atesīnk atz’amānk atz’umānk

aɓenan aɓin ach’aɓan ajlan ajsin ajtesin ak’in ak’unin alan aloɓresin anaɓ’an apusin apun atesin atz’aman atz’uman

aɓenaa aɓii ach’aɓ ajlaa ajsii ajtesii ak’ii ak’unii alâa aloɓresii anaɓ apusii apuu atesii atz’amaa atz’umaa

aɓenaak aɓiik / aɓiman ach’aɓaak ajlaak ajsiik / ajsiman ajtesiik ak’iik ak’uniik alâak aloɓresiik / aloɓresiman anaɓaak apusiik / apusiman apuuk atesiik / atesiman atz’amaak atz’umaak

A to commission to hear to release, set free to count, enumerate to wake up to amuse, make laugh to weed, clean to dress up to weigh (see also Bisok) to increase weight to lean, to recline to blow/play an instrument to blow, exhale, inflate to bathe so./sth. to add salt, season with salt to bloom, blossom

Ɓ ɓac’ok ɓach’ok ɓakok ɓalak’īnk ɓalk’usīnk ɓanok ɓanuunk ɓasok ɓayok ɓekok ɓesok ɓiomoɓresīnk ɓiqok ɓirrok ɓisok ɓitoonk ɓojok ɓoqok ɓukuk ɓukiink ɓut’uk ɓuyuɓānk

ɓac’ok ɓach’ok ɓakok ɓalak’in ɓalk’usin ɓanok ɓanun ɓasok ɓayok ɓekok ɓesok ɓiomobresin ɓiqok ɓirrok ɓisok ɓiton ɓojok ɓoqok ɓukuk ɓukin ɓut’uk ɓuyuɓan

ɓac’ ɓach’ ɓak ɓalak’ii ɓalk’usii ɓan ɓanuu ɓas ɓay ɓek ɓes ɓiomoɓresii ɓiq ɓirr ɓis ɓitoo ɓoj ɓoq ɓuk ɓukii ɓut’ ɓuyuɓ

ɓac’ê / ɓac’man ɓach’ê / ɓach’man ɓakê / ɓakman ɓalak’iik ɓalk’usiik / ɓalk’usiman ɓanê / ɓanman ɓanuuk / ɓanuman ɓasê / ɓasman ɓayê / ɓayman ɓekê / ɓekman ɓesê / ɓesman ɓiomoɓresiik ɓiqê / ɓiqman ɓirrê / ɓirrman ɓisê / ɓisman ɓitook ɓojê / ɓojman ɓoqê / ɓoqman ɓukê / ɓukman ɓukiik ɓut’ê / ɓut’man ɓuyubaak

Ɓ to tie, bind, fasten with a rope or cord to twist, coil, curl to twist to cheat, deceive, swindle to rotate, turn around to cure, heal to do, make to fold, bend, enfold to delay, detain to dig, shovel, scratch, scrabble to cut hair to become rich, accumulate goods to rub, scrape, scrub to roll, make cylindrical sth. to measure (length, weight, amount) to carry on/over (head, body) to sew, join or fasten with stitches to call so./sth., shout, cry to beat, whir, flap to smoke, give off smoke to fill to pile, heap, mound

C c’aɓaīnk caɓlaank c’ach’aɓānk cach’inoɓresīnk cak’aank c’aleenk c’amok canaɓānk canok c’aoɓresīnk c’aplisīnk

c’aɓain caɓlan c’ach’aɓan cach’inoɓresin cak’an c’alen c’amok canaɓan canok c’aoɓresin c’aplisin

c’aɓaii caɓlaa c’ach’aɓ cach’inoɓresii cak’aa c’alee c’am canaɓ can c’aoɓresii c’aplisii

c’aɓaiik caɓlaak c’ach’aɓaak cach’inoɓresiik cak’aak c’aleek c’amê canaɓaak canê c’aoɓresiik c’aplisiik

C to name, appoint; call to construct, build; erect to name, give a name to reduce, decrease, shorten to add an attic to graze, clear the land to take, to marry (the man) to leave, go away from, cease to capture with a rope, lasso to make bitter, sour, embitter to reach the summit, peak

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 37 George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

ACTIVE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ENGLISH

c’atok c’atyiink c’aushlānk c’aytesīnk ch’ajok chak’ɓeenk chamoɓresīnk chaqoɓresīnk ch’ich’iink chik’ok chiqok chirriɓānk ch’olanīnk ch’olok chôok ch’oshok choyok chuɓaank ch’ulakīnk chunuɓānk chupuk ch’upuk ch’utuɓānk chûuk ch’uyuk c’imuunk c’irrisīnk c’oɓok c’ochlaank cocoɓānk c’ojoɓānk colbetānk colonīnk c’opīnk c’opok c’oshlaank c’osok c’otaank cotoɓānk cotzok cuaclesīnk cuajɓaank cualuunk cuaank cuaök cuartesīnk cuâtesīnk cuɓsiink c’ukuk c’ulaank cuöɓaank cuosok curruk cutuɓānk c’utuk cutuk

c’atok c’atyin c’aushlak c’aytesin ch’ajok chak’ɓen chamoɓresin chaqoɓresin ch’ich’iin chik’ok chiqok chirriɓan ch’olanin ch’olok chôok ch’oshok choyok chuɓan ch’ulakin chunuɓan chupuk ch’upuk ch’utuɓan chûuk ch’uyuk c’imun c’irrisīn c’oɓok c’ochlan cocoɓan c’ojoɓan colɓetan colonin c’opin c’opok c’oshlan c’osok c’otan cotoɓan cotzok cuaclesin cuajɓan cualun cuan cuaok cuartesin cuâtesin cuɓsin c’ukuk c’ulan cuöɓan cuosok curruk cutuɓan c’utuk cutuk

c’at c’atyii c’aushlaa c’aytesii ch’aj chak’ɓee chamoɓresii chaqoɓresii ch’ich’ii chik’ chiq chirriɓ ch’olanii ch’ol chô ch’osh choy chuɓaa ch’ ulakii chunuɓ chup ch’up ch’utuɓ chuû ch’uy c’imuu c’irrisii c’ob c’ochlaa cocoɓ c’ojoɓ colɓetaa colonii c’opii c’op c’oshlaa c’os c’otaa cotoɓ cotz cuaclesii cuajɓaa cualuu cuan cuâ cuartesii cuâtesii cuɓsii c’uk c’ulaa cuöɓaa cuos curr cutuɓ c’ut cut

c’atê / c’atman c’atyiik / c’atyiman c’aushlaak c’aytesiik ch’ajê / ch’ajman chak’ɓeek chamoɓresiik chaqoɓresiik ch’ich’iik chik’ê / chik’man chiqê / chiqman chirriɓaak ch’olaniik ch’olê / ch’olman choê / chôman ch’oshê / ch’oshman choyê / choyman chuɓaak ch’ulakiik chunuɓaak chupê / chupman ch’upê / ch’upman ch’utuɓaak chuê ch’uyê / ch’uyman c’imuuk c’irrisiik c’oɓê / c’oɓman c’ochlaak cocoɓaak c’ojoɓaak colɓetaak coloniik c’opiik c’opê / copman c’oshlaak c’osê / c’osman c’otaak cotoɓaak cotzê / cotzman cuaclesiik / cuaclesiman cuajɓaak cualuuk / cualuman cuan cuaê / cuâman cuartesiik cuâtesiik cuɓsiik / cuɓsiman c’ukê / c’ukman c’ulaak cuöɓaak cuosê / cuosman currê / currman cutuɓaak c’utê / c’utman cutê / cutman

to burn, incinerate, set fire to to sell, trade; market; place to worry, preoccupy, concern to accustom, inure; get used to to wash, clean sth. to cook, boil; ripen, mellow to deepen; make deeper to make dry, wipe dry to annoy, bother, disturb to wish for good eating to cook; boil; stew; burn to extend, stretch, spread to feed, nourish, nurture to broaden, widen; open trail to operate on; make a surgery to clobber, beat up, pound to finish, end, conclude to spit; cough up to get dirty, mess up to sit down so. or sth. to turn off; blow out; put out to pick (flowers, fruit, leaves) to gather, collect, put together to urinate, piss, wet to nip, pinch; to nibble, pick at to cover over with straw; thatch to bring up; raise children/animals to make holes in; pierce; vent to alight, land, sit to hitch, tie up, lash; start, initiate to sit; place, settle, clear up to save, defend, protect to overcome, beat; to win through to peck to prick, peck to think, deliberate; consider; reflect to shorten; decrease, diminish; lower to defecate to roll, wind to reduce, to ease, relent; relax, let up to lift, hoist; pick up; raise to play on a harp (n. cuajb, harp) to blow/review fire with a fan to be; have to eat; destroy; wear away; corrode to lull, put to sleep; narcotize to cause, give rise to (witchcraft) to lower, reduce; put/bring down to slacken, loosen; root up, pull up to save, preserve; keep, protect to bark, yap to chill, cool; quench, dampen to chop; slice; cut into pieces to rest against; slant to show, display, exhibit; present to throw; shoot; discard

E ec’asīnk echanīnk elk’aank elk’eīnk etaank

ec’asin echanin elk’an elk’ein etan

ec’asii echanii elk’aa elk’eii etaa

ec’asiik / ec’asiman echaniik elk’aak elk’eiik etaak

E to move; stir; work, power to own; appropriate to steal, rob, take away to abstinence, restraint, fasting to mark, indicate, signal; measure

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38 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

ACTIVE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ENGLISH

etz’uunk

etz’un

etz’uu

etz’uuk / etz’man

to make fun, joke, banter

H hâlesīnk haɓök hach’ok hamok hasɓaank hellok hiltasīnk hirrok hitok hoɓok homok hopok hoyɓaank hupuɓānk

hâlesin haɓök hach’ok hamok hasɓan hellok hiltasin hirrok hitok hoɓok homok hopok hoyɓan hupuɓan

hâlesii haɓ hach’ ham hasɓaa hell hiltasii hir hit hoɓ hom hop hoyɓaa hupuɓ

hâlesiik / hâlesiman haɓê hach’ê hamê hasɓaak hellman hiltasiik hirrê / hirrman hitê / hitman hoɓê homê hopê hoyɓaa hupuɓaak

H to melt, thaw; melt down to chew; scrunch; bite to bite, champ; take a bite to wear away; fall apart to whisper; speak softly to extend, stretch; spread to let lay, repose or rest to spill or scatter (not water) to unloose, unbind, untie to insult, mistreat verbally to break; crack; fail; tear to open a hole; bore, drill to shout, yell, scream to turn upside down, invert

I iqaank ishimānk ishqenīnk isiink it’ok

iqan ishiman ishqenin isin it’ok

iqaa ishimaa ishqenii isii it’

iqaak ishimaak / ishiman ishqenīik isiik / isiman it’ê

I to carry on the back to separate the kernels (corn) to free oneself; leave behind to take out; remove; extract to break, explode (pottery)

J jalok jeɓok jiliɓānk jilok jilosīnk jitok jit’ok jokok jochok jöok jorrok josk’oɓresīnk jotzok jucuunk julticānk jutuk

jalok jeɓok jiliɓan jilok jilosin jitok jit’ok jokok jochok jöok jorrok josk’oɓresin jotzok jucun jultican jutuk

jal jeɓ jiliɓ jil jilosii jit jit’ jok joch jöo jor josk’oɓresii jotz jucuu julticaa jut

jalê / jalman jeɓô / jeɓman jiliɓaak jilê jilosiik / jilosiman jitê / jitman jit’ê / jit’man jokê / jokman jochê / jochman jöê jorrê / jorrman josk’oɓresiik jotzê / jotzman jucuuk julticaak / julticman jutê / jutman

J to move, change; shed to reduce, shorten; lower to lay horizontally; spread to come close to; to massage to draw near, bring near to accuse; claim, demand to fasten, tie up; lash; moor to graze; scrape; scratch to scratch, scrape; steal, robe to shave; scrape to break, smash; crack; tear to enrage; flourish; infuriate to graze; scrape; rasp to drag, haul; be pulled; trail to remind; recall, remember to insert; introduce

K k’aɓaīnk kachok k’ajsiink k’aluunk k’artesīnk k’ashok k’ehiink kehoɓresīnk keloonk kemok keök k’esnaank k’etok k’ichok k’iläank k’iök k’ishɓaank k’ishnaank kishok

k’aɓain kachok k’ajsin k’alun k’artesin k’ashok k’ehin kehoɓresin kelon kemok keök k’esnan k’etok k’ichok k’ilän k’iök k’ishɓan k’ishnan k’ishok

k’aɓaii kach k’ajsii k’aluu k’artesii k’ash k’ehii kehoɓresii keloo kem kê k’esnaa k’et k’ich k’ilaa k’î k’ishɓaa k’ishnaa k’ish

k’aɓaiik kachê k’ajsiik / k’ajsiman k’aluuk / k’aluman k’artesiik / k’artesiman k’ashê / k’ashman k’ehiik kehoɓresiik kelook kemê kêman k’esnaak k’etman k’ichê / k’ichman k’iläak k’iê / k’îman k’ishɓaak k’ishnaak k’ishman

K to accuse, place blame; incriminate to cut; hack; chop; slice to return, give/send back; restore to hug; embrace; hold to deliver, convey; give/hand over to exceed; pass by to guess; predict to cool down, cool off, turn cold to pull, tug; haul in to weave, knit; crochet to grind, mill, pound; crush to sharpen; make sharp/pointed, hone to break off with the hands; tear off to tear/split clothes, fabric to thicken; make dense; become thick to straighten, straighten out, unbend to eructate, burp, belch to heat up/warm up; put on fire to loosen, unbind, untie

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 39 George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

ACTIVE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ENGLISH

kitz’ok k’ochok k’olok k’otok k’usuk

kitz’ok k’ochok k’olok k’otok k’usuk

kitz’ k’och k’ol k’ot k’us

kitz’ê / kitz’man k’ochê / k’ochman k’olê / k’olman k’otê / k’otman k’usê / k’usman

to graze oneself; bruise; crush to roll, wind; fold, bend to harvest maize to turn round, go round, rotate, spin to reprimand, tell off; scold

L lak’aɓānk lanok lapok latz’aank lecok lepok letzok lik’ok lochok lochtêenk lok’ok luɓtesīnk lucuɓānk luhoɓresīnk

lak’aɓan lanok lapok latz’an lecok lepok letzok lik’ok lochok lochteen lok’ok lubtesin lucuɓan luhoɓresin

lak’aɓ lan lap latz’aa lec lep letz lik’ loch lochteê lok’ luɓtesii lucuɓ luhoɓresii

lak’aɓaak lane / lanman lapê / lapman latz’aak lecman lepman letzê / letzman lik’ê / lik’man lochê / lochman lochteêk lok’ê / lok’man luɓtesiik lucuɓaak luhoɓresiik

L to pair, match; mate to wrap, pack; cover; enfold to kick; insert into the ground to grasp, tighten; narrow; take up to draw out/extract with a spoon to throw water to stick, glue, paste; join, fix together to bend; bow down to inflame; lighter; ignite, switch on to climb, clamber; trail to buy, purchase; get; invest in to tire out, exhaust, weary to hang up, suspend, put up to cool, warm, cool down/off

M mak’ok matc’eenk matanīnk mausilānk matyajank mayibk memoɓresīnk mesuunk metz’ecuānk mich’ok minok mochoɓānk much’uk muquk musik’ānk mushuk

mak’ok matc’en matanin mausilan matyajin mayiɓk memoɓresin mesun metz’ecuan mich’ok minok mochoɓan much’uk muquk musik’an mushuk

mak’ matc’ee matanii mausilaa matyajii mayii memoɓresii mesuu metz’ecua mich’ min mochoɓ much’ muq musik’aa mush

mak’ê / mak’man matc’eek mataniik mausilaak matyajaak mayiik memoɓresiik mesuuk / mesuman metz’ecuaak mich’ê /mich’man minê mochoɓaak much’ê muqê musik’aak mushê

M to take away, remove to dream about, dream to give, offer up, contribute to curse, damn, swear to offer up, contribute to smoke to fall silent, be dumbstruck to sweep; sweep away to exert; strain, make an effort to root up, pull up; extract to force, oblige to shrink, shrivel; contract to crumble; mince, finely chop to hide, conceal; bury, inter to breathe, inhale and exhale to desecrate, pollute, profane

N nâleɓānk nawök nimaank nimoɓresīnk nink’ehīnk nuk’uk numsiink

nâleɓan nawök niman nimoɓresin nink’ehin nuk’uk numsin

nâleɓaa naw nimaa nimoɓresii nink’ehii nuk’ numsii

nâleɓaak nawê / nawman nimô nimoɓresiik nink’ehiik nuk’ê / nuk’man numsiik / numsiman

N to argue, think, reason, know to know; realize; can; learn to grow up; rise; become big to make bigger; enlarge to celebrate; make a party to swallow; suck down to pass; move, transfer, get

O ochɓenīnk oshlok’īnk osoɓtesīnk oyɓenīnk

ochɓenin oshlok’in osoɓtesin oyɓenii

ochɓenii oshlok’ii osoɓtesii oyɓenii

ochɓeniik oshlok’iik osoɓtesiik oyɓeniik

O to accompany; join, attach to value, price, esteem, cherish to bless, praise to wait, tarry; stay; watch

P paɓaank pajok pajiink pak’ok paqoonk patz’ok payok

paɓan pajok pajin pak’ok paqon patz’ok payok

paɓ paj pajii pak’ paqoo patz’ pay

paɓaak pajê / pajman pajiik pak’ê / pak’man paqook patz’ê / patz’man payê / payman

P to obey, take orders; religious party to spill; scatter to break, smash, shatter; open way to break, smash; bend, twist to carry weight (man, on the shoulders) to ask, question, inquire; request to commission

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40 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

ACTIVE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ENGLISH

pechok pech’ok pejok pek’ok perreɓānk pic’aank picok pisc’oonk pohiink pôok puɓaank pucasīnk puctasīnk puc’uk puk’uk pumuɓānk puquk purruk pushīnk putz’uk

pechok pech’ok pejok pek’ok perreɓan pic’an picok pisc’on pohin pôok puɓan pucasin puctasin puc’uk puk’uk pumuɓan puquk purruk pushin putz’uk

pech pech’ pej pek’ perreɓ pic’aa pic pisc’oo pohii pô puɓaa pucasii puctasii puc’ puk’ pumuɓ puq purr pushii putz’

pechê / pechman pech’ê / pech’man pejê / pejman pek’ê / pek’man perreɓaak pic’aak picman pisc’ook pohiik poê puɓaak pucasiik puctasiik puc’ê / puc’man puk’ê / puk’man pumuɓaak puqê / puqman purrê pushiik / pushiman putz’ê / putz’man

to roll up, wind, coil to carve, hew to tear, split, rip to splatter, splash, spatter to extend, stretch flat to strike, hit; knock; beat to dig; delve; scratch; scrabble; pick to jump, bounce; skip; hop to epilepsy, falling sickness to break up, split, tear to fire, shoot, discharge to spread, disseminate, scatter to increase, multiply, augment to blow up; break; burst, pop to beat; whir; flap to fill; cover; crowd; occupy to sprinkle, scatter, dust to grind grains; mill to dust; shake off, clean to crush, squash, bruise

R raöɓtesīnk raök rapok raqok rek’ok repok rinok rumuk

raöɓtesin raök rapok raqok rek’ok repok rinok rumuk

raöɓtesii raa rap raq rek’ rep rin rum

raöɓtesiik raê rapê / rapman raqê / raqman rek’man repman rinê rumê

R to make someone suffer to love, want, wish; like; feel like to hit; whip; beat to finish; end, conclude to lick; lap against to splatter, splash, spatter to stretch; be pulled, tighten to throw, toss over; waste

S sac’ok sachok saök salaɓānk saqoɓresīnk serek’īnk setok shâcuaank shajok shaqaɓānk shek’ok shelok sherriink sherrok shich’ok shipc’osīnk shitiink shokok shorrok shucuānk shujuk shulc’upīnk shuluɓānk shushɓānk shutuk sibeenk sic’ok silok soɓök socuenānk sotoɓānk

sac’ok sachok saök salaɓan saqoɓresin serek’in setok shâcuan shajok shaqaɓan shek’ok shelok sherrin sherrok shich’ok shipc’osin shitin shokok shorrok shucuan shujuk shulc’upin shuluɓan shushɓan shutuk siɓen sic’ok silok soɓök socuenan sotoɓan

sac’ sach

sac’ê / sac’man sachê / sachman

salaɓ saqoɓresii serek’ii set shâcuaa shaj shaqaɓ shek’ shel sherrii sherr shich’ shipc’osii shitii shok shorr shucuaa shuj shulc’upii shuluɓ shushɓaa shut siɓee sic’ sil soɓ socuenaa sotoɓ

salaɓaak / salaɓman saqoɓresiik serek’iik setê / setman shâcuaak shajê / shajman shaqaɓaak shek’ê / shek’man shelê / shelman sherriik sherrê shich’ê / shich’man shipc’osiik shitiik shokê shorrê / shorrman shucuaak shujê / shujman shulc’upiik shuluɓaak shushɓaak shutê / shutman siɓô sic’ê / sic’man silê /silman sobê / soɓman socuenaak sotoɓaak

S to hit, beat; knock; smack to lose; waste; miss, fade to make thin, slim, slender; reduce to tilt, lean; tip, incline to make clean; bleach, whiten to talk, converse; chat, tell to cut; chop; slice to vomit, puke, throw up to dance to stand; raise, elevate, lift to butt, gore to crack, split; slit, gash; tear, rip to make smaller, reduce; lessen Same as Shelok to oblige, compel; coerce to push forward to darn, mend; repair; patch to save; collect, gather to make tortillas; flatten, roll, shape to be afraid of; fear, fright to break, smash; crack; fail; tear Same as Shipc’osink to turn head upside down to whistle; hiss; sing to wrap; cover; envelope, enfold to make/become smoky to search; seek, look, ask for to flay, skin, peel off to eat dry tortillas or bread to envy, begrudge; desire, covet to tuck in; lay down; lean, bend

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 41 George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

ACTIVE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ENGLISH

suɓük suk’isīnk sumeenk sumuɓānk sutuk

suɓük suk’isin sumen sumuɓan sutuk

suɓ suk’isii sumee sumuɓ sut

suɓê suk’isiik sumeek sumuɓaak sutê / sutman

to sink, submerge; plunge, go down to return, give back; go back to reply, answer back; protest; respond to marry, wed; get married to enclose, surround, circle, encompass

T tachkîink tacuasīnk tamok tamresīnk t’anaɓānk t’anok taqeenk t’aqresīnk taqsiink teök teneɓānk tenk’aank tenok terk’usīnk ticoɓresīnk tichcosïnk tic’tîink tijok tikiɓānk t’iök tiqcuasīnk tiqiɓānk tiqoɓānk tiqok titz’ok toɓök t’oɓök toch’ok tojok tolc’osīnk toloɓānk topok toqok t’oqok tuɓaank tulaank tupusīnk t’uruɓānk t’usuɓānk tusuk tutz’uk tutz’uɓānk t’uyuɓānk tzuqleenk tz’ahök tz’ajniink tz’amaank tz’apok tz’eqok tz’eqtanānk tz’iɓak tz’ilok tz’oɓok tzoloɓānk tzolok tz’oyok

tachkîin tacuasin tamok tamresin t’anaɓan t’anok taqen t’aqresin taqsin teök teneɓan tenk’an tenok terk’usin ticoɓresin tichcosin tic’tîin tijok tikiɓan t’iök tiqcuasin tiqiɓan tiqoɓan tiqok titz’ok toɓök t’oɓök toch’ok tojok tolc’osin toloɓan topok toqok t’oqok tuɓan tulan tupusin t’uruɓan t’usuɓan tusuk tutz’uk tutz’uɓan t’uyuɓan tzuqlen tz’ahök tz’ajnin tz’aman tz’apok tz’eqok tz’eqtanan tz’iɓak tz’ilok tz’oɓok tzoloɓan tzolok tz’oyok

tachkîi tacuasii tam tamresii t’anaɓ t’an taqê t’aqresii taqsii

tachkîik tacuasiik tamô tamresiik t’anaɓaak t’anê / t’anman

teneɓ tenk’aa ten terk’usii ticobresii tichcosii tic’tîi tij tikiɓ t’î tiqcuasii tiqiɓ tiqoɓaa tiq titz’ toɓ t’oɓ toch’ toj tolc’osii toloɓ top toq t’oq tuɓaa tulaa tupusii t’uruɓ t’usuɓ tus tutz’ tutz’uɓ t’uyuɓ tzuqlee tz’ah tz’ajnii tz’amaa tz’ap tz’eq tz’eqtanaa tz’iɓaa tz’il tz’oɓ tzoloɓ tzol tz’oy

teneɓaak tenk’aak tenê terk’usiik / terk’usiman ticoɓresiik / ticoɓresiman tichcosiik tic’tîik tijê / tijman tikiɓaak t’iê / t’îman tiqcuasiik tiqiɓaak tiqoɓaak tiqê titz’ê / titz’man toɓê t’oɓê toch’ê / toch’man tojê / tojman tolc’osiik / tolc’osiman toloɓaak topê / topman toqê / toqman t’oqê tuɓaak / tuɓman tulaak tupusiik t’uruɓaak t’usuɓaak tusê / tusman tutz’ê / tutz’man tutz’uɓaak t’uyubaak tzuqleek tz’ahê / tz’ahman tz’ajniik tz’amaak tz’apê / tz’apman tz’eqê / tz’eqman tz’eqtanaak tz’iɓman tz’ilê / tz’ilman tz’oɓê tzoloɓaak tzolê / tzolman tz’oyê / tz’oyman

t’aqresiik taqsiik / taqsiman

T to give bad advise or suggestion to tire, weary, fatigue; get tired to gather, collect, accumulate See Tamok to lie/lay down; lean, bend to throw down; drop; tumble to follow; chase; pursue; keep track of to wet; moisten; get wet to go up, ascend, climb; upload, lift to open; spread out; extend to oblige, compel to do sth. to help, aid, assist; support to strike, hit; knock; beat against sth. to increase the price; speculate prices to straighten, unbend; set upright to trip against sth., trip over to lie, prevaricate, tell a falsehood to pray; tech, instruct, educate; preach to begin, initiate, start; commence to kick, stamp; punch, poke to heat, make hot; warm to clothe, dress up; adorn, decorate to sweat, perspire; exude to add; append; attach, connect to bother; borrow soth. to clear; loosen, unbind, untie to eat into, eat away; wear away to touch, feel; hit, strike to pay to roll; knock down/over; wallow to extend; lay down, stretch out to jab, thrust, poke to break, smash; snap to throw away; discard to heap, pile up; accumulate to bewitch, charm, enchant to shorten, curtail, cut short to strip, undress, get undressed Same as T’urubānk to order; arrange; sort, classify to elongate, lengthen; extend to make even; extend, stretch to hang up; suspend, droop to disarrange, mess up, disorganize to dip; wet, soak in water, saturate to make/get dirty; besmirch to ask, request; invite to close; cover, put the cork/lid on to lose; waste to despise, scorn; spurn, reject to write; spell; type on a keyboard to pass; strain, drain, percolate to sip; slurp; suck up; puff at/on to align, line up; put into line to learn, study; educate oneself to heat, make hot; warm

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42 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

ACTIVE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ENGLISH

tz’uɓuk tz’uluk tz’uquk tyaɓak tyaɓasīnk tyakok tyalok tyamtesīnk tyamok tyatz’ok tyechîīnk tyehok tyek’ok tyêok tyiɓaank tyocɓaank tyocoɓānk tyocosīnk tyoc’ok tyôleenk tyôonīnk tyuluk tyutuk tyûuk

tz’uɓuk tz’uluk tz’uquk tyaɓak tyaɓasin tyakok tyalok tyamtesin tyamok tyatz’ok tyechîin tyehok tyek’ok tyêok tyiɓan tyocɓan tyocoɓan tyocosin tyoc’ok tyôlen tyôonin tyuluk tyutuk tyûuk

tz’uɓ tz’ul tz’uq

tz’uɓê / tz’uɓman tz’ulê / tz’ulman tz’uqê / tz’uqman

tyaɓasii tyak tyal tyamtesii tyam tyatz’ tyechîi tyeh tyek’ tyê tyiiɓ tyocɓaa tyocoɓ tyocosii tyoc’ tyôlee tyôonii tyul tyut tyû

tyaɓasiik tyakê / tyakman tyalê / tyalman tyamtesīnk tyamô tyatz’ê tyechîik tyehman tyek’ê / tyek’man tye’man tyiɓaak tyocɓaak tyocoɓaak tyocosiik tyoc’ê / tyoc’man tyôleek tyôoniik tyulê / tyulman tyutê / tyutman tyûman

to kiss, touch with the lips to braid, plait; twist; weave to drip, drizzle, dribble; drop; leak to cry, weep; grumble, wine to play a musical instrument; announce to treat; bargain; deal, negotiate to test, attempt, try; taste to vacate; empty; evacuate; clear to pour water into a cup to squeeze; press; express; wring to offer, suggest; tender, bid to say, utter; tell; call; mention to trample, tread; poach; stamp on to say, utter; tell; call; mention to fix, repair; compose, write to step on; step of the foot to tuck in; lay down; put to bed; lean to twist, turn; wring; warp, bend to cut; chop; slice; saw to keep vigil over; keep watch over to wait for; expect; hope to spread; smear; anoint to wrap, pack; cover; envelop, enfold to stretch, extend, elongate; reach out

U uc’ak uc’miink uc’tasīnk ulâank ushtanānk utz’uk

uc’ak uc’min uc’tasin ulâan ushtanan utz’uk

uc’ uc’mii uc’tasii ulâa ushtanaa utz’

uc’ê / uc’man uc’miik uc’tasiik ulâak ushtanaak utz’ê / utz’man

U to drink; drinking; consume liquids to commence, begin, start; initiate to give to drink; water; watering to visit, visit each other; receive guests to have mercy, compassion to smell; pry; smell out; sniff

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF INTRANSITIVE VERBS INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

A acanak ajajnak ajk ak’tiink ak’uunk alaɓtêik aleenk alinak atiink atinak at’isimak atz’umak

acanak ajajnak ajk ak’tin ak’un alaɓtêik alen alinak atin atinak at’isimak atz’umak

Ɓ ɓalak’ik ɓalk’uunk ɓatz’uunk ɓujoc’

ɓalak’ik ɓalk’un ɓatz’un ɓujoc’

C

ACTIVE

aj ak’tii ak’uu

PAST PARTICIPLE

ak’tiik ak’uuk

alee

balk’uu batz’unee buj

ɓalk’uuk ɓatz’uneek ɓujô / ɓujê

ENGLISH A to have a nightmare; bogey, bad dream to clear up; get light to awaken, wake up, arouse to burn; be parched to clothe, dress to sprout, burgeon, shoot to tempt, entice to run; go fast; hurry, rush to take a bath; shower; wash to speak, talk; communicate; chat to sneeze to flower, effloresce, bloom, blossom Ɓ to cheat, deceive, swindle; betray to turn around, rotate; turn over to play; play a game or sport; gamble to harden, toughen; stiffen; stubborn C

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 43 George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

caɓlak c’achik c’achlik cakwuunk c’ajbak caqmoqīnk c’alek canaak c’anjelak catzok c’ayk chaalk ch’ajok chak’ak chaqik chuɓak ch’uklaak chunlaak ch’utlaank chûuk c’iliink c’irraak coclaak c’ojlaak colɓetak coloonk c’onlak c’oshlak c’osk c’otak cuâak cuaark cuacliik cuɓeek c’uɓlaak cuik’laank c’uluɓānk c’uluunk cuöɓak cuotzok cutlaank

caɓlak c’achik c’achlik cakwun c’ajɓak caqmoqin c’alek canaak c’anjelak catzok c’ayk chaalk ch’ajok chak’ak chaqik chuɓak ch’uklaak chunlaak ch’utlan chûuk c’iliink c’irraak coclaak c’ojlaank colɓetak colon c’onlak c’oshlak c’osk c’otak cuâak cuaark cuacliik cuɓeek c’uɓlaak cuik’lan c’uluɓan c’ulun cuöɓak cuotzok cutlan

E elelik eleok’īnk elk elk’ak elk’eïk

elelik eleok’in elk elk’ak elk’eïk

I ishimak itz’ok

ishimak itz’ok

J jolc’ok jot’ok

jolc’ok jot’ok

K k’aak k’ajk k’apliik k’ashoonk kêek

k’aak k’ajk k’apliik k’ashon kêek

ACTIVE

PAST PARTICIPLE

cakwuu

cakwuuk

caqmoqii

caqmoqiik

catz c’ay chal ch’aj

catzê / catzman

ch’uklaa chunlaa ch’utlaa

ch’ajê / ch’ajman

ch’utlaak

c’ilii c’irraa coclaa c’ojlaa

c’iliik

c’oss

c’osê / c’osman

cuâ cuar cuaclii cubee c’ublaa cuik’laa c’ulub

cua’ê / cuâman

cuotz cutlaa

cuotzê / cuotzman cutlaak

eleok’ii el

itz’

jot’

cuik’laak c’uluɓaak

eleok’iik

ENGLISH to build; construct; erect, set up to agonize, go through agonies to crouch, bend over/down; stoop to get ready; prepare; gear up the sound of leaves falling to redden, turn red, blush to graze; clear the land; scrub to stay, remain; keep; become to work, labor; act stinging, burning sensation to accustom, get used to; inure to come (from); result from to wash up, bathe, wash, launder to boil, cook, steam; bake to dry up/out; get dry, whiter to spit (up/out), belch out to seat, place in a seat; settle to sit down; seat oneself, sit, settle to gather; join, unite; coalesce to urinate, wet oneself; leak to fry, burn; roast, toast to heal, cure; get better, recover to start, begin; commence to sit down, sit oneself, sit; settle down to reserve, keep; set aside to defeat, beat; overcome; win to bend, incurve; hook; bend down/over to think, conceive in the mind; believe to shorten, curtail; reduce, decrease to defecate to eat; consume; take a meal to sleep; fall asleep; spend the night to get up, arise; rise to lower, reduce; go/step down to come to terms, settle; get ready/by to kneel (down); get down on knees to agree, concur; accept; consent to arrive, come (back), return to bark, yap; speak; yell to share, partake of; divide up to stand up E to run away, flee, escape; fly by to germinate, develop; sprout, bud to get out, exit, leave; go/come out to steal, rob; draw; walk away to fast; diet

itz’ê / itz’man

I to flail, thresh (corn); shed grains to crack, split; slit, tear, rip

jot’ê / jot’man

J to slip, skid; sideslip; slide to comb, brush; annoy, bother, harass

k’aa k’aj k’aplii ??

k’ajê

kêman

K to decay, putrefy; rot, decompose to return, move backward, go back to reach the top of a mountain; hill to relocate; move (in); shift to grind, mill, pound; crush

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44 | K ’E Q C H Î G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

ACTIVE

k’ehik k’ilak k’ionk k’ishɓak k’ishiink kisik k’unaank

k’ehik k’ilak k’ion k’ishɓak k’ishin kisik k’unan

L lajk lochtêek lok’onīnk luɓk luctaak

lajk lochtêek lok’onin luɓk luctaak

laj

M mashiink matyajak metz’ecuak möq musik’ak

mashin matyajak metz’ecuak möq musik’ak

mashii matyajii

N nach’ok nujak numeenk

nach’ok nujak numen

O ojoɓak ok okeenk

ojoɓak ok oken

O to cough; loudly expel air from the lungs to start, begin; commence, initiate to cooperate, join, take part; support

P pisc’ok pojok pomok puctaak

pisc’ok pojok pomok puctaak

P to jump; skip; leap, hop to slacken, loosen; ease to roast, broil, grill; barbecue to multiply, increase in number/quantity

k’ishii kisii k’unaa

lok’onii luɓ

PAST PARTICIPLE

ENGLISH

k’ishiik kisiik k’unaak

to guess, predict; foresee, foretell; solve to thicken; become thick, make dense to straighten, unbend, flatten out; iron to eructate, burp, belch to heat up, warm up; get warm to fart; pass gas, expel gas to soften; ease up, abate; relax

lok’oniik

M to get old (wood); get moth-eaten to offer up; give, contribute, make offer to exert oneself, strain to germinate, develop; sprout, bud to respire, breathe, inhale and exhale N to approach, approximate, come near to become full; fill; satisfy to pass, go by, cross; go beyond

numê

poj pom

L to wear away, waste; wear out to climb, clamber; trail to commune; take/receive communion to weary, tire; exhaust; get tired/bored to interlock; jam; lock; bind; tangle

pojê pomê

Q

Q

R ruuk

ruuk

ruu

S saak sachk salkuuk saqeuk sêenk serak’ik shäcuak shajok shaqliik shêenirk sheyaank shiqaank shik shipc’ok sholɓak shotc’ok shucuak

saak sachk salk’uuk saqeuk sêen serak’ik shäcuak shajok shaqliik shêenirk sheyan shiqan shik shipc’ok sholɓak shotc’ok shucuak

saa sach salk’uu saqeu sêe shäcuaa shaj shaqlii shêenir sheyaa shiqaa

R to be able (can, may, might); be ready

shajê / shajman

shiqê

S to be scarce; run short; skimp to lose; mislay, misplace; fail to turn over/upside down; turn round to dawn; to wake up; daybreak to laugh; laugh at so. or sth. to talk, converse; chat, tell to throw up, vomit; puke; repeat to dance; spin; go out dancing to stand up; stop, halt; stall to establish, settle; strike; take root to gasp; pant, wheeze to shift, slip to go, remove oneself, leave, depart to overthrow; overturn; tip over to play the flute; from sholb – flute to choke, suffocate; smother to fear; be afraid of; frighten

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K ’E Q C H I G R A M M A R – A n I n t r o d u c t i o n | 45 George Max INFINITIVE

ANTIPASSIVE

shulc’upik shulk’ik shushɓak siaak sic’lik sipook solok sumlaak surlaak sutuunk

shulc’upik shulk’ik shushɓak siaak sic’lik sipook solok sumlaak surlaak sutun

T tacuaak taamk t’anliik t’aqaak t’eok terk’uuk tichok tic’tîik tijok tiklaak tiqlaak t’ilk tishk tolc’ok tuɓlaak tuqlaak tulak tushmek t’uslaak tûuk t’uylaak tz’acabk tz’aqlok tz’aqoonk tz’iɓak tz’ocaak tz’uyaak tyaɓak tyajerk tyamaak tyiɓök tyoklaak tyolaak tyoleek tyôniink tyotaak

tacuaak tamk t’anliik t’aqaak t’eok terk’uuk tichok tic’tîik tijok tiklan tiqlan t’ilk tishk tolc’ok tuɓlaak tuqlaak tulak tushmek t’uslaak tûuk t’uylaak tz’acaɓk tz’aqlok tz’aqon tz’iɓak tz’ocaak tz’uyaak tyaɓak tyajerk tyamaak tyiɓök tyoklaak tyolaak tyoleek tyôoniik tyotaak

U ulâak ushks

ulâak ushk

W wulak

wulak

ACTIVE

sipoo sol sumlaa surlaa sutuu

PAST PARTICIPLE

solê

sutê / sutman

tam t’anlii t’aqaa terk’uu tich tij tiklaa tiqlaa t’il tish

tichê / tichman tijê / tijman

t’ilman

tublaa tuqlaa

t’uslaa t’uylaa tz’acab

t’uyman

tz’aq

tz’aqman

tyajer

tyôonii

ush

ushman

FIRST DATE PUBLISHED: November 02, 2010.

ENGLISH to fall forward; overturn, overthrow to bend, bow, lean; incline, slope, tilt to whistle; hiss; sing to start, originate to smoke to swell up; become swollen, distend to undress; remove clothing to get married, wed, marry to become/get rounded to surround, encircle; turn over/around T to tire, weary, toil to join, unite; gather; coalesce to fall sick (in bed) to wet; moisten; get wet to comb/brush hair oneself to increase the price; speculate prices to jab, thrust, poke to lie, prevaricate, tell a falsehood to pray, praise or appeal to God to start, begin; commence to dress up; get ready/dressed to interlock; jam; lock; get stuck to age, grow older, mature to roll; stumble, fall forward to build up; accumulate; collect to come to terms, settle; get by to bewitch, charm, enchant to sprout, shoot; reappear, recur to get naked; impoverish; strip, denude to breastfeed, suckle; suck to hang, put up/down; suspend to build a block and concrete house to complete, finish, make whole, fill out to participate, take part of; intervene to write; compose; type in keyboard to be hungry; hunger, starvation to become tenacious; stubborn to cry, weep; lament; sound, ring to fall sick/ill; sicken; be taken ill to vacate; empty; evacuate; clear out to disgust; dislike; sicken; revolt to lay down; go/put to bed; lean, bend to be born, hatch; sprout, bud; originate to keep vigil; watch, keep watch over to expect, hope; wait for sth.; anticipate to heal, form a scar; heal a wound U to visit, come over; spend time with so. to do, make; perform W to arrive, come; reach

LAST DATE UPDATED: August 03, 2014

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K'EQCHÎ GRAMMAR – An Introduction by George Max  

K'EQCHÎ GRAMMAR – An Introduction aims to put together a simple yet concise and precise grammar for the K’eqchî Mayan Language of Guatemala...

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