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ISH TUSBAL ISH CUANKILAL ATIN

K'eqchi - English Glossary of Verbs

George Max

Š 2010, InHouse Productions. All rights reserved. Guatemala, Middle America


K'eqchi Infinitive Verbs |1

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF INFINITIVE K'EQCHI VERBS Both transitive and intransitive K'eqchi infinitive verbs are listed under this document. All these verbs were compiled by William Sedat in 1955 and are still in use today by the K'eqchi inhabitants of north-central Guatemala and southern Belize. The following account, however, includes the standardization and normalization of every verb as it should be written according to the Latin alphabet and International Phonetic Alphabet where possible. The main purpose of this glossary is to make K'eqchi verbs available in the English language so that all interested can learn how to read and write in K'eqchi correctly using the available grammar and verbs. The provision of this K'eqchi to English glossary is based on their current usage and updated whenever possible to the current meaning that have acquired in recent times. There is not yet a major definition of each verb other than the most plausible equivalent that may show several variations or even different meanings.

TRANSITIVE VERBS A abenānk ab'iink ach'ab'ānk ajlaank ajsiink ajtesīnk ak'iink ak'unīnk alâank alobresīnk anab'ānk apusīnk apuunk atisīnk atz'amānk atz'umānk

to commission to hear to release, set free to count, enumerate to wake up to amuse, make laugh to weed, clean to dress up to weigh (see also Bisok) to increase weight to lean, to recline to blow/play an instrument to blow, exhale, inflate to bathe so./sth. to add salt, season with salt to bloom, blossom

B bac'ok bach'ok bakok balak'īnk balk'usīnk banok banuunk basok bayok becok besok

to tie, bind, fasten with a rope or cord to twist, coil, curl to twist to cheat, deceive, swindle to rotate, turn around to cure, heal to do, make to fold, bend, enfold to delay, detain to dig, shovel, scratch, scrabble to cut hair

biomobresīnk biqok birrok bisok bitoonk bojok boqok bucuk bukiink but'uk buyubānk

to become rich, accumulate goods to rub, scrape, scrub to roll, make cylindrical sth. to measure (length, weight, amount) to carry on/over (head, body) to sew, join or fasten with stitches to call so./sth., shout, cry to beat, whir, flap to smoke, give off smoke to fill to pile, heap, mound

C c'abaīnk cab'laank c'ach'abānk cach'inobresīnk cac'aank c'aleenk c'amok canabānk canok c'aobresīnk c'aplisīnk c'atok c'atyiink c'aushlānk c'aytesīnk ch'ajok chak'ak

to name, appoint; call to construct, build; erect to name, give a name to reduce, decrease, shorten to add an attic to graze, clear the land to take, to marry (the man) to leave, go away from, cease to capture with a rope, lasso to make bitter, sour, embitter to reach the summit, peak to burn, incinerate, set fire to to sell, trade; market; place to worry, preoccupy, concern to accustom, inure; get used to to wash, clean sth. to cook, boil; ripen, mellow

ISH TUSBAL ISH CUANKILAL ATIN – BOOK’S URL: http://www.keqchi.org EMAIL: info@keqchi.com


2|K'eqchi Infinitive Verbs chaqbeenk chamobresīnk chaqobresīnk ch'ich'īnk chik'ok chirribānk ch'olanīnk ch'olok chôok ch'oshok choyok chubaank ch'ulakīnk chunubānk chupuk ch'upuk ch'utubānk chûuk ch'uyuk c'imuunk c'irisīnk c'obok c'ochlaank cocobānk c'ojobānk colbetānk colonīnk c'opīnk c'opok c’oshlaank c'osok c'otaank cotobānk cotzok cuaclesīnk cuajbaank cualuunk cuank cuaök cuartesīnk cuâtesīnk cubsiink c'ucuk c'ulaank cuöbaank cuosok

to answer, reply; accept; agree to deepen; make deeper to make dry, wipe dry to annoy, bother, disturb to wish for good eating to extend, stretch, spread to feed, nourish, nurture to broaden, widen; open trail to operate on; make a surgery to clobber, beat up, pound to finish, end, conclude to spit; cough up to get dirty, mess up to sit down so. or sth. to turn off; blow out; put out to pick (flowers, fruit, leaves) to gather, collect, put together to urinate, piss, wet to nip, pinch; to nibble, pick at to cover over with straw; thatch to bring up; raise children/animals to make holes in; pierce; vent to alight, land, sit to hitch, tie up, lash; start, initiate to sit; place, settle, clear up to save, defend, protect to overcome, beat; to win through to peck to prick, peck to think, deliberate; consider; reflect to shorten; decrease, diminish; lower to defecate to roll, wind to reduce, reduce; take out to lift, hoist; pick up; raise to play on a harp (n. cuajb, harp) to blow/review fire with a fan to be; have; to eat; destroy; wear away; corrode to lull, put to sleep; narcotize to cause, give rise to (witchcraft) to lower, reduce; put/bring down to slacken, loosen; root up, pull up to save, preserve; keep, protect to bark, yap to chill, cool; quench, dampen

curruk cutubānk c'utuk cutuk

to chop; slice; cut into pieces to rest against; slant to show, display, exhibit; present to throw; shoot; discard

E ec'asīnk echanīnk elk'aank elk'eīnk etaank etz'uunk

to move; stir; work, power to own; appropriate to steal, rob, take away to abstinence, restraint, fasting to mark, indicate, signal; measure to make fun, joke, banter

H hâlesīnk habök hach'ok hamok hasbaank hellok hiltasīnk hirrok hitok hobok homok hopok hoybaank hupubānk

to melt, thaw; melt down to chew; scrunch; bite to bite, champ; take a bite to wear away; fall apart to whisper; speak softly to extend, stretch; spread to let lay, repose or rest to spill or scatter (not water) to unloose, unbind, untie to insult, mistreat verbally to break; crack; fail; tear to open a hole; bore, drill to shout, yell, scream to turn upside down, invert

I iqaank ishimānk ishqenīnk isiink it'ok

to carry on the back to separate the kernels (corn) to free oneself; leave behind to take out; remove; extract to break, explode (pottery)

J jalok jebok jilibānk jilok jilosīnk jitok

to move, change; shed to reduce, shorten; lower to lay horizontally; spread to come close to; to massage to draw near, bring near to accuse; claim, demand

K’EQCHI TO ENGLISH VERBS GLOSSARY – Translation provided by George Max, November 2010. URL: http://www.deensp.com EMAIL: info@deensp.com


K'eqchi Infinitive Verbs |3 jit'ok jokok jochok jöok jorrok josk'obresīnk jotzok jucuunk julticānk jutuk

to fasten, tie up; lash; moor to graze; scrape; scratch to scratch, scrape; steal, robe to shave; scrape to break, smash; crack; tear to enrage; flourish; infuriate to graze; scrape; rasp to drag, haul; be pulled; trail to remind; recall, remember to insert; introduce

K k'abaīnk kachok k'ajsiink k'aluunk k'artesīnk k'ashok k'ehiink kehobresīnk keloonk kemok keök k'esnaank k'etok k'ichok k'iläank k'iök k'ishbaank k'ishnaank k'ishok kitz'ok k'ochok k'olok k'otok k'usuk

to accuse, place blame; incriminate to cut; hack; chop; slice to return, give/send back; restore to hug; embrace; hold to deliver, convey; give/hand over to exceed; pass by to guess; predict to cool down, cool off, turn cold to pull, tug; haul in to weave, knit; crochet to grind, mill, pound; crush to sharpen; make sharp/pointed, hone to break off with the hands; tear off to tear/split clothes, fabric to thicken; make dense; become thick to straighten, straighten out, unbend to eructate, burp, belch to heat up/warm up; put on fire to loosen, unbind, untie to graze oneself; bruise; crush to roll, wind; fold, bend to harvest maize to turn round, go round, rotate, spin to reprimand, tell off; scold

to stick, glue, paste; join, fix together to bend; bow down to inflame; lighter; ignite, switch on to climb, clamber; trail to buy, purchase; get; invest in to tire out, exhaust, weary to hang up, suspend, put up to cool, warm, cool down/off

M mak'ok matc'eenk matanīnk mausilānk matyajank mayiink memobresīnk mesuunk metz'ecuānk mich'ok minok mochobānk much'uk muquk musik'ānk mushuk

to take away, remove to dream about, dream to give, offer up, contribute to curse, damn, swear to offer up, contribute to smoke to fall silent, be dumbstruck to sweep; sweep away to exert; strain, make an effort to root up, pull up; extract to force, oblige to shrink, shrivel; contract to crumble; mince, finely chop to hide, conceal; bury, inter to breathe, inhale and exhale to desecrate, pollute, profane

N nâlebānk nawok nimaank nimobresīnk nink'ehīnk nuk'uk numsiink

to argue, think, reason, know to know; realize; can; learn to grow up; rise; become big to make bigger; enlarge to celebrate; make a party to swallow; suck down to pass; move, transfer, get

O

L lak'abānk lanok lapok latz'aank lecok lepok

letzok lik'ok lochok lochtêenk lok'ok lubtesīnk lucubānk luhobresīnk

to pair, match; mate to wrap, pack; cover; enfold to kick; insert into the ground to grasp, tighten; narrow; take up to draw out/extract with a spoon to throw water

ochbenīnk oshlok'īnk osobtesīnk

to accompany; join, attach to value, price, esteem, cherish to bless, praise

P pâbaank

to obey, take orders; religious party

ISH TUSBAL ISH CUANKILAL ATIN – BOOK’S URL: http://www.keqchi.org EMAIL: info@keqchi.com


4|K'eqchi Infinitive Verbs pajiink pajok pak'ok paqonk patz'ok payok pechok pech'ok pejok pek'ok pik'ok perrebānk pic'aank pisc'oonk pohiink pôok pub'aank pucasīnk puctasīnk puc'uk puk'uk pumubānk puquk purruk pushīnk putz'uk

to spill; scatter to break, smash, shatter; open way to break, smash; bend, twist to carry weight on the shoulders to ask, question, inquire; request to commission to roll up, wind, coil to carve, hew to tear, split, rip to splatter, splash, spatter to scrape off food from an utensil to extend, stretch flat to strike, hit; knock; beat to jump, bounce; skip; hop to epilepsy, falling sickness to break up, split, tear to fire, shoot, discharge to spread, disseminate, scatter to increase, multiply, augment to blow up; break; burst, pop to beat; whir; flap to fill; cover; crowd; occupy to sprinkle, scatter, dust to grind grains; mill to dust; shake off, clean to crush, squash, bruise

R rahobtesīnk raök rapok raqok rek'ok repok rinok rumuk

to make someone suffer to love, want, wish; like; feel like to hit; whip; beat to finish; end, conclude to lick; lap against to splatter, splash, spatter to stretch; be pulled, tighten to throw, toss over; waste

S sac'ok sachok saök salabānk saqobresīnk serek'īnk

to hit, beat; knock; smack to lose; waste; miss, fade to make thin, slim, slender; reduce to tilt, lean; tip, incline to make clean; bleach, whiten to talk, converse; chat, tell

setok shacuaank shajok shaqabānk shek'ok shelok sheriink shich'ok shipc'osīnk shitiink shocok shorrok shucuānk shujuk shulc'upisīnk shulubānk shushbānk shutuk sibeenk sic'ok silok sobök socuenānk sotobānk subük suk'isīnk sumeenk sumubānk sutuk

to cut; chop; slice to vomit, puke, throw up to dance to stand; raise, elevate, lift to butt, gore to crack, split; slit, gash; tear, rip to make smaller, reduce; lessen to oblige, compel; coerce to push forward; to darn, mend; repair; patch to save; collect, gather to make tortillas; flatten, roll, shape to be afraid of; fear, fright to break, smash; crack; fail; tear See Shipc’osink to turn head upside down to whistle; hiss; sing to wrap; cover; envelope, enfold to make/become smoky to search; seek, look, ask for to flay, skin, peel off to eat dry tortillas or bread to envy, begrudge; desire, covet to tuck in; lay down; lean, bend to sink, submerge; plunge, go down to return, give back; go back to reply, answer back; protest; respond to marry, wed; get married to enclose, surround, circle, encompass

T tachkîink tacuasīnk tamok tamresīnk t'anabānk t'anok taqeenk t'aqresīnk taqsiink teök tenebānk tenk'aank tenok terk'usīnk

to give bad advise or suggestion to tire, weary, fatigue; get tired to gather, collect, accumulate See Tamok to lie/lay down; lean, bend to throw down; drop; tumble to follow; chase; pursue; keep track of to wet; moisten; get wet to go up, ascend, climb; upload, lift to open; spread out; extend to oblige, compel to do sth. to help, aid, assist; support to strike, hit; knock; beat against sth. to increase the price; speculate prices

K’EQCHI TO ENGLISH VERBS GLOSSARY – Translation provided by George Max, November 2010. URL: http://www.deensp.com EMAIL: info@deensp.com


K'eqchi Infinitive Verbs |5 ticobresīnk tichcosïnk tic'tîink tijok tikibānk t'iök tiqcuasīnk tiqibānk tiqobank tiqok titz'ok tobök t'obok toch'ok tojok tolc'osīnk tolobānk topok toqok t'oqok tubaank tulaank tupusīnk t'usubānk tusuk tutz'uk tutz'ubānk t'uyubānk tzuqleenk tz'aök tz'ajniink tz'amaank tz'apok tz'eqok tz'eqtanānk tz'ibaank tz'ilok tz'obok tzolobānk tzolok tz'oyok tz'ubuk tz'uluk tz'uquk tyabaank tyabasīnk

to straighten, unbend; set upright to trip against sth., trip over to lie, prevaricate, tell a falsehood to pray; tech, instruct, educate; preach to begin, initiate, start; commence to kick, stamp; punch, poke to heat, make hot; warm to clothe, dress up; adorn, decorate to sweat, perspire; exude to add; append; attach, connect to bother; borrow soth. to clear; loosen, unbind, untie to eat into, eat away; wear away to touch, feel; hit, strike to pay to roll; knock down/over; wallow to extend; lay down, stretch out to jab, thrust, poke to break, smash; snap to throw away; discard to heap, pile up; accumulate to bewitch, charm, enchant to shorten, curtail, cut short to strip, undress, get undressed to order; arrange; sort, classify to elongate, lengthen; extend to make even; extend, stretch to hang up; suspend, droop to disarrange, mess up, disorganize to dip; wet, soak in water, saturate to make/get dirty; besmirch to ask, request; invite to close; cover, put the cork/lid on to lose; waste to despise, scorn; spurn, reject to write; spell; type on a keyboard to pass; strain, drain, percolate to sip; slurp; suck up; puff at/on to align, line up; put into line to learn, study; educate oneself to heat, make hot; warm to kiss, touch with the lips to braid, plait; twist; weave to drip, drizzle, dribble; drop; leak to cry, weep; grumble, wine to play a musical instrument; announce

tyacok tyalok tyamtesīnk tyamok tyatz'ok tyechîink tyehok tyek'ok tyibaank tyocbaank tyocobānk tyocosīnk tyoc'ok tyôleenk tyôonīnk tyuluk tyutuk tyûuk

to treat; bargain; deal, negotiate to test, attempt, try; taste to vacate; empty; evacuate; clear to pour water into a cup to squeeze; press; express; wring to offer, suggest; tender, bid to say, utter; tell; call; mention to trample, tread; poach; stamp on to fix, repair; compose, write to step on; step of the foot to tuck in; lay down; put to bed; lean to twist, turn; wring; warp, bend to cut; chop; slice; saw to keep vigil over; watch; keep watch over to wait for; expect; hope to spread; smear; anoint to wrap, pack; cover; envelop, enfold to stretch, extend, elongate; reach out

U uc'ak uc'miink uc'tasīnk ulâank ushtanānk utz'uk

to drink; drinking; consume liquids to commence, begin, start; initiate to give to drink; water; watering to visit, visit each other; receive guests to have mercy, compassion to smell; pry; smell out; sniff

INTRANSITIVE VERBS A acanak ajajnak ajk ak'tiink ak'uunk alabteik aleenk alinak atiink atinak at'isimak atzumak

to have a nightmare; bogey, bad dream to clear up; get light to awaken, wake up, arouse to burn; be parched to clothe, dress to sprout, burgeon, shoot to tempt, entice to run; go fast; hurry, rush to take a bath; shower; wash to speak, talk; communicate; chat to sneeze to flower, effloresce, bloom, blossom

B

ISH TUSBAL ISH CUANKILAL ATIN – BOOK’S URL: http://www.keqchi.org EMAIL: info@keqchi.com


6|K'eqchi Infinitive Verbs balak'ik balk'uunk batz'uunk bujok

to cheat, deceive, swindle; betray to turn around, rotate; turn over to play; play a game or sport; gamble to harden, toughen; stiffen; stubborn

c'ulubānk c'uluunk cuöbak cuotzoc cutlaak

to agree, concur; accept; consent to arrive, come (back), return to bark, yap; speak; yell to share, partake of; divide up to stand up

C E cablak to build; construct; erect, set up c'achiik to agonize, go through agonies c'achliik to crouch, bend over/down; stoop cacuünk to get ready; prepare; gear up c'ajbak the sound of leaves falling caqmoqīnk to redden, turn red, blush c'alek to graze; clear the land; scrub canaak to stay, remain; keep; become c'anjelak to work, labor; act c'atok to burn, incinerate; scorch; set fire catzok stinging, burning sensation c'ayk to accustom, get used to; inure chaalk to come (from); result from ch'ajok to wash up, bathe, wash, launder chaqik to dry up/out; get dry, whiter chuubak to spit (up/out), belch out ch'uklaak to seat, place in a seat; settle chunlaank to sit down; seat oneself, sit, settle ch'utlaak to gather; join, unite; coalesce; assembly chûuk to urinate, wet oneself; leak c'iliink to fry, burn; roast, toast c’irraak to heal, cure; get better, recover coclaak to start, begin; commence c'ojlaak to sit down, sit oneself, sit; settle down colbetāk to reserve, keep; set aside coloonk to defeat, beat; overcome; win c'onlak to bend, incurve; hook; bend down/over c'oshlak to think, conceive in the mind; believe c'osk to shorten, curtail; reduce, decrease c'otak to defecate cotzok to ease, relent; relax, let up cuâak to eat; destroy; wear away, corrode; consume; take a meal cuaark to sleep; fall asleep; spend the night cuacliik to get up, arise; rise cubeek to lower, reduce; go/step down c'ublaak to come to terms, settle; get ready/by cuik'laak to kneel (down); go/get down on one’s knees

elelik eleok'īnk elk elk'ak elk'eïk

to run away, flee, escape; fly by to germinate, develop; sprout, bud to get out, exit, leave; go/come out to steal, rob; draw; walk away to fast; diet

I ishimak itz'ok

to flail, thresh (corn); shed grains to crack, split; slit, tear, rip

J jalok jolc'ok jot'ok

to change to slip, skid; sideslip; slide to comb, brush; annoy, bother, harass

K k'aak k'ajk k'apliik k'ashoonk kêek k'ehik k'ilak k'ionk k'ishbak k'ishiink kisik k'unaak

to decay, putrefy; rot, decompose to return, move backward, go back to reach the top of a mountain; hill to relocate; move (in); shift to grind, mill, pound; crush to guess, predict; foresee, foretell; solve to thicken; become thick, make dense to straighten, unbend, flatten out; iron to eructate, burp, belch to heat up, warm up; get warm to fart; pass gas, expel gas to soften; ease up, abate; relax

L lajk lochteek lok'onīnk lubk luctaak

to wear away, waste; wear out to climb, clamber; trail to commune; take/receive communion to weary, tire; exhaust; get tired/bored to interlock; jam; lock; bind; tangle

K’EQCHI TO ENGLISH VERBS GLOSSARY – Translation provided by George Max, November 2010. URL: http://www.deensp.com EMAIL: info@deensp.com


K'eqchi Infinitive Verbs |7

M mashiink matyajak metz'ecuak mök musik'ak

to get old (wood); get moth-eaten to offer up; give, contribute, make offer to exert oneself, strain to germinate, develop; sprout, bud to respire, breathe, inhale and exhale

N nach'ok nujak numeenk

to approach, approximate, come near to become full; fill; satisfy to pass, go by, cross; go beyond

O ojobak ok okeenk

to cough; loudly expel air from the lungs to start, begin; commence, initiate to cooperate, join, take part; support

to jump; skip; leap, hop to slacken, loosen; ease to roast, broil, grill; barbecue to multiply, increase in number/quantity

Q

R rüuk

to be able (can, may, might); to be ready

S saak sachk salk'uuk saqeuk sêenk sêek seraqik shâcuak shajok shaqliik

to establish, settle; strike; take root to gasp; pant, wheeze to shift, slip to go, remove oneself, leave, depart to overthrow; overturn; tip over to play the flute; from sholb – flute to choke, suffocate; smother to fear; be afraid of; frighten to fall forward; overturn, overthrow to bend, bow, lean; incline, slope, tilt to whistle; hiss; sing to start, originate to smoke to swell up; become swollen, distend to undress; remove clothing to get married, wed, marry to become/get rounded to surround, encircle; turn over/around

T

P pisc'ok pojok pomok puctaak

shêenirk sheyank shiqaank shik shipc'ok sholbak shotc'ok shucuak shulc'upik shulk'ik shushbak siaak sic'lik sipook solok sumlaak surlaak sutuunk

to be scarce; run short; skimp to lose; mislay, misplace; fail to turn over/upside down; turn round to dawn; to wake up; daybreak to laugh; laugh at so. or sth. See Sêenk. to talk, converse; chat, tell to throw up, vomit; puke; repeat to dance; spin; go out dancing to stand up; stop, halt; stall

tacuaak taamk t'anliik t'aqaak t'ëok terk'uuk tichok tic'tîik tijok tiklaak tiqlaak t'ilk tishk tolc'ok tublaak tuqlaak tulaak tushmek t'uslaak tûuk t'uylaak tz'acabk tz'aqlok tz'aqonk form

to tire, weary, toil to join, unite; gather; coalesce to fall sick (in bed) to wet; moisten; get wet to comb/brush hair oneself to increase the price; speculate prices to jab, thrust, poke to lie, prevaricate, tell a falsehood to pray, praise or appeal to God to start, begin; commence to dress up; get ready/dressed to interlock; jam; lock; get stuck to age, grow older, mature to roll; stumble, fall forward to build up; accumulate; collect to come to terms, settle; get by to bewitch, charm, enchant to sprout, shoot; reappear, recur to get naked; impoverish; strip, denude to breastfeed, suckle; suck to hang, put up/down; suspend to build a block and concrete house to complete, finish, make whole, fill out to participate, take part of; intervene, in-

ISH TUSBAL ISH CUANKILAL ATIN – BOOK’S URL: http://www.keqchi.org EMAIL: info@keqchi.com


8|K'eqchi Infinitive Verbs tz'ibak tz'ocaak tz'uyak tyabak tyajerk tyamaak tyibök tyoklaak tyolaak tyoleek tyôonīnk tyotaak

to write; spell; compose; type in keyboard to be hungry; hunger, starvation to become tenacious; stubborn to cry, weep; lament; sound, ring to fall sick/ill; sicken; be taken ill to vacate; empty; evacuate; clear out to disgust; dislike; sicken; revolt to lay down; go/put to bed; lean, bend to be born, hatch; sprout, bud; originate to keep vigil; watch, keep watch over to expect, hope; wait for sth.; anticipate to heal, form a scar; heal a wound

DATE PUBLISHED: November 22, 2010.

U ulâak ushk

to visit, come over; spend time with so. to do, make; perform

W wülak

to arrive, come; reach

LAST DATE MODIFIED: November 22, 2010

K’EQCHI TO ENGLISH VERBS GLOSSARY – Translation provided by George Max, November 2010. URL: http://www.deensp.com EMAIL: info@deensp.com

K'EQCHI - ENGLISH Verbs Glossary  

A K'eqchi to English Verbs Glossary. It includes transitive and instransitive verbs translated to English.

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