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POULTRY TECHNICAL GUIDE INDIGENOUS CHICKENS MANAGEMENT


This manual is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID.) The contents of this manual are the sole responsibility of FIPS-Africa and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.

This manual is the property of FIPS-Africa and USAID. Kindly seek permission and reference FIPS-Africa and USAID accordingly before reproducing material in this document or using our logo. Write all emails to Raymond Jumah: farminputpromotionsafrica@gmail.com


FORWARD KENYA AGRICULTURAL AND LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE KALRO KAKAMEGA P.O. Box 169-50100, Tel. 056-30031 Fax: 056-30031, E-mail: KALROKakamega@yahoo.co.uk

Forward: Soya Beans Technical Guide Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Institute (KALRO) is a premier National Research Institution contributing development through generation of new knowledge and innovation. Among one of the important oil seed crops with potential to transform the livelihoods of farmers is soybean.


Soybean is a crop of high nutritive value in human diet, income generation and in soil fertility improvement in tropical cropping systems. In western Kenya, soybean production is becoming popular with smallholder farmers who are the major producers. Yields obtained by small scale producers are low due to existing knowledge gap on production, marketing and utilization. To meet these challenges, this technical guide comes at the right time to provide the small scale producers with information on improved varieties, production management practices including: seed selection, land preparation, use of more affordable Biofix fertilizers, planting, pest and disease management, harvesting and storage. It is also important for small scale producers to know how to aggregate soybean production and have good links with local and national markets for selling and marketing of their produce; and how to eat and utilize soya. We are confident that this FIPS-Africa and KALRO Kakamega partnership will be enhanced further to alleviate the many problems the small scale farmers face soybean production in western Kenya ad in other parts of the Country. Thank you

Dr. Joyce Maling’a Centre Director, KALRO Kakamega


CONTENTS FORWARD................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................................................................................................... 6 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER 1.

INDIGENOUS CHICKEN MULTIPLICATION ................................................................................. 8

Features of a healthy and good egg-layer ................................................................................................................. 8 How to choose a good cock ............................................................................................................................................. 9 How to increase egg production ................................................................................................................................. 10 Egg grading and handling to maximize hatchability .......................................................................................... 11 Egg grading and handling for hatching. ................................................................................................................... 12 Taking care of broody hens .......................................................................................................................................... 12 Broody hens management ............................................................................................................................................ 14 Chick management ........................................................................................................................................................... 16 CHAPTER 2.

FEEDING INDIGENOUS CHICKEN ................................................................................................. 18

How to make home-made rations.............................................................................................................................. 20 CHAPTER 3.

HOUSING CHICKEN ............................................................................................................................. 32

Qualities of a good house ............................................................................................................................................... 32 CHAPTER 4.

BREEDS AND BREEDING .................................................................................................................. 38


Breeds.................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Chicken breeding .............................................................................................................................................................. 41 CHAPTER 5.

CHICKEN DISEASES AND DISEASE CONTROL......................................................................... 45

Disease control in chicken houses. ............................................................................................................................ 46 Vaccination .......................................................................................................................................................................... 48 CHAPTER 6.

GENERATING INCOME THROUGH BUYING AND SELLING CHICKENS ......................... 63

Identifying a buyer and negotiating on price ........................................................................................................ 63 Managing supply ............................................................................................................................................................... 64 Incentivizing your farmers ........................................................................................................................................... 64 Cash-flow.............................................................................................................................................................................. 64 Common challenges in chicken trading ................................................................................................................... 64 CHAPTER 7.

FLOCK MANAGEMENT (CULLING)............................................................................................... 66

CHAPTER 8.

RECORD KEEPING ............................................................................................................................... 67

Chicken breeding record ............................................................................................................................................... 68 Poultry business record ................................................................................................................................................. 69 Chicken vaccination record .......................................................................................................................................... 70 LIST OF REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................................... 71


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This poultry guide was made possible with support from the American people delivered through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of FIPS-Africa and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of USAID or the U.S. Government. FIPS-Africa is also very grateful to the contribution of the following people, partners and organizations: Dr. Anne Wachira (KALRO Naivasha) and her team for her close guidance on feed formulation, breeding strategies and general management of indigenous chicken FAO for their invaluable images and information on improved chicken management The Ministry of Agriculture County staff of Kitui, Machakos, Makueni, Embu, Tharaka-Nithi, Busia and Siaya Dr. Jane Wachira (KEVAVAPI) and her team for their support, training and input on Newcastle disease control and use of I-2 thermostable vaccine Mr. Malombe of Life Technologies Ltd. for his input and advice on the reconstituted I-2 thermo-stable vaccine Infonet Biovision for guidelines on chicken management Brentec Vaccines Ltd. (Uganda) for their detailed information on poultry diseases


INTRODUCTION Farm Input Promotions Africa’s (FIPS-Africa) vision is to achieve food security for all small-holder farmers. Chicken is important to the livelihoods of rural farmers, particularly to women. In many of the poorest households, chickens are the only livestock that the household owns, so by working with indigenous chickens, we’re able to include almost everybody. Farmers however lack necessary information on the proper management of their chicken and often lose them to diseases (mostly Newcastle) and predators. Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most significant constraints to indigenous chicken production in sub-Saharan Africa. When Newcastle Disease attacks, it can kill 100% of chicks and 60-90% of adult chickens. Predators, such as birds-of-prey and mongoose are the other major constraint to chicken production as they regularly invade the young chicks when left to scavenge with the mother hens. If farmers can control both Newcastle Disease and predators, then their chicken population can increase rapidly. These are quick and costeffective ways to lift household income and livelihoods in our target villages. FIPS-Africa’s main interventions are chicken vaccination, advice on chicken confinement, and introduction of improved indigenous chicken breeds. This has been in collaboration with Kenya Agricultural Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Ministry of Agriculture and Kenya Veterinary Vaccines Production Institute (KEVAVAPI). FIPS Village-based Advisors (VBAs) earn an income through offering vaccination against Newcastle disease and training farmers on chicken management. This manual offers a guideline to VBAs and District Coordinators on how to help small-scale farmers to improve production of indigenous chicken. It is aimed to assist network coordinators and VBAs during trainings. The VBA trainers and the VBAs are to pick relevant topics according to training needs during trainings. Topics addressed are: i. ii. iii. iv.

Indigenous chicken multiplication and breeding Formulating chicken feeds using locally available feed ingredients How to construct a good chicken house Disease and disease control


CHAPTER 1. INDIGENOUS CHICKEN MULTIPLICATION Most farmers are unable to multiply their chicken and end up keeping the same numbers over the years. To achieve food security and earn an extra income, you need to gradually increase the number of chickens. To multiply your chicken you need to know how to:  Select good laying hens  Select a healthy and a good cock  Increase egg production in your hens  Grade and handling to maximize hatchability  Properly manage broody hens  Practice serial hatching  Properly manage chicks

FEATURES OF A HEALTHY AND GOOD EGG-LAYER  Check whether hens are in lay. The distance between the pubic bones will be equal to two fingers when a hen is in lay (Figure 1). If a hen is not in lay, only one finger will pass between the pubic bones (Figure 2)


Pubic bone

Breast bone

FIGURE 1: TWO FIGURES GO THROUGH PUBIC BONES FOR HEN IN LAY

FIGURE 2: ONLY ONE FINGURE GO THROUGH BETWEEN PUBIC BONES OF A HEN NOT IN LAY

 Select healthy and good hens.  Good laying hens are ‘boat-shaped’ with a long straight back, have legs that are less colored, a breast bone that is not too sharp and a broad bottom  Meat producers are long legged, in a more upright position and wings in high position on he body  In most breeds, hens for meat, eggs and the dual purpose (for both eggs and meat) have different shapes  A dual-purpose breed is a form in between the meat producers and the layers, although much less heavy in body form and size.

FIGURE 3: HEN FOR EGGS

FIGURE 4: HEN FOR MEAT

FIGURE 5: HEN FOR EGGS AND MEAT


HOW TO CHOOSE A GOOD COCK  1 cock for every 10 hens to ensure that the eggs laid by the hens are fertile and also not to exhaust the cock.  Choose a medium size cock. If the cockerel is too big (more than 5 Kg); its weight may damage the bones of the hen when mating. If the hen is hurt then mating will not be successful and may not be able to mate easily in future. This will reduce your egg production and fertility from the hen Select a cock that is large in size relative to the size of the hen.  Select a cock that is alert and have a protective nature  Choose a fertile cock less than 2 years old. You can tell the cock is old because the 4th toe grows longer  Older cocks will be less successful at mating and hens might end up laying infertile eggs

FIGURE 6: A GOOD COCK

FIGURE 7: AN OLD COCK

HOW TO INCREASE EGG PRODUCTION


 Put marked egg dummy or stones that looks like eggs in the nest to show the hens where to lay eggs (Figure 8). This trains/attracts hens to lay eggs in the same place and reduce the number of eggs laid in hidden places  Remove the eggs once they are laid each day and leave the dummy the hens think that it still needs to lay more eggs before incubating

egg. This will make

 Give the hens the appropriate feeds for their stage in the laying laying need more energy giving feeds and calcium in their diet than page 18).

cycle. Hens that are at other times (see

 Ensure proper housing to the laying hens and clean laying nests dirty and cracked eggs

FIGURE 8: A DUMMY EGG

 Control diseases and pests to ensure maximum productivity (page

EGG GRADING AND HANDLING TO MAXIMIZE HATCHABILITY

inside to avoid 45)


 Place laying boxes (1 laying box is enough to be shared by 4-5 hens) in a dark quiet part of the chicken house. Each laying box should measure 1 ft by 1.5 ft  Put soft material such as dry grass or wood shavings to prevent eggs from cracking (Figure 9)  Since hens usually lay eggs during the day, do not let the hens out until most of the eggs are laid (about mid day)  Collect eggs daily and leave the marked dummy to train the hens into using the laying nest  Write the date when the egg is laid with a pen/pencil so that you can be able to identify eggs that were recently laid and the old one, so that when selecting eggs for hatching you incubate the most recently laid eggs. (Figure 10). Eggs that are 7-10 days old from time of lay are good for incubation.

FIGURE 9: LAYING BOXES SPREAD WITH DRY GRASS

 Store eggs with the broad end facing upwards since it contains an air sack, through which the embryo (chick in the egg) breathes. If the broad end faces downward or sideways, the breathing openings may block the embryo ) dies (Figure 12)  Store eggs in a clean and dry place to avoid spoilage  Do not wash eggs as this would expose the pores (small egg openings) and leads to contamination.  Keep eggs in a cool dark room to avoid spoilage


FIGURE 12: EGGS STORED SHARP SIDE UP

FIGURE 10: WRITE THE DATE ON THE EGG

FIGURE 11: STORE EGGS WITH THE BROAD SIDE UP

EGG GRADING AND HANDLING FOR HATCHING.  Select eggs that are not more than 7-10 days old  When hens start laying their first eggs, the first ones may not be viable. Select eggs laid after the first 5 days  Select medium sized and normal shaped eggs. Small eggs might hatch smaller chicks while large eggs might hatch abnormal chicks  Do not select cracked eggs because bacteria can enter the egg through the cracks or egg can lose moisture (water) through the cracks leading to spoilage(Figure 13Error! Reference source not found.)  Check if the eggs are fertile against sharp light from a torch or candling lamp in a dark room (Figure 14). This is called candling FIGURE 13: AVOID CRACKED EGGS FOR HATCHING


TAKING CARE OF BROODY HENS A

FIGURE 14: CANDLING

FIGURE 16: FERTILE EGG

B

FIGURE 15: INFERTILE EGG

C

FIGURE 17: DEAD EMBRYO

When a broody hen is well taken care of, it hatches more and healthier chicks (Figure 20) than when not well taken care of (Figure 21)  The number of eggs to be set for hatching will be determined by the size of the hen. The bigger the hen the more the setting eggs, the smaller the hens the less the eggs. (Figure 18)

 Do not disturb broody hens. Keep the hens in a separate house or in a quiet dark corner of the main chicken house  Provide access to water and feed throughout (Figure 19); poor feeding may lead to hens abandoning the eggs set before hatching  Make sure the hatching nests and the house are clean. Parasites such as mites and lice may cause hens to abandon eggs before they hatch  After hatching, clean and disinfect the hatching area. Remove and burn all the egg shells. If chickens consume the egg shells, they might eat their own eggs after laying


FIGURE 18: HATCHING EGGS SHOULD BE WELL COVERED BY THE HATCHING HEN.

FIGURE 19: PROVIDE CLEAN WATER AND FEEDS NEAR THE HATCHING HEN

FIGURE 20: HENS THAT ARE WELL TAKEN CARE OF HATCH MORE AND HEALTHY CHICKS


FIGURE 21: HENS THAT ARE NOT WELL TAKEN CARE OF HATCH FEWER AND UNHEALTHY CHICKS

BROODY HENS MANAGEMENT i.

Make hens hatch at the same time (synchronization)

If you have large number of hens laying and others are broody it is good to synchronize your hens to become broody at the same time and ha chicks at the same time. This will make it easier to manage in terms of feeding and vaccination programs and also marketing  Identify hens that start laying eggs within the same period. The time between the 1st hen and the last should not be more than one week  Delay hens that show signs of broodiness earlier by giving each of them one dummy egg to sit on. These dummy eggs should be clearly marked to differentiate with the real eggs. as in Figure 8  When all hens are ready to incubate, remove the dummy eggs and destroy them


 Provide the eggs for incubation to the broody hens at the same time  Enough

 FIGURE 22 )

space

should

be

provided

to

avoid

over-crowding

e.g.

put

them

one

foot

apart

(


FIGURE 22: ALLOW GOOD SPACING BETWEEN BOXES

ii.

Make hens sit for more than one batch of eggs within a short period/serial hatching

 Watch your hens closely and get to know which ones are the good sitters  Select hens that like sitting on eggs i.e. hens that do not leave eggs for a long time while incubating and wait till the last chick is hatched  After hatching, remove the chicks at night and replace them with another fresh batch of eggs iii.

Substitute hens with other birds for hatching

 Birds like turkeys, ducks or guinea fowls can be substituted for hatching hens to hatch chicks; this frees the hens to lay more eggs (Figure 23 & Figure 24)  Turkeys and ducks can sit on many eggs up to 30 and can be used for up to 6 consecutive times


iv.

Remove the hens are hatched

chicks from after they

 If you have a (see how to page 32) be separated mother hen

way to brood keep them on chicks should with the immediately

 This helps the back to routine so it become

mother go normal can lay or broody

FIGURE 23: ATURKEY SIITING ON EGGS

FIGURE 24: A DUCK SITTING ON EGGS

 If you don’t have a way to keep them warm then leave them with the mother hen until they are 2 weeks old. At 2 weeks, the chicks have developed feathers to keep them warm  Keep the chicks separate and provide feeds and water (see how to feed them under page 18). This; 

Reduces feeding competition for young chicks with older chicks

Reduces risks of young chicks getting sick from older birds as they have low immunity

CHICK MANAGEMENT After hatching large number of chicks as shown in the above sections, you need to make sure that they survive to maturity.


The main causes of death of young chicks are listed below along with page numbers in this guide that show actions that can be taken to increase chick survival TABLE 1: COMMON CAUSES OF CHICKEN DEATHS

Common causes of chick death

Number of chicks that could die out of 10

Ways to prevent death

Page number with advice

Potential saving through prevention

Predators e.g. eagles

7

Confine chicks

32

7 x 300 = KES 2,100

Cold

5

Use a lamp/jiko or infra red bulb to keep chicks warm

16

5 x 300 = KES 1,500

Food/ digestion

4

Give special attention to diet in early stage, including paraffin and anti-coccidiostat

18

4 x 300= KES 1,200

Newcastle disease

10

Vaccination

45

10 x 300 = 3,000

Management of day old to 4 week old chicks

FIGURE 25: A HEN WITH MANY CHICKS

FIGURE 26: HEN WITH FEW 3 WEEKS OLD CHICKS

ď ś Remove chicks from the mother immediately or 2 weeks after they are hatched if you do not have a way of keeping them warm


 Keep chicks confined for the first 4 weeks to protect from predators (see page 32)  Clean the chicken house before bringing the young chicks  Place wood shavings on the floor to regulate floor temperature and stop chicks getting cold  On arrival to the farm or for chicks immediately separated from the mother, give 1 t-spoon of liquid paraffin dissolved in 0.3 l lukewarm water (for 10 chicks). Add a table-spoon of glucose to the water and dissolve. This clears the chicks intestines so that it is able to eat  Show the chicks how to drink by lowering one by one to the feeder and make sure they drink. Give them rest for 2 hours  Give chick mash for 6-8 weeks. Provide clean water to the chicks  After 4 weeks, you can make home-made ration for chicks (page 22)  Vaccinate the chicks according to the program. (

e.g. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Name of the farmer

Contact

Village

Eunice Njeri

0723 xxx 405

Malava

1st vaccination No. of Date chicken 20

2nd vaccination No. of Date chicken

3rd vaccination No. of Date chicken

4th vaccination No. of Date chicken


13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


 ). The first vaccination for Newcastle disease is in the 7th day, then 6 weeks later, then at 18 months old and then every 3 months  Give quality feed and enough water that is kept clean  Keep young chicks warm by providing sufficient heating source (e.g. a lamp) to supply warmth until the age of 4 weeks or more when it is cold (page 32)  Reduce the heat after 5 days. Chicks can survive without the heat source after about 2 weeks

CHAPTER 2. FEEDING INDIGENOUS CHICKEN As chicken numbers increase, they may not be able to find enough food by roaming around. At certain times it is wise to keep chickens confined (during planting, when beans are flowering, or when hens are sitting and laying). It may be necessary to give feed to your chickens. Proper feeding ensures that your chicken:  Resist diseases and parasite  Increase production of meat and eggs How to feed your chicken with affordable and quality feed  Most feeds fed to poultry may not be balanced diet, hence the chicken may not fetch much in the market  Many farmers supplement the free-range diet of their chickens by adding maize alone, but maize alone doesn’t have enough nutrition to let chickens perform at their best.  Chickens’ bodies have different needs at different stages. For example, when a young chicken is growing and putting on weight, it needs a high protein diet to help it reach selling


size of 1.6 to 2 kg quickly. Mature hens that are laying eggs needs a balanced diet of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals so they can produce and lay many eggs  Quality feeds need to have all of the following foods TABLE 2: FOODS IMPORTANT FOR CHICKENS

Food

Used for

Sources

Carbohydrates

Energy

Maize, sorghum, finger millet, millet, sweet potatoes or cassava

Proteins

Growth and reproduction

Cowpeas, green grams, termites, ants, wheat bran, maize bran, soya, beans, fishmeal (omena), dried blood and earthworms

Vitamins

Boosting immunity

Vegetables and grass (weeds). Always hang vegetables in the chicken house when there is not enough grass to scavenge

Minerals (Calcium & Phosphorous)

Egg-shell and bone production for layers

Dried bones, burned eggshells

Minerals  Calcium and phosphorous are the most important minerals  Calcium helps in bone and egg shell formation hence laying chicken need a lot of it  Allow chickens (from 3-4 weeks) to roam around so they can find the minerals they need  Sources of calcium are commercial DCP (from agro-vets) and burnt, crushed bones (Figure 27)  Chickens that lack calcium may start eating their eggs and pecking each other (Figure 28)

FIGURE 27: BURN AND CRUSH BONES FOR CALCIUM

FIGURE 28: HENS THAT LACK CALCIUM MAY PECK EACH OTHER

Water  Provide water in a specific position. Water should be provided in plenty (see Table 3)  Change water at least 2 times every day to keep it clean and fresh 25


 Commercial water feeders can also be bought in the nearby market (Figure 29)  To avoid water wastage, hung the drinkers such that it is at the same level as the chicken’s back  You can make a simple drinker from old plastic containers (Figure 30)

FIGURE 29: A COMMERCIAL DRINKER

FIGURE 30: AN IMPROVISED DRINKER

TABLE 3: WATER REQUIREMENT FOR CHICKEN

Age (weeks)

Daily amount(litres) per 10 birds

0-1

0.3

2-4

1.0

4-9

2.0

9 and above

2.5

Layers

5.0

HOW TO MAKE HOME-MADE RATIONS Commercial feeds have the nutrients that chickens need at different life stages, so the food is different for chicks, growers and layers. It is possible to make feeds from locally available ingredients which are more affordable than commercial feeds that still have the correct nutrition for your birds. i.

Check the local availability and prices of ingredients and re-calculate the cost of producing a batch/ bag

26


ii.

Ensure the feed ingredients are dry so that they are easy to grind

iii.

Make sure there are no moulds in the food stuff as moulds can be toxic to chicken or reduce their growth

iv.

Take them to the posho mill for grinding or ask the nearby jua kali to make you a simple grinder (current price in both Eastern and Western jua kali shops is KES.3,500)(Figure 31)

v.

Thoroughly mix the different feeds according to the tables shown above

REMEMBER:  Do not overfeed the chicken  Chicken will put on weight as long as they feed

FIGURE 31: A JUA KALI GRINDER

SIMPLE FEED MIXING FOR SUPPLIMENTING INDEGINOUS CHICKS Smallholder farmers can use the ratio in the table below to give their chicken a balanced diet with locally available food sources. TABLE 4: SIMPLE RATION FOR SUPPLIMENT LOCAL CHICKS (KALRO)

Source

Quantity

Starch/ Carbohydrates

Cassava/maize/sorghum

1 kg tin

Protein

Soya/ cowpeas/green grams/beans

1 kg tin

Calcium

Bone meal

2 match boxes

Fats

Omena/sunflower/sesame/ground nut

1 match box

Vitamin

Dry vegetables

2 match boxes

Points to consider when doing simple feed mixing:  Advisable to make semi balanced feed for small chicks from 0-6 weeks  Ingredients should be dried in the shade  Crush or grind grains for proper mixing  Use local containers to measure those ingredients

27


 Prepare enough to feed your chickens for a few weeks at a time. Storing for long times could reduce the quality and lead to contamination  Above 8 weeks of age, poultry can either be fed using o

Mixed feeds that are designed for growing birds (combined with free range)

o

A cafeteria system to save energy and time in mixing the feeds

CAFETERIA FEEDING SYSTEM OF LOCAL POULTRY Cafeteria feeding system is used for birds above 8weeks old; mature chicken have a mechanism in their body that alerts them what food nutrient they should eat. Mature indigenous chicken are raised on free range system where they scavenge for various food nutrients; they may not get all the nutrients while they are scavenging. To supplement the missing nutrients, a cafeteria system can be used in the evening to allow chickens to top up with the missing nutrients. Since a farmer cannot know what is missing, the farmer should place different feeds (not mixed), each on its own compartment in a feed trough as shown in the table below. Points to remember for cafeteria feeding system:  Suitable for birds above 8 weeks of age where various types of feeds are offered separately  Adult birds are able to mix their feeds according to their needs  Feeders are divided into separate compartments Energy rich

Protein rich

Mineral rich

Oil rich

e.g. maize, millet, cassava, sorghum

e.g. beans, peas, soya, green grams

e.g. bone meal

E.g. used cooking oil. ground omena, sunflower seeds

Some problems related to feed ingredients  Fish – in chicken feed can give fishy taste to meat and eggs  Cassava – many local varieties contains cyanide which is toxic

CHICKEN FEED FORMULATIONS The sections below show alternative recipes for making feeds for chickens with ingredients that should be available in different parts of Kenya. The approximate cost of production is given at the time the manual was written. However, prices of the ingredients can change throughout the year 28


and from market to market. It is therefore important for VBAs to do their own calculations about the cost of making chick mash in their own area.

FEEDS FOR 0-2 MONTHS CHICKS

Recipes for home-made chick-mash are shown in the tables below. TABLE 5: METHOD 1–MAIZE – SOYA CHICK MASH

Ingredient

Percentage (%)

Amount to prepare 50kg bag

67 Maize 33.5 kg 22 Soya beans 11 kg 10 Fish meal (omena) 5 kg Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available) Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) 150 g 0.30 Chick mash premix 280 g 0.55 25 g Salt 0.05 0.05 25 g Salinomycin/Adamycin for chick formula 25 g Mycosorb/toxin binder 0.05 100% Total 50 kg

Approx cost of per Kg 25 50 25

Cost for 50 kg bag 838 550 125

400 45 25 240 400 32

60 13 1 6 10 1,603

TABLE 6: METHOD 2–MAIZE – CASSAVA –SOYA CHICK MASH

Approx cost of per Kg 27 Maize 13.5 kg 25 40 Cassava (dried) 20 Kg 20 22 Soya 11 kg 50 10 Fish meal (omena) 5 kg 25 Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available) Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) 150 g 400 0.30 Chick mash premix 280 g 45 0.55 25 g 25 Salt 0.05 0.05 25 g 240 Salinomycin/Adamycin for chick formula 25 g 400 Mycosorb/toxin binder 0.05 100% Total 50 kg 30 Ingredient

Percentage (%)

Amount for 50 kg bag

Cost for 50 kg bag 338 400 550 125 60 13 1 6 10 1,503

29


TABLE 7: METHOD 2 - MAIZE /SORGHUM – OTHER LEGUMES CHICK MASH

Percentage (%)

Approx cost of per Kg 47 Maize 23.5 kg 25 20 Sorghum 10 kg 20 10 Beans/greengrams 5 kg 40 10 Cowpeas 5 kg 20 12 Blood meal 6 kg Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available) Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) 150 g 400 0.30 Chick mash premix 280 g 45 0.55 25 g 25 Salt 0.05 0.05 25 g 240 Salinomycin/Adamycin for chick formula 25 g 400 Mycosorb/toxin binder 0.05 100% Total 50 kg 24 Ingredient

Amount for 50 kg bag

Cost for 50 kg bag 588 200 200 100

60 13 1 6 10 1,178

 When confined, one indigenous chick will eat 2 kg of food during the first 2 months o

90 g of feed during the 1st month at a cost of KES 3 per chick 

o

1st week 12 g; 2nd week 18 g; 3rd week 25 g; 4th week 35 g

1.9 kg of feed during the 2nd month at a cost of KES 61 per chick

TABLE 8: FEED REQUIREMENT FOR 0-2 MONTHS OLD CHICKS

Age

Amount of feed for 1 chick

Week 1

12 g

Week 2

18 g

Week 3

25 g

Week 4

35 g

Week 4- week 8 Total for 2 months

1.091 g 2 kg

 For 100 chicks fed entirely on chick-mash, this is 200 kg over 2 months .For the Maize/Soya chick-mash in  Recipes for home-made chick-mash are shown in the tables below.

30


 Table 5, this will cost approximately KES 64 per chick for 2 months or KES 6,400 for 100 chicks  In April 2014, a commercially available chick mash cost about KES 55 per Kg. Using the home-made chick mash instead of commercial chick mash can therefore save approximately KES 46 per chick or KES 4,600 per 100 chicks  You can reduce the cost by allowing chicks to scavenge once they are big enough to avoid being eaten by birds (about 3 – 4 weeks old).  If chicks are fed entirely on chick-mash for the first month, then find half of their food through scavenging for the 2nd month, this will reduce the total amount of food to 1 kg1 per bird and the cost to KES 32 per bird

FEEDS FOR GROWERS

Recipes for home-made grower’s mash are shown in the tables below TABLE 9: METHOD 1MAIZE – SOYA GROWERS MASH

Percentage Cost Ingredient (%) Amount for 50 kg bag per kg 72 25 Maize 36 kg 20 50 Soya beans 10kg 5 25 Fish meal (omena) 2.5 kg Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available) Limestone Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) Growers premix 1

1.3 1 0.55

650 g 500 g 280 g

480 400 45

Price per 50 kg bag 900 500 62.5

312 200 13

Actual amount is 1.040 kg = 1,040 g 31


Salt Salinomycin/Adamycin for chick formula Mycosorb/toxin binder

0.05

Total

100

0.05 0.05

25 g

25

1

25 g

240

6

25 g

400 40

10 2,005

50 KG

TABLE 10: METHOD 2–MAIZE – CASSAVA –SOYA GROWERS MASH

Ingredient Maize Cassava Soya Fish meal (omena)

Percentage (%) 32 40 20 5

Amount for 50 kg bag

Approx cost of per Kg

16 kg 20kg 10 kg 1 kg

25 20 50 25

Cost for 50 kg bag 400 400 500 25

480 400 45 25 240 400 37

312 200 13 1 6 10 1,867

Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available) Limestone (Mayai formula) Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) Growers premix

Salt Salinomycin/Adamycin for chick formula Mycosorb/toxin binder

1.3 1 0.55 0.05 0.05 0.05

650 g 500 g 280 g 25 g 25 g 25 g

Total

100

50 KG

TABLE 9: METHOD 2 - MAIZE /SORGHUM – OTHER LEGUMES GROWERS MASH

Ingredient

Percentage (%)

Amount for 50 kg bag

Approx cost of per Kg

41 Maize 20.5 kg 30 Sorghum 15 kg 10 Beans/green grams 5 kg 10 Cowpeas 5 kg 6 Blood meal 3 kg Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available)

25 20 40 20 -

Limestone (Mayai formula) Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) Growers premix

480 400 45 25

Salt

1.3 1 0.55 0.05

650 g 500 g 280 g 25 g

Cost for 50 kg bag 512.5 300 200 100

312 200 13 1

32


Salinomycin/Adamycin for chick formula Mycosorb/toxin binder

0.05 0.05

25 g 25 g

Total

100

50 KG

240 400 33

6 10 1,655

 When confined most birds will eat 5 Kg of growers mash from 3rd to 5th months  If well fed on a balanced specialized diet and well managed, the growing chicken should be able to reach a market weight of 2 Kg by the age of 5 months  If you use un-specialized feeds or a completely free-range diet, it can take approximately 68 months to reach a market weight of 2 Kg  Most farmers let birds find part of their feed by roaming around and only supplement with mash. If your birds roam around, you may only need to feed birds half as much (2.5 kg)  If you provide half the necessary food with specialized chick-mash and growers-mash and half from free-roaming, then the bird can reach sales weight of 2 Kg after 5-7 months  For 100 growing birds, use an average of 5.5 kg per day. This is five 1 kg and one ½ kg tins per day  Between the ages of 3 months and 5 months, a growing local chick (given all of its food) will eat 5 kg of growers mash  If the chickens can find half of their food by roaming around, then this will only require 2.5 kg per bird over 3 months  If you are rearing 100 chicks to a weight of 2 kg for selling meat over 5 months, you will therefore need about 500 kg of growers mash over 3 months  Using the maize/ soya feed in Table 9, this will cost approximately KES 200 per bird for 3 months. If the chickens find half of their food roaming around, then this will only cost KES 100 per bird  If you are producing birds for sale, it is sensible to sell them once they reach mature weight of 2 kg which is the market weight, because after this, they will gain less weight or more for each Kg of food and you start operating at a loss  The decision on when to sell may also be affected by local price variations

33


FEEDS FOR LAYERS

Indigenous chickens do not lay eggs throughout; they break after laying for about 2 weeks. Give layers mash to hens that are laying. Layers need a high carbohydrate diet. A special layers diet can increase the number of eggs laid by your hens from 10 to 20 per month if the hens are under proper management. TABLE 11: METHOD 1-MAIZE – SOYA LAYERS MASH

Percentage (%) Ingredient Maize Soya beans Fish meal (omena)

75 16 5

Price per kg Amount for 50 kg bag 37.5 kg 8 kg 2.5 kg

25 50 25

Price per 50 kg bag 937 400 63

34


Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available) Limestone (Mayai formula) Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) Layers premix

Salt Salinomycin/Adamycin chick formula Mycosorb/toxin binder Total

for

1.5 2 0.35 0.05

750 g 1 kg 180 g 25 g

480 400 45 25

360 400 8 1

0.05

25 g

240

66

0.05

25 g 50 kg

400 45

10 2,245

100%

TABLE 12: METHOD 2–MAIZE – CASSAVA –SOYA LAYERS MASH

Percentage (%)

Price per kg

Ingredient Amount for 50 kg bag 35 Maize 17.5 kg 40 Cassava 20 kg 16 Soya beans 8 kg 5 Fish meal (omena) 2.5 kg Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available) Limestone (Mayai formula) Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) Layers premix

Salt Salinomycin/Adamycin for chick formula Mycosorb/toxin binder Total

1.5 2 0.35 0.05 0.05 0.05 100%

750 g 1 kg 180 g 25 g 25 g 25 g 50 kg

25 20 50 25

Price per 50 kg bag 437 400 400 63

480 400 45 25 240 400 43

360 400 8 1 66 10 2,145

Price per kg

Price per 50 kg 437.5 400 200 100 50

TABLE 13: METHOD 2 – MAIZE/SORGHUM – LEGUMES LAYERS MASH

Percentage (%)

Ingredient Amount for 50 kg bag 35 25 Maize 17.5 kg 40 20 Sorghum 20 kg 10 40 Beans/ green grams 5 kg 10 20 Cowpeas 5 kg 5 25 Blood meal 2kg Optional important ingredients (source from local agro-vets if available) Limestone (Mayai formula) Di-Calcium Phosphate (DCP) Layers premix

Salt

1.5 2 0.35 0.05

750 g 1 kg 180 g 25 g

480 400 45 25

360 400 8 0.6

35


Salinomycin/Adamycin for chick formula Mycosorb/toxin binder

0.05 0.05 100%

Total

25 g 25 g 50 kg

240 400 41

66 10 2,032

 1 laying hen will eat 120 g per day. For 10 hens use 1.2 kg per day  In one month, 10 laying hens will therefore eat 36 kg of feed. Using the maize/ soya feed in Table 11, this will cost KES 1,620  If the laying hen finds half of its food by roaming, the amount of food supplied will be reduced to 60 g per hen per day and the cost of feeding 10 hens for 1 month will reduce to KES 810.  If 10 hens produce 20 eggs each over the month, then they will give 200 eggs TABLE 14: FEED REQUIREMENT FOR LAYERS

Number of hens Amount of feed

Cost of maize/soya feed (KES)

Cost of half maize/soya feed when scavenging (KES)

1 hen

120 g per day

5

2.50

10 hens

36 kg per month

1,620

810

36


CHEAP SOURCES OF PROTEIN (TERMITES & MAGGOTS) Termites and maggots are also a good source of proteins for your chicken to be added to your home made feeds. i.

How to harvest termites

 Dig a 1 foot deep hole. The width and length depends on you e.g. 1 foot by 1 foot  Tie a pile crop residues together such as beans stalks (a)  Dip the pile in water and put it in the hole (b)  Cover the pile with green materials and then cover with soil (c)  Leave it for 3 days.  Empty the termites in front of the hen house in the morning (d)

FIGURE 32: HOW TO TRAP TERMITES

OR  Dig several ½ to 1 foot deep holes around the compound. The width and length depends on you e.g. 1x2 m  Sprinkle manure in the bottom and wet it  Cover with grasses and leave for 1 day  Lift the grasses in the morning and the termites will be crawling on the manure  Let the chicken come and eat especially in the mornings and evenings ii.

How to produce maggots

 Fill half of a 10 liter tin with easy to rot materials such as overripe mangoes and bananas, kitchen waste and rotting vegetables (Figure 33)  Fill 1/3 of the pot with water and leave it under a shade. Put it away from people as it gives bad smell  Flies will lay their eggs in the mixture and maggots hatch and feed on the mixture 37


 Leave the pot open during daytime and closed during the night  After 5 - 10 days (depending on temperature) the maggots will be ready to pupate  Collect the maggots by gently pouring water into the pot  The maggots will float and you can then wash them and feed them directly to the birds  If you have birds of different ages, first feed the maggots to the growers since they need a lot of proteins. The 10 litre pot can provide protein for 40 growers for a week  Thoroughly clean the pot and do not use it to prepare food for people

FIGURE 33: PUT OVERRIPE FRUIT, KITCHEN WASTE AND ROTTING VEGETABLES IN A POT

FIGURE 34: ADD WATER AND LEAVE UNDER THE SHADE AWAY FROM PEOPLE

38


CHAPTER 3. HOUSING CHICKEN Good chicken housing is important to keep chicks, growers, layers and broody hens healthy and productive so you reduce chicken death and increase egg and meat production. It is important to have separate housing for chickens at different stages in life. Your chicks, growers, layers and broody hens may all need different housing. Housing is important to protect the chicken against;  Predators such as hawks and wild animals  Thieves  Adverse weather conditions such as cold, sun, rain and winds  Provide shelter for egg laying and broody hens  Diseases

QUALITIES OF A GOOD HOUSE  Able to provide sufficient space - In a crowded house, chickens may start pecking each other and disease can build up  Well lit - poor lighting encourages chickens pecking each other  Airy and dry - always without dampness to prevent build up of diseases  Easy to clean to prevent diseases  Have perches for chicken to roost. The size of a perch should equal chicken’s feet (Figure 36)  Site selection for chicken house construction o

The house must be accessible and easy to clean to protect against build up of disease causing agents and parasites

o

The site should be secured near the family house so as to hear the chicken get disturbed at night by predators or thieves

 All grass and bushes should be cleared for about 3 metres on all sides of the house to keep snakes and rodents away

39


FIGURE 35: POOR HOUSING LEADS TO CHICKEN MORTALITY

FIGURE 36: PERCHES SHOULD MATCH THE SIZES OF THE BIRD;S FEET

PARTS OF A GOOD CHICKEN HOUSE i.

Roof

 The roof should have a extensions of 2ft in the northern and southern sides to prevent splashing of rain water (Figure 37)  Use good insulation materials for roof and walls for e.g. thatch, straw, plant leaves etc  A ridge or hole on the roof will ensure proper ventilation and give light making it easier to work in the house. ii.

Walls

 Use cheap and locally available clay bricks

materials like timber, off-cuts, reeds and thatch grass or

 In a rectangular house the end walls should face East and West to ensure that only the end walls face the hot afternoon sun and wind  Open sides in the northern and southern sides helps in better ventilation of the house  Rectangular houses with walls not higher than 3 feet on the longer side are recommended. The rest of the wall should have wire mesh of a small gauge to prevent predators and rodents from entering the poultry house  Attach curtains (old rags or gunny bags) so that you can open and close them. During cold seasons, cold from the open sides can be too much for the chicken. iii.

Floors

 Use slatted or raised floors to ease cleaning and a keep away predators iv.

Doors

 The door should face North i.e. away from where the sun comes from

40


 The door should be big enough for a person to work inside. It should be 6 feet in length and 2.5 feet in width  A footbath filled with disinfectant should be placed at the entrance

HOW TO MAKE A FOOT BATH  Dig a 10 cmx10cm and 1 feet deep hole at the entrance  Smear the hole with cow dung and place a nylon/plastic paper on the hole  Make the nylon paper firm by placing medium sized stones at the sides (on the outside)  Use recommended disinfectants from the agro vets  Replace the mixture once finished

FIGURE 37: A GOOD CHICKEN HOUSE

HOUSING FOR CHICKS Chicks should be separated from older birds after hatching to avoid build up of diseases. While they are young, chicks are vulnerable to death from cold, disease and predators like birds. It is important to keep chicks confined for at least 3 to 4 weeks. Losses can be further reduced by confining chicks for 6 to 8 weeks if farmers don’t mind feeding birds for that long. If managed well, you can increase survival rate of chicks from 2 out of 10 to as high as 8 out of 10 i.

Use a carton (Figure 38)

 For the first two-weeks, you can keep young chicks in a carton close to a heat source  The carton should be opened on top to allow fresh air and light  Spread wood shaving in the carton as bedding and disinfect 41


 Place a heat source to keep the chicks warm. This can be a kerosene lamp (1 lamp for 50 chicks), a jiko (1 brooder jiko for 100 chicks), or electricity (1 infra red bulb for 250 chicks)  Make sure the heat source is not too near the chicks to burn them  Remove the heat source after two weeks as chicks have developed feathers and can cope with the weather conditions ii.

Use a dome shaped stick basket (Figure 39)

 If you are taking chicks outside, it is important to protect them from predators  Place the stick basket on wood shavings or on a sisal sack.  Cover the basket with an old blanket to keep the chicks warm at night  Take the basket out in the sunshine during the day. Avoid very hot sun and rain

FIGURE 38: CHICKS KEPT IN A CARTON HOUSE

FIGURE 39: A DOME SHAPED BASKET FOR CHICKS

HOUSING FOR MATURE CHICKEN  Mature chickens can be kept in a deep litter (Figure 44) or raised house system  The house should have perches for chicken to roost (Figure 36)  Allow birds to dust bath outside and scavenge for minerals in the evening before dusk (Figure 40)  Indigenous hens start laying at the age of 22-32 weeks (5 to 7 months) and will decrease production when they are 1.5 years

FIGURE 40: ALLOW CHICKENS TO DUST BATHE

 After 1.5 – 2 years of age your hens may not be

42


giving enough eggs and chicks to justify keeping the\m. When egg production goes down, plan to cull older hens and replace them with younger birds to make your business more efficient (see page 66 for information on culling)  Take care of laying hens as discussed in page 8 to maximize egg production TABLE 15: COMPARISON BETWEEN DEEP LITTER AND RAISED FLOOR HOUSES

Deep litter system

Raised floor system

The floors are raised floor and made of wood or wire mesh (Figure 42)

The floors are on the ground and are made of concrete or smeared with cow dung

Easier for large house

Easier for small house

Manage many birds

Manage few birds

Eggs don’t crack since there is litter

Eggs can crack by falling on the mesh wire

Chicken keep warm

Chicken might suffer from cold

Difficult to keep clean

Easy to keep clean

Manure/litter mixture changed regularly

should

be

Easy to collect manure

The eggs get dirt easily

Eggs remain clean

Good for chicks and mature birds

Good for mature birds

 For either system, put a distance between feeders and drinkers to avoid chicken eating and drinking at the same time and overcrowding  Chicken manure is high in nitrogen, which is needed by crops. Sweep the manure regularly and store it in a place that is shaded from rain and sun. If manure is exposed to direct sunlight and rain, nitrogen is wasted and cannot help the crops

43


FIGURE 41: A RAISED HOUSE MADE OF WIRE MESH FLOORS

FIGURE 43: A RAISED HOUSE

FIGURE 42: RAISED FLOOR MADE OF PIECES OF WOOD

FIGURE 44: DEEP LITTER HOUSE

HOUSING BROODING CHICKEN  Separate hens that are broody (wants to incubate on eggs) in a small cage or in a dark quick corner of the house  Avoid any disturbance so that they can complete the cycle successfully  Provide boxes laid with wood shavings or soft dry grass  Provide water and feeds in the house so that they do not have to leave the eggs for too long in search of feeds and water

44


CHAPTER 4. BREEDS AND BREEDING There are different indigenous breeds which a small holder farmer can keep affordably. After getting this breeds, the farmer needs to know how to multiply them through proper breeding.

BREEDS Available breeds in Kenya grown by small farmers are shown in the Table 17.

IMPROVED KALRO INDIGENOUS CHICKEN BREEDS KALRO-Naivasha has developed a range of improved indigenous chicken breeds (Table 16). Scientists first collected pairs of indigenous chickens from all over Kenya. They bred them together and then selected for breeds with good meat production, egg production, general immunity to disease and adaptability to low input conditions. TABLE 16: KALRO IMPROVED BREEDS

Colour

Visual Features

Spotted

Good camouflage

White

With some black

Black

Sitting

Poor sitters. 25% will sit

With brown front

Weight/ meat

Poor layer.

Faster weight gain Highest quality meat with better muscle structure Becomes heavier

White starts laying earlier. Good layers. More eggs. Larger eggs, so stronger chicks Moderate

Brown Multicoloured

Laying

More indigenous

Better sitters. 75% birds sit

45


TABLE 17: AVAILABLE CHICKEN BREEDS FOR SMALL FARMERS IN KENYA AND WHERE TO SOURCE THEM.

Breed

See photos below

Characteristic

Where to get them

KALRO improved indigenous

KALRO-Naivasha: 0708620095 0708620097

See table below Kenbro Dual purpose chicken (meat and eggs); hardy chicken with low death rates; feeds heavily on commercial feeds and gains weight quickly; does not get broody i.e. will not sit on eggs

Sasso Dual purpose chicken; can be free ranged; gains weight quickly; lays many eggs; good mothers.

Kuroiler Dual purpose chicken; can be fed on homemade feeds; grows slowly than Kenbro but faster than indigenous breeds

Kenchic: 0722 202 163, 0734 600 204

Kenchic: 0722 202 163, 0734 600 204

NAGRC & DB +254 723 004 289 +254 392 869537

46


Black Australorp

No available supplier in Kenya

Dual purpose hen; large soft-feathered bird; hardy; lay lots of eggs (up to 250 a year); good sitters and mothers; renowned for tasty meat.

FIGURE 47: 57: KALRO SPOTTED AND BROWN 55: 53: 50: CHICKEN

FIGURE 47: 56: KALRO BLACK COCK 55: 53: 50:

FIGURE 51: 48: KALRO MULTICOLOURED CHICKEN 47:

47


BREED POTENTIAL OF KALRO CHICKEN

Hens (females), under good management     

Females reach 1.8 – 2.2 kg at 5.5 months Begin laying eggs at 5.5 months Peaks at 10 months Can produce 220 to 280 eggs per year if well fed and managed Declines after 1 year and 5 months

Hens for breeding should be slaughtered at 1 year and 5 months, because at this age they do not produce enough eggs to justify input costs on feed! Cockerels (males), under good management     

Males reach 2.2 – 2.5 kg at 5.5 months Become fertile at 5.5 months Decline in fertility at 1 year and 3 months Reach 4 – 4.5 kg at 1 year and three months This is when the 4th toe grows to the size of the fifth (little) finger

Cockerels for breeding should be slaughtered at 1 year and 3 months because:  Fertility declines with age.  Male becomes so heavy that it hurts the hen and mating is not successful

CHICKEN BREEDING Preventing inbreeding Inbreeding happens when chicken from the same family mate. This is a very common problem with farmers keeping local chickens in the village. This will bring loss of fertility over time and chicks hatched may not perform well. To avoid this:  Introduce one new cock (1 cock can serve 10 hens) at least every two years. When you introduce the new cock (or any new birds) be careful to follow the instructions on page Error! Bookmark not defined. to prevent bringing new diseases to your flock  Avoid selecting cockerels from neighbors and nearby family members (who may have got the cock or the cock’s parents from the same place as you in the first place) How to improve indigenous chicken with improved breeds Cockerel exchange

48


A VBA can rent out his improved cockerels to upgrade farmers chicken as well as earn money for himself. Advise the farmers to do the following to prevent spread of diseases:  Bring cockerel to farm, and keep in seclusion/quarantined/a separate place for 5 days  Watch for signs of infection: coughing; feaces / diarrhea  If there are signs of infection, provide the right medicine  If there is no infection for 5 days, introduce the cockerel to the hens Rent the cock to a farmer for 2 weeks. You can make your own arrangement with farmers about how they should pay for the service. Some examples of what other VBAs do are below.  Farmer pays KES 50 per week  Farmer pays one chick (according to age) for each week the farmer kept the cockerel  Farmer pays one chick for every hen that is mated by the cockerel Selling eggs and chicks A VBA can create a business out of selling fertile eggs or 4 weeks old chicks from the KALRO improved chicken.  Selling eggs strategy o

VBA sells farmer fertile eggs at KES 20 to farmers within his community

o

Farmers allow their local chicken to incubate on the fertile eggs of improved KALRO chicken

o

Farmers end up with chicks of improved KALRO chicken being mothered by local chicken

o

Farmers take care of the chicken to maturity as discussed on this guide

 Selling 4 weeks old chicks strategy o

VBAs takes care of the day old chicks from improved KALRO chicken as discussed on page 43 until they are 4 weeks old; which is easier for farmers to manage

o

VBA then sells the 4 weeks old to farmers at KES 150 (see Table 18)

o

The farmer then manages the chicks to maturity and ends up with the improved KALRO chicken

49


CHICKEN PRODUCTION BUSINESS PLAN FOR VBAS This business plan shows the opportunity for buying 50 KALRO chicks and rearing them until they are 5 months old and selling them for meat at a weight of 2 kg. TABLE 18: CHICKEN PRODUCTION BUSINESS PLAN FOR REARING 50 CHICKS TO MATURITY FOR MEAT

Chicken breeding business plan for rearing of 50 KALRO chicks for meat at 5 months Cost Particulars Buying KALRO improved chicken (day old)

Units

Total cost (KES)

Unit cost (KES)

50 chicks

100

5,000

32 (MAIZE SOYA MIX IN

Recipes for home-made chick-mash are shown in the tables below. Chick mash for chicks for 2 months

100 Kg

Growers mash for 3 months

125 kg

Vaccination against Newcastle Disease Total cost Income

50 birds

Particulars Sale of mature chicken Total income Profits

Units 50 chicks

Assumptions

Table 5) 40 (maize soya mix in Table 9) 2 doses x KES 5 = KES 10 (at 1 week and 1 month)

Unit value (KES) 400

3,200 5,000 500 13,700 Total income (KES) 20,000 20,000 6,300

Assumptions

50


No. of chickens

50 chickens

Cost of vaccination per bird

KES 5

Chick mash for 2 months (confined) Growers mash for 3 months (free range – half food provided by farmer & half by roaming)

2 Kg 2.5 Kg per bird

Selling price per mature chicken Period taken for chicken to mature

KES 400 5 months

The business plan below shows a VBA the business opportunity of selling 1 month old improved KALRO indigenous chicken. Start with 1 mature cock, 10 mature hens of KALRO improved indigenous chicken and use them as breeding stock to produce 100 one-month old chicks for sale to farmers in the community. The business plan assumes that it will take 1 month of laying eggs and approximately 21 days of incubating the eggs (rounded off to 1 month). After 2 months, the breeding stock can begin laying again for a new round of production. The breeding birds in this business plan need to be fed for 2 months from this plan. See the business below: TABLE 19: CHICKEN BREEDING BUSINESS PLAN FOR SELLING IMPROVED CHICKS AND FERTILE EGGS

Chicken breeding business plan of 10 KALRO hens for production of 100 one-month old chicks Cost Particulars Layers mash for breeding stock (11 birds) for 2 months (120 g per bird per day x 60 days)

Chick mash for chicks for 1 month (90 g per chick) Vaccination Total cost Income Particulars Sale of fertile eggs from 10 hens Sale of 1 month old chicks from 10 hens Total income Profits

Units 79.2 kg

9 Kg 111 birds

Units 55 eggs 100 chicks

Unit cost (Ksh) 45 (maize soya layers mash Table 11) 31 (maize soya chick mash in Recipes for home-made chick-mash are shown in the tables below. Table 5) 2 doses x KES 5 = KES 10

Unit value (Ksh) 20 150

Total cost (Ksh)

Average per month (Ksh)

3,564

1,782

279 1,110 4,953

140 555 2,477

Total income (Ksh) 1,100 15,000 16,100 11,147

Average per month (Ksh) 550 7,500 8,050 5,574 51


Assumptions Breeding stock (10 hens & 1 cock) No. of chicks per hen Chicken feed per breeding bird per day Chicken feed per bird for 2 months (mature) Chicken feed for young chicks (1 month)

Assumptions Number of fertile eggs laid per hen Number of fertile eggs sold per hen Number of eggs hatched to chicks per hen Selling price per fertile egg Selling price per 1 month old chick

15 5 10 20 150

Recipes for home-made chick-mash are shown in the tables below.

Chicks + breeding stock

111 birds

Table 5. Time for laying and sitting on eggs

Cost of vaccination per bird

11 10 120 7.2 90

birds chicks g Kg g

eggs eggs eggs Ksh Ksh

BREEDING HENS AND CHICKS ARE FED USING HOME-MADE MASH SHOWN IN TABLE 11 &

5 Ksh

52


CHAPTER 5. CHICKEN DISEASES AND DISEASE CONTROL Poultry diseases are caused by: i.

Bacteria: fowl typhoid

ii.

Parasites (internal and external): coccidiosis

iii.

Virus: Newcastle Disease (ND), Gumboro, fowl pox, avian influenza

iv.

Malnutrition

v.

Injuries

vi.

Chemical (e.g. Sodium Chloride poisoning)

TABLE 20: CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEALTHY AND A SICK BIRD.

Unhealthy bird

A healthy bird

Tired and lifeless

Active and lively

Lay less or stop laying eggs

Lays eggs normally

Wet droppings with blood or worms, diarrhea

Soft compact droppings

Coughs, sneezes and breathes noisily.

Breaths quietly

Ruffled and loose feathers

Smooth and neat feathers

Eats and drinks less

Eats and drinks normally

Dull eyes and comb

Bright eyes and comb

Sits or lies down

Walks, runs, stands and scratched continually

53


DISEASE CONTROL IN CHICKEN HOUSES.  Dust the house with pesticides such as Sevin or Actelic at least once after every 3-4 months to keep off fleas, ticks and lice and after a disease outbreak  Sweep regularly to remove droppings, which may spread diseases. The droppings are good manure  Replace wood shaving once they are dirty with droppings  Keep earthen floors smooth by smearing regularly with cow dung  After removing one batch of chicken, clean the house and allow it to rest for two weeks before bringing another batch. This prevents transfer of disease.  Do not allow visitors or vehicles into the poultry farm unless thoroughly disinfected  Disinfect your own shoes before and after visiting chickens on somebody else’s farm to stop you bringing the disease back to your own chickens  Use foot baths with disinfectant outside each poultry house  Do not allow wild birds and other fowls into the chicken house or farm  Do not mix birds of various ages  Separate sick chicken from healthy ones  When introducing new birds, keep them in a separate house for 2 weeks and observe them for diseases (see how to do this under disease management). Treat them if sick and give them time to recover before you introduce to the old ones

54


TABLE 21: COMMON CHICKEN DISEASES AND PARASITES FOR SMALL SCALE FARMERS

Newcastle Disease (NCD)

 Symptoms: Twisted neck; drooping wings; sleepy heavy breathing; greenish droppings, and sometimes bloody diarrhea; loss of appetite; death can be sudden without symptoms.  Mode of transmission: Transmitted by direct contact with contaminated birds, people or chicken products; wind; contaminated chicken house or equipment.  Prevention: Vaccinate with Newcastle vaccine before attack (see vaccination table)  What to do if sick: No treatment; slaughter and burry infected chicken or burn them.

Fowl pox

 Symptoms: Pimples on the birds’ combs and eyelids; a watery discharge from eyes; difficulty in breathing indicated by wheezing sound and loss of appetite.  Mode of transmission: Mosquito bites and contact through broken skin or wounds  Prevention: Vaccinate with fowl pox vaccine (available in most agrovets). Also clear bushes to control mosquito  What to do if sick: No treatment. But wounds can be treated with antibiotics to avoid secondary infection; strong birds easily recover.

Worms

 Symptoms: Worms in droppings; thirst; difficulty in breathing; retarded growth; poor health and death of young birds  Mode of transmission: Spread from chicken to chicken when they peck each other droppings  What to do: Regular de-worming: once during dry season and at the start of rains and when chicks look weak

Other diseases that farmers may encounter are (more common when flock sizes increase and many birds kept in confined house: Fowl typhoid

Coccidiosis

 Symptoms: Blood in droppings; drop in egg production; decreased hatchability; dullness followed by sudden death.  Mode of transmission: Infected droppings; feed and water  What to do: Burry dead birds and throw away infected birds  Symptoms: bloody droppings; head is down; ruffled feathers; loss of appetite, a drop in eggs production in hens  Mode of transmission: chicken pecking on infected droppings  Prevention: Prevented by regular and thorough cleaning of troughs and poultry houses between batches; do not overcrowd the house  What to do: Use coccidiostat in feed or water

55


VACCINATION Vaccinate chicken against common diseases in the area. Newcastle disease is the most common deadly disease affecting the chickens of small-holder farmers and regularly affects every farmer. Vaccination is recommended to protect the chicken against an infections e.g. Newcastle disease vaccine. Remember that you have to be specially trained to vaccinate in different ways. If you have been trained on vaccinating with eye-drops, you may still need additional training and permission before you can vaccinate with injectable vaccines. Only vaccinate in the way that you have been trained. ALWAYS read vaccine instructions and expiry dates keenly and follows the instructions to the letter.

Are there enough chickens?  First estimate how many households you have in your villages. Many VBAs, will have about 3 or 4 villages and each village will have about 150 households  Estimate how many birds (adults and chicks) are kept by most households. Before vaccination campaigns, most households have about 10 birds  Therefore, in one village, there will be: 10 birds per house

x

150 households per village = 1,500 birds per village

 So in three villages there will be: 1,500 birds per village x 3 villages = 4,500 birds Hens are always laying eggs and hatching new chicks, which need to be vaccinated. There are always new birds that have not been reached. DO NOT WAIT for 3 months before visiting farmers to vaccinate their birds again. If you are vaccinating and giving good advice on poultry management then bird numbers will increase so there will be more birds in the future to vaccinate and hence more business.

MOBILIZING FARMERS FOR VACCINATION To vaccinate all chicken in the community, a VBA needs a strategy to reach all the farmers in his area and make money by vaccinating chicken. The more farmers a VBA is able to reach, the more money the VBA makes. And the more we vaccinate, the more the chicken survive and the more the vaccination business in future, and also of trading chicken. VBAs have used different methods to reach the whole communities, which you should try. The two methods illustrated below have been tried before and found to be very successful.

56


FIPS DIGITAL VACCINATION MODEL: BY JOSEPH MAINGA

Joseph Mainga is County Coordinator of Makueni. When he was a VBA, he used this method to vaccinate 2,000 chickens per week.  Mobilized farmers for field days on chicken vaccination. Reached more farmers through house to house visit , chief barazas, farmer groups and churches  Every time he met with farmers; whether during house to house visits, chief barazas, farmer groups or field days, teach them on poultry husbandry: o

Taking care of young chicks

o

Housing

o

Feeding

o

Disease control and management

 Developed a record book of farmers for each village he served by filling a table with the following information: Name of farmer

John Wambua

Totals

Contact

0723 xxx 567

Village

Mukuyuni

No. of chickens Cockerels

Hens

chicks

2

10

20

50

800

2000

 Set a vaccination date specific for each village e.g. Kithatu vaccination on Friday, Muvuo vaccination on Saturday, Katune vaccination on Tuesday  Raised awareness of the vaccination dates for each village by doing the following awareness strategies: o

Went house to house to alert farmers on the specific date when you will conduct the vaccination as he updates your database of no. of chicken in the village. This will help you project the number of vials you need during the vaccination day.

o

Made announcements of the vaccination dates also in local churches, chief barazas and field days

o

Made a printed poster advertising his vaccination services and dates with his contacts e.g. as shown below

57


Usiwache kuku wako wafe kwa ugonjwa wa kideri (Newcastle) Chanjo dhidi yakideri ipo Kutakuwa na chanjo dhidi ya kideri kila Jumamosi asubuhi Usifungulie kuku wako kabla ya kuchanjwa Contacts: 0723 xxx 230

 One day before the vaccination day, Mainga would use Safaricom’s batch sms system to send all of his farmers in the target village a text reminding them that o

he was still coming vaccinate the following day

o

they should not release their chicken before he comes

(Using the system you can send 200 SMS for a total cost of Ksh. 10. Dial *188# to subscribe)  From his community, Mainga could vaccinate around 1,000 chickens per week using this system.  With the current vaccine suppliers who sell thermo-stable vaccine at KES 200 for 100 doses, the business would be as follows. o

Use 10 vials per week at cost of KES 2,000

o

Vaccinate 1,000 birds at price of KES 5 per bird = KES 5,000

o

Profit = KES 5,000 – KES 2,000 = KES 3,000 per week

 After the vaccination, Mainga would then follow up with his farmers to check on the progress of the vaccinated chicken. This helped in establishing good relationship with farmers.  Mainga would also give farmers he vaccinated a better price for their chicken when buying from them in his chicken trading business; this motivated more farmers to engage in vaccination and increased his supply of chickens.

58


FIPS SYSTEMATIC MOBILISATION METHOD

A VBA and her friend in Makueni County have joined hands in doing vaccination together.. They are able to vaccinate 200 chickens per day, 3 days a week. In a month, they averagely vaccinate 2,400 chickens making KES 3 per every chicken. This is 7,200 chickens per month 3,600 per person. Their strategy is as follows:

Village 4 Section 1 Week 1

Village 3

VBA home

Village 1

•Day 1 – 20 households •Day 2 – 20 households •Day 3 – 20 households

Section 2 Week 2

Section 3 Week 3

•Day 1 – 20 households •Day 2 – 20 households •Day 3 – 20 households

•Day 1 – 20 households •Day 2 – 20 households •Day 3 – 20 households

Village 2 FIGURE 58: SYSTEMIC MOBILIZATION METHOD

 They manage vaccination in 4 villages; one village has an average of 180 households; and each household has an average of 10 chickens. Therefore, o

one whole village has approximately 1,800 birds

o

four villages have 7,200 birds

o

by vaccinating 600 birds a week, they can cover all the birds in 12 weeks (3 months)

 The VBA and her friend have developed a systematic method of mobilization that allows them to cover all the households and birds over 12 weeks (3 months) o

Vaccinate 600 birds in 60 households per week

o

Spread over three days, this is 200 birds in 20 households each day

o

In three weeks, they can therefore cover 180 households (a complete village) 59


o

In 12 weeks, they can cover every household in four villages

o

Once they have covered every household, they go back to the first village and begin again with repeat doses for old birds and also offering vaccination to new birds.

 To achieve this, the VBA uses the following system o

The VBA divides each village into 3 different sections each with 60 households as shown on Figure 58

o

The VBA chooses to work in the first section of village 1

o

In the afternoon before vaccination 

She visits every household (one-by-one) and discusses chicken farming with the farmer, explaining Newcastle disease and the vaccination business

After agreeing with the owner, they count the chickens to be vaccinated and the VBA agrees to come back the following morning to vaccinate

The VBA moves onto the next house (covering every house in that part of the village) until she has found 200 chickens to vaccinate (in about 20 households)

o

Early the next morning the VBA returns with 2 vials of vaccine to vaccinate 200 chickens

o

In the afternoon, the VBA moves onto the next part of the village and begins house-tohouse mobilization again to find the next 200 birds

 Each chicken vaccinated earns them KES 3 as profits, hence vaccinating 600 chickens per week makes them an average of KES 1,800 per week  Therefore, in a month, the VBA can make KES 5,400 through chicken vaccination

60


Available vaccines against Newcastle Disease Vaccine brand

Vaccine type

Avivax I-2

Thermostable 1-2 vaccine

Characteristics

      Storage in dry form (before adding water)

It is a live vaccine It is thermo-stable ( can tolerate normal temperature) It does not need refrigeration It comes dry – need to add water to re-constitute It does not cause disease to chickens Protects chicken from Newcastle disease only Storage after re-constituted (after water added)

Contact of suppliers KEVEVAPI: 0733 849 464

 Vaccine can last for up to 1 year in a fridge at 4°C.  Vaccine can last for up to 1 month in cool dark place outside of fridge.  If storing out of a fridge, it is best to store in a dark, cool place, beside a water pot. Life Technologies

Thermostable I-2 vaccine

     

 After water has been added, vaccine should be kept cool and dark  Vial should be wrapped in a wet cloth and carried in a woven basket, cool box or thermos flask.  The vaccine should remain viable for 2 days o 1st day use 1 drop per bird. o 2nd day use 2 drops per bird It is a live vaccine Life technologies: It is thermo-stable ( can tolerate normal temperature) 0733 809 171 It does not need refrigeration It is ready to use (no need of adding water) or It does not cause disease to chickens 0710 699 793 Protects chicken from Newcastle disease only

Storage (shelf life):    

After opening the vial, vaccinate as following:

Store for 6 months under refrigeration at +2 - 8°C Store for 7-14 days under cool room temperature Store in fridge at all time when not in use Do not freeze

LaSota

Cold chain vaccines

     

   

1st day- One drop in ONE EYE only 2nd day – 2 drops to both eyes (one in each eye) 3rd day – discard Repeat after 3 months

It is a live freeze-dried vaccine It should be stored in a refrigerator and away from direct sunlight It should be transported in a cool box Equipments used for vaccination should be disinfected in boiling water DO NOT USE CHEMICALS to disinfect vaccination equipment Instruction on vaccine dilutions should be followed as per accompanying

Assia LTD: 0735 350 057

61


VACCINATION EQUIPMENT  Vaccines (Figure 61). Check the dosage on the vial, but for the thermostable vaccine supplied by KEVEVAPI and Life Technologies, the standard size is that 1 vial can vaccinate 100 birds  Eye droppers  Syringe (Figure 60)  Thermos flask for cold chain vaccines or a wet cloth and reed basket for thermostable I-2

FIGURE 61: LASOTA VACCINE

FIGURE 59: 60: A SYRINGE

 A Basket for putting all the tools together  A list of farmers  A pen and record book

HOW TO PREPARE THE VACCINES (RECONSTITUTE) Check the vaccine packet and expiry date. DO NOT use vaccines that have passed the expiry date Most vaccines are supplied as a powder and you must reconstitute it (dissolve it in water) yourself. If it is already supplied in water then you do not need to do this. It is important to prepare the vaccine and carry out the vaccination carefully. If you are not careful, the vaccine may be destroyed and birds will not be protected. If chickens die, then farmers will lose trust in you and may report you to the Veterinary Officers and prevent you from vaccinating again in the future.  Boil and cool fresh water (Figure 62). Do not use treated water (with chlorine) as the chemical will destroy the vaccine  Let the water cool in a plastic container. Cover the container to prevent dust falling in  Do NOT use metal container to store boiled water as they remove small metals into water  Dip vaccination equipment i.e. syringe and eye droppers in boiling water. Do not disinfect with chemicals as they will destroy the vaccine. Do not touch ends of syringe and needles after cleaning  Mix the vaccine with the water according to instruction on the vaccine label. Mix the whole vial at the same time. 100 doses usually requires 10 ml of water 62


 Place the vaccination tools in a basket  For cold chain vaccines like Lasota, put the vaccine in a box or thermos flask with ice to preserve it  For thermal stable vaccine, cover it with a wet cloth. After reconstitution, it should be used within 2 hours

FIGURE 62: BOIL WATER

FIGURE 63: THERMOS FLASK FOR USING COLD-CHAIN VACCINES

HOW TO VACCINATE  Do the vaccination early in the morning or late in the evening. This is when there is low heat and chickens are likely to be in the house  Explain to the farmer that the vaccine only protects healthy birds from getting sick with Newcastle Disease. Make sure they understand; o

It will not cure sick birds

o

It won’t protect from other diseases like fowl pox or coccidiosis

o

The symptoms of Newcastle Disease and coccidiosis so they don’t blame you if their bird gets sick from a different disease

 Fill syringe with 1ml of the reconstituted vaccine at a time (Figure 67)  Hold syringe between your first and second finger (Figure 64). Do not hold either the vaccine vial or the syringe in the fist of your hand as the heat from your hand could destroy the vaccine (Figure 65)

63


FIGURE 64: HOLD THE SYRINGE BETWEEN THE 1ST AND 2ND FINGER

FIGURE 65; DO NOT HOLD THE SYRINGE IN A FIST

 Hold the legs and wings of the chicken horizontally with one eye facing up (Figure 66)  This relaxes the chicken and makes it easy to handle  The other person should hold the beak to turn one eye facing up  Drop one drop of the vaccine directly into the eye of the chicken (Figure 68)  If the vaccine does not enter the eye, put another drop  Birds receive the same amount of vaccine regardless of age  Cold chain vaccine expires after 2 hours after reconstitution when stored in a thermos flask with ice. After that it will be useless. Therefore only mix the vaccine that you need

FIGURE 66: HOLD THE CHICKEN WITH ONE EYE UP

 Thermostable vaccines can be used for 2 days, if kept cool. Cover the remaining vaccine with a wet cloth and store in a basket in a cool place in the house preferably near a pot with water (Figure 69)  Use 2 drops of thermostable vaccine on the second day  Ask the farmers not to introduce any unvaccinated chicken before 14 days. The chicken will resist the disease after 7-14 days  Offer any other advice the farmer might need. Offer to buy their chicken and eggs too. Offer to sell them seedlings from your tree nursery or vegetable nursery  Thank the farmer and proceed on 64


FIGURE 67: FILL THE SYRINGE WITH 1ML OF VACCINE

FIGURE 68: HOW TO VACCINATE

FIGURE 69: STORE THE THERMO-STABLE VACCINES IN A COOL DARK ROOM NEAR A WATER POT

HOW TO STORE THERMOSTABLE VACCINES Always check the expiry date on vaccines when you receive them and before you open them. Storage in dry form (before adding water) of Avivax I- 2 from Kevavapi  Vaccine can last for up to 1 year in a fridge at 4°C  Vaccine can last for up to 1 month in cool dark place without refrigeration  It is best to store in a dark, cool place, beside a water pot Storage after re-constitution (after water added) of Avivax I- 2 from Kevavapi  After water has been added, vaccine should be kept cool and dark  Vial should be wrapped in a wet cloth and carried in a woven basket, cool box or thermos flask.  It should be kept away from sunlight. Cloth should not be NYLON. A wet kanga is ideal.  The vaccine should remain viable for 2 days. Use 1 drop per bird on the 1st day and 2 drops per bird on the 2nd day Storage of Avirulent I-2 vaccine from Life Technologies         

This vaccine is already re-constituted in water when delivered It should be viable for 6 months under refrigeration at +2-80C It remains viable for 7-14 days under cool room temperature It is advised to store in fridge at all time when not in use Do not freeze Once you open the vial, vaccinate as follows: 1st day- One drop in ONE EYE only FIGURE 70: THERMOSTABLE VACCINE FROM 2nd day – 2 drops to both eyes (one in each eye) LIFE TECHNOLOGIES If you find it hard using the dropper, use a syringe 65


STORAGE OF COLD-CHAIN VACCINES Cold chain vaccines like Lasota must be stored in a fridge at 4 °C  If stored in a fridge, it can last for up to 1 year  ALWAYS be aware of power-cuts. If the fridge warms up the vaccine may be destroyed  NEVER open the fridge during the power-cut as this will allow the inside to warm up  If you suspect that the vaccines have warmed up and been destroyed then do not use them

HOW TO FOLLOW UP ON YOUR FARMERS Farmer follow-up is very important for many reasons;  To show farmers that you care about them and their birds and that you are a serious person  To encourage farmers to call you again for repeat business (whether for vaccination or other activities like vegetable or tree seedling sales, sales of feed etc)  To learn whether your farmers understood the vaccination process  To learn whether the vaccination worked and whether birds are suffering from any other problems  To give additional advice to farmers on chickens management Do your follow up after 2 weeks or after a disease outbreak  Ask farmers if they have noticed any symptoms (see under diseases section). Be careful to note whether they were symptoms of Newcastle Disease or other diseases  If the chicken died after an outbreak (very unlikely), it could be: o

They were already sick

o

They died from another disease (remember Avivax and Lasota only protect against Newcastle Disease)

o

The farmer introduced sick birds before 2 weeks were over after vaccination

o

Not all chicken respond well to vaccination so a very small number can die

 Ask farmers if they have (or are expecting) any new chicks and fix the next date of vaccination

66


Caution  NEVER vaccinate sick birds (Figure 71)  NEVER vaccinate chicken when Newcastle outbreak has been reported. Birds may get sick and die after you have vaccinated but before the vaccine gives protection (7 – 14 days) and farmers may blame you.  When using vaccines in the field, transport cold chain vaccines in a cool box with ice and thermal stable ones covered with a wet clothe  Do not introduce un-vaccinated chicken before 2 weeks after vaccination are over

FIGURE 71: NEVER VACCINATE SICK BIRDS

 Re-vaccinate birds against Newcastle Disease after 3 months. But return to farmers every month to find out if they have any new chicks  The vaccine only protects against Newcastle  Always check the expiry date  Always follow manufacturer’s instructions  The dose is the same for chickens of all ages. When using a thermostable vaccine on the 2nd day, use 2 drops per bird  The chicken can be eaten after vaccination

67


TABLE 22: VACCINATION PROGRAM

MODE OF

AGE

VACCINE

Day old

Mareks

Skin

Day 7

Newcastle

Eye drop

Day 10

Gumboro (1stdose)

Drinking water

Day 18

Gumboro (2nd dose)

Drinking water

3 Weeks

Newcastle disease

Eye drop/Drinking water

(2nd

ADMINISTRATION

REMARKS

Mainly for hatcheries

commercial

dose)

3 Weeks (eyes and wattle) Fowl pox 6

Weeks

(Other

Wing web stab (done by a qualified veterinary)

areas) Newcastle disease

Eye drop/Drinking water

(3rd dose) 2 months (8 weeks)

Intramuscular injection Fowl typhoid

(done

by

a

qualified

veterinary)

Newcastle disease (4th 4 – 5 months

dose at point of lay)

De-worming

Eye drop/Drinking water

Repeat every 3 months

Drinking water

Repeat every 3 months

BUSINESS PLAN FROM VACCINATION FIPS-Africa VBAs make money by offering vaccination services to farmers in their communities. The business should be fair where both the farmer benefits from having more chickens and the VBA benefits from the money. 68


Do not take advantage of the farmers since they will lose trust in you. FIPS-Africa recommends charging KES 5 per bird for vaccination services. Remind farmers that they are protecting a bird that may one day be sold for KES 350 or as much as KES 500 (depending on the area). But, VBAs can reduce the price if other people are offering vaccination cheaper in the area. Some farmers are too poor or are reluctant to give money, but it is still good to try to help them. VBAs have developed different methods for helping these farmers such as  Farmer pays 1 egg (value KES 10) in return for having 2 birds vaccinated  Farmer pays 1 chick (value KES 250) in return for having 50 birds vaccinated  Farmer pays 1 hen (value KES 350) in return for having 70 birds vaccinated

BUSINESS POTENTIAL OF VACCINATION FOR VBA:  One VBA can offer chicken vaccination services in around 4 villages  Each village has approximately 200 households  Therefore, there are potentially 800 households that a VBA can serve in 4 villages  Each household has an average of 10 chicken  Therefore, VBA can vaccinate approximately 8,000 chicken in his 4 villages (Please follow the mobilization strategy on page 55)  If a VBA makes a profit of KES 3 per chicken vaccinated, she/he can potentially make around KES 24,000

SAMPLE BUSINESS PLAN FOR CHICKEN VACCINATION If you are working in 4 villages each with 200 households and each household with an average of 10 chickens, then you have approximately 2,000 chickens in each of the 4 villages. Target to divide your villages into various sections (probably 3, doing vaccination 3 days a week) as discussed systemic mobilization method on page 51. If you vaccinate 2,000 chickens each month, then you can make profits of KES 6,000 every month as demonstrated on Table 23. To vaccinate 2,000 chickens, you will need 20 vials of vaccine. You don’t need to buy all of the vaccines to begin the activity, but you can start with 2 vials of vaccine that cost KES 400; once you vaccinate 400 birds, you will make profit of KES 1,200 and you can use the profits to buy more vials to grow your business. Please remember to be flexible with poor farmers; if a farmer doesn’t have money, he can pay you in kind through eggs or chicks. 69


TABLE 23: BUSINESS FROM NEWCASTLE VACCINATION

MONTHLY INCOME PROJECTIONS (20 VIALS PER MONTH PER VBA) Cost Section Particulars

Units

Vaccine cost Income Section

20 vials (100 doses each)

Unit Cost KES 200

Total Cost (KES) KES 4,000

Particulars

Units

Unit price

Total income (KES)

Chicken vaccination

2,000 birds vaccinated

KES 5

KES 10,000

Estimated Monthly Profits

KES 6,000

The more chicken you vaccinate, the more chicken survive, and the more the business grows giving you more money through vaccination and also trading chicken by aggregating chicken from farmers as an honest broker.

70


CHAPTER 6. GENERATING INCOME THROUGH BUYING AND SELLING CHICKENS If you have been successful with vaccination and advice on chicken management then numbers of chickens in your village will increase quickly. This is a big opportunity to generate income through chickens business. If you find a good buyer, you can also help your farmers by offering them a better price for their chickens. Many VBAs and Network Coordinators have done this including:  Joseph Mainga – 0718 589 285  Dominic Makau – 0721 965 695  Benedict Ndeti – 0717 701 972

IDENTIFYING A BUYER AND NEGOTIATING ON PRICE Many VBAs and Network Coordinators have been to town to find a buyer for indigenous chicken who will offer them a good price for birds. VBAs and Network Coordinators should go out and identify buyers in market, restaurants, butcheries and institutions. Some of the key buyers in 6 counties are listed in Table 24 below. TABLE 24: KEY MARKET CENTRES AND CHICKEN TRADERS/BROKERS FOR 6 COUNTIES

Nairobi

Machakos

Kibwezi

Mombasa

Makueni

Kitui

Pama, Maziwa, KALROakor, Githurai, Kangemi

Machakos

Makindu,,Ki bwezi, Machinery

Mwembe tayari

Wote,Kanth onzweni,Ma kuyuni

Kisasi,Kalun du, Mbithini, Katulani, Nzombe,Mia mbilini

Key players

Key players

Key players

Key players

Key players

Key players

Eliza Mumbua: 0712205677

Joseph Sammy: 0735454894

Mutuku: 0718618556

Fred Musioki: 0710942831

Stephen Muli: 0701380278

Ben Gideon: 0724961868

Kasee: 0726634712

David Mathambwa: 0735088207

Joseph Mwanki: 0710072669

Robert Munyoki: 0713911382

Peter Mungali: 0700932633

Muli Kilonzo: 0705276736

Rebbeca Lina: 075246679

Musembi: 0713458007

Katunge Mbuluka: 0726013705

Mwangi: 0721480031 Wamollo: 0721530420

71


MANAGING SUPPLY Normally buyers want birds weighing between 1.5 and 2 kg that are not too old. VBA should therefore continuously provide advice to farmers so that their chicken can attain the desired weight within a short period to cut cost. One VBA (Maundu) used to offer to pay for birds in advance. For example, with some farmers he would book 5 birds per week for the next month. If a buyer needs 100 chickens every week from a VBA, the VBA could arrange with 20 farmers every week to give him 5 chickens each. And once farmers know there is market for their chicken, they will start increasing the number of chicken they keep. See business plan Table 25.

INCENTIVIZING YOUR FARMERS Some VBAs incentivize their farmers to vaccinate and sell the mature chickens to them by offering a good deal. For example, if a farmer sold a bird to Mainga, he would pay back the amount the farmer spent on the vaccine.

CASH-FLOW Some VBAs don’t have enough spare money to buy 30 chickens. Think about asking your buyer to pay you part of the money in advance. But then be honest. Make a business plan explaining how you can make money. Then show your business plan to a good local micro-finance outlet and request credit to help you with buying the chickens. Make sure you are careful with the money you make from selling the birds and save it for buying the next batch either the following week or month.

COMMON CHALLENGES IN CHICKEN TRADING  Lack of constant supply  Spending your profits so you don’t have money to to purchase more chicken  Quality of birds/ age/ weight/ type o

Some buyers want chicken not more than 7 months

o

Some buyers want chicken weighing not less than 1.7 kg

o

All buyers want healthy chicken and free from parasites.

 The prices of chicken keep on changing depending on season and supply  Transporting chicken to the buyer is normally a challenge especially if VBA is supplying small numbers of chicken  Most markets are dominated by ¾ brokers who buy chicken from farmers at low prices and yet sell at very high prices 72


If you have been doing vaccination well, the numbers of chicken in your village must be on the increase. On average, you will find that your village has an average of 200 farmers who keep an average of 10 chickens each. This means that, in a village you have approximately 2,000 chickens that you can help farmers to access market. You can easily aggregate 50 chickens per week by buying 1 chicken each from or buying 5 chickens each from 10 farmers. As shown on the business plan in Table 25, if you can buy 50 chickens at KES 350 from farmers and spend KES 20 on transport then, the total cost will be KES 370 per bird. If you sell to traders in Nairobi at KES 400 per bird then you will make a profit of KES 30 on each bird. This is a weekly profit of KES 1,500 or KES 6,000 per month. You could make more profits if you contact hotels directly; bypassing the Nairobi brokers, and sells at KES 500 per chicken. This will increase your profits to KES 130 per bird. Selling 50 birds per week would earn you KES 6,500 per week or KES 26,000 per month. TABLE 25: CHICKEN TRADING BUSINESS PLAN PER WEEK

Chicken aggregation trading business plan per week Cost Section

Units

Unit cost (ksh)

Total Cost

No. of chicken sold by VBA per week

50

birds

350

17,500

Transport to Nairobi city traders

50

birds

20

1,000

Total cost

18,500

Income Section Total income

Units 50

birds

Total weekly profit (Ksh) Profit per month (Ksh) Assumptions Cost of transporting chicken Weight of mature chicken Chicken buying price from farmers Chicken selling price to traders (per kg) Chicken selling price to traders (per bird)

Selling price (Ksh)

Total income 400

20,000 1,500 6,000

KES 20 2 KES 350 KES 200 KES 400

per bird Kg per bird per Kg per bird

73


CHAPTER 7. FLOCK MANAGEMENT (CULLING) Culling is disposing of chicken. You can dispose through eating, selling or giving away With local chickens, takes up to 5-6 months until ready to sell for meat. If you are selling for meat, there is no point keeping them for longer as you will incur cost with little weight and money gain beyond 2.5 kg (For different breeds). If you are keeping them for multiplying, they should both cock and hens become fertile after 5.5 months. Fertility will go up and then slowly decline. After 1.5 to 2 years, fertility is generally reduced to a point where they are not profitable any more. At this point, you should plan to cull them and replace with younger ones. Also note, if a cock gets too heavy you should also sell and replace with medium sized ones. This is because heavy cock will damage hens and reduce their fertility. In addition, cull your chickens when; i.

You do not have enough feeds, water and housing. Make sure you have enough resources for your chicken

ii.

When there are surplus cocks and hens. You only need 1 cock per 10 hens

iii.

They have unfavorable characteristics e.g. weak ones

iv.

They are sick. Depending on the disease, some chickens can be eaten or not. See page 45

74


CHAPTER 8. RECORD KEEPING Chicken farming and related activities should be treated as a business and proper records should be kept to help a farmer in decision making. Therefore, you should keep records that help him  Track the productivity of this breeding stock;  Track expenditure and income from poultry activities with each batch of birds being grown  Track vaccination activity in his area which will help plan the vaccination program Therefore, the following 3 records sheets should be helpful to you in keeping records:  Poultry breeding record (page 67) will help you track productivity of your breeding stock. You can also divide your breeding stock into different batches and use each form to compare the performance of the various chicken batches.  Poultry business record (page 67) will help you track expenditure and income from your poultry activities with each batch of birds being grown. The record book helps you know how much profit or loss you are making in your chicken business.  Poultry vaccination record (Page 67) will help you track chicken vaccination activity in your area. In addition, it will help you plan for vaccination activities in future; you can easily know when 3 months will elapse so that you can return to the farmer for repeat vaccinations of her birds every 3 months.

75


CHICKEN BREEDING RECORD This will help you track productivity of you chicken breeding stock. You can also divide your breeding stock into different batches and use the form to compare the differences of the various chicken breeds. Ensure you keep tidy records for easy reading and reference. Chicken breed:_________________________________________________ Months

Starting breeding stock Hens Cocks

Eggs laid

Eggs sold

Eggs eaten

Eggs for hatching

Chicks hatched

Chicks sold (1 month)

Date bought:______________________________ Dead chicks

Chicks reared to maturity

Mature chicken eaten

Mature chicken sold

New breeding stock Hens Cocks

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Total 76


POULTRY BUSINESS RECORD This will help you track expenditure and income from your poultry activities with each batch of birds being grown. The record book helps you know if you are making profits or losses in your chicken business. Please ensure you keep tidy records for easy reference.

Poultry Business Records Particulars

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Totals

Cost section Chicken Feeds Vaccination

Total Cost

Income section Sale of eggs Sale of chicks (day old) Sale of chicks (1 month) Sale of mature birds

Total Income

Total Profits 77


CHICKEN VACCINATION RECORD This will help you track chicken vaccination activity in your area. In addition, it will help you plan for vaccination activities in future; you can easily know when 3 months have passed so that you can return to the farmer for follow up vaccinations every 3 months.

e.g.

Name of the farmer

Contact

Village

Eunice Njeri

0723 xxx 405

Malava

1st vaccination No. of Date chicken

2nd vaccination No. of Date chicken

3rd vaccination No. of Date chicken

4th vaccination No. of Date chicken

20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

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LIST OF REFERENCES FAO: How to breed and grow healthy chicken, 2009 KALRO: indigenous poultry management Infonet Biovision: livestock species and commercial insects http://www.infonet-biovision.org/

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Poultry Technical Guide July 2014