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Alexander Graham Bell

The Letter

How Old is a Tree?

What climate change means for us

The Newspaper for Young Citizens

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Welcome Making current affairs available to primary school children was never going to be a simple task. We still learn more about how to do it with every issue. But it is clear that children are more perceptive and intelligent than most grown ups realise, so talking down to them may not work so well. We launched a new section called 17 Promises, which is all about how we can all do our bit in the present to make sure the fututre is better for everyone. The united Nations launched the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in September 2016 and countries have until 2030 to achieve these 17 promises. By that time our primary school children will be voters. Sustainability is such a difficult word to explain, and yet the concept is so simple. Who decided this word was the right one to use and why did they not think children would need to learn about it? While you think about that, let me tell you that this issue is 36 pages long and very exciting. It is, without a doubt our most accomplished yet and the beginning of a new direction for our readers. Thanks to all the contributors, and the team, who have managed to put this together. Whether you are a parent, or a teacher we hope you will find something in these pages to discuss with your children. And if there isn’t enough, let us know. Help us feed their minds with Chicken! Ken

Would you like to get Chicken! Newspaper into your school? Chicken Newspaper is available digitally and in print. Find out about subscribing and get th eewspaper delivered to your inbox or your doorstep three times a year. Send us a message! ken@chickennewspaper.com motherhen@chickennewspaper.com Copyright © 2017 Ken Wilson-Max All rights reserved. This newspaper or any portion thereof may be reproduced or used in for non commercial purposes as long as credit is given to its creators. Contact the publisher for permission if you wish to use content for commercial purposes. Chicken! Newspaper for Children, 28 Charteris Road, London N4 3AB, England www.Chickennewspaper.com

The Chicken! Newspaper Team: Design and editorial: Ken Wilson-Max ken@chickennewspaper.com Floriane Wund floriane@chickennewspaper.com Francesca Martonffy francesca@chickennewspaper.com Marketing: My Ly My@myly.co.uk Public Relations: Carol Perrett (carol@citrinepr.com) Marketing and Fundraising: Audra Wilson-Max audra@brandafricaproject.com

www.chickennewspaper.com

Cover illustration: ‘ When I coloured in the World’ by Ahmadreza Ahmadi, illustrated by Ehshan Abdoulahi Tiny Owl Children’s Book Publishers


This issue is about The Planet We feature the letter

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16

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Vegucation:

How old is a Tree?

Alphabet News

Culture: Tama The Talking Drum

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Celebrations

Easter

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30

Mythical Creatures:

Tokoloshi!

Books:

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Sponsors and Partners

InfoChicken: A brief history of Tea

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The Planet: Plant More Trees

Water please!

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8

Nursery Rhymes:

The Grand Old Duke of York

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Word Games: The World Wheel

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Help Me Understand:

Why Do We Need Rain?

Heroes: Alexander Graham Bell

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Poetry: Trampoline

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InfoChicken:

T.Rex!

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17 Promises: Climate Action


4 Match the words below with the pictures. If there is no picture, draw one to match the word.

Teddy Bear Tree Tractor Tie Trainers Tram Tricycle Teacher Toy Box Trumpet Tambourine Tiger Tights Truck Tent Triangle T Shirt Trousers

First words

For those learning to read


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THE LETTER

This series tells the stories of the letters of the alphabet

T is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the second most used letter in English. It comes from the ancient Hebrew ‘taw’, Ancient Greek and Latin alphabets. We can even find a similar Egyptian hieroglyph, two sticks crossed to mark a place. Therefore the letter T stands for “mark”, “sign” and “signature”. In the old days, when some people didn’t know how to write, they were asked to use a cross as their signature. Do you know the expression “to a T”? It means exactly or perfectly. “That Peppa Pig costume will suit you to a T.”

Ττ Semitic letter Taw

Greek letter Tau

Ττ Coptic letter Taw

Cyrillic letter Te

Tt Old Italic T

Runic letter Teiwaz

Latin letter T


Draw your own fancy letter T


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Nursery Rhymes

The Grand Old Duke of York The words are believed to come from the Plantagenet dynasty in the 15th century.

They tell the story of the defeat of Richard, “The grand old Duke of York� in the Wars of the Roses (1455). This war was between the house of York (whose symbol was a white rose) and the house of Lancaster (whose symbol was a red rose). The Wars of the Roses lasted for over thirty years

The stories behind rhymes and songs for children


Read-aloud

For readers who need practise

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Vegucation

This series tells us all about the wonderful world of nature

How Old is a Tree? Trees have different growth rates, depending on their species.

We love trees! They give us so much. We can find out how old a tree is by counting the rings of a tree stump after cutting it down for its wood, or by drilling into the tree’s trunk. But what if you don’t want to cut down a tree? So, we can also measure the tree’s diameter and height to tell its age. You can estimate the age of a tree without cutting it down and counting the growth rings. Most trees add about one inch to their circumference every year. Circumference: The distance around something circular Diameter: A straight line passing from side to side through the centre of a circle or sphere.

If you divide the total circumference by 2.5 cm, you will have the tree’s age. Not all trees can be dated with this method, because some grow taller faster than they grow wide, and others grow taller slower. Palm trees grow taller without getting wider. To learn the age of a tree by measuring its circumference, measure from the ground up to one

and a half metres (1.5m) with a measuring tape. Mark the 1.5m line on the tree with chalk. This will be the height where you will measure all the trees Measure the circumference around the tree at the 1.5m. line. Divide this number by 2.5 cm to get the age of the tree. (A tree with a 32cm circumference is just over 12 years old).

Measurements: One inch is the same as 2.5 cm One inch One centimetre


The Giant Sequoia is tall and wide. Some people believe that it is the largest living organism in the world!

How old are your trees?

How old are the trees in your school yard? Type of tree: Circumference Calculation: Circumference á by 2.5cm

The tree’s Age:

Is the tallest tree in your yard the oldest? Yes

No

Are any trees in your yard the same age as you? Yes

No

Is this tree taller than you, or are you taller? Yes

No

Do the trees that are the same age look similar? Yes

No

Are they the same height? Yes

No

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Poetry

Dionne Ormonde is a mother, poet, writer, and owner of Love Child Press

There’s something about jumping that reminds me I’m fearless and free floating like an astronaut defying gravity A cosmic giant dancing best friends with planets and stars tuck jumps and double somersaults around Venus, Jupiter and Mars Twisting around constellations back drops on the Moon spring back and grab some star dust promise I’ll be back soon For when I bounce I’m a hero a warrior flying in the air showing off my courage my creativity and my flair My trampoline is a springboard for a life that knows no bounds I rise up with all life’s ups and glide with all life’s downs The trick I’ve discovered is momentum bounce up and stay in the sky be an acrobat in those fleeting moments answer ‘why not’, when doubters ask ‘why’?


Pop Up Festival is here! Explore more Pop Up via our website www. pop-up.org.uk You can also visit www.pop-uphub.com from our website too.

Pop up inspires the next generation of writers and illustrators to make great stories of their own. How do they do it?

Many authors and illustrators visit schools to meet children and teachers. They are often invited or sent along to promote a new book by their publishers and often only visit a school once. Pop Up changed all of that. They created a situation where creators of books and the audience can get to know each other over many visits. Its brilliant for everyone! Pop Up Festival 2017 will bring 100 of the very best children’s authors and storytellers in the UK and their books to 400 classrooms and libraries, museums and galleries around the country.

More schools should join Pop Up Festival and get on to their readingand-writing movement in 2018. Together with creators and the school staff they will bring books to life for readers from 3 to 18 and beyond.

From top left: Thomas Docherty, Sarwat Chadda and Michael De Souza are three of the many creators who visit and inspire children at Pop Up events every year.

Get in touch. Send an email to education@pop-up.org.uk to find out more.

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This year, Pop Up Projects presents their first national schools literature festival, an exhilarating programme of books and live literature for 10,000 young readers in primary, secondary and SEND schools across England and Wales.

These events are exclusive to Pop Up’s lucky partner schools and participating children.


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african mythical creatures

the goblin There are many cultures from Africa and each culture has, in turn, many stories about fantastic creatures. Here are some of them that we are used to hearing about in European folktales.

The tokoloshi is a goblin from folk tales in Southern African countries. Tokoloshi is a mischievous and evil spirit that can make itself invisible by swallowing a pebble. It is summoned by someone to cause trouble. They scare children, cause illness and can even kill according to the stories. The Tokoloshi has a hairy body, and looks like a gremlin with gouged out eyes. But, the Tokoloshi has also been known to take on many forms. According to legend, the Tokoloshi gets its power from a hot poker, which is thrust into its crown when it is created. Ouch! Only the ‘N’anga’ or ‘Sangoma’ (healer) can get rid of the Tokoloshi for good. Many people who believe in Tokoloshi put a brick under each leg of their beds, which is meant to keep it away.


Read-alone

For those who read well, or could read better.

Tea Anyone?

You might know that there are many different types of tea, but did you know where tea comes from? Read on to find out more...

165 million cups of tea are drank in the UK daily

Thomas Sullivan invented Tea bags in the USA in 1908

Shennong chewing a branch in 1503

Image: Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen

Aromatic

servant boiled drinking water when some leaves from the tree blew into the water. The emperor was a famous herbalist and decided to try the water with leaves before his servant threw it away. The tree was a Camellia sinensis, and the resulting drink was what we now call tea. During the Chinese Tang dynasty, which lasted from 618 to 907 AD tea became very popular and spread to other Asian countries. Eventually, Portuguese priests and merchants brought it back to Europe in the 16th century. The marriage of Charles II to Catherine of Braganza was a turning point in the history of tea in Britain. She was a Portuguese princess, and a tea addict, making it a fashionable beverage first at court, and among rich people. The East India Company imported its first batch 100lbs of China tea from Java (Indonesia) into Britain in 1664. The term herbal tea, or herbal infusions, usually mean infusions of fruit or herbs made without the tea plant, such as rosehips, chamomile flowers, or rooibos (the bark of a tree).

Bubble Tea started in South Korea in the 1980s. It was made with black tea, tapioca pearls, condensed milk and honey

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A substance or plant emitting a pleasant and distinctive smell.

Tea is an aromatic drink made by pouring hot water over the dried leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia. It’s the most widely consumed drink in the world after water. There are many different types of tea with very many flavours. Tea originally comes from Southwest China. According to legend, in 2737 BC, the Chinese emperor Shen Nung was sitting beneath a tree while his

Queen Catherine looking bored by Sir Peter Lely, 1665

The oldest tea tree is over 3,200 years old from Fengqing County, Yunnan province, China


16 Children should be protected at home, in their neighbourhoods, cities and countries. In reality, throughout history children have been treated badly by grown ups. On 11 December 1946, one year after the United Nations was formed, it set up the United Nations Children’s Fund, or UNICEF. They created the charter of the rights of the child.

Alphabet News

President of the United States of America

Donald Trump became the 45th president of the United States on January 20, 2017. His victory surprised many as he is not a politician. He was able to persuade enough voters that he has the attitude, knowledge, and judgment to be president.

Mr. Trump promised to make his country great again. He told people that because he is not a politician, but a successful businessman, he would succeed. His presidency has been unpredictable and after 100 days in charge it is hard to tell how successful he will be. The world is watching and hoping.

Some People Worry. Others are happy Some people worry that Donald Trump’s views and plans will be bad for people, animals and the planet.

Children have the right to special protection and help if they are refugees, as well as all the other rights in the Convention.

Others are happy to have a leader who has promised to help improve the lives of ordinary Americans.

Climate

Immigration

Economics

Mr Trump does not agree with scientists that humans are changing the world’s climate. Diplomats and climate negotiators are discussing steps needed to carry out the Paris climate agreement, which was negotiated in 2015. They are worried Mr. Trump will try to take the United States out of the agreement.

Mr. Trump promised to build a wall across the Southwest border of the USA with Mexico to stop people entering the USA illegally. He said that he will deport about two million immigrants with criminal records. He also wants to create a register of Muslims in the USA. These ideas make people suspicious and worried.

Mr. Trump promised to reduce taxes for US citizens. He says making more things in America is better for America. People are not sure how the world’s economy will do if this happens. We have got used to buying things that are made in different parts of the world where they are cheaper to make because people are paid less.


What Can You Do? President Trump’s way of thinking is different to what people are used to. But Mr Trump doesn’t control everyone’s minds and lives. He is planning big changes to the way the

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United States works and deals with the world and it will take time to see how the world reacts. In the mean time here are three things you can do to help you understand politics.

Read newspapers They have a lot of information about what’s happening around the world. The more you know, the easier it will be to make good decisions.

Mums and Dads and teachers are here to help

Discuss things Talk to your friends so you all can make your own minds up about what to do. Talk with your parents or your teacher until it feels better.

Ask questions Ask your grown up to explain, if you don’t understand anything you read and see, or if it is upsetting.

Candidate noun: a person who is running for an elected position or competing for a job

Ballot noun: a list of candidates and proposals that citizens use to vote. The ballot may be on paper, or on the Internet.

Political Campaign noun: Doing things like giving speeches, meeting voters, and debating against opponents with the aim of winning more votes.

Political Party noun: A group with the same ideas about how a country should be run. The main U.S. political parties are the Democrats and the Republicans.


18 for extinct

Lights! Camera! Action!

Marrukurli

The Tasmanian Tiger marsupial

a mammal whose babies are carried in a pouch on the mother’s belly. They are found in Australia, New Guinea, and America.

The Adnyamathanha people of Flinders Ranges, South Australia called them “Marrukurli”. We know them as Thylacinus cynocephalus in Latin, or the Tasmanian tigers because of their stripes. It is the largest modern carnivorous marsupial found on the Austrailian island of Tasmania. They were already under threat by the time European settlers arrived, from a growing population of original Australians. According the National Museum of Australia, people trapped or killed them because they thought Marrukurli killed their farm animals, or livestock. What a shame human beings couldn’t find a better way to live alongside the Marrukurli. They were finally declared a protected species in 1936, the same year the last known specimen died in Hobart zoo, so a little too late. Here’s the cool thing; Tasmanian tiger sightings have been recorded by 3,000 people in far north Queensland. What do you think? Could Marrukurli still be alive?

Little Hands Design is a place in North London where children learn to make clothes. It is a non-profit making company offering hands-on fun with fashion and design to young and old. It has a purpose built workshop with classes throughout the year teaching clothes making skills and an appreciation for the craft. This year they had their first Fashion shoot.

needed to make a successful fashion shoot.

Wait... A fashion shoot?

Send an email to info@littlehandsdesign.com to find out more about the courses they run throughout the year.

It was a day long workshop where children, who had spent weeks making their clothes, had a chance to show them off, with the expert help of photographers, make up artists and stylists who showed them the technical skills

Then they had chance to try it themselves. They experienced the whole process, from designing and making to presenting their work in a fun environment. There is no better introduction to a future career than through play. The day long workshop had over 50 very satisfied children.

I’m ready for my close up...


In 2015 the grown ups of the World promised to make the planet a safer, better place for everyone. These are 17 Promises that every child should know.

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20 Every country in the world is feeling the effects of climate change and global warming. SDG 13 aims to help countries prepare for climate-related disasters.

What are grown-ups doing about it? One of the 17 Promises that adults have made to children is SDG 13: Take Urgent Action to Combat Climate Change and its Impacts. For countries, this means;

PREPARING

cars and factories produce more carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. The sun’s rays warm the Earth, keeping everything from freezing. But CO2 stops heat from the rays escaping back into space. So the Earth warms up. Too much heat causes temperatures to rise. Global warming is the name for this increase in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and its oceans over time. Some people believe the change to the Earth’s climate is permanent.

More than a million square kilometres of Arctic sea ice (the size of Argentina) has melted every ten years since 1979. The earth is warming up very quickly. Animals and plants can’t adapt. March 2017 was the second warmest March in 137 years since records began. Many plants and animals are in danger if the warming continues.

Between 1880 and 2012, the average temperature of the Earth increased by almost 1° Celsius. That small change it has caused our oceans to heat up, snow and ice to melt, and sea levels to rise.

Choose your favourite animal. • Where does your animal live? • What is the climate like where your animal lives? • What food does your animal eat?

Informing governments about climate change so that when they are creating laws they can work to reduce the effects of climate change.

INFORMING

Making sure everyone knows about climate change and shares ideas on how to slow down global warming

WORKING TOGETHER The

United Nations will bring the world’s countries together to share and raise money for solutions.

Want to know more about SDG 13? Visit the United Nations website

Now, draw a picture of your animal and think about how it would survive if the climate continues to change. Add a speech bubble saying what would happen to its home and how it would survive if the climate changed. What other animals might be affected?

Get your friends involved and make a wall in your classroom of risks faced by wildlife around the world. Our thanks to Friends of the Earth UK for this great idea.


Turn on the light when you really need it. Save electricity by turning it off when you’re not using it.

Here are 13 things you can do right now to help achieve SDG 13.

Don’t print unless really necessary. Take short showers.

Air dry your hair and clothes.

Speak up. Keep track of what your neighbourhood is doing for our planet and share your ideas.

Turn the heating down in winter.

Wait until you have a full load to run the washing machine.

Don’t rinse the dishes before loading the dishwasher.

Cycle, walk, or use public transport whenever possible

Use less napkins when you go to the ice cream shop or restaurant.

Recycle things you no longer need by giving them to people who could use them

You can calculate your family’s impact on our climate – and even contribute to offsetting it. Check out the UN’s Climate Footprint Calculator.

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Alphabet News

The environment under threat or thriving

How Many Trees?

An Acacia tree seedling, ready to be planted.

Indians Planted 50 Million Trees in One Day.

Indonesians have planted 4 billion trees in the last four years

Indians do their best to help the country fight climate change.

“In the last four years, we have planted more than four billion trees. If you have any doubt, I welcome you to start counting them, just don’t lose track of your counting, so you won’t have to start from the beginning again.”

About 800,000 volunteers from Uttar Pradesh worked for 24 hours planting 80 different species of trees along roads, railways and public land. The young trees, or saplings, were raised on local nurseries. The effort is part of the commitment India made at the Paris Climate Conference in December 2015. India agreed to spend six billion dollars ($6 bn) to reforest 12 percent of its land. This will make total forest area 235 million acres by 2030, or about 29 percent of the country.

These were the words of Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in his speech at the opening of the Forests Asia Summit in the capital Jakarta in 2014. Scientists have proven that planting trees is one of the best ways to fight climate change problems like soil erosion (when rain washes away all the nutrients), increasing temperatures, and low rainfall.


The Mysterious Case of the Vanishing River The Slims River in Northern Canada vanished in four days in May 2016. It was up to 150 meters at its widest points and around 3 meters deep. It was not magic.

glacier A mass or river of ice made from snow on mountains or near the poles.

The water was sucked up another nearby river during the melting of one of Canada’s largest glaciers. Can you imagine that?

CANADA

water level dropped by about three meters.

It turns out that climate change caused by humans was almost certainly the reason this happened.

Here’s the science part: The Kaskawulsh Glacier, or Tänshı̨̄ , as its known by the Southern Tutchone First Nation, started to melt quicker than normal. The glacier melts naturally a bit every year and feeds water to rivers

People who live near Kluane Lake, nearby, noticed that the

It sent most of its water to another river, and towards the

Pacific Ocean instead of the Atlantic. All is not lost. Mother Nature has the ability to continue to surprise us and if we give her room to recover, she may surprise us

The End of the Desert? Desertification, or the spread of the desert, is a big problem in parts of Africa. The simple way to stop the spread of deserts into fertile land is by planting more trees.

An innovative project in Egypt is using waste water instead of fresh water to feed trees. That is, water

A plantation just outside Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is growing trees, including species like eucalyptus and mahogany. The eucalyptus trees grown in the forest are doing very well, and in fact, are producing wood four times faster than pine trees in German forests. The soil in this area would normally not support new tree growth, but

scientists found that wastewater has so many nutrients that additional fertilizer isn’t even necessary. A large area of the Egyptian desert could be converted to forest if the country were to use its more of its waste. Egypt needs more money to make this happen. One day there might not be a desert!

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But in desert areas there isn’t enough water to grow and keep young trees healthy.

from peoples drains.

Tadrart Acacus desert in western Libya, part of the Sahara Photo courtesy of Luca Galuzzi


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The environment

six good Reasons to plant

more

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Trees breathe in carbon dioxide and breathe out oxygen. They also provide space for birds and other wildlife to live.

Trees absorb sound and reduce noise. Planting trees helps cool our homes in the summer.

trees The trees of life around the world

Human beings have seen trees as powerful symbols of growth, death and rebirth for ages. Evergreen trees, which stay green the whole year, are symbols of immortality or fertility. The idea of the Tree of Life or world tree occurs in many mythologies. Sacred or symbolic trees include the Banyan and the Peepal (Ficus

religiosa) trees in Hinduism, the Yule Tree in Germanic mythology, the Tree of Knowledge of Judaism and Christianity, the Bodhi tree in Buddhism and the Saglagar tree in Mongolian Tengriism. In some folk stories, trees are said to be the home of spirits. The term druid possibly comes from the Celtic word for oak


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Trees turn Carbon dioxide (CO2) into carbohydrates which is helps grow plants. Each large tree realeases enough oxygen for two human beings.

Trees store water and break the force of rain as it falls, which keeps all the goodness in the soil, helping other plants and crops to grow.

The Egyptian Book of the Dead mentions sycamore trees as part of the scenery where the soul of the dead finds peaceful rest. In many parts of the world people hang objects on old trees. Throughout Europe, trees are sites of pilgrimage and prayers.

If more trees are planted, the climate in cities improves so there is less need for extra heating or cooling.

shrines of the village gods. In South America, Charles Darwin made note of a tree honoured by offerings like rags, meat and cigars. Cigars? And in literature, JRR Tolkein’s Lord of the Rings, the White Tree of Gondor stands as a symbol of Gondor in the Court of the Fountain in Minas Tirith.

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In India, the Korwa people hang rags on the trees which are the

Trees help to reduce ozone levels in urban areas, improving the quality of the air that we breathe.


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Word Games

Word Wheel

Tundra

A treeless, level, or gently undulating plain characteristic of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions characterized by low temperatures and short growing seasons

Write down how many words can you think of with the letter T and two or more of the letters from the outside circle

Troposphere

The lowest part of the atmosphere, where clouds appear.

Tropopause

The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

Trace Gas

Any one of the less common gases found in the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, are considered trace gases. They affect the Earth’s weather and climate.

Tide gauge

A device placed at a coast or deep in the sea that continuously measures the level of the sea.

Tsunami

A large wave produced by an under water earthquake, landslide or volcanic eruption.

r j

a

n

u

i

m o


Help Me Understand Tate, 6 years and 1 month, asks

Why do we need rain?

We try to answer your questions

The earth recycles water by raining. Rain falls into rivers and streams which flow into lakes and eventually into the seas and oceans. Rain clouds are formed out at sea when the sun evaporates sea water. The clouds get blown over land, produce rain and the whole process starts again. It’s called the Water Cycle.

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Rain is a source of fresh water for humans, plants and animals. Rain helps us make electricity. The earth needs it to control the flow of minerals in the soil. Farmers need rain to grow our food.

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Can I get some water, please?

Story and pictures from Madagascar by Alexander Joe

Main Image: Mothers taking children to school in a boat and to get more drinking water. Far right: A girl finds a bit of time to play while she waits. Right: Children playing near a public water tap, in front of empty cans waiting to get filled. Below: Three-year-old Fania is happy to see water coming to fill the water cans. Bottom: Water starts to come out of the tap after 4 hours of waiting.

What would you do to get a glass of water? Women in African countries spend 40 billion hours a year fetching water. That’s the same as a year’s worth of work by the all the workers in France! Around the world, women and girls are the ones who collect water for their families. They carry enough water for drinking, cooking and cleaning, which takes about three hours each day. A report by the United Nations children’s agency, (UNICEF) says that many children live without water because of the changing climate and the many conflicts around the world.

India has 63 million people living without access to clean water. Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, and Mozambique have similar problems. But, there is some good news. Paraguay, in South America made safe, fresh water available to almost all of its rural population in 2016. It took six years double the number from the last measurement in 2000.

- Alexander Joe is a photo journalist living and By the year 2040 one out of every four children (one quarter) will live in places working in Madagascar that have little water because of climate change.


Tama

the Talking Drum

Photo courtesy of CC BY-SA 3.0, Wikipedia Commons

cultures

‘Tama’, the Talking drum is from West Africa. A player can make it sound like a human voice. In the nineteenth century Roger T. Clarke, a missionary, wrote: “the signals represent the tones of the syllables of conventional phrases of a traditional and highly poetic character.” When learning to play the drum students were taught the particular phrase that coincided with each word This made learning drum language very difficult. Not many were willing to take the time to do so. By the time the Europeans realised the language of the drum, African people were not using it as much.

We asked our friends at LEarn Africa to tell us about talking drums. Learn Africa provides resources for Arts Education in Africa and promotes the rich musical and artistic traditions of the continent. www.learnafrica.org

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It has two drumheads connected by leather tension strips or cords. The player can make the sound of the drum higher or lower by squeezing the cords between their arm and body. Most talking drums sound like a human humming depending on the way you play. The sound, or pitch can be changed during a single beat, producing a warbling note. The drum can thus capture the pitch, volume, and rhythm of human speech, though not the qualities of vowels or consonants. Talking drums were used as a form of communication long before the Europeans travelled to Africa. Messages were sent from one village to the next faster than if they were carried by a person riding a horse.


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Books

Carmen Haselup is back with a choice of books about changing the world. You can read more reviews at www.rhinoreads.wordpress.com

Ahmadreza Ahmadi

Illustrated by Ehsan Abdollahi

Tin y owl

With a box of coloured crayons and an eraser to rub things out, one child sets out to transform the world.

This is the story of Peter, Pax, and their journeys back to each other as war rampages throughout the country.’

By rubbing out ‘hunger’ and colouring in green wheat, the world can be fed. By rubbing out ‘desert’ and colouring in red roses, the world experiences the beauty of nature. By rubbing out ‘crying’ and colouring laughter purple, the world gets to sing, dance and be joyful. In this way, all the bad in the world is turned to good and light replaces darkness.

As is the case with all the best children’s books, Pax is about so much more than a boy and his beloved pet. Pax is about love, trust, the price of war, and the importance of self discovery. Peter’s fear is of becoming like his father; of inheriting his anger and closing himself away.

An unusual and deceptively simple picture book that imagines a world without discrimination, poverty or inequality. Beautifully imagined illustrations and thoughtful text give glimpses into the life of other cultures and explore the fabulous colours of the Earth. This book was among the best children’s books of 2015 by the Guardian See www.tinyowl.co.uk for more details.

Through his journey he learns to trust in the people he meets and to trust in his self and his ability to become the boy he wants to be. It is a powerful message of tolerance and hope in the face of adversity, beautifully echoed by Pax’s own discovery of his inherent wildness. Their relationship is beautifully developed and sings of the power of standing against social expectations and following what is in your heart. Told from both Peter and Pax’s point of view, Pax is deeply layered and filled with echoes and balances. The sections from Pax’s point of view made me look at everything through fresh eyes and were an intelligent, wellresearched, sensory adventure. Beautifully illustrated by Jon Klasson – just look at that cover! – Pax truly is a wonderful, wonderful book. Source – my lovely local library.

The Big Green Book begins with our place in space and explains the balance of life on earth and our responsibility to maintain it. Looking at water, plants and trees, air and animals, and touching on climate change, everything is explained in a child-friendly and childfocused way. Climate change can be a scary concept for children but it is handled with perfect balance here – and linking it to Santa’s reindeer is genius! As always, Ros Asquith’s illustrations are beautifully inclusive, witty and filled with speech bubbles and captions. They add so much to this book and help make it so beautifully child-focused. I love this book for its perfectly pitched information, just at the right level for prompting children to question the way they (and their families) live. The part that really inspired my daughter was the double page spread encouraging the reader to be the change, to think big and invent solutions. Including information about young inventors who are already making a difference has left my daughter scribbling designs and dreaming of saving the world. Quick! Get a copy of this book in every primary and secondary school – the people who are going to save the world are waiting! Source – kindly sent for review by Frances Lincoln Children’s Books


What’s your favourite read This children’s adventure story takes place in a graveyard. When she and her embarrassing family move to Darkling Park, Fin worries about why their new home is called Blind Twin House. Will she ever live it down at school? Plus, there’s something lurking about in the bushes. But Fin makes friends with Zen and his odd stripy dog Ty. Together they discover there’s something weird and wonderful beneath the graves, and that Ty may not be a dog at all. Elisa Marcella Webb Her special interest is Southern Gothic literature. She has two daughters. Darkling Park is her first novel. Age range: 10+ Available in paperback and e-book for £8.99 (UK) See www.patricianpress.com/book/darkling-park/ for more details.

It is PERFECT. I will let it speak for itself: ‘A gloriously illustrated celebration of trailblazing women. Women in Science highlights the contributions of fifty notable women to the STEM fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, from both the ancient and modern worlds. The book also contains fascinating info-graphics and an illustrated scientific glossary.’ ‘The extraordinary women profiled include well-known figures like the physicist and chemist Marie Curie, as well as lesserknown pioneers such as Katherine Johnson, the African-American mathematician who calculated the trajectory of the Apollo 11 mission to the moon. Women in Science celebrates the achievements of the intrepid women who have paved the way for the next generation of female engineers, biologists, mathematicians, doctors, astronauts, physicists and beyond …’

Is it a book? A magazine? A comic strip? We would love to know.

Could you be a reviewer for Chicken Newspaper? Of course you could! There will be books to give away every term and you can keep the ones we send you to review. Talk to your mums and dads. Talk to your teachers and get them to send a message to ken@chickennewspaper.com

These women changed the world. They followed their dreams and they used their brains and they made incredible things happen. This book is the perfect inspiration for the next generation of game-changers. And in this age of climate change, our world depends on the children reading this book. They will be the ones to save us all.

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Info Chicken

Tyrannosaurus Rex means 'Tyrant Lizard'. Scientists believe it was a fearsome predator, with strong back legs and huge sharp teeth. Its dinosaur classification is Saurischia. It was one of the biggest meat eating dinosaurs after Giganotosaurus, Spinosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus.

Clever 12m

Big

T.Rex was up to 12 metres long from head to tail and weighed 5 tons.

Home

T. Rex lived in forested river valleys in North America during the late Cretaceous period. A new discovery shows T. Rex may have lived in Australia too.

Fast

T. Rex could sprint up to 32 km/hr.

The T. Rex had a large brain which helped its vision and smell

Diet Scary Tyrannosaurus Rex was a carnivore (meat eater) and a scavenger, stealing meals from smaller predators.

Even more terrifying was its mouth full of long and sharp teeth. The largest T. Rex tooth found is 30m cm long.

Gone

T Rex became extinct about 65 million years ago.


Colour in your own Tyrannosaurus Rex

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34 How did you celebrate Easter?

In the old days pretzels were associated with Easter because people thought the twists of the pretzel looked like arms crossing in prayer. The largest ever Easter egg hunt was in Florida.

The tallest chocolate Easter egg ever was made in Italy in 2011. It was taller than a giraffe and heavier than an elephant!

Americans

eat more than 16 million jellybeans at Easter, enough to circle the globe three times over

9,753 children

searched for

501,000

eggs


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Heroes Bell on the telephone in New York (calling Chicago) in 1892. Gilbert H. Grosvenor Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

Alexander Graham Bell Was the first person to invent a practical telephone Alexander Graham Bell 1847 – 1922

He was a Scottish scientist and inventor. Both his mother and wife were deaf, which influenced his life’s work. His research on hearing and speech led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually resulted in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone in 1876. Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.

A telephone from Sweden in 1896.

Telephone! In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced a clearly understandable sound of the human voice. It was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances. Telephones quickly became essential to people at work and at home. Since 1999, smart phones have been very popular because they allow us to many things from the palms of our hands. Bell’s patent 174,465, was issued on March 7, 1876, by the U.S. Patent Office, ahead of several other patents. On March 10, 1876, three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work. What would Alexander Graham Bell think of smart phones?

A German rotary dial up telephone

Chicken Newspaper Issue 8  
Chicken Newspaper Issue 8  

Chicken Newspaper for Children' latest issue is all about the Planet and feature the letter T. 36 pages of high colourful fun and informatio...